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Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Recent observations have shown that patients treated with MTX also exhibit a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although MTX reduces systemic inflammation and tissue damage, the mechanisms by which MTX exerts these beneficial effects are not entirely known. We have previously demonstrated that protein adducts formed by the interaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetaldehyde (AA), known as MAA-protein adducts, are present in diseased tissues of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or CVD. In previously reported studies, MAA-adducts were shown to be highly immunogenic ...


Retinoic Acid Pathway Inhibition To Expand Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells With Islet Regenerative Capacity, Ruth Elgamal 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Retinoic Acid Pathway Inhibition To Expand Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells With Islet Regenerative Capacity, Ruth Elgamal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular therapy to induce islet regeneration is emerging as a novel treatment strategy for diabetes. Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) isolated by high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi) reduce hyperglycemia after transplantation into streptozotocin (STZ)-treated NOD/SCID mice. However, UCB-derived ALDHhi cells are rare and expansion without the loss of regenerative function is required. We hypothesized that BMS 493, an inverse retinoic acid receptor agonist, will prevent HSPC differentiation of HSPC during expansion, generating more ALDHhi cells for therapy. ALDHhi cells expanded for 6 days with BMS 493 showed a 2 ...


Temporal Changes In Cortical And Hippocampal Expression Of Genes Important For Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury In Mice, June Zhou, Mark Burns, Linda Huynh, Sonia Villapol, Daniel D. Taub, Juan M. Saavedra, Marc R. Blackman 2017 George Washington University

Temporal Changes In Cortical And Hippocampal Expression Of Genes Important For Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury In Mice, June Zhou, Mark Burns, Linda Huynh, Sonia Villapol, Daniel D. Taub, Juan M. Saavedra, Marc R. Blackman

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes transient increases and subsequent decreases in brain glucose utilization. The underlying molecular pathways are orchestrated processes and poorly understood. In the current study, we determined temporal changes in cortical and hippocampal expression of genes important for brain glucose/lactate metabolism and the effect of a known neuroprotective drug telmisartan on the expression of these genes after experimental TBI. Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 6/group) underwent sham or unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Their ipsilateral and contralateral cortex and hippocampus were collected 6 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after ...


Overexpressed Somatic Alleles Are Enriched In Functional Elements In Breast Cancer., Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Nawaf Alomran, Christian Miller, Muzi Li, Chris Trenkov, Yulian Manchev, Sonali Bahl, Stephanie Warnken, Liam Spurr, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath 2017 George Washington University

Overexpressed Somatic Alleles Are Enriched In Functional Elements In Breast Cancer., Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Nawaf Alomran, Christian Miller, Muzi Li, Chris Trenkov, Yulian Manchev, Sonali Bahl, Stephanie Warnken, Liam Spurr, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Asymmetric allele content in the transcriptome can be indicative of functional and selective features of the underlying genetic variants. Yet, imbalanced alleles, especially from diploid genome regions, are poorly explored in cancer. Here we systematically quantify and integrate the variant allele fraction from corresponding RNA and DNA sequence data from patients with breast cancer acquired through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We test for correlation between allele prevalence and functionality in known cancer-implicated genes from the Cancer Gene Census (CGC). We document significant allele-preferential expression of functional variants in CGC genes and across the entire dataset. Notably, we find frequent ...


Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive In The Setting Of Low And High Output Heart Failure., Rodrigo Del Rio, David C. Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S. Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz 2017 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive In The Setting Of Low And High Output Heart Failure., Rodrigo Del Rio, David C. Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S. Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex function is strongly related to cardiorespiratory disorders and disease progression in heart failure (HF). The mechanisms underlying CB sensitization during HF are not fully understood, however previous work indicates blood flow per se can affect CB function. Then, we hypothesized that the CB-mediated chemoreflex drive will be enhanced only in low output HF but not in high output HF. Myocardial infarcted rats and aorto-caval fistulated rats were used as a low output HF model (MI-CHF) and as a high output HF model (AV-CHF), respectively. Blood flow supply to the CB region was decreased only in ...


