Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physiological Processes Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

398 Full-Text Articles 711 Authors 19,317 Downloads 54 Institutions

All Articles in Physiological Processes

Faceted Search

398 full-text articles. Page 1 of 17.

Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, Michael Price 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, Michael Price

Theses & Dissertations

Alcohol abuse, which can impair clearance of pathogens and debris from the airway, is associated with an increase in complications and a higher mortality rate during the progression of pneumonia. With prolonged alcohol exposure, mucociliary clearance (MCC), which depends on the coordinated beating of cilia, is dysfunctional. Effective MCC relies on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF). PKA activation and stimulation of CBF are blunted with chronic exposure to alcohol. This phenomenon is known as alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction (AICD). Previous studies have shown that concomitant feeding of mice with alcohol and antioxidants prevents AICD, suggesting a ...


Otologic Blast Injuries, Michelle Singer 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Otologic Blast Injuries, Michelle Singer

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The otologic system functions as a highly sensitive pressure transducer. Because of this, the ear is the most commonly affected organ in primary blast injury. Frequently encountered symptoms include hearing loss, tinnitus, and tympanic membrane perforations. The ear is repeatedly overlooked during triage and easily forgotten in subjects with multiple injuries after major catastrophic events such as explosions. This systematic review provides an overview of the most common otologic injuries observed after blast exposure in a variety of settings and populations. An analysis of 35 studies and an additional 23 reviews was performed in attempt to uncover patterns of otologic ...


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas 2018 Huntington VA Medical Center

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas

Marshall Journal of Medicine

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consist of over twenty possible symptoms that can be divided into six broad categories. These categories correlate with specific brain networks that regulate emotions, behaviors, and autonomic function. Normal functioning of these networks depends on two key regions; the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. The prefrontal cortex provides top-down executive control over amygdala, whereas the amygdala is critical for threat detection and activation of the ‘fight or flight’ response. Events that trigger extreme and/or prolonged fear can cause persisting dysregulation within the prefrontal-amygdala circuit ...


Factors Involved In Suppression Of Human Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes And Impact Of Checkpoint Blockades On The Effector Functions Of Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes, MinJi Choi, Andrew Wiemer, Andrea Hubbard, Brian Aneskievich 2018 School of Pharmacy

Factors Involved In Suppression Of Human Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes And Impact Of Checkpoint Blockades On The Effector Functions Of Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes, Minji Choi, Andrew Wiemer, Andrea Hubbard, Brian Aneskievich

University Scholar Projects

Chronic antigenic stimulation leads to T cell exhaustion, which drastically dampens T cell effector functions. Upon exhaustion, T cells progressively lose their proliferative capacity, cytokine production, and cytotoxic effector functions against tumors. T cell exhaustion involves programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), which is an inhibitory co-stimulation receptor. Limited scope of studies has been done regarding impact of PD-1 expression on the effector functions of γδ T cells. In this study, we investigated expression of PD-1 and its impact on effector functions of human γδ T cells. When γδ T cells were stimulated with phosphoantigens (HMBPP and POM2-C-HMBP) and analyzed ...


Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith 2018 University of Connecticut

Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith

Honors Scholar Theses

The ability of the brain to extract meaningful information from complex sounds is what allows mammals to understand species-specific communication as well as important environmental cues such as the sound of water or of potential predators or prey. The auditory cortex of humans and other mammals contains multiple cortical regions that unique sensitivities to both spectral and temporal sound cues. This discourse will explore three main factors proposed to determine these distinct processing capabilities in regard to temporal sound cues; the distribution of glutamate transporters in the thalamus, the architecture of afferent pathways between the thalamus and auditory cortex, and ...


Maternal Psychological Distress And Cortsiol, Jenna Schroeder 2018 DePaul University

Maternal Psychological Distress And Cortsiol, Jenna Schroeder

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Abstract

Background: Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal maternal distress and negative health outcomes for the unborn. There are gaps within this body of knowledge and inconsistencies in the research which make the relevant relationships unclear. If changes in maternal cortisol cause alterations in fetal development, it is important to gain an adequate understanding of how, and if, maternal psychological distress predicts maternal cortisol levels. This study is an integrative literature review that looks at the research investigating a connection between maternal psychological distress and maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy. Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) Transactional Model of Stress ...


Physiological And Cognitive Factors Related To Human Performance During The Grand Canyon Rim-To-Rim Hike, Kristin Divis, Clifford Anderson-Bergman, Robert Abbott, Victoria Newton, Glory Emmanuel-Aviña 2018 Sandia National Laboratories, NM

Physiological And Cognitive Factors Related To Human Performance During The Grand Canyon Rim-To-Rim Hike, Kristin Divis, Clifford Anderson-Bergman, Robert Abbott, Victoria Newton, Glory Emmanuel-Aviña

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Exposure to extreme environments is both mentally and physically taxing, leading to suboptimal performance and even life-threatening emergencies. Physiological and cognitive monitoring could provide the earliest indicator of performance decline and inform appropriate therapeutic intervention, yet little research has explored the relationship between these markers in strenuous settings. The Rim-to-Rim Wearables at the Canyon for Health (R2RWATCH) study is a research project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency to identify which physiological and cognitive phenomena collected by non-invasive wearable devices are the most related to performance in extreme environments. In a pilot study, data were ...


Investigation Into The Role Of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (Pdgf) In Type I Collagen Glomerulopathy, Isaac C. Springer 2018 Missouri State University

Investigation Into The Role Of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (Pdgf) In Type I Collagen Glomerulopathy, Isaac C. Springer

MSU Graduate Theses

Progressive accumulation of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins within renal glomeruli have implications for or result in renal fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, with both events culminating in renal failure. To model this accumulation the Col1a2-deficient mouse model was used. The Col1a2-deficientmouse model is characterized by a mutation in the a2(I) chain, preventing incorporation into the type I collagen molecule. As a result, an α1(I) collagen chain incorporates into the collagen triple helix forming homotrimeric type I collagen, as opposed to heterotrimeric type I collagen. This change is due to the secondary wound healing response in response to ...


Development And Validation Of A Semi-Physiological Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Model To Predict Systemic And Pulmonary Exposures After Intravenous, Oral Administration And Pulmonary Inhalation Of Selected Drugs, Budesonide, Tobramycin And Ciprofloxacin, In Humans, Bishoy Hanna 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Development And Validation Of A Semi-Physiological Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Model To Predict Systemic And Pulmonary Exposures After Intravenous, Oral Administration And Pulmonary Inhalation Of Selected Drugs, Budesonide, Tobramycin And Ciprofloxacin, In Humans, Bishoy Hanna

Theses and Dissertations

Using a semi-PBPK modeling/quantitative meta-analysis approach, this project investigated what factors affect pulmonary and systemic exposures of Budesonide (BUD), Tobramycin (TOB), and Ciprofloxacin (CIP) after inhalation:

Three structurally different pulmonary disposition models were developed for each drug, including pulmonary absorption (all three), excretion (TOB and CIP) and sequestration (TOB) in a peripheral and central lung compartment. Systemic disposition parameters were estimated using available human mean plasma (cp(t)) and sputum (cs(t)) concentration profiles after IV administration, and GI absorption parameters were estimated from these profiles after oral administration. Pulmonary disposition parameters were estimated from cp ...


Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Exposure Promotes Multiple Myeloma Development In Black/6 Mice, Sandeep Kowkuntla 2018 University of Iowa

Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Exposure Promotes Multiple Myeloma Development In Black/6 Mice, Sandeep Kowkuntla

University of Iowa Honors Theses

Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignancy of bone marrow plasma B cells and is associated with obesity. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to MM risk remains unclear, however, we speculate the linking factor to be sleep apnea which we simulated by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). 5TGM1 cells are a murine MM cell line derived from the KaLwRij strain that fail to routinely engraft in Black6 mice. To test the hypothesis that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) promotes the development of MM, we exposed MM-resistant C57BL/6 mice to 10h/day of CIH during the light cycle (AHI=10-12/h ...


Sleep Quality, Anxiety And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Humans, Melissa Rader 2018 University of Iowa

Sleep Quality, Anxiety And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Humans, Melissa Rader

University of Iowa Honors Theses

Adequate sleep duration and sleep quality are essential for maintaining cardiovascular health. Short sleep duration is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, however, less is known about whether sleep quality, independent of sleep duration, is associated with CVD risk. Anxiety is also an independent risk factor for development of CVD, but how anxiety leads to CVD is unclear. Our overall hypothesis is that higher anxiety and vascular biomarkers of CVD risk (arterial stiffness and altered 24-hour blood pressure patterns) will be associated with poor sleep quality (PSQ) in healthy adults. Specifically, we hypothesize that independent of sleep duration, adults ...


Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo 2017 Bowling Green State University

Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo

Honors Projects

Inflammation and gut microbiota are two areas of study that can be linked to aging in the body. As a person ages, systemic inflammation tends to increase, and changes in microbiota in the gastrointestinal system occur as well.


Validation Of Minimally-Invasive Sample Collection Methods For Measurement Of Telomere Length, Stephanie A. Stout, Jue Lin, Natalie Hernandez, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Judith E. Carroll, Laura M. Glynn 2017 University of Denver

Validation Of Minimally-Invasive Sample Collection Methods For Measurement Of Telomere Length, Stephanie A. Stout, Jue Lin, Natalie Hernandez, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Judith E. Carroll, Laura M. Glynn

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: The discovery of telomere length (TL) as a biomarker of cellular aging and correlate of age-related disease has generated a new field of research in the biology of healthy aging. Although the most common method of sample collection for TL is venous blood draw, less-invasive DNA collection methods are becoming more widely used. However, how TL relates across tissues derived from these sample collection methods is poorly understood. The current study is the first to characterize the associations in TL across three sample collection methods: venous whole blood, finger prick dried blood spot and saliva.

Methods: TL was measured ...


Association Between Leukocyte Telomere Length And The Risk Of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: The Framingham Heart Study, Laila Staerk, Biqi Wang, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Robert H. Helm, Darae Ko, Jason A. Sherer, Patrick T. Ellinor, Steven A. Lubitz, David D. McManus, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Emelia J. Benjamin, Ludovic Trinquart 2017 University Hospital Herlev and Gentofte

Association Between Leukocyte Telomere Length And The Risk Of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: The Framingham Heart Study, Laila Staerk, Biqi Wang, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Robert H. Helm, Darae Ko, Jason A. Sherer, Patrick T. Ellinor, Steven A. Lubitz, David D. Mcmanus, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Emelia J. Benjamin, Ludovic Trinquart

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Advancing age is a prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Shorter telomere length is a biomarker of biological aging, but the link between shorter telomere length and increased risk of AF remains unclear. We examined the association between shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and incident AF.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We included AF-free participants from the observational Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort from 1995 to 1998, who had LTL measurements. We examined the association between baseline LTL and incident AF with multivariable Cox models adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, use of ...


Inhibition Of Cholesterol Biosynthesis Through Rnf145-Dependent Ubiquitination Of Scap, Li Zhang, Prashant Rajbhandari, Christina Priest, Jaspreet Sandhu, Xiaohui Wu, Ryan E. Temel, Antonio Castrillo, Thomas Q. de Aguiar Vallim, Tamer Sallam, Peter Tontonoz 2017 University of California - Los Angeles

Inhibition Of Cholesterol Biosynthesis Through Rnf145-Dependent Ubiquitination Of Scap, Li Zhang, Prashant Rajbhandari, Christina Priest, Jaspreet Sandhu, Xiaohui Wu, Ryan E. Temel, Antonio Castrillo, Thomas Q. De Aguiar Vallim, Tamer Sallam, Peter Tontonoz

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Cholesterol homeostasis is maintained through concerted action of the SREBPs and LXRs. Here, we report that RNF145, a previously uncharacterized ER membrane ubiquitin ligase, participates in crosstalk between these critical signaling pathways. RNF145 expression is induced in response to LXR activation and high-cholesterol diet feeding. Transduction of RNF145 into mouse liver inhibits the expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and reduces plasma cholesterol levels. Conversely, acute suppression of RNF145 via shRNA-mediated knockdown, or chronic inactivation of RNF145 by genetic deletion, potentiates the expression of cholesterol biosynthetic genes and increases cholesterol levels both in liver and plasma. Mechanistic studies show ...


Psycho-Physiologic Emergentism; Four Minds In A Body, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei 2017 Valparaiso University, Department of Psychology, Valparaiso, USA

Psycho-Physiologic Emergentism; Four Minds In A Body, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The mind-body problem represents one of the most debated topics in the neurosciences. From a psychological standpoint, abstract/non-material data are an intrinsic part of the mind, intervening to a large extent in reasoning and decision making processes. Imaging studies also show a strong correlation between higher cognitive functions (such as working memory) and specific cerebral brain regions (a fronto-parietal network of interacting left and right brain areas). In contrast, the physical/material brain would be unable to interact with abstract-immaterial data, such that the psychological processing of abstract data (processes such as thinking, reasoning, and judgment) is attributed to ...


Enduring Chronic Kidney Disease: An Investigation Of Psychosocial Factors And Life Satisfaction In Older Adults Receiving Dialysis Treatment, Bailee Sobotka 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Enduring Chronic Kidney Disease: An Investigation Of Psychosocial Factors And Life Satisfaction In Older Adults Receiving Dialysis Treatment, Bailee Sobotka

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chronic kidney disease is a condition during which the kidneys begin to shut down and no longer filter blood efficiently. Once the disease has progressed far enough, dialysis treatments are mandatory to sustain life. To further understand how older adults receiving dialysis treatments cope with their disease, psychosocial factors were evaluated to investigate possible correlations with life satisfaction using a Life Satisfaction Index Z (LSI-Z). Expected correlations with life satisfaction were sociability, financial satisfaction, importance of spirituality, and activities of daily living scores. Interviews were conducted with 30 dialysis patients and results were analyzed using various statistical measures. Significant correlations ...


Ubqln1 : A Multi-Domain Protein With Multiple Functions., Zimple Kurlawala 2017 University of Louisville

Ubqln1 : A Multi-Domain Protein With Multiple Functions., Zimple Kurlawala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There are 5 Ubiquilin proteins (UBQLN1-4, UBQLN-L), which are evolutionarily conserved and structurally similar. UBQLN proteins have 3 functional domains: N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain (UBL), C-terminal ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA) and STI chaperone-like regions in the middle. Alterations in UBQLN1 gene have been detected in a variety of disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis and lung cancer. UBQLN1 has been largely studied in neurodegenerative disorders in the context of protein quality control. Several studies have hypothesized that the UBA domain of UBQLN1 binds to poly-ubiquitin chains of substrate and shuttles it to the proteasome via its UBL domain for degradation ...


Local Anesthesia Toxicity, Nicole McCleery 2017 Otterbein University

Local Anesthesia Toxicity, Nicole Mccleery

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Local anesthesia (LA) provides a way to relieve temporary pain in a small part of the body and has been used for over 100 years (Fencl, 2015). LA also prevents the passage of surgical stimuli into the central nervous system (CNS) making a surgical procedure less painful for the patient (Noble, 2015). According to Noble, “altering the passage of stimuli from smaller diameter neurons in a confined area with lower drug dosages is called LA, such as the injection of LA around a surgical incision” (Noble, 2015, p.325). LA can be used in a variety of settings, such as ...


Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles 2017 Australian Catholic University

Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles

Theses

Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue comprising the largest protein reservoir of the human body with a rate of turnover of ~1-2% per day. Protein turnover is regulated by the coordination of intracellular systems regulating protein synthesis and breakdown that converge in a spatiotemporal manner on lysosomal organelles responsible for integrating a variety of contractile and nutritional stimuli. One such system, autophagy, which literally means to ‘self-eat,’ involves capturing of cellular material for deliver to, and disintegration by, the lysosome. The autophagic ‘cargo’ is subsequently recycled for use in synthetic reactions and thus maintenance of protein balance. As a dynamic ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress