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The Effect Of Cancer Cachexia Progression On The Feeding Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover, Brittany R. Franch 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

The Effect Of Cancer Cachexia Progression On The Feeding Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover, Brittany R. Franch

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Cancer cachexia is defined as the unintentional loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without fat loss that cannot be reversed by conventional nutritional support. Cachexia occurs in ~20% of cancer patients. More specifically, 50% of lung cancer patients, the most common cancer worldwide, develop cachexia. Cachexia occurs most often in lung and gastrointestinal cancers, whereas breast and prostate have the lowest rate of cachexia. Cancer-induced cachexia disrupts skeletal muscle protein turnover (decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation). Skeletal muscle’s capacity for protein synthesis is highly sensitive to local and systemic stimuli that are controlled by mTORC1 and ...


Airway Epithelial Innate Immunity, Sebastian L. Johnston, David L. Goldblatt, Scott E. Evans, Michael J. Tuvim, Burton F. Dickey 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Airway Epithelial Innate Immunity, Sebastian L. Johnston, David L. Goldblatt, Scott E. Evans, Michael J. Tuvim, Burton F. Dickey

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Besides providing an essential protective barrier, airway epithelial cells directly sense pathogens and respond defensively. This is a frontline component of the innate immune system with specificity for different pathogen classes. It occurs in the context of numerous interactions with leukocytes, but here we focus on intrinsic epithelial mechanisms. Type 1 immune responses are directed primarily at intracellular pathogens, particularly viruses. Prominent stimuli include microbial nucleic acids and interferons released from neighboring epithelial cells. Epithelial responses revolve around changes in the expression of interferon-sensitive genes (ISGs) that interfere with viral replication, as well as the further induction of interferons that ...


Race And Drug Toxicity: A Study Of Three Cardiovascular Drugs With Strong Pharmacogenetic Recommendations., Travis J. O'Brien, Kevin Fenton, Alfateh Sidahmed, April Barbour, Arthur F Harralson 2021 George Washington University

Race And Drug Toxicity: A Study Of Three Cardiovascular Drugs With Strong Pharmacogenetic Recommendations., Travis J. O'Brien, Kevin Fenton, Alfateh Sidahmed, April Barbour, Arthur F Harralson

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Identification And Characterization Of Cyps Induced In The Drosophila Antenna By Exposure To A Plant Odorant, Shane R Baldwin, Pratyajit Mohapatra, Monica Nagalla, Rhea Sindvani, Desiree Amaya, Hope A Dickson, Karen Menuz 2021 University of Connecticut

Identification And Characterization Of Cyps Induced In The Drosophila Antenna By Exposure To A Plant Odorant, Shane R Baldwin, Pratyajit Mohapatra, Monica Nagalla, Rhea Sindvani, Desiree Amaya, Hope A Dickson, Karen Menuz

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Degrading Enzymes (ODEs). However, their contribution to olfactory signaling in vivo is poorly understood. This is due in part to the challenge of identifying which of the dozens of antennal-expressed CYPs might inactivate a given odorant. Here, we tested a high-throughput deorphanization strategy in Drosophila to identify CYPs that are transcriptionally induced by exposure to odorants. We discovered three CYPs selectively upregulated by geranyl acetate using transcriptional profiling. Although these CYPs are broadly expressed in the antenna in non-neuronal cells, electrophysiological recordings from CYP mutants did not reveal any changes in olfactory neuron responses to this odorant. Neurons were desensitized ...


Role Of Emotional Intelligence In Job Performance Of Healthcare Providers Working In Public Sector Hospitals Of Pakistan, Nimra Zaman, Khalida Naz Memon, Faryal Zaman, Komal Zaman Khan, Shazia Rahman Shaikh 2021 LIAQUAT UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCES, JAMSHORO, PAKISTAN

Role Of Emotional Intelligence In Job Performance Of Healthcare Providers Working In Public Sector Hospitals Of Pakistan, Nimra Zaman, Khalida Naz Memon, Faryal Zaman, Komal Zaman Khan, Shazia Rahman Shaikh

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Objective. To determine the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and job performance (JP) of health care providers (HCPs). Methods. Healthcare professionals from various hospitals were chosen for a cross-sectional study. The survey was conducted using a three-part questionnaire including the demographic profile, Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence (EI) Scale, and an individual work performance (JP) questionnaire. The relationship of predictor variables on JP was sought by applying Chi-square test and multiple regression analysis. Results. About 43.3% of the 50.8% of participants who scored well on the EI scale also scored high on the JP scales. The remaining 7 ...


Understanding The Effect Of Dietary Palmitic Acid On Glycolysis During Innate Immune Memory In Macrophages, Khaleda A. Aqaei 2021 Portland State University

Understanding The Effect Of Dietary Palmitic Acid On Glycolysis During Innate Immune Memory In Macrophages, Khaleda A. Aqaei

University Honors Theses

Trained immunity is long-term innate immune memory induced by a primary stimulus, which leads to hyper-inflammation upon secondary stimulation with a homologous or heterologous ligand. Trained immunity is mediated by epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of the target cell and leads to modification of gene expression and cellular function. Classically, trained immunity is initiated by β-glucans, an inflammatory molecule found on the exterior of fungal species. Interestingly, our lab has recently described that dietary fatty acids can initiate trained immunity, working through similar pathways as β-glucans. Specifically, our data show that a pre-treatment with a specific dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA ...


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19): Multisystem Review Of Pathophysiology, Tanveer Mir, Talal Almas, Jasmeet Kaur, Mohammed Faisaluddin, David Song, Waqas Ullah, Sahil Mamtani, Hiba Rauf, Sunita Yadav, Sharaad Latchana, Nara Miriam Michaelson, Michael Connerney, Yasar Sattar 2021 Wayne State University

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19): Multisystem Review Of Pathophysiology, Tanveer Mir, Talal Almas, Jasmeet Kaur, Mohammed Faisaluddin, David Song, Waqas Ullah, Sahil Mamtani, Hiba Rauf, Sunita Yadav, Sharaad Latchana, Nara Miriam Michaelson, Michael Connerney, Yasar Sattar

Division of Internal Medicine Faculty Papers & Presentations

Abstract Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with high morbidity and mortality. COVID-19, which is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2), affects multiple organ systems through a myriad of mechanisms. Afflicted patients present with a vast constellation of symptoms, from asymptomatic disease to life-threatening complications. The most common manifestations pertain to mild pulmonary symptoms, which can progress to respiratory distress syndrome and venous thromboembolism. However, in patients with renal failure, life-threatening cardiac abnormalities can ensue. Various mechanisms such as viral entry through Angiotensin receptor (ACE) affecting multiple organs and thus releasing pro-inflammatory markers have been postulated ...


The Effects Of Estrogen In The Glucoregulatory Response To Exercise In Type 1 Diabetes, Mitchell James Sammut 2021 Western University

The Effects Of Estrogen In The Glucoregulatory Response To Exercise In Type 1 Diabetes, Mitchell James Sammut

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Regular exercise has shown to benefit the health of individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, a barrier to regular exercise for this population is the fear of low blood glucose (BG) levels, also known as hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia can result in short and long-term side-effects, such as recurring loss of consciousness or in severe cases death.

In non-diabetics, sex-related differences in fuel selection during exercise are well established. Women shift towards using fats as fuel whereas men rely mostly on sugars (i.e., carbohydrates) for energy production. Exercise during the luteal phase of the female menstrual cycle, where estrogen ...


