Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Physiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

602 Full-Text Articles 1,601 Authors 51,286 Downloads 58 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Physiology

Faceted Search

602 full-text articles. Page 1 of 24.

Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined by low birth weight and contributes to a variety of adult-onset diseases with different severities between males and females. However, the effects of FGR on the pulmonary surfactant are not fully elucidated. In this thesis, first, we investigated the FGR effects on the lung function and the surfactant system at the early postnatal life. It was hypothesized that FGR contributes to alterations of lung mechanics and the surfactant system during the neonatal period. Second, we assessed the FGR effects on the surfactant system in response to sepsis in adulthood. It was hypothesized that FGR ...


Causality Analysis And Cell Network Modeling Of Spatial Calcium Signaling Patterns In Liver Lobules., Aalap Verma, Anil Noronha Antony, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, Jan B. Hoek, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli 2018 University of Delaware

Causality Analysis And Cell Network Modeling Of Spatial Calcium Signaling Patterns In Liver Lobules., Aalap Verma, Anil Noronha Antony, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, Jan B. Hoek, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Dynamics as well as localization of Ca2+ transients plays a vital role in liver function under homeostatic conditions, repair, and disease. In response to circulating hormonal stimuli, hepatocytes exhibit intracellular Ca2+ responses that propagate through liver lobules in a wave-like fashion. Although intracellular processes that control cell autonomous Ca2+ spiking behavior have been studied extensively, the intra- and inter-cellular signaling factors that regulate lobular scale spatial patterns and wave-like propagation of Ca2+ remain to be determined. To address this need, we acquired images of cytosolic Ca2+ transients in 1300 hepatocytes situated across several mouse liver lobules over a period of ...


High Fat Diet Upregulates Fatty Acid Oxidation And Ketogenesis Via Intervention Of Ppar-Γ., Kunal Sikder, Sanket Kumar Shukla, Neel Patel, Harpreet Singh, Khadija Rafiq 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

High Fat Diet Upregulates Fatty Acid Oxidation And Ketogenesis Via Intervention Of Ppar-Γ., Kunal Sikder, Sanket Kumar Shukla, Neel Patel, Harpreet Singh, Khadija Rafiq

Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Systemic hyperlipidemia and intracellular lipid accumulation induced by chronic high fat diet (HFD) leads to enhanced fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis. The present study was aimed to determine whether activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) by surplus free fatty acids (FA) in hyperlipidemic condition, has a positive feedback regulation over FAO and ketogenic enzymes controlling lipotoxicity and cardiac apoptosis.

METHODS: 8 weeks old C57BL/6 wild type (WT) or PPAR-γ-/- mice were challenged with 16 weeks 60% HFD to induce obesity mediated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Treatment course was followed by echocardiographic measurements ...


Gene Delivery Of Adenoviral-Tmbim6 Vector Protects The Neonatal Brain After Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury, Desislava Doycheva 2018 Loma Linda University

Gene Delivery Of Adenoviral-Tmbim6 Vector Protects The Neonatal Brain After Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury, Desislava Doycheva

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) is an injury caused to the immature brain due to reduced cerebral blood flow which is associated with life-long neurological impairments. HI causes oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which results in ER stress. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), from cytochrome P450 members (CYP) and NADPH-P450 reductases (NPR), in combination with activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) are two major consequences of ER stress that cause oxidative damage and cell death. Herein we identified the role of Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1), an evolutionary conserved protein encoded by the Transmembrane Bax inhibitor Motif Containing ...


Changes In The Morphology Of Hypoglossal Motor Neurons In The Brainstem Of Developing Rats, Paul Allen Williams 2018 Loma Linda University

Changes In The Morphology Of Hypoglossal Motor Neurons In The Brainstem Of Developing Rats, Paul Allen Williams

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

The autonomic brainstem generates and modifies breathing rhythm by integrating inputs from chemo- and mechanosensors in the viscera while coordinating descending outputs from higher CNS structures. Hypoglossal motoneurons (XII MNs) receive inputs from respiratory premotor neurons in the medulla. Previous studies in rodents have demonstrated significant changes in breathing control during the first three weeks of life, with a sensitive period at 10 to 13 days post-birth (P10–P13) characterized by pronounced changes in neurotransmitters, receptors, excitation-inhibition balance, and breathing. However, age-dependent morphological changes of XII MNs during the first three weeks post-birth and especially during this sensitive period, have ...


The Role Of Glucocorticoid Signaling In Prostate Cancer Health Disparities, Leanne W. Burnham 2018 Loma Linda University

The Role Of Glucocorticoid Signaling In Prostate Cancer Health Disparities, Leanne W. Burnham

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

African-American men are more likely to develop aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) and die from the disease than other ethnic groups. Glucocorticoid signaling is a contributing biological factor to worse PCa prognosis, and is emerging as a key driver of PCa progression in the absence of androgens. The mechanism involves glucocorticoids binding to glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and bypassing the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway to activate AR-target genes that promote tumor aggressiveness and therapy-resistance. This is problematic as African-American men have hypersensitive GR signaling and chronically-elevated levels of glucocorticoids linked to cumulative stressful life events. To explore the role of glucocorticoid ...


Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency., Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath 2018 George Washington University

Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency., Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed the allele frequency in the context of the variant and gene functional features and linked it with changes in ...


Effect Of Exercise And Hypoxia On Plasma Telomerase, Charli D. Aguilar 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Effect Of Exercise And Hypoxia On Plasma Telomerase, Charli D. Aguilar

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction: Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the enzyme that adds telomeric sequences to the end of linear chromosomes. Exercise has shown to upregulate acutely leukocyte TERT after just 30 minutes of running on a treadmill at 80% of VO2max (Denham et al., 2016). Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is also a mediator of TERT in in vitro (Nishi et al., 2004). Moderate acute exposure to hypoxia was associated with substantial increases in plasma TERT in a recent study on rats (Wang et al., 2014). The specific aim of the current study was to identify if acute hypoxia upregulates plasma TERT ...


Disruption Of Neonatal Cardiomyocyte Physiology Following Exposure To Bisphenol-A., Manelle Ramadan, Meredith Sherman, Rafael Jaimes, Ashika Chaluvadi, Luther Swift, Nikki Gillum Posnack 2018 George Washington University

Disruption Of Neonatal Cardiomyocyte Physiology Following Exposure To Bisphenol-A., Manelle Ramadan, Meredith Sherman, Rafael Jaimes, Ashika Chaluvadi, Luther Swift, Nikki Gillum Posnack

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Bisphenol chemicals are commonly used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics, polyvinyl chloride plastics, resins, and thermal printing applications. Humans are inadvertently exposed to bisphenols through contact with consumer products and/or medical devices. Recent reports have shown a link between bisphenol-a (BPA) exposure and adverse cardiovascular outcomes; although these studies have been limited to adult subjects and models. Since cardiac physiology differs significantly between the developing and adult heart, we aimed to assess the impact of BPA exposure on cardiac function, using a neonatal cardiomyocyte model. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were monitored to assess cell viability, spontaneous beating rate ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin 2018 Liberty University

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


Tissue Engineered Micro And Macrovasculature Utilizing Stromal Vascular Fraction., Joseph Samir Zakhari 2018 University of Louisville

Tissue Engineered Micro And Macrovasculature Utilizing Stromal Vascular Fraction., Joseph Samir Zakhari

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the use of stromal vascular fraction to tissue engineer 3D microvasculature and macrovasculature. Stromal vascular fraction is an easily isolatable cell source from adipose tissue depots. It has demonstrated remarkable potential both in vitro and in vivo for forming microcirculation capable of perfusion upon implantation. SVF is clinically utilized as a therapeutic cell source for anti-inflammation for osteoarthritis and is being studied for ischemic tissue application to stimulate revascularization. The work described herein is divided within four chapters. Chapter I provides an introductory overview and lists the aims and hypothesis for the dissertation. Chapter II describes experiments ...


Multi-Scale Fluid Flow Analysis Of The Cardiovascular System, Zaid Mahmood 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Multi-Scale Fluid Flow Analysis Of The Cardiovascular System, Zaid Mahmood

Dissertations and Theses

The hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is one of the rarest congenital heart diseases affecting infants. Out of 150 babies born, one baby suffers from congenital heart disease. Furthermore, nine percent out of those suffering from congenital heart disease specifically suffer from hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). To this end, the Fontan operation which is a procedure to generate a harmonic blood flow in single functioning ventricle patients has been executed to palliate HLHS patients. In this operation, the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the superior vena cava (SVC), carrying the low-oxygenated blood returning from the lower and upper body ...


