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Targeting Cancer Stem Cells In Recurrent Lung Cancer, Karen T. Udoh 2017 Murray State University

Targeting Cancer Stem Cells In Recurrent Lung Cancer, Karen T. Udoh

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Five-year survivability still remains dismal due to drug resistance. The development of drug resistance with cisplatin or platinum/taxane combination chemotherapies has led patients to suffer from recurrent lung cancer. These chemotherapy treatments target cancer cells but leave behind cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are stem-like tumor cells that have the potential to differentiate, self-renew, and proliferate. This allows the cancer to relapse even after initial elimination of the tumor. We hypothesize that Verrucarin J will inhibit cell proliferation in lung cancer cells and CSCs by ...


Finasteride As A Model For Personalized Medicine, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland, Ioana Păunică, Octavian C. Tănăsescu, Petrişor Banu, Stana Păunică 2017 Carol Davila University, Faculty of General Medicine, Bucharest, Romania

Finasteride As A Model For Personalized Medicine, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland, Ioana Păunică, Octavian C. Tănăsescu, Petrişor Banu, Stana Păunică

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The side effects of Finasteride are currently a subject of controversy. Some studies report minor or acceptable adverse effects, which decrease after a variable period of time so that they do not necessitate terminating Finasteride administration. However, several clinical and neuro-endocrine studies show that some adverse effects persist indefinitely in the form of post-Finasteride syndrome, even after the drug cessation. This paper presents a possible explanation for these inconsistent findings. First, the study design of either informing or not informing patients prior therapy about possible adverse effects can influence the incidence and magnitude of reported adverse effects. Second, structural and ...


Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Recent observations have shown that patients treated with MTX also exhibit a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although MTX reduces systemic inflammation and tissue damage, the mechanisms by which MTX exerts these beneficial effects are not entirely known. We have previously demonstrated that protein adducts formed by the interaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetaldehyde (AA), known as MAA-protein adducts, are present in diseased tissues of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or CVD. In previously reported studies, MAA-adducts were shown to be highly immunogenic ...


Retinoic Acid Pathway Inhibition To Expand Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells With Islet Regenerative Capacity, Ruth Elgamal 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Retinoic Acid Pathway Inhibition To Expand Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells With Islet Regenerative Capacity, Ruth Elgamal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular therapy to induce islet regeneration is emerging as a novel treatment strategy for diabetes. Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) isolated by high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi) reduce hyperglycemia after transplantation into streptozotocin (STZ)-treated NOD/SCID mice. However, UCB-derived ALDHhi cells are rare and expansion without the loss of regenerative function is required. We hypothesized that BMS 493, an inverse retinoic acid receptor agonist, will prevent HSPC differentiation of HSPC during expansion, generating more ALDHhi cells for therapy. ALDHhi cells expanded for 6 days with BMS 493 showed a 2 ...


Temporal Changes In Cortical And Hippocampal Expression Of Genes Important For Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury In Mice, June Zhou, Mark Burns, Linda Huynh, Sonia Villapol, Daniel D. Taub, Juan M. Saavedra, Marc R. Blackman 2017 George Washington University

Temporal Changes In Cortical And Hippocampal Expression Of Genes Important For Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury In Mice, June Zhou, Mark Burns, Linda Huynh, Sonia Villapol, Daniel D. Taub, Juan M. Saavedra, Marc R. Blackman

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes transient increases and subsequent decreases in brain glucose utilization. The underlying molecular pathways are orchestrated processes and poorly understood. In the current study, we determined temporal changes in cortical and hippocampal expression of genes important for brain glucose/lactate metabolism and the effect of a known neuroprotective drug telmisartan on the expression of these genes after experimental TBI. Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 6/group) underwent sham or unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Their ipsilateral and contralateral cortex and hippocampus were collected 6 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after ...


Overexpressed Somatic Alleles Are Enriched In Functional Elements In Breast Cancer., Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Nawaf Alomran, Christian Miller, Muzi Li, Chris Trenkov, Yulian Manchev, Sonali Bahl, Stephanie Warnken, Liam Spurr, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath 2017 George Washington University

Overexpressed Somatic Alleles Are Enriched In Functional Elements In Breast Cancer., Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Nawaf Alomran, Christian Miller, Muzi Li, Chris Trenkov, Yulian Manchev, Sonali Bahl, Stephanie Warnken, Liam Spurr, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Asymmetric allele content in the transcriptome can be indicative of functional and selective features of the underlying genetic variants. Yet, imbalanced alleles, especially from diploid genome regions, are poorly explored in cancer. Here we systematically quantify and integrate the variant allele fraction from corresponding RNA and DNA sequence data from patients with breast cancer acquired through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We test for correlation between allele prevalence and functionality in known cancer-implicated genes from the Cancer Gene Census (CGC). We document significant allele-preferential expression of functional variants in CGC genes and across the entire dataset. Notably, we find frequent ...


Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive In The Setting Of Low And High Output Heart Failure., Rodrigo Del Rio, David C. Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S. Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz 2017 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive In The Setting Of Low And High Output Heart Failure., Rodrigo Del Rio, David C. Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S. Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex function is strongly related to cardiorespiratory disorders and disease progression in heart failure (HF). The mechanisms underlying CB sensitization during HF are not fully understood, however previous work indicates blood flow per se can affect CB function. Then, we hypothesized that the CB-mediated chemoreflex drive will be enhanced only in low output HF but not in high output HF. Myocardial infarcted rats and aorto-caval fistulated rats were used as a low output HF model (MI-CHF) and as a high output HF model (AV-CHF), respectively. Blood flow supply to the CB region was decreased only in ...


Strength-Based Physiological Profiles Of Ncaa Division I Womens Basketball And Gymnastics Athletes: Implications For Injury Risk Assessment, Curtis Cazier 2017 Utah State University

Strength-Based Physiological Profiles Of Ncaa Division I Womens Basketball And Gymnastics Athletes: Implications For Injury Risk Assessment, Curtis Cazier

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive strength-based physiological profile of women’s collegiate basketball and gymnastic athletes; and to make sport-specific comparisons for various isokinetic and maximal and rapid isometric strength characteristics of the knee flexor and extensor muscles. A focus on antagonist muscle balance (hamstrings to quadriceps ratios, H:Q) will help elucidate particular vulnerabilities in these at-risk female athletes. Fourteen Division I collegiate level women’s basketball and 13 women’s gymnastics athletes performed isokinetic and isometric strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors. Outcome measures included absolute and body mass normalized (relative ...


Local Anesthesia Toxicity, Nicole McCleery 2017 Otterbein University

Local Anesthesia Toxicity, Nicole Mccleery

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Local anesthesia (LA) provides a way to relieve temporary pain in a small part of the body and has been used for over 100 years (Fencl, 2015). LA also prevents the passage of surgical stimuli into the central nervous system (CNS) making a surgical procedure less painful for the patient (Noble, 2015). According to Noble, “altering the passage of stimuli from smaller diameter neurons in a confined area with lower drug dosages is called LA, such as the injection of LA around a surgical incision” (Noble, 2015, p.325). LA can be used in a variety of settings, such as ...


Maternal Nicotine Exposure Leads To Decreased Cardiac Protein Disulfide Isomerase And Impaired Mitochondrial Function In Male Rat Offspring., Nicole G Barra, Maria Lisyansky, Taylor A Vanduzer, Sandeep Raha, Alison C Holloway, Daniel B Hardy 2017 Western University

Maternal Nicotine Exposure Leads To Decreased Cardiac Protein Disulfide Isomerase And Impaired Mitochondrial Function In Male Rat Offspring., Nicole G Barra, Maria Lisyansky, Taylor A Vanduzer, Sandeep Raha, Alison C Holloway, Daniel B Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Smoking throughout pregnancy can lead to complications during gestation, parturition and neonatal development. Thus, nicotine replacement therapies are a popular alternative thought to be safer than cigarettes. However, recent studies in rodents suggest that fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure alone results in cardiac dysfunction and high blood pressure. While it is well known that perinatal nicotine exposure causes increased congenital abnormalities, the mechanisms underlying longer-term deficits in cardiac function are not completely understood. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that nicotine impairs placental protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) triggering an increase in endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading us to hypothesize that this may also ...


Increased Incidence Of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Male Rat Offspring Exposed To Fluoxetine During Fetal And Neonatal Life Involves The Nlrp3 Inflammasome And Augmented De Novo Hepatic Lipogenesis., Nicole E De Long, Daniel B Hardy, Noelle Ma, Alison C Holloway 2017 Western University

Increased Incidence Of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Male Rat Offspring Exposed To Fluoxetine During Fetal And Neonatal Life Involves The Nlrp3 Inflammasome And Augmented De Novo Hepatic Lipogenesis., Nicole E De Long, Daniel B Hardy, Noelle Ma, Alison C Holloway

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Up to 10% of women take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy. Children exposed to SSRIs in utero have an increased risk of being overweight suggesting that fetal exposure to SSRIs can cause permanent metabolic changes. We have previously shown in rats that fetal and neonatal exposure to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine results in metabolic perturbations including increased hepatic triglyceride content; a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanism(s) underlying the fluoxetine-induced increase in intrahepatic triglyceride content. Female nulliparous Wistar rats were given vehicle or fluoxetine (10 ...


Maternal Undernutrition And Long-Term Effects On Hepatic Function, Daniel B. Hardy 2017 Physiology and Pharmacology

Maternal Undernutrition And Long-Term Effects On Hepatic Function, Daniel B. Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Undernutrition in utero, regardless of the source, can impair proper liver development leading to long-term metabolic dysfunction. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying how nutritional deficits during perinatal life lead to permanent alterations in hepatic gene expression will provide better therapeutic strategies to alleviate the undernourished liver in postnatal life. This chapter addresses the different experimental models of undernutrition in utero, and highlights the direct and indirect mechanisms involved leading to metabolic diseases in the liver. These include hypoxia, oxidative stress, epigenetic alterations, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, promising perinatal nutritional and pharmaceutical interventions are highlighted which illustrate how ...


Effects Of Protein Deficiency On Perinatal And Postnatal Health Outcomes, Shelby L. Oke, Daniel B. Hardy 2017 Western University

Effects Of Protein Deficiency On Perinatal And Postnatal Health Outcomes, Shelby L. Oke, Daniel B. Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

There are a variety of environmental insults that can occur during pregnancy which cause low birth weight and poor fetal health outcomes. One such insult is maternal malnutrition, which can be further narrowed down to a low protein diet during gestation. Studies show that perinatal protein deficiencies can impair proper organ growth and development, leading to long-term metabolic dysfunction. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie how this deficiency leads to adverse developmental outcomes is essential for establishing better therapeuticstrategies that may alleviate or prevent diseases in later life. This chapter reviews how perinatal protein restriction in humans and animals leads ...


Perinatal Malnutrition And Epigenetic Regulation Of Long-Term Metabolism In The Liver And Adipose Tissue, Daniel B. Hardy 2017 Physiology and Pharmacology

Perinatal Malnutrition And Epigenetic Regulation Of Long-Term Metabolism In The Liver And Adipose Tissue, Daniel B. Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Maternal malnutrition in perinatal life can have long-lasting adverse effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the offspring, culminating in dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and obesity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying how these nutritional deficits during perinatal life lead to permanent changes in hepatic and adipose function will provide efficacious therapeutic strategies to mitigate these metabolic defects short- and long-term. This chapter addresses how epigenetic mechanisms mediate alterations in hepatic and adipose gene expression identified from clinical studies and different experimental models of maternal malnutrition. These include DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, and microRNAs.


Alternative Splicing Promotes Tumour Aggressiveness And Drug Resistance In African American Prostate Cancer., Bi-Dar Wang, Kristin Ceniccola, SuJin Hwang, Ramez Andrawis, Anelia Horvath, Jennifer A Freedman, Jacqueline Olender, Stefan Knapp, Travers Ching, Lana Garmire, Vyomesh Patel, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Steven R Patierno, Norman H Lee 2017 George Washington University

Alternative Splicing Promotes Tumour Aggressiveness And Drug Resistance In African American Prostate Cancer., Bi-Dar Wang, Kristin Ceniccola, Sujin Hwang, Ramez Andrawis, Anelia Horvath, Jennifer A Freedman, Jacqueline Olender, Stefan Knapp, Travers Ching, Lana Garmire, Vyomesh Patel, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Steven R Patierno, Norman H Lee

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

linical challenges exist in reducing prostate cancer (PCa) disparities. The RNA splicing landscape of PCa across racial populations has not been fully explored as a potential molecular mechanism contributing to race-related tumour aggressiveness. Here, we identify novel genome-wide, race-specific RNA splicing events as critical drivers of PCa aggressiveness and therapeutic resistance in African American (AA) men. AA-enriched splice variants of PIK3CD, FGFR3, TSC2 and RASGRP2 contribute to greater oncogenic potential compared with corresponding European American (EA)-expressing variants. Ectopic overexpression of the newly cloned AA-enriched variant, PIK3CD-S, in EA PCa cell lines enhances AKT/mTOR signalling and increases proliferative and ...


H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a cardioprotective gas, is endogenously produced from homocysteine by cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) enzymes. However, effect of H2S or homocysteine on CBS and CSE expression, and cross-talk between CBS and CSE are unclear. We hypothesize that homocysteine and H2S regulate CBS and CSE expressions in a dose dependent manner in cardiomyocytes, and CBS deficiency induces cardiac CSE expression. To test the hypothesis, we treated murine atrial HL1 cardiomyocytes with increasing doses of homocysteine or Na2S/GYY4137, a H2S donor, and measured the levels of CBS and CSE. We found that homocysteine upregulates ...


Mixed-Mode Oscillations In Pyramidal Neurons Under Antiepileptic Drug Conditions, Babak V-Ghaffari, M. Kouhnavard, Sherif M. Elbasiouny 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Mixed-Mode Oscillations In Pyramidal Neurons Under Antiepileptic Drug Conditions, Babak V-Ghaffari, M. Kouhnavard, Sherif M. Elbasiouny

Neuroscience, Cell Biology, & Physiology Faculty Publications

Subthreshold oscillations in combination with large-amplitude oscillations generate mixedmode oscillations (MMOs), which mediate various spatial and temporal cognition and memory processes and behavioral motor tasks. Although many studies have shown that canard theory is a reliable method to investigate the properties underlying the MMOs phenomena, the relationship between the results obtained by applying canard theory and conductancebased models of neurons and their electrophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. The goal of this study was to apply canard theory to the conductance-based model of pyramidal neurons in layer V of the Entorhinal Cortex to investigate the properties of MMOs under ...


A Novel Micro Cold Atmospheric Plasma Device For Glioblastoma Both In Vitro And In Vivo., Zhitong Chen, Hayk Simonyan, Xiaoqian Cheng, Eda Gjika, Li Lin, Jerome Canady, Jonathan H Sherman, Colin Young, Michael Keidar 2017 George Washington University

A Novel Micro Cold Atmospheric Plasma Device For Glioblastoma Both In Vitro And In Vivo., Zhitong Chen, Hayk Simonyan, Xiaoqian Cheng, Eda Gjika, Li Lin, Jerome Canady, Jonathan H Sherman, Colin Young, Michael Keidar

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

: Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is a rapidly expanding and emerging technology for cancer treatment. Direct CAP jet irradiation is limited to the skin and it can also be invoked as a supplement therapy during surgery as it only causes cell death in the upper three to five cell layers. However, the current cannulas from which the plasma emanates are too large for intracranial applications. To enhance efficiency and expand the applicability of the CAP method for brain tumors and reduce the gas flow rate and size of the plasma jet, a novel micro-sized CAP device (µCAP) was developed and ...


Thermal And Developmental Ecology Of Pupfish, Cyprinodon, Alexander Jones 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Thermal And Developmental Ecology Of Pupfish, Cyprinodon, Alexander Jones

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Pupfish from the genus Cyprinodon are among the most endangered groups of fishes on the planet, with nearly 40% of species being threatened with extinction. These pupfishes are often assumed to be the most temperature tolerant of all fish, coping with temperatures as low as 0 °C and as high as 44 °C. However, conflicting data exist and certain measures of thermal tolerance are not markedly higher in pupfish compared to common game fish. Pupfish egg production and growth has been known to be hampered at temperatures well below what they apparently experience in nature. I addressed why eggs fail ...


Factors Influencing Induction Of Desiccation Tolerance In Bryophytes: Redefining Fundamental Aspects Of The Organism’S Relationship With The Environment In Xeric Habitats, Joshua Lee Greenwood 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Factors Influencing Induction Of Desiccation Tolerance In Bryophytes: Redefining Fundamental Aspects Of The Organism’S Relationship With The Environment In Xeric Habitats, Joshua Lee Greenwood

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

If one wishes to understand the ecological role, range, habitat preferences, selective pressures, reproduction, response to climate change, and the potential for survival under climactic change, range expansion and range contraction for species and populations of bryophytes, an understanding of their survival of the desiccated state, is essential. In order to further our understanding of desiccation tolerance in mosses, three projects were undertaken. The first of these investigated the nature of desiccation tolerance in mosses, specifically if desiccation tolerance can be induced; thereby providing a desiccation tolerant phenotype in a moss species generally considered desiccation sensitive (Physcomitrella patens, the model ...


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