Point Substitutions In G Protein-Coupled Receptors, Jessica Brown 2021 Western University

Point Substitutions In G Protein-Coupled Receptors, Jessica Brown

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are proteins that are important in physiological regulatory processes within the body, and for this reason are important drug targets. When bound to an agonist, such as neurotransmitters or hormones, the receptor adopts an active state to allow these biochemical pathways to occur. However, mutations can arise within the receptor that affect its ability to bind its agonist. This natural variation found within the genome can make it difficult to design pharmaceuticals to target the receptors.

To see the effects of these point substitutions on agonist-induced receptor activation, mutations were made within a negative allosteric site ...


A Distinct Difference Between Air And Mucosal Temperatures In Human Respiratory Tract, Mehdi Khosravi, Ruei-Lung Lin, Ashish P. Maskey, Subodh Pandey, An-Hsuan Lin, Lu-Yuan Lee 2021 University of Kentucky

A Distinct Difference Between Air And Mucosal Temperatures In Human Respiratory Tract, Mehdi Khosravi, Ruei-Lung Lin, Ashish P. Maskey, Subodh Pandey, An-Hsuan Lin, Lu-Yuan Lee

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

xtensive evidence indicates that several types of temperature-sensitive ion channels are abundantly expressed in the sensory nerves innervating airway mucosa. Indeed, airway temperature is known to play an important role in regulating respiratory functions. However, the actual airway mucosal temperature and its dynamic changes during the respiratory cycle have not been directly measured. In previous studies, airway tissue temperature was often estimated by indirect measurement of the peak exhaled breath temperature (PEBT). In view of the poor thermal conductivity of air, we believe that the airway tissue temperature cannot be accurately determined by the exhaled air temperature, and this study ...


Maternal Lifelong Western Diet Consumption Impacts Placental And Brain Development In The Term Guinea Pig Fetus, Carlene H. Cihosky 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Maternal Lifelong Western Diet Consumption Impacts Placental And Brain Development In The Term Guinea Pig Fetus, Carlene H. Cihosky

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Both metabolic and cognitive dysfunction can originate from fetal reprogramming precipitating from adverse conditions experienced in utero. Of note is the western diet (WD), which is associated with maternal energy imbalances that may hinder fetal development through altered placental function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a growth factor that supports the placenta and developing brain, is responsive to such energy imbalances. This study sought to investigate the impact of lifelong maternal WD consumption on fetoplacental development, focusing on relations between placental changes, and fetal growth and neurodevelopment in a guinea pig model. Maternal WD consumption resulting in a lean metabolically unhealthy ...


Myonuclear Transcriptional Dynamics In Response To Exercise Following Satellite Cell Depletion, Yuan Wen, Davis A. Englund, Bailey D. Peck, Kevin A. Murach, John J. McCarthy, Charlotte A. Peterson 2021 University of Kentucky

Myonuclear Transcriptional Dynamics In Response To Exercise Following Satellite Cell Depletion, Yuan Wen, Davis A. Englund, Bailey D. Peck, Kevin A. Murach, John J. Mccarthy, Charlotte A. Peterson

Physical Therapy Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle is composed of post-mitotic myofibers that form a syncytium containing hundreds of myonuclei. Using a progressive exercise training model in the mouse and single nucleus RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) for high-resolution characterization of myonuclear transcription, we show myonuclear functional specialization in muscle. After 4 weeks of exercise training, snRNA-seq reveals that resident muscle stem cells, or satellite cells, are activated with acute exercise but demonstrate limited lineage progression while contributing to muscle adaptation. In the absence of satellite cells, a portion of nuclei demonstrates divergent transcriptional dynamics associated with mixed-fate identities compared with satellite cell replete muscles. These data provide ...


Effect Of Metformin On The High-Density Lipoprotein Proteome In Youth With Type 1 Diabetes, Evgenia Gourgari, Kristen J. Nadeau, Laura Pyle, Martin P. Playford, Junfeng Ma, Nehal N. Mehta, Alan T. Remaley, Scott M. Gordon 2021 Georgetown University

Effect Of Metformin On The High-Density Lipoprotein Proteome In Youth With Type 1 Diabetes, Evgenia Gourgari, Kristen J. Nadeau, Laura Pyle, Martin P. Playford, Junfeng Ma, Nehal N. Mehta, Alan T. Remaley, Scott M. Gordon

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Background: Youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have normal or elevated High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), however, the function of HDL, partly mediated by the HDL proteome, may be impaired. Metformin can be used as an adjunct therapy in youth with T1D, but its effects on the HDL proteome are unknown.

Objective: To determine the effect of metformin on the HDL proteome.

Subjects: Youth (12-20 years old) with T1D who had a BMI > 90th percentile, HbA1c > 8.0% and Tanner stage 5.

Methods: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized sub-study. We examined the effects of metformin (n = 25) or placebo (n = 10) after 6 ...


Analysis Of Genetic Variants Associated With Levels Of Immune Modulating Proteins For Impact On Alzheimer’S Disease Risk Reveal A Potential Role For Siglec14, Benjamin C. Shaw, Yuriko Katsumata, James F. Simpson, David W. Fardo, Steven Estus 2021 University of Kentucky

Analysis Of Genetic Variants Associated With Levels Of Immune Modulating Proteins For Impact On Alzheimer’S Disease Risk Reveal A Potential Role For Siglec14, Benjamin C. Shaw, Yuriko Katsumata, James F. Simpson, David W. Fardo, Steven Estus

Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified immune-related genes as risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including TREM2 and CD33, frequently passing a stringent false-discovery rate. These genes either encode or signal through immunomodulatory tyrosine-phosphorylated inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) or activation motifs (ITAMs) and govern processes critical to AD pathology, such as inflammation and amyloid phagocytosis. To investigate whether additional ITIM and ITAM-containing family members may contribute to AD risk and be overlooked due to the stringent multiple testing in GWAS, we combined protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) data from a recent plasma proteomics study with AD associations in a recent ...


Weak Evidence, Supplemented With Common Sense For Reduction In Postoperative Pulmonary Complications, Natalie M. Wiseman 2021 Wayne State University

Weak Evidence, Supplemented With Common Sense For Reduction In Postoperative Pulmonary Complications, Natalie M. Wiseman

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A clinical decision report appraising:

Kaminski PN, Forgiarini LA, Jr., Andrade CF. Early respiratory therapy reduces postoperative atelectasis in children undergoing lung resection. Respir Care. 2013;58(5):805-809. https://doi.org/10.4187/respcare.01870

for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications following thoracic surgery for a patient who is not able to participate in incentive spirometry.


Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson 2021 The University of San Francisco

Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson

Master's Projects and Capstones

The Japanese health practice of Reiki attempts to maximize the latent ability of the human system to heal itself. The Reiki system, established over a century ago, combines multiple Asian health traditions, experimenting with practices that maximize the natural processes of the body to perform its own repairs. Reiki encourages healthy behaviors that balance the mind and body, return the human system to a lowered stress level, and allow for an optimal recovery state for the patient. This paper illustrates how this Japanese health-affirming method can be integrated and utilized within existing health and medical practices. An area that is ...


Myeloid Arginase 1 Insufficiency Exacerbates Amyloid-Β Associated Neurodegenerative Pathways And Glial Signatures In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease: A Targeted Transcriptome Analysis, Chao Ma, Jerry B. Hunt, Andrii Kovalenko, Huimin Liang, Maj-Linda B. Selenica, Michael B. Orr, Bei Zhang, John C. Gensel, David J. Feola, Marcia N. Gordon, Dave Morgan, Paula C. Bickford, Daniel C. Lee 2021 University of Kentucky

Myeloid Arginase 1 Insufficiency Exacerbates Amyloid-Β Associated Neurodegenerative Pathways And Glial Signatures In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease: A Targeted Transcriptome Analysis, Chao Ma, Jerry B. Hunt, Andrii Kovalenko, Huimin Liang, Maj-Linda B. Selenica, Michael B. Orr, Bei Zhang, John C. Gensel, David J. Feola, Marcia N. Gordon, Dave Morgan, Paula C. Bickford, Daniel C. Lee

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Brain myeloid cells, include infiltrating macrophages and resident microglia, play an essential role in responding to and inducing neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicate many AD casual and risk genes enriched in brain myeloid cells. Coordinated arginine metabolism through arginase 1 (Arg1) is critical for brain myeloid cells to perform biological functions, whereas dysregulated arginine metabolism disrupts them. Altered arginine metabolism is proposed as a new biomarker pathway for AD. We previously reported Arg1 deficiency in myeloid biased cells using lysozyme M (LysM) promoter-driven deletion worsened amyloidosis-related neuropathology and behavioral impairment. However, it ...


Water Exchange Rate Across The Blood-Brain Barrier Is Associated With Csf Amyloid-Β 42 In Healthy Older Adults, Brian T. Gold, Xingfeng Shao, Tiffany L. Sudduth, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock, Elayna R. Seago, Danny J. J. Wang 2021 University of Kentucky

Water Exchange Rate Across The Blood-Brain Barrier Is Associated With Csf Amyloid-Β 42 In Healthy Older Adults, Brian T. Gold, Xingfeng Shao, Tiffany L. Sudduth, Gregory A. Jicha, Donna M. Wilcock, Elayna R. Seago, Danny J. J. Wang

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: We tested if water exchange across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), estimated with a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, is associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neuropsychological function.

METHODS: Forty cognitively normal older adults (67–86 years old) were scanned with diffusion‐prepared, arterial spin labeling (DP‐ASL), which estimates water exchange rate across the BBB (kw). Participants also underwent CSF draw and neuropsychological testing. Multiple linear regression models were run with kw as a predictor of CSF concentrations and neuropsychological scores.

RESULTS: In multiple brain regions, BBB kw was positively associated ...


The Role Of Nutrition And Hormone Signaling In Extended Larval Development And Obesity In Starvation-Selected Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer M. Clark 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Role Of Nutrition And Hormone Signaling In Extended Larval Development And Obesity In Starvation-Selected Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer M. Clark

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Brief periods of starvation are a common stressor that most animals encounter in the wild and must be able to survive in order to maximize their fitness. Starvation resistance of the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is thought to be primarily conferred by adult fat stores, body size, metabolic rate, behavior, and activity levels. Additionally, flies selected for starvation resistance also often show delayed pupariation, which is usually indicative of altered hormone signaling. How starvation selection extends development and if it contributes to adult starvation resistance remains incompletely studied. Identifying the targets of starvation selection that cause extended development and ...


Vitamin D Promotes Skeletal Muscle Regeneration And Mitochondrial Health, Christine M. Latham, Camille R. Brightwell, Alexander R. Keeble, Brooke D. Munson, Nicholas T. Thomas, Alyaa M. Zagzoog, Christopher S. Fry, Jean L. Fry 2021 University of Kentucky

Vitamin D Promotes Skeletal Muscle Regeneration And Mitochondrial Health, Christine M. Latham, Camille R. Brightwell, Alexander R. Keeble, Brooke D. Munson, Nicholas T. Thomas, Alyaa M. Zagzoog, Christopher S. Fry, Jean L. Fry

Athletic Training and Clinical Nutrition Faculty Publications

Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for the maintenance of skeletal muscle and bone health. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in muscle, as is CYP27B1, the enzyme that hydroxylates 25(OH)D to its active form, 1,25(OH)D. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that vitamin D may play an important role during muscle damage and regeneration. Muscle damage is characterized by compromised muscle fiber architecture, disruption of contractile protein integrity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Muscle regeneration is a complex process that involves restoration of mitochondrial function and activation of satellite cells (SC), the resident skeletal muscle stem cells ...


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