Strength-Based Physiological Profiles Of Ncaa Division I Women’S Basketball And Gymnastics Athletes: Implications For Injury Risk Assessment, Curtis Cazier 2017 Utah State University

Strength-Based Physiological Profiles Of Ncaa Division I Women’S Basketball And Gymnastics Athletes: Implications For Injury Risk Assessment, Curtis Cazier

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive strength-based physiological profile of women’s collegiate basketball and gymnastic athletes; and to make sport-specific comparisons for various isokinetic and maximal and rapid isometric strength characteristics of the knee flexor and extensor muscles. A focus on antagonist muscle balance (hamstrings to quadriceps ratios, H:Q) will help elucidate particular vulnerabilities in these at-risk female athletes. Fourteen Division I collegiate level women’s basketball and 13 women’s gymnastics athletes performed isokinetic and isometric strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors. Outcome measures included absolute and body mass normalized (relative ...


Local Anesthesia Toxicity, Nicole McCleery 2017 Otterbein University

Local Anesthesia Toxicity, Nicole Mccleery

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Local anesthesia (LA) provides a way to relieve temporary pain in a small part of the body and has been used for over 100 years (Fencl, 2015). LA also prevents the passage of surgical stimuli into the central nervous system (CNS) making a surgical procedure less painful for the patient (Noble, 2015). According to Noble, “altering the passage of stimuli from smaller diameter neurons in a confined area with lower drug dosages is called LA, such as the injection of LA around a surgical incision” (Noble, 2015, p.325). LA can be used in a variety of settings, such as ...


Maternal Nicotine Exposure Leads To Decreased Cardiac Protein Disulfide Isomerase And Impaired Mitochondrial Function In Male Rat Offspring., Nicole G Barra, Maria Lisyansky, Taylor A Vanduzer, Sandeep Raha, Alison C Holloway, Daniel B Hardy 2017 Western University

Maternal Nicotine Exposure Leads To Decreased Cardiac Protein Disulfide Isomerase And Impaired Mitochondrial Function In Male Rat Offspring., Nicole G Barra, Maria Lisyansky, Taylor A Vanduzer, Sandeep Raha, Alison C Holloway, Daniel B Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Smoking throughout pregnancy can lead to complications during gestation, parturition and neonatal development. Thus, nicotine replacement therapies are a popular alternative thought to be safer than cigarettes. However, recent studies in rodents suggest that fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure alone results in cardiac dysfunction and high blood pressure. While it is well known that perinatal nicotine exposure causes increased congenital abnormalities, the mechanisms underlying longer-term deficits in cardiac function are not completely understood. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that nicotine impairs placental protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) triggering an increase in endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading us to hypothesize that this may also ...


Increased Incidence Of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Male Rat Offspring Exposed To Fluoxetine During Fetal And Neonatal Life Involves The Nlrp3 Inflammasome And Augmented De Novo Hepatic Lipogenesis., Nicole E De Long, Daniel B Hardy, Noelle Ma, Alison C Holloway 2017 Western University

Increased Incidence Of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Male Rat Offspring Exposed To Fluoxetine During Fetal And Neonatal Life Involves The Nlrp3 Inflammasome And Augmented De Novo Hepatic Lipogenesis., Nicole E De Long, Daniel B Hardy, Noelle Ma, Alison C Holloway

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Up to 10% of women take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy. Children exposed to SSRIs in utero have an increased risk of being overweight suggesting that fetal exposure to SSRIs can cause permanent metabolic changes. We have previously shown in rats that fetal and neonatal exposure to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine results in metabolic perturbations including increased hepatic triglyceride content; a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanism(s) underlying the fluoxetine-induced increase in intrahepatic triglyceride content. Female nulliparous Wistar rats were given vehicle or fluoxetine (10 ...


Maternal Undernutrition And Long-Term Effects On Hepatic Function, Daniel B. Hardy 2017 Physiology and Pharmacology

Maternal Undernutrition And Long-Term Effects On Hepatic Function, Daniel B. Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Undernutrition in utero, regardless of the source, can impair proper liver development leading to long-term metabolic dysfunction. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying how nutritional deficits during perinatal life lead to permanent alterations in hepatic gene expression will provide better therapeutic strategies to alleviate the undernourished liver in postnatal life. This chapter addresses the different experimental models of undernutrition in utero, and highlights the direct and indirect mechanisms involved leading to metabolic diseases in the liver. These include hypoxia, oxidative stress, epigenetic alterations, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, promising perinatal nutritional and pharmaceutical interventions are highlighted which illustrate how ...


Perinatal Malnutrition And Epigenetic Regulation Of Long-Term Metabolism In The Liver And Adipose Tissue, Daniel B. Hardy 2017 Physiology and Pharmacology

Perinatal Malnutrition And Epigenetic Regulation Of Long-Term Metabolism In The Liver And Adipose Tissue, Daniel B. Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Maternal malnutrition in perinatal life can have long-lasting adverse effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the offspring, culminating in dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and obesity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying how these nutritional deficits during perinatal life lead to permanent changes in hepatic and adipose function will provide efficacious therapeutic strategies to mitigate these metabolic defects short- and long-term. This chapter addresses how epigenetic mechanisms mediate alterations in hepatic and adipose gene expression identified from clinical studies and different experimental models of maternal malnutrition. These include DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, and microRNAs.


Effects Of Protein Deficiency On Perinatal And Postnatal Health Outcomes, Shelby L. Oke, Daniel B. Hardy 2017 Western University

Effects Of Protein Deficiency On Perinatal And Postnatal Health Outcomes, Shelby L. Oke, Daniel B. Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

There are a variety of environmental insults that can occur during pregnancy which cause low birth weight and poor fetal health outcomes. One such insult is maternal malnutrition, which can be further narrowed down to a low protein diet during gestation. Studies show that perinatal protein deficiencies can impair proper organ growth and development, leading to long-term metabolic dysfunction. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie how this deficiency leads to adverse developmental outcomes is essential for establishing better therapeuticstrategies that may alleviate or prevent diseases in later life. This chapter reviews how perinatal protein restriction in humans and animals leads ...


Alternative Splicing Promotes Tumour Aggressiveness And Drug Resistance In African American Prostate Cancer., Bi-Dar Wang, Kristin Ceniccola, SuJin Hwang, Ramez Andrawis, Anelia Horvath, Jennifer A Freedman, Jacqueline Olender, Stefan Knapp, Travers Ching, Lana Garmire, Vyomesh Patel, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Steven R Patierno, Norman H Lee 2017 George Washington University

Alternative Splicing Promotes Tumour Aggressiveness And Drug Resistance In African American Prostate Cancer., Bi-Dar Wang, Kristin Ceniccola, Sujin Hwang, Ramez Andrawis, Anelia Horvath, Jennifer A Freedman, Jacqueline Olender, Stefan Knapp, Travers Ching, Lana Garmire, Vyomesh Patel, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Steven R Patierno, Norman H Lee

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

linical challenges exist in reducing prostate cancer (PCa) disparities. The RNA splicing landscape of PCa across racial populations has not been fully explored as a potential molecular mechanism contributing to race-related tumour aggressiveness. Here, we identify novel genome-wide, race-specific RNA splicing events as critical drivers of PCa aggressiveness and therapeutic resistance in African American (AA) men. AA-enriched splice variants of PIK3CD, FGFR3, TSC2 and RASGRP2 contribute to greater oncogenic potential compared with corresponding European American (EA)-expressing variants. Ectopic overexpression of the newly cloned AA-enriched variant, PIK3CD-S, in EA PCa cell lines enhances AKT/mTOR signalling and increases proliferative and ...


H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a cardioprotective gas, is endogenously produced from homocysteine by cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) enzymes. However, effect of H2S or homocysteine on CBS and CSE expression, and cross-talk between CBS and CSE are unclear. We hypothesize that homocysteine and H2S regulate CBS and CSE expressions in a dose dependent manner in cardiomyocytes, and CBS deficiency induces cardiac CSE expression. To test the hypothesis, we treated murine atrial HL1 cardiomyocytes with increasing doses of homocysteine or Na2S/GYY4137, a H2S donor, and measured the levels of CBS and CSE. We found that homocysteine upregulates ...


A Novel Micro Cold Atmospheric Plasma Device For Glioblastoma Both In Vitro And In Vivo., Zhitong Chen, Hayk Simonyan, Xiaoqian Cheng, Eda Gjika, Li Lin, Jerome Canady, Jonathan H Sherman, Colin Young, Michael Keidar 2017 George Washington University

A Novel Micro Cold Atmospheric Plasma Device For Glioblastoma Both In Vitro And In Vivo., Zhitong Chen, Hayk Simonyan, Xiaoqian Cheng, Eda Gjika, Li Lin, Jerome Canady, Jonathan H Sherman, Colin Young, Michael Keidar

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

: Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is a rapidly expanding and emerging technology for cancer treatment. Direct CAP jet irradiation is limited to the skin and it can also be invoked as a supplement therapy during surgery as it only causes cell death in the upper three to five cell layers. However, the current cannulas from which the plasma emanates are too large for intracranial applications. To enhance efficiency and expand the applicability of the CAP method for brain tumors and reduce the gas flow rate and size of the plasma jet, a novel micro-sized CAP device (µCAP) was developed and ...


Cannabis Use Is Associated With Reduced Prevalence Of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study, Adeyinka Adejumo, Samson Alliu, Tokunbo Opeyemi Ajayi, Kelechi Lauretta Adejumo, Oluwole Muyiwa Adegbala, Nnaemeka Egbuna Onyeakusi, Akintunde Micheal Akinjero, Modupeoluwa Durojaiye, Terence N. Bukong 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cannabis Use Is Associated With Reduced Prevalence Of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study, Adeyinka Adejumo, Samson Alliu, Tokunbo Opeyemi Ajayi, Kelechi Lauretta Adejumo, Oluwole Muyiwa Adegbala, Nnaemeka Egbuna Onyeakusi, Akintunde Micheal Akinjero, Modupeoluwa Durojaiye, Terence N. Bukong

Open Access Articles

Cannabis use is associated with reduced prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans and mouse disease models. Obesity and DM are a well-established independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prevalent liver disease globally. The effects of cannabis use on NAFLD prevalence in humans remains ill-defined. Our objective is to determine the relationship between cannabis use and the prevalence of NAFLD in humans. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 5,950,391 patients using the 2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Inpatient Survey (NIS) discharge records of patients 18 years and ...


The Science Of Singing: A Voice Lesson From Anatomy And Physiology, Gracie Bennett 2017 Cedarville University

The Science Of Singing: A Voice Lesson From Anatomy And Physiology, Gracie Bennett

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The voice is the oldest instrument in existence. Throughout its history, there have been many vocal performances practices. The purpose of my research is to show the correlation between modern vocal practices and the current medical technology available to help us understand the physiology of the voice. I am studying and analyzing the vocal performance and pedagogical practices from the early church to present day. I want to know why these vocal strategies have changed over time. There have been several different schools of thinking in regards to vocal practices. From the Italian style bel canto singing that was widely ...


Constitutive Activation Of Kappa Opioid Receptors At Ventral Tegmental Area Inhibitory Synapses Following Acute Stress., Abigail M Polter, Kelsey Barcomb, Rudy W Chen, Paige M Dingess, Nicholas M Graziane, Travis E Brown, Julie A Kauer 2017 George Washington University

Constitutive Activation Of Kappa Opioid Receptors At Ventral Tegmental Area Inhibitory Synapses Following Acute Stress., Abigail M Polter, Kelsey Barcomb, Rudy W Chen, Paige M Dingess, Nicholas M Graziane, Travis E Brown, Julie A Kauer

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Stressful experiences potently activate kappa opioid receptors (κORs). κORs in the ventral tegmental area regulate multiple aspects of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic cell function. Here we show that at GABAergic synapses on rat VTA dopamine neurons, a single exposure to a brief cold-water swim stress induces prolonged activation of κORs. This is mediated by activation of the receptor during the stressor followed by a persistent, ligand-independent constitutive activation of the κOR itself. This lasting change in function is not seen at κORs at neighboring excitatory synapses, suggesting distinct time courses and mechanisms of regulation of different subsets of κORs. We also ...


Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Immunometabolic Perspective., Paras K. Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K. Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K. Patel, Sushil K. Mahata 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Immunometabolic Perspective., Paras K. Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K. Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K. Patel, Sushil K. Mahata

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM. These early events are followed by steatosis (accumulation of lipid droplets ...


Melatonin Modulates Inflammatory Response And Suppresses Burn-Induced Apoptotic Injury, Ganka Bekyarova, Milena Atanasova, Maria Tzaneva, Anelia Dimitrova 2017 Medical University-Varna, Department of Pathophysiology, Bulgaria

Melatonin Modulates Inflammatory Response And Suppresses Burn-Induced Apoptotic Injury, Ganka Bekyarova, Milena Atanasova, Maria Tzaneva, Anelia Dimitrova

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction: Melatonin, the principal secretory product of the pineal gland, has antioxidant functions as a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of melatonin against inflammatory response, burn-induced oxidative damage and apoptotic changes of rat liver. Methods: Melatonin (10 mg /kg, i.p.) was applied immediately after 30% of total body surface area (TBSA) burns on male Wistar rats. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of an oxidative stress was quantified by thiobarbituric method. Hepatic TNFα and IL-10 as inflammatory markers were assayed by ELISA. Using light immunоchistochemistry the ...


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