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Apneic Oxygenation: An Adjunctive Therapy For Laryngoscopy During Anesthesia Induction, Yaro Hoffman 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Apneic Oxygenation: An Adjunctive Therapy For Laryngoscopy During Anesthesia Induction, Yaro Hoffman

Doctoral Projects

Endotracheal intubation is an essential component within the skill set of anesthesia providers. Rapid arterial desaturation remains a primary risk factor during laryngoscopy and intubation. The risk for hypoxemia exists because during endotracheal intubation, patients are apneic or hypo-ventilating (Wong et al., 2017). Apneic oxygenation (AO) has been advocated to attenuate hypoxemia during endotracheal intubation (Pavlov et al., 2017).

The aim of this project was to assess for any knowledge deficits regarding AO among anesthesia providers and assess the willingness of these providers to include AO into their current practice. The project investigator conducted an education session involving the evidence-based ...


The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma

Theses & Dissertations

Sympatho-excitation is a key characteristic in cardiovascular diseases such as chronic heart failure (CHF) and primary Hypertension (HTN). Evidence suggests that increased sympathetic tone is closely related to activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAAS) in the central nervous system. An underlying mechanism for sympatho-excitation is thought to be oxidative stress resulting from Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. Over the past several decades, pharmacological targeting of components of the RAAS have been used as standard therapy in CHF and HTN. However, additional therapeutic strategies are necessary to control these diseases. Oxidative stress is regulated, in part, by the ...


Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease which affects about 5 to 8 million individuals in the world. Despite the high prevalence, there is currently no cure for IPF, and the cause of this disease is still unclear. Our laboratory and collaborators have shown that nudix hydrolase 21 (NUDT21, which is also known as cleavage factor 25, CFIm25) is a key regulator of alternative polyadenylation (APA). NUDT21 depletion causes 3’UTR shortening via APA leading to enhanced mRNA stability and protein translation. This NUDT21 reduction promotes tumor growth in glioblastoma by enhancing expression of oncogenes. Cancer and IPF ...


Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters 2020 East Tennessee State University

Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The nicotinamide riboside (NR) form of vitamin B3and the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are two of the most promising natural compounds yet identified for the treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. Forms of vitamin B3are precursors for the synthesis of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(H)) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(H)). In aged cells levels of NAD+decline, decreasing metabolism and decreasing activity of protective sirtuin protein deacetylases. In aged cells NR, but not more common forms of vitamin B3, boost NAD+levels. BHB is naturally produced by the body when individuals fast ...


Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito 2020 Sunrise Health GME Consortium

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include encephalopathy, motor deficits, ataxia, and meningeal signs. In most cases, ADEM is preceded by either vaccination or viral illness. Here, we present a case with neither of the two predisposing elements.

Discussion: A 28-year-old Hispanic female presenting with substance use and suicidal ideation was placed on an involuntary psychiatric hold, started on olanzapine and scheduled for a psychiatric facility transfer. The following day, she was noted to have neurological deficits when ambulating. Computed tomography of the brain showed a right frontal ...


Anxiety In Alzheimer's Disease, Zachary Cooper 2020 Liberty University

Anxiety In Alzheimer's Disease, Zachary Cooper

Senior Honors Theses

Researchers familiar with Alzheimer’s disease have often noted the presence of comorbid anxiety symptomatology. Likewise, the occurrence of anxiety before the development of Alzheimer’s disease has been prevalent enough to warrant attention. This review seeks to elaborate on the pathophysiology behind these two conditions, and to accentuate overlapping aspects that promote a causal relationship between these two pathologies on the macroscopic and cellular levels. Subsequent evidence will show that these pathologies are not independent of each other, and that cellular mechanisms of pathology hint at their interrelatedness. Areas requiring further research that would clarify the relationship between Clinical ...


Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

This is the first presentation in the new Shelter-in-Place lecture series. This first lecture is two-fold. First, it covers the basics of the COVID-19 virus including: how it spreads, possible origin, and other pertinent information. This portion of the presentation was followed by an overview of the international recruitment efforts in response to the virus, including: student perspectives, recruitment methods, and other important information.


Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure During Rat Pregnancy Leads To Symmetrical Fetal Growth Restriction And Labyrinth-Specific Vascular Defects In The Placenta., Bryony V Natale, Katarina N Gustin, Kendrick Lee, Alison C Holloway, Steven R Laviolette, David R C Natale, Daniel B Hardy 2020 Western University

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure During Rat Pregnancy Leads To Symmetrical Fetal Growth Restriction And Labyrinth-Specific Vascular Defects In The Placenta., Bryony V Natale, Katarina N Gustin, Kendrick Lee, Alison C Holloway, Steven R Laviolette, David R C Natale, Daniel B Hardy

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

1 in 5 women report cannabis use during pregnancy, with nausea cited as their primary motivation. Studies show that (-)-△9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, causes fetal growth restriction, though the mechanisms are not well understood. Given the critical role of the placenta to transfer oxygen and nutrients from mother, to the fetus, any compromise in the development of fetal-placental circulation significantly affects maternal-fetal exchange and thereby, fetal growth. The goal of this study was to examine, in rats, the impact of maternal Δ9-THC exposure on fetal development, neonatal outcomes, and placental development. Dams received a daily intraperitoneal ...


Role Of Atp1a1 In Skeletal Muscle Growth And Metabolism, Laura C. Kutz 2020 Marshall University

Role Of Atp1a1 In Skeletal Muscle Growth And Metabolism, Laura C. Kutz

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 30% of total body mass, and loss of muscle mass and dysfunctional muscle metabolism are implicated in multiple disease states, including type 2 diabetes, heart failure, and septic shock. As such, understanding the mechanisms of skeletal muscle growth and atrophy, including pharmaceutical targets that may prove safe and effective, is therefore an important goal of current research on skeletal muscle physiology. One potential target in skeletal muscle development and function that has not been fully explored is the Na/KATPase (NKA), especially the α1 isoform. This isoform has a unique signaling function that has previously been ...


Seen In Science: Lgbtq+ Inclusivity In Anatomy & Physiology Texts, Harshini Sirvisetty, Kat Ray King, Linda Catherine Fuselier 2020 University of Louisville

Seen In Science: Lgbtq+ Inclusivity In Anatomy & Physiology Texts, Harshini Sirvisetty, Kat Ray King, Linda Catherine Fuselier

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Biology is unique from other science disciplines in that concepts taught in core classes can inform our student’s understanding of sex and gender. A biology major encounters lessons on sex determination, sexual reproduction, and sex characteristics in their courses. The language used in these units matters. It is imperative that educators consider how the language, examples, and content that we use in classrooms drive (or not) inclusivity for gender- and sexuality-diverse (GSD) (aka LGBTQ+) individuals. We chose to analyze four college-level human anatomy/physiology (AP) textbooks for GSD population inclusivity. We adopted a queer theory framework to critically examine ...


Will Pitch Velocity Remain Consistent Throughout A Competitive Baseball Season Following Blood Flow Restriction: An Observational Study, Mackenzie Marie Evans 2020 West Virginia University

Will Pitch Velocity Remain Consistent Throughout A Competitive Baseball Season Following Blood Flow Restriction: An Observational Study, Mackenzie Marie Evans

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Context: Blood flow restriction (BFR) has previously been used in a rehabilitation setting to decrease the external load applied to post-surgical patients and those with chronic debilitating conditions. BFR in a performance context has been explored minimally, particularly as it applies to baseball pitching over time. Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the trend in throwing velocity of fastballs with BFR implementation over one competitive season. Design: This study was a retrospective longitudinal design on pitching velocity of fastballs throughout a competitive season. Setting: The data collection and analysis was completed at a mid-Atlantic university. Patients ...


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey ...


Artificial Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Joint Project, Michael Rosen, Bailei Hoyng 2020 The University of Akron

Artificial Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Joint Project, Michael Rosen, Bailei Hoyng

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This proposed project will be developing an artificial reverse shoulder arthroplasty joint that focuses on improvements to the Zimmer Biomet Comprehensive Reverse System by freating a unique feature, or features, to the humeral component that focuses on the prevention of dislocation by not limiting the range of motion of men from ages 45 to 65 years.

The development of the this project will utilize the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) medical device design process. This project will involve a total of four Biomedical Engineering students from the University of Akron. Two students, Michael and Bailei, are in the Honors college ...


Connectivity Differences Between Gulf War Illness (Gwi) Phenotypes During A Test Of Attention, Tomas Clarke, Jessie Jamieson, Patrick Malone, Rakib U. Rayhan, Stuart Washington, John W. VanMeter, James N. Baraniuk 2019 Georgetown University

Connectivity Differences Between Gulf War Illness (Gwi) Phenotypes During A Test Of Attention, Tomas Clarke, Jessie Jamieson, Patrick Malone, Rakib U. Rayhan, Stuart Washington, John W. Vanmeter, James N. Baraniuk

Faculty Publications, Department of Mathematics

One quarter of veterans returning from the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War have developed Gulf War Illness (GWI) with chronic pain, fatigue, cognitive and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Exertion leads to characteristic, delayed onset exacerbations that are not relieved by sleep. We have modeled exertional exhaustion by comparing magnetic resonance images from before and after submaximal exercise. One third of the 27 GWI participants had brain stem atrophy and developed postural tachycardia after exercise (START: Stress Test Activated Reversible Tachycardia). The remainder activated basal ganglia and anterior insulae during a cognitive task (STOPP: Stress Test Originated Phantom Perception). Here, the role of ...


An Analysis Of Abdominal Stability Following Hyperthermic Exercise In Euhydrated And Dehydrated Conditions, Carli Ceckanowicz 2019 University of Connecticut

An Analysis Of Abdominal Stability Following Hyperthermic Exercise In Euhydrated And Dehydrated Conditions, Carli Ceckanowicz

Honors Scholar Theses

Core stability is essential for maintaining safety and optimizing performance during exercise and sport. The purpose of this study is to analyze how heat and hydration status (euhydrated USG<1.025 or dehydrated USG>1.025) can impair trunk stability in males and females (in both follicular and luteal phases) using the Trunk Stability Test (TST). Participants complete three blocks of 30 minutes of hyperthermic (35±1.299 oC and 49.418±5.0329% relative humidity) treadmill exercise. Exercise intensity is equivalent to 15 minutes at either 11W/kg or 7W/kg and the following 15 minutes at either 7W/kg or 4W/kg ...


The Effects Of Nicotine And Cigarette Smoking On Cardiac Electrophysiology., Affan B. Irfan 2019 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Nicotine And Cigarette Smoking On Cardiac Electrophysiology., Affan B. Irfan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable disease and premature death worldwide. The adverse effects of cigarette smoking, including proarrhythmia, are related to the mixture of chemicals, including nicotine (which sustains tobacco addiction). However, it remains unclear which individual tobacco smoke constituents and biological pathways mediate this increased risk. The purpose of this research was to explore the chronic effects of cigarette smoking, as well as compare the acute effects of nicotine and cigarette smoking, and the possible role of β-adrenoreceptors, on human cardiac electrophysiology. Chapter 1 is a comprehensive literature review of (a) the ex vivo and in ...


Coronary Disease Is Not Associated With Robust Alterations In Inflammatory Gene Expression In Human Epicardial Fat, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Nancy Lee, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Mark Kelly, Stanley Kc Tam, Michael P. Czech 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Coronary Disease Is Not Associated With Robust Alterations In Inflammatory Gene Expression In Human Epicardial Fat, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Nancy Lee, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Mark Kelly, Stanley Kc Tam, Michael P. Czech

Open Access Articles

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is the visceral fat depot of the heart. Inflammation of EAT is thought to contribute to coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we hypothesized that the EAT of patients with CAD would have increased inflammatory gene expression compared with controls without CAD. Cardiac surgery patients with (n = 13) or without CAD (n = 13) were consented, and samples of EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were obtained. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays. Differential expression was defined as a 1.5-fold change (ANOVA P < 0.05). Six hundred ninety-three genes were differentially expressed between SAT and EAT in controls and 805 in cases. Expression of 326 genes was different between EAT of cases and controls; expression of 14 genes was increased in cases, while 312 were increased in controls. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR confirmed that there was no difference in expression of CCL2, CCR2, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and PAI1 between groups. Immunohistochemistry showed more macrophages in EAT than SAT, but there was no difference in their number or activation state between groups. In contrast to prior studies, we did not find increased inflammatory gene expression in the EAT of patients with CAD. We conclude that the specific adipose tissue depot, rather than CAD status, is responsible for the majority of differential gene expression.


Piezo1: Proteins For Mechanotransduction And Integration Of Endothelial Shear Stress & Intravascular Pressure, Juan Garcia Robledo M.D. 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Piezo1: Proteins For Mechanotransduction And Integration Of Endothelial Shear Stress & Intravascular Pressure, Juan Garcia Robledo M.D.

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Piezo proteins are transmembrane ion channels, specialized in detecting mechanosensitive stimuli and transduce mechanical forces into biochemical signals. Piezo proteins research has helped understand physiological mechanisms, but the integrative role that Piezo1 plays in the regulation of the microvasculature has remained unstudied. Our main objective was to characterize ex vivo microvascular responses to the blockade of Piezo1 mechanotransduction in male (n=29) and female (n=24) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Gracilis arterioles (GA) and middle cerebral arterioles (MCA) were harvested for ex-vivo vessel preparations. After vessel viability confirmation, every vessel was submitted to myogenic and flow challenges under control conditions and ...


Low Birth Weight And Post-Natal Diet Induced Alterations In Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Consumption And Fiber Type Composition, Megan Cedrone 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Low Birth Weight And Post-Natal Diet Induced Alterations In Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Consumption And Fiber Type Composition, Megan Cedrone

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Adverse in utero and postnatal conditions can increase susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS). Altered muscle respiration contributes to MS, but the effects of restricted oxygen and nutrients in utero on skeletal muscle mitochondria remain unknown. In this study guinea pig sows underwent uterine artery ablations mid-gestation, producing fetuses with low birth weight (LBW). Soleus muscle was collected near term or at four months of age, from LBW and control fetuses and offspring, where the offspring were fed either a Western Diet (WD) or a control diet (CD). Soleus muscles from LBW fetuses exhibit lower maximal respiration rates than normal birth ...


System Dynamics To Investigate Opioid Use And Chiropractic Care For Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain, Marion McGregor, Alexandra Nielsen, Chadwick Chung, Mark Fillery, Wayne Wakeland, Silvano Mior 2019 Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College

System Dynamics To Investigate Opioid Use And Chiropractic Care For Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain, Marion Mcgregor, Alexandra Nielsen, Chadwick Chung, Mark Fillery, Wayne Wakeland, Silvano Mior

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to create a system dynamics (SD) model, including published data and required assumptions, as a tool for future research identifying the role of chiropractic care in the management of chronic, nonmalignant pain in a Canadian population. Methods: We present an illustrative case description of how we evaluated the feasibility of conducting a large-scale clinical trial to assess the impact of chiropractic care in mitigating excessive opioid use in Canada. We applied SD modeling using current evidence and key assumptions where such evidence was lacking. Modeling outcomes were highlighted to determine which potential factors ...


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