Melatonin Attenuates Oxidative Stress And Modulates Inflammatory Response After Experimental Burn Trauma, Minka Hristova, Ganka Bekyarova, Milena Atanasova, Maria Tzaneva 2018 Medical University of Varna, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology

Melatonin Attenuates Oxidative Stress And Modulates Inflammatory Response After Experimental Burn Trauma, Minka Hristova, Ganka Bekyarova, Milena Atanasova, Maria Tzaneva

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction. Thermal injury activates an inflammatory response. Melatonin possesses anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of the present work was to study melatonin effects on the inflammatory response under conditions of oxidative stress during the early stage of thermal injury.

Materials and methods. We used 24 white male rats of Wistar breed, randomly divided into three experimental groups. Group one was the control, group two was inflicted with burn trauma, and group three was inflicted with burn trauma, with melatonin application following the thermal injury. Melatonin was applied twice in doses of 10 g/kg b.m. immediately after the ...


The Mind-Body Problem; Three Equations And One Solution Represented By Immaterial-Material Data, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland 2018 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of General Medicine

The Mind-Body Problem; Three Equations And One Solution Represented By Immaterial-Material Data, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Human life occurs within a complex bio-psycho-social milieu, a heterogeneous system that is integrated by multiple bidirectional interrelations existing between the abstract-intangible ideas and physical-chemical support of environment. The mind is thus placed between the abstract ideas/ concepts and neurobiological brain that is further connected to environment. In other words, the mind acts as an interface between the immaterial (abstract/ intangible) data and material (biological) support. The science is unable to conceives and explains an interaction between the immaterial and material domains (to understand nature of the mind), this question generating in literature the mind-body problem. We have published in ...


Developing Novel Therapeutics For Bacterial Lung Infections, Brandon J. Baer, Ruud Veldhuizen, Cory Yamashita 2018 University of Western Ontario

Developing Novel Therapeutics For Bacterial Lung Infections, Brandon J. Baer, Ruud Veldhuizen, Cory Yamashita

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial lung infections are leading causes of death worldwide. Unfortunately, increasing resistance to antibiotics and the inflammation often accompanying these infections are leading to poor outcomes despite antibiotic intervention. Complicating treatment further, the tree-like branching structure of the lung makes drug delivery to distal sites of infection difficult. Our research aims to address these challenges by developing new therapeutics and new tools to improve and assess drug delivery, bacterial killing and inflammation. Our therapy combines host defense peptides, which have been shown to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria and down regulate inflammation, with a pulmonary vehicle, exogenous surfactant, that can improve ...


Physiological And Cognitive Factors Related To Human Performance During The Grand Canyon Rim-To-Rim Hike, Kristin Divis, Clifford Anderson-Bergman, Robert Abbott, Victoria Newton, Glory Emmanuel-Aviña 2018 Sandia National Laboratories, NM

Physiological And Cognitive Factors Related To Human Performance During The Grand Canyon Rim-To-Rim Hike, Kristin Divis, Clifford Anderson-Bergman, Robert Abbott, Victoria Newton, Glory Emmanuel-Aviña

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Exposure to extreme environments is both mentally and physically taxing, leading to suboptimal performance and even life-threatening emergencies. Physiological and cognitive monitoring could provide the earliest indicator of performance decline and inform appropriate therapeutic intervention, yet little research has explored the relationship between these markers in strenuous settings. The Rim-to-Rim Wearables at the Canyon for Health (R2RWATCH) study is a research project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency to identify which physiological and cognitive phenomena collected by non-invasive wearable devices are the most related to performance in extreme environments. In a pilot study, data were ...


Sympatho-Excitatory Response To Pulmonary Chemosensitive Spinal Afferent Activation In Anesthetized, Vagotomized Rats, Julia A. Shanks, Zhiqiu Xia, Steven J. Lisco, George J. Rozanski, Harold D. Schultz, Irving H. Zucker, Han-Jun Wang 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Sympatho-Excitatory Response To Pulmonary Chemosensitive Spinal Afferent Activation In Anesthetized, Vagotomized Rats, Julia A. Shanks, Zhiqiu Xia, Steven J. Lisco, George J. Rozanski, Harold D. Schultz, Irving H. Zucker, Han-Jun Wang

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

The sensory innervation of the lung is well known to be innervated by nerve fibers of both vagal and sympathetic origin. Although the vagal afferent innervation of the lung has been well characterized, less is known about physiological effects mediated by spinal sympathetic afferent fibers. We hypothesized that activation of sympathetic spinal afferent nerve fibers of the lung would result in an excitatory pressor reflex, similar to that previously characterized in the heart. In this study, we evaluated changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and hemodynamics in response to activation of TRPV1-sensitive pulmonary spinal sensory fibers by agonist application ...


S-Nitrosation Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Mediates Alcohol-Induced Ciliary Dysfunction, Michael E. Price, Adam J. Case, Jacqueline A. Pavlik, Jane M. DeVasure, Todd A. Wyatt, Matthew C. Zimmerman, Joseph H. Sisson 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

S-Nitrosation Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Mediates Alcohol-Induced Ciliary Dysfunction, Michael E. Price, Adam J. Case, Jacqueline A. Pavlik, Jane M. Devasure, Todd A. Wyatt, Matthew C. Zimmerman, Joseph H. Sisson

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a strong risk factor for development and mortality of pneumonia. Mucociliary clearance, a key innate defense against pneumonia, is perturbed by alcohol use. Specifically, ciliated airway cells lose the ability to increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) to β-agonist stimulation after prolonged alcohol exposure. We previously found that alcohol activates protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) through a redox mechanism to cause ciliary dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that PP1 activity is enhanced by alcohol exposure through an S-nitrosothiol-dependent mechanism resulting in desensitization of CBF stimulation. Bronchoalveolar S-nitrosothiol (SNO) content and tracheal PP1 activity was increased in wild-type (WT ...


Direct Conversion Of Mouse Astrocytes Into Neural Progenitor Cells And Specific Lineages Of Neurons, Kangmu Ma, Xiaobei Deng, Xiaohuan Xia, Zhaohuan Fan, Xinrui Qi, Yongxiang Wang, Yuju Li, Yizhao Ma, Qiang Chen, Hui Peng, Jianqing Ding, Chunhong Li, Yunlong Huang, Changhai Tian, Jialin C. Zheng 2018 Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital

Direct Conversion Of Mouse Astrocytes Into Neural Progenitor Cells And Specific Lineages Of Neurons, Kangmu Ma, Xiaobei Deng, Xiaohuan Xia, Zhaohuan Fan, Xinrui Qi, Yongxiang Wang, Yuju Li, Yizhao Ma, Qiang Chen, Hui Peng, Jianqing Ding, Chunhong Li, Yunlong Huang, Changhai Tian, Jialin C. Zheng

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Background: Cell replacement therapy has been envisioned as a promising treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the ethical concerns of ESCs-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and tumorigenic potential of iPSCs, reprogramming of somatic cells directly into multipotent NPCs has emerged as a preferred approach for cell transplantation.

Methods: Mouse astrocytes were reprogrammed into NPCs by the overexpression of transcription factors (TFs) Foxg1, Sox2, and Brn2. The generation of subtypes of neurons was directed by the force expression of cell-type specific TFs Lhx8 or Foxa2/Lmx1a.

Results: Astrocyte-derived induced NPCs (AiNPCs) share high similarities, including the expression of NPC-specific genes, DNA ...


Flexor Dysfunction Following Unilateral Transient Ischemic Brain Injury Is Associated With Impaired Locomotor Rhythmicity, Kiril Tuntevski 2018 West Virginia University

Flexor Dysfunction Following Unilateral Transient Ischemic Brain Injury Is Associated With Impaired Locomotor Rhythmicity, Kiril Tuntevski

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Functional motor deficits in hemiplegia after stroke are predominately associated with flexor muscle impairments in animal models of ischemic brain injury, as well as in clinical findings. Rehabilitative interventions often employ various means of retraining a maladapted central pattern generator for locomotion. Yet, holistic modeling of the central pattern generator, as well as applications of such studies, are currently scarce. Most modeling studies rely on cellular neural models of the intrinsic spinal connectivity governing ipsilateral flexor-extensor, as well as contralateral coupling inherent in the spinal cord. Models that attempt to capture the general behavior of motor neuronal populations, as well ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress