Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Physiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

493 Full-Text Articles 1215 Authors 35205 Downloads 42 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Physiology

Faceted Search

493 full-text articles. Page 1 of 19.

The Effect Of Training On Motoneuron Survival In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Which Motoneuron Type Is Saved?, Sherif M. Elbasiouny, Jenna E. Schuster 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

The Effect Of Training On Motoneuron Survival In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Which Motoneuron Type Is Saved?, Sherif M. Elbasiouny, Jenna E. Schuster

Sherif M. Elbasiouny

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by selective and progressive degeneration of motoneurons (MNs). Although the etiology of the disease is unknown, glutamate toxicity and reactive oxygen species toxicity have been strongly implicated in ALS pathophysiology, Training exercise has been proposed to provide a beneficial therapy during the early or late stages of ALS; however, some studies showed deleterious effects of exercise on survival in ALS.


Adult Spinal Motoneurones Are Not Hyperexcitable In A Mouse Model Of Inherited Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Nicolas Delestrée, Marin Manuel, Caroline Iglesias, Sherif M. Elbasiouny, C. J. Heckman, Daniel Zytnicki 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Adult Spinal Motoneurones Are Not Hyperexcitable In A Mouse Model Of Inherited Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Nicolas Delestrée, Marin Manuel, Caroline Iglesias, Sherif M. Elbasiouny, C. J. Heckman, Daniel Zytnicki

Sherif M. Elbasiouny

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult onset disease in which there is progressive degeneration of motoneurones, it has been suggested that an intrinsic hyperexcitability of motoneurones (i.e. an increase in their firing rates), contributes to excitotoxicity and to disease onset. Here we show that there is no such intrinsic hyperexcitability in spinal motoneurones. Our studies were carried out in an adult mouse model of ALS with a mutated form of superoxide dismutase 1 around the time of the first muscle fibre denervations. We showed that the recruitment current, the voltage threshold for spiking and the frequency–intensity gain ...


White Blood Cell Count Versus Temperature As Predictors Of Pediatric Bacteremia, Ashley Ashby, Loren Moscinski 2016 James Madison University

White Blood Cell Count Versus Temperature As Predictors Of Pediatric Bacteremia, Ashley Ashby, Loren Moscinski

Physician Assistant Capstones

Introduction: Although the prevalence of bacteremia has largely declined with the development of the Haemophilus Influenza Type b (Hib) and pneumococcal vaccines, it continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Thus, it is crucial to differentiate bacteremia from other illnesses via the clinical picture and laboratory test results. Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine whether there is a clinically significant difference between temperature and white blood cell (WBC) count as determinants of bacteremia in the pediatric population. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted utilizing the following terms and filters: temperature, WBC, pediatrics ...


Malignant Hyperthermia, Aaron Roth 2016 Otterbein University

Malignant Hyperthermia, Aaron Roth

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Malignant hyperthermia is a rare disease trait and can take place in a variety of settings. If not treated in a timely manner, the consequences will be dire. It is recommended that nurses and other healthcare personnel be properly educated on MH crises. By detecting the signs and symptoms associated with the disease, providers can efficiently remedy the crisis and save patient lives (Seifert, 2014). Since the discovery of dantrolene in 1975 and the advancement of genetics regarding MH, death rates dropped from about 80% to about 5% (Schneiderbanger et al., 2014). Today there is a MH group called the ...


Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Maria A. Hendrix 2016 Otterbein University

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Maria A. Hendrix

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic and often disabling condition that is seen in many patients seeking pain management. The condition leaves patients in excruciating pain that is disproportionate to the inciting injury. In addition, patients with this pain disorder experience abnormal sensations such as cold and heat allodynia, hyperalgesia, edema, abnormal sudomotor activity and trophic changes (D. Lee et al., 2015). CRPS disproportionally affects four times as many women as men (Alexander, Peterlin, Perreault, Grothusen, & Schwartzman, 2012). There are two types of CRPS: type 1, often referred to as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), is not evident of ...


There Is Relief For Constipated Patients Taking Opioids., Ahmad Mohammadieh, James Choi, MD, Chelsea Gonzalez, DO, Diyanah Elyaman, MD 2016 Wayne State University School of Medicine

There Is Relief For Constipated Patients Taking Opioids., Ahmad Mohammadieh, James Choi, Md, Chelsea Gonzalez, Do, Diyanah Elyaman, Md

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Tack J, Lappalainen J, Diva U, Tummala R, Sostek M. Efficacy and safety of naloxegol in patients with opioid-induced constipation and laxative-inadequate response. United European Gastroenterol J. 2015 Oct;3(5):471-80. doi: 10.1177/2050640615604543


Murine Hypometabolism: A Putative Signaling Pathway., Trevor Thomas Hollinger 2016 Dickinson College

Murine Hypometabolism: A Putative Signaling Pathway., Trevor Thomas Hollinger

Honors Theses By Year

Hypometabolism is an important energy saving, highly regulated physiological response for some mammals; however, its mechanisms of control have yet to be fully described. It induces a reduction in metabolic rate, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. Although the degree and rate of body temperature decrease is subject to ambient temperatures, mammals still maintain control over the whole process. A major goal of hypometabolism appears to be maintaining energetic stores within the body as external food sources become sparse. Uncovering the mechanisms by which these mammals control this process is of interest as organ and tissue damage following hypometabolism ...


Race/Sex Group Modification Of The Association Between Allostatic Load And Depression: Findings From The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010, Ganga Bey, Sharina D. Person 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Race/Sex Group Modification Of The Association Between Allostatic Load And Depression: Findings From The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010, Ganga Bey, Sharina D. Person

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Objective: We assessed whether the relationship between depression and chronic stress as measured in allostatic load (AL) differs by race and sex among US black and white adults.

Methods: Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010, we examined race/sex modification of the relationship between AL and depression in black and white women and men aged 18-64 years (n=6431). AL scores, ranging from 0-9, were calculated using 9 cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic biomarkers; scores ≥ 4 were considered “high-risk”. Depression was assessed using the PHQ-9; scores ≥ 10 indicate clinical depression. Logistic regression models estimated odds ...


Burden Of Adverse Metabolic Factors Is Associated With Increased Left Ventricular Concentricity In Adults With Normal-Range Body Mass Index: The Framingham Heart Study, Philimon Gona, Jane Lee, Carol J. Salton, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Warren J. Manning, Michael L. Chuang 2016 University of Massachusetts Boston

Burden Of Adverse Metabolic Factors Is Associated With Increased Left Ventricular Concentricity In Adults With Normal-Range Body Mass Index: The Framingham Heart Study, Philimon Gona, Jane Lee, Carol J. Salton, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Warren J. Manning, Michael L. Chuang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: Persons with normal-range body mass index (BMI) but adverse metabolic characteristics associated with obesity have been described as metabolically-obese normal weight (MONW). We sought to determine whether adverse metabolic profile is associated with alterations in left ventricular (LV) structure or function among adults with normal BMI. Methods: From the 1794 Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort adults who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) , we identified 446 free of non-skin cancer and prevalent clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) who had 18.5≤BMI<25.0 kg/m2 and complete covariates. We calculated a metabolic score (MS) where 1 point was assigned for each of: a) fasting glucose≥100 mg/dL or diabetes; b) SBP≥140 or DBP≥90 mmHg or antihypertensive treatment; c) TG≥150 or HDL_C <40(M)/<50(W) mg/dL or lipid treatment; d) HOMA-IR≥2.5; e) waist circumference ≥102/88cm for M/W. Participants were classified as MS0 (no points), MS1 (exactly 1 point), or MS2+ (≥2 points). LV mass (LVM), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and concentricity (LVM/EDV) were measured from breathhold cine SSFP CMR scans; we calculated LVM/BSA. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare MS1 and MS2+ groups to the MS0 group. CMRI variables were adjusted for sex, age, heart rate (HR) and body size (BSA); LVM/BSA was adjusted for sex, age, HR only. We also tested for linear trend across metabolic groups. Results: LV concentricity increased with worsening metabolic status. This was driven by lower LV EDV, not increased LVM. LVM did not differ across (trend) or between MS-groups. LVEDV decreased across groups but only MS2 differed significantly from MS0. LVEF increased slightly but significantly across MS-groups. Conclusions: In a community-dwelling cohort, among participants who were free of cancer and clinical CVD and had normal BMI, worsening metabolic profile was associated with adverse remodeling of the left ventricle, reflected by greater LV concentricity.


Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease which results from a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) - an enzyme that degrades lysosomal glycogen. Patients with Pompe disease develop intra-lysosomal accumulation of glycogen in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, CNS and smooth muscle.

Pulmonary dysfunction is a hallmark of Pompe disease and has classically been attributed to muscle weakness and CNS neuropathology. However, the potential role of respiratory smooth muscles in the respiratory pathology is unknown. Therefore we postulated that GAA deficiency results in airway smooth muscle glycogen accumulation that leads to airway smooth muscle dysfunction.

Using the Pompe mouse model ...


Role Of Chemokine Rantes In The Regulation Of Perivascular Inflammation, T-Cell Accumulation, And Vascular Dysfunction In Hypertension., Tomasz P Mikolajczyk, Ryszard Nosalski, Piotr Szczepaniak, Klaudia Budzyn, Grzegorz Osmenda, Paul J. Marvar, +10 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Role Of Chemokine Rantes In The Regulation Of Perivascular Inflammation, T-Cell Accumulation, And Vascular Dysfunction In Hypertension., Tomasz P Mikolajczyk, Ryszard Nosalski, Piotr Szczepaniak, Klaudia Budzyn, Grzegorz Osmenda, Paul J. Marvar, +10 Additional Authors

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Recent studies have emphasized the role of perivascular inflammation in cardiovascular disease. We studied mechanisms of perivascular leukocyte infiltration in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and their links to vascular dysfunction. Chronic Ang II infusion in mice increased immune cell content of T cells (255 ± 130 to 1664 ± 349 cells/mg; P < 0.01), M1 and M2 macrophages, and dendritic cells in perivascular adipose tissue. In particular, the content of T lymphocytes bearing CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 1, CCR3, and CCR5 receptors for RANTES chemokine was increased by Ang II (CCR1, 15.6 ± 1.5% vs. 31 ± 5%; P < 0.01). Hypertension was associated with an increase in perivascular adipose tissue expression of the chemokine RANTES (relative quantification, 1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 3.5 ± 1.1; P < 0.05), which induced T-cell chemotaxis and vascular accumulation of T cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5. Mechanistically, RANTES(-/-) knockout protected against vascular leukocyte, and in particular T lymphocyte infiltration (26 ± 5% in wild type Ang II vs. 15 ± 4% in RANTES(-/-)), which was associated with protection from endothelial dysfunction induced by Ang II. This effect was linked with diminished infiltration of IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) and double-negative CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells in perivascular space and reduced vascular oxidative stress while FoxP3(+) T-regulatory cells were unaltered. IFN-γ ex vivo caused significant endothelial dysfunction, which was reduced by superoxide anion scavenging. In a human cohort, a significant inverse correlation was observed between circulating RANTES levels as a biomarker and vascular function measured as flow-mediated dilatation (R = -0.3, P < 0.01) or endothelial injury marker von Willebrand factor (R = +0.3; P < 0.01). Thus, chemokine RANTES is important in the regulation of vascular dysfunction through modulation of perivascular inflammation.-Mikolajczyk, T. P., Nosalski, R., Szczepaniak, P., Budzyn, K., Osmenda, G., Skiba, D., Sagan, A., Wu, J., Vinh, A., Marvar, P. J., Guzik, B., Podolec, J., Drummond, G., Lob, H. E., Harrison, D. G., Guzik, T. J. Role of chemokine RANTES in the regulation of perivascular inflammation, T-cell accumulation, and vascular dysfunction in hypertension.


The Influence Of Mir-99a On Mtor Signaling Regulation In Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines., Jonathan Rice 2016 University of Louisville

The Influence Of Mir-99a On Mtor Signaling Regulation In Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines., Jonathan Rice

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of death. These are staggering statistics for a disease that can essentially be cured if caught early and the pathology is favorable to therapeutic intervention. There is currently a drastic decrease in five year survival as the cancer stage increases from locally confined disease to metastatic disease. These statistics suggest that although some strides have been made with colon cancer screening and early intervention, there is still much room for improvement in both screening and treatment of CRC. One of the pathways that have ...


Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, PhD, Joseph I. Shapiro, MD 2016 Marshall University

Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, Phd, Joseph I. Shapiro, Md

Joseph I Shapiro MD

The Na/K-ATPase has a signaling function which appears to be separate from its ion pumping function. This signaling function refers to the transduction of conformational changes in the Na/K-ATPase alpha1 subunit into activating Src’s tyrosine kinase activity, triggering a cascade which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulates other signaling pathways, and causes many physiological and pathophysiological effects. We have recently observed that ROS themselves as well as cardiotonic steroids can actually initiate the signal by directly inducing conformational changes in alpha1. It therefore appears that the Na/K-ATPase signal cascade can serve as a feed forward amplification ...


Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, PhD, Joseph I. Shapiro, MD 2016 Marshall University

Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, Phd, Joseph I. Shapiro, Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

The Na/K-ATPase has a signaling function which appears to be separate from its ion pumping function. This signaling function refers to the transduction of conformational changes in the Na/K-ATPase alpha1 subunit into activating Src’s tyrosine kinase activity, triggering a cascade which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulates other signaling pathways, and causes many physiological and pathophysiological effects. We have recently observed that ROS themselves as well as cardiotonic steroids can actually initiate the signal by directly inducing conformational changes in alpha1. It therefore appears that the Na/K-ATPase signal cascade can serve as a feed forward amplification ...


Caffeine Enhances Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis In Rats, Claire Coleman, Rhiannon Shelton, Kathryn Clark, Colleen M. Novak, Lydia A. Heemstra 2016 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Caffeine Enhances Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis In Rats, Claire Coleman, Rhiannon Shelton, Kathryn Clark, Colleen M. Novak, Lydia A. Heemstra

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Caffeine and its derivatives have been used, alone and in combination with other phytochemicals, as weight-loss supplements. Caffeine impacts several physiological and behavioral aspects of energy balance. Here, we investigate the potential for caffeine to enhance non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) even when activity level is held constant. To do this, muscle thermogenesis and energy expenditure (EE) were measured in rats during treadmill walking regimens, with and without caffeine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Muscle heat dissipation was significantly increased by caffeine only at the end of the 25-min treadmill test. Activity-related EE, on the other hand, was significantly increased throughout ...


Cross-Sectional Associations Of Computed Tomography (Ct)-Derived Adipose Tissue Density And Adipokines: The Framingham Heart Study, Jane J. Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph Massaro, John F. Keaney Jr., Ramachandran S. Vasan, Caroline S. Fox 2016 National Heart Lung and Blood Institute

Cross-Sectional Associations Of Computed Tomography (Ct)-Derived Adipose Tissue Density And Adipokines: The Framingham Heart Study, Jane J. Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph Massaro, John F. Keaney Jr., Ramachandran S. Vasan, Caroline S. Fox

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Excess accumulation of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with adverse levels of adipokines and cardiovascular disease risk. Whether fat quality is associated with adipokines has not been firmly established. This study examined the association between abdominal SAT and VAT density, an indirect measure of fat quality, with a panel of metabolic regulatory biomarkers secreted by adipose tissue or the liver independently of absolute fat volumes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 1829 Framingham Heart Study participants (44.9% women). Abdominal SAT and VAT density was estimated indirectly by adipose tissue attenuation using computed tomography. Adipokines ...


Reversible Recruitment Of A Homeostatic Reserve Pool Of Synaptic Vesicles Underlies Rapid Homeostatic Plasticity Of Quantal Content, Xueyong Wang, Martin J. Pinter, Mark M. Rich 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Reversible Recruitment Of A Homeostatic Reserve Pool Of Synaptic Vesicles Underlies Rapid Homeostatic Plasticity Of Quantal Content, Xueyong Wang, Martin J. Pinter, Mark M. Rich

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Homeostatic regulation is essential for the maintenance of synaptic strength within the physiological range. The current study is the first to demonstrate that both induction and reversal of homeostatic upregulation of synaptic vesicle release can occur within seconds of blocking or unblocking acetylcholine receptors at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Our data suggest that the homeostatic upregulation of release is due to Ca2+-dependent increase in the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP). Blocking vesicle refilling prevented upregulation of quantal content (QC), while leaving baseline release relatively unaffected. This suggested that the upregulation of QC was due to mobilization ...


Structure Of The Polyisoprenyl-Phosphate Glycosyltransferase Gtrb And Insights Into The Mechanism Of Catalysis, Chiara Ardiccioni, Oliver B. Clarke, David Tomasek, Habon A. Issa, Desiree C. von Alpen, Heather L. Pond, M. Chiara Manzini, +11 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Structure Of The Polyisoprenyl-Phosphate Glycosyltransferase Gtrb And Insights Into The Mechanism Of Catalysis, Chiara Ardiccioni, Oliver B. Clarke, David Tomasek, Habon A. Issa, Desiree C. Von Alpen, Heather L. Pond, M. Chiara Manzini, +11 Additional Authors

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

The attachment of a sugar to a hydrophobic polyisoprenyl carrier is the first step for all extracellular glycosylation processes. The enzymes that perform these reactions, polyisoprenyl-glycosyltransferases (PI-GTs) include dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPMS), which generates the mannose donor for glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we report the 3.0Å resolution crystal structure of GtrB, a glucose-specific PI-GT from Synechocystis, showing a tetramer in which each protomer contributes two helices to a membrane-spanning bundle. The active site is 15 Å from the membrane, raising the question of how water-soluble and membrane-embedded substrates are brought into apposition for catalysis. A conserved ...


Low-Dose Aronia Melanocarpa Concentrate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Neurotoxicity, Adam J. Case, Daniel Agraz, Iman M. Ahmad, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Low-Dose Aronia Melanocarpa Concentrate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Neurotoxicity, Adam J. Case, Daniel Agraz, Iman M. Ahmad, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

No abstract provided.


Angiotensin Ii-Induced Hypertension Is Attenuated By Overexpressing Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase In The Brain Organum Vasculosum Of The Lamina Terminalis., John P. Collister, Heather Taylor-Smith, Donna Drebes, David Nahey, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2016 University of Minnesota

Angiotensin Ii-Induced Hypertension Is Attenuated By Overexpressing Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase In The Brain Organum Vasculosum Of The Lamina Terminalis., John P. Collister, Heather Taylor-Smith, Donna Drebes, David Nahey, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Angiotensin II (AngII) can access the brain via circumventricular organs (CVOs), including the subfornical organ (SFO) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), to modulate blood pressure. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for both the SFO and OVLT in the hypertensive response to chronic AngII, yet it is unclear which intracellular signaling pathways are involved in this response. Overexpression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the SFO has been shown to attenuate the chronic hypertensive effects of AngII. Presently, we tested the hypothesis that elevated levels of superoxide (O2 (∙-)) in the OVLT contribute to the hypertensive effects ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress