Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Physiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

526 Full-Text Articles 1306 Authors 40979 Downloads 45 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Physiology

Faceted Search

526 full-text articles. Page 1 of 20.

Combatting The Organ Deficit, Jessica Berg 2016 University of Wyoming

Combatting The Organ Deficit, Jessica Berg

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Since its beginning in 1954 organ transplantation has become the leading life-saving treatment worldwide for end-stage organ failure. In the past few decades organ transplantation has become so successful that now the number of people in need of a life-saving organ vastly outnumbers the supply of organs available. If this deficit remains unaddressed the number of people that die each day due to organ failure will increase exponentially. Fortunately, this is a problem that can be solved from many angles.

This paper will present possible solutions to the organ crisis by examining the possible positive effects of implementing a mandated ...


Cardiac Specific Overexpression Of Mitochondrial Omi/Htra2 Induces Myocardial Apoptosis And Cardiac Dysfunction., Ke Wang, Yuexing Yuan, Xin Liu, Wayne Bond Lau, Lin Zuo, Xiaoliang Wang, Lu Ma, Kun Jiao, Jianyu Shang, Wen Wang, Xinliang Ma, Huirong Liu 2016 Capital Medical University

Cardiac Specific Overexpression Of Mitochondrial Omi/Htra2 Induces Myocardial Apoptosis And Cardiac Dysfunction., Ke Wang, Yuexing Yuan, Xin Liu, Wayne Bond Lau, Lin Zuo, Xiaoliang Wang, Lu Ma, Kun Jiao, Jianyu Shang, Wen Wang, Xinliang Ma, Huirong Liu

Department of Emergency Medicine Faculty Papers

Myocardial apoptosis is a significant problem underlying ischemic heart disease. We previously reported significantly elevated expression of cytoplasmic Omi/HtrA2, triggers cardiomyocytes apoptosis. However, whether increased Omi/HtrA2 within mitochondria itself influences myocardial survival in vivo is unknown. We aim to observe the effects of mitochondria-specific, not cytoplasmic, Omi/HtrA2 on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function. Transgenic mice overexpressing cardiac-specific mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 were generated and they had increased myocardial apoptosis, decreased systolic and diastolic function, and decreased left ventricular remodeling. Transiently or stably overexpression of mitochondria Omi/HtrA2 in H9C2 cells enhance apoptosis as evidenced by elevated caspase-3, -9 ...


Seeing The Invisible: Revealing Atrial Ablation Lesions Using Hyperspectral Imaging Approach, Narine Muselimyan, Luther Swift, Huda Asfour, Tigran Chahbazian, Ramesh Mazhari, Marco Mercader, Narine Sarvazyan 2016 George Washington University

Seeing The Invisible: Revealing Atrial Ablation Lesions Using Hyperspectral Imaging Approach, Narine Muselimyan, Luther Swift, Huda Asfour, Tigran Chahbazian, Ramesh Mazhari, Marco Mercader, Narine Sarvazyan

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Background

Currently, there are limited means for high-resolution monitoring of tissue injury during radiofrequency ablation procedures.

Objective

To develop the next generation of visualization catheters that can reveal irreversible atrial muscle damage caused by ablation and identify viability gaps between the lesions.

Methods

Radiofrequency lesions were placed on the endocardial surfaces of excised human and bovine atria and left ventricles of blood perfused rat hearts. Tissue was illuminated with 365nm light and a series of images were acquired from individual spectral bands within 420-720nm range. By extracting spectral profiles of individual pixels and spectral unmixing, the relative contribution of ablated ...


Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman 2016 University of Louisville

Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in whole-body dysfunction. While the majority of SCI research is focused on improving locomotor function after injury, cardiovascular (CV) disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity in the chronic SCI patient population. The combination of injury-induced destruction of autonomic pathways, maladaptive plasticity within lumbosacral circuits, and the progressive decline in physical fitness contribute to the poor CV status of SCI individuals. Currently, there is little emphasis on implementing appropriately-timed acute rehabilitation techniques aimed to curtail maladaptive remodeling and improve CV outcomes. Furthermore, no pre-clinical or clinical studies have investigated the most appropriate time-course ...


The Role Of The Mir-200 Family On The Tumor Suppressor Rassf2 And The Effect On Mapk Pathway Activity In Colorectal Cancer., Jane V. Carter 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of The Mir-200 Family On The Tumor Suppressor Rassf2 And The Effect On Mapk Pathway Activity In Colorectal Cancer., Jane V. Carter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigated the role of the miR-200 family in normal colon epithelial (CCD 841) and Dukes’ C (HT-29) colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Our aim was to characterize expression of the miR-200 family (miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-141, and miR-429) in colorectal cell lines, study their effect on the tumor suppressor Ras Associated Domain-Containing Protein (RASSF) 2 and on subsequent activity within the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. We wanted to determine whether regulation of miR-200 family members could change cell behavior towards more “cancer-like” in a normal colon epithelium (CCD 841) cell line, or less “cancer-like” in a ...


Increased Mitochondrial Superoxide In The Brain, But Not Periphery, Sensitizes Mice To Angiotensin Ii-Mediated Hypertension., Adam J. Case, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Increased Mitochondrial Superoxide In The Brain, But Not Periphery, Sensitizes Mice To Angiotensin Ii-Mediated Hypertension., Adam J. Case, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Angiotensin II (AngII) elicits the production of superoxide (O2(•-)) from mitochondria in numerous cell types within peripheral organs and in the brain suggesting a role for mitochondrial-produced O2(•-) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, it remains unclear if mitochondrial O2(•-) is causal in the development of AngII-induced hypertension, or if mitochondrial O2(•-) in the absence of elevated AngII is sufficient to increase blood pressure. Further, the tissue specific (i.e. central versus peripheral) redox regulation of AngII hypertension remains elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial O2(•-) in the absence of pro-hypertensive stimuli, such as AngII, elevates baseline systemic mean ...


Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey 2016 George Washington University

Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Oxytocin (OT) has become a focus in investigations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The social deficits that characterize ASD may relate to reduced connectivity between brain sites on the mesolimbic reward pathway (nucleus accumbens; amygdala) that receive OT projections and contribute to social motivation, and cortical sites involved in social perception. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we show that OT administration in ASD increases activity in brain regions important for perceiving social-emotional information. Further, OT enhances connectivity between nodes of the brain's reward and socioemotional processing systems, and does so preferentially ...


Mitochondrial Superoxide Signaling Contributes To Norepinephrine-Mediated T-Lymphocyte Cytokine Profiles., Adam J. Case, Colton T. Roessner, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Mitochondrial Superoxide Signaling Contributes To Norepinephrine-Mediated T-Lymphocyte Cytokine Profiles., Adam J. Case, Colton T. Roessner, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Norepinephrine (NE) produces multifaceted regulatory patterns in T-lymphocytes. Recently, we have shown that NE utilizes redox signaling as evidenced by increased superoxide (O2●-) causally linked to the observed changes in these cells; however, the source of this reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that the source of increased O2●- in NE-stimulated T-lymphocytes is due to disruption of mitochondrial bioenergetics. To address this hypothesis, we utilized purified mouse splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes stimulated with NE and assessed O2●- levels, mitochondrial metabolism, cellular proliferation, and cytokine profiles. We demonstrate that the increase in O2●- levels in response to ...


The Beta-1-Receptor Blocker Nebivolol Elicits Dilation Of Cerebral Arteries By Reducing Smooth Muscle [Ca2+]I, Peter Cseplo, Zoltan Vamos, Ivan Ivic, Orsolya Torok, Attila Toth, Akos Koller 2016 New York Medical College

The Beta-1-Receptor Blocker Nebivolol Elicits Dilation Of Cerebral Arteries By Reducing Smooth Muscle [Ca2+]I, Peter Cseplo, Zoltan Vamos, Ivan Ivic, Orsolya Torok, Attila Toth, Akos Koller

NYMC Faculty Publications

RATIONALE: Nebivolol is known to have beta-1 blocker activity, but it was also suggested that it elicits relaxation of the peripheral arteries in part via release of nitric oxide (NO). However, the effect of nebivolol on the vasomotor tone of cerebral arteries is still unclear.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of nebivolol on the diameter of isolated rat basilar arteries (BA) in control, in the presence of inhibitors of vasomotor signaling pathways of know action and hemolysed blood.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Vasomotor responses were measured by videomicroscopy and the intracellular Ca2+ by the Fura-2 AM ratiometric method. Under control conditions ...


An Excitatory Cortical Feedback Loop Gates Retinal Wave Transmission In Rodent Thalamus, Yasunobu Murata, Matthew T. Colonnese 2016 George Washington University

An Excitatory Cortical Feedback Loop Gates Retinal Wave Transmission In Rodent Thalamus, Yasunobu Murata, Matthew T. Colonnese

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Spontaneous retinal waves are critical for the development of receptive fields in visual thalamus (LGN) and cortex (VC). Despite a detailed understanding of the circuit specializations in retina that generate waves, whether central circuit specializations also exist to control their propagation through visual pathways of the brain is unknown. Here we identify a developmentally transient, corticothalamic amplification of retinal drive to thalamus as a mechanism for retinal wave transmission in the infant rat brain. During the period of retinal waves, corticothalamic connections excite LGN, rather than driving feedforward inhibition as observed in the adult. This creates an excitatory feedback loop ...


White Blood Cell Count Versus Temperature As Predictors Of Pediatric Bacteremia, Ashley Ashby, Loren Moscinski 2016 James Madison University

White Blood Cell Count Versus Temperature As Predictors Of Pediatric Bacteremia, Ashley Ashby, Loren Moscinski

Physician Assistant Capstones

Introduction: Although the prevalence of bacteremia has largely declined with the development of the Haemophilus Influenza Type b (Hib) and pneumococcal vaccines, it continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Thus, it is crucial to differentiate bacteremia from other illnesses via the clinical picture and laboratory test results. Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine whether there is a clinically significant difference between temperature and white blood cell (WBC) count as determinants of bacteremia in the pediatric population. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted utilizing the following terms and filters: temperature, WBC, pediatrics ...


The Role Of O-Glcnacase During Heart Failure., Sujith Dassanayaka 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of O-Glcnacase During Heart Failure., Sujith Dassanayaka

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global augmentation of protein O-GlcNAcylation occurs in response to a myriad of stressors and confers a survival advantage at the cellular level. This protective phenomenon has been demonstrated to mediate cardioprotection through various in vitro and in vivo studies during ischemia-reperfusion, myocardial infarction, and oxidative stress; however, relatively little is known of the regulation of protein O-GlcNAcylation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is regulated by two antagonistic enzymes, namely, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Ablation of cardiomyocyte OGT, the enzyme that catalyzes the addition of O-GlcNAc to proteins, exacerbates cardiac dysfunction during infarct-induced heart failure (HF). However, little is known of the ...


Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mutation Suppresses Hyperhomocysteinemia-Mediated Hypertension., Anastasia Familtseva 2016 University of Louisville

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mutation Suppresses Hyperhomocysteinemia-Mediated Hypertension., Anastasia Familtseva

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been observed to promote hypertension, but the mechanisms are unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is a cellular membrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed in all cell types of the vasculature. TLR-4 activation has been shown to promote inflammation that has been associated with pathogenesis of hypertension. In this study, we hypothesize that HHcy induces hypertension by TLR-4 activation that promotes inflammatory cytokine up-regulation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death and chronic vascular inflammation. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we used C57BL/6J mice (WT); Cystathionine-β-synthase deficient mice (CBS+/-) with genetic ...


Malignant Hyperthermia, Aaron Roth 2016 Otterbein University

Malignant Hyperthermia, Aaron Roth

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Malignant hyperthermia is a rare disease trait and can take place in a variety of settings. If not treated in a timely manner, the consequences will be dire. It is recommended that nurses and other healthcare personnel be properly educated on MH crises. By detecting the signs and symptoms associated with the disease, providers can efficiently remedy the crisis and save patient lives (Seifert, 2014). Since the discovery of dantrolene in 1975 and the advancement of genetics regarding MH, death rates dropped from about 80% to about 5% (Schneiderbanger et al., 2014). Today there is a MH group called the ...


Mechanism Of Chimeric Vaccine Mediated Immune Suppression Of Human Dendritic Cells, Jacques Christian Mbongue 2016 Loma Linda University

Mechanism Of Chimeric Vaccine Mediated Immune Suppression Of Human Dendritic Cells, Jacques Christian Mbongue

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic inflammatory disease in which insulin producing β-cells of the pancreatic islets are killed by autoreactive cells of the immune system in response to a loss of tolerance. Dendritic cells (DC) interact predominantly with naïve T cells to regulate the delicate balance between immunity and tolerance required to maintain immunological homeostasis. In this dissertation, immature human dendritic cells (iDC) were inoculated with a chimeric fusion protein vaccine containing the pancreatic β-cell auto-antigen proinsulin linked to a mucosal adjuvant the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-INS). Proteomic analysis of vaccine inoculated DCs revealed strong up-regulation of ...


Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Maria A. Hendrix 2016 Otterbein University

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Maria A. Hendrix

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic and often disabling condition that is seen in many patients seeking pain management. The condition leaves patients in excruciating pain that is disproportionate to the inciting injury. In addition, patients with this pain disorder experience abnormal sensations such as cold and heat allodynia, hyperalgesia, edema, abnormal sudomotor activity and trophic changes (D. Lee et al., 2015). CRPS disproportionally affects four times as many women as men (Alexander, Peterlin, Perreault, Grothusen, & Schwartzman, 2012). There are two types of CRPS: type 1, often referred to as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), is not evident of ...


There Is Relief For Constipated Patients Taking Opioids., Ahmad Mohammadieh, James Choi, MD, Chelsea Gonzalez, DO, Diyanah Elyaman, MD 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine

There Is Relief For Constipated Patients Taking Opioids., Ahmad Mohammadieh, James Choi, Md, Chelsea Gonzalez, Do, Diyanah Elyaman, Md

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Tack J, Lappalainen J, Diva U, Tummala R, Sostek M. Efficacy and safety of naloxegol in patients with opioid-induced constipation and laxative-inadequate response. United European Gastroenterol J. 2015 Oct;3(5):471-80. doi: 10.1177/2050640615604543


Synapse Formation In Monosynaptic Sensory–Motor Connections Is Regulated By Presynaptic Rho Gtpase Cdc42, Fumiyasu Imai, David R. Ladle, Jennifer R. Leslie, Xin Duan, Tilat A. Rizvi, Georgianne M. Ciraolo, Yi Zheng, Yutaka Yoshida 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Synapse Formation In Monosynaptic Sensory–Motor Connections Is Regulated By Presynaptic Rho Gtpase Cdc42, Fumiyasu Imai, David R. Ladle, Jennifer R. Leslie, Xin Duan, Tilat A. Rizvi, Georgianne M. Ciraolo, Yi Zheng, Yutaka Yoshida

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Spinal reflex circuit development requires the precise regulation of axon trajectories, synaptic specificity, and synapse formation. Of these three crucial steps, the molecular mechanisms underlying synapse formation between group Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons and motor neurons is the least understood. Here, we show that the Rho GTPase Cdc42 controls synapse formation in monosynaptic sensory–motor connections in presynaptic, but not postsynaptic, neurons. In mice lacking Cdc42 in presynaptic sensory neurons, proprioceptive sensory axons appropriately reach the ventral spinal cord, but significantly fewer synapses are formed with motor neurons compared with wild-type mice. Concordantly, electrophysiological analyses show diminished EPSP amplitudes in ...


Murine Hypometabolism: A Putative Signaling Pathway., Trevor Thomas Hollinger 2016 Dickinson College

Murine Hypometabolism: A Putative Signaling Pathway., Trevor Thomas Hollinger

Honors Theses By Year

Hypometabolism is an important energy saving, highly regulated physiological response for some mammals; however, its mechanisms of control have yet to be fully described. It induces a reduction in metabolic rate, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. Although the degree and rate of body temperature decrease is subject to ambient temperatures, mammals still maintain control over the whole process. A major goal of hypometabolism appears to be maintaining energetic stores within the body as external food sources become sparse. Uncovering the mechanisms by which these mammals control this process is of interest as organ and tissue damage following hypometabolism ...


Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease which results from a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) - an enzyme that degrades lysosomal glycogen. Patients with Pompe disease develop intra-lysosomal accumulation of glycogen in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, CNS and smooth muscle.

Pulmonary dysfunction is a hallmark of Pompe disease and has classically been attributed to muscle weakness and CNS neuropathology. However, the potential role of respiratory smooth muscles in the respiratory pathology is unknown. Therefore we postulated that GAA deficiency results in airway smooth muscle glycogen accumulation that leads to airway smooth muscle dysfunction.

Using the Pompe mouse model ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress