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An Investigation Of Treatments For The Prevention Of Metabolic Complications For Women Suffering From Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Diet, Exercise, Weight Reduction And Herbal Remedies, Brenda Martinez-Puente 2020 Dominican University of California

An Investigation Of Treatments For The Prevention Of Metabolic Complications For Women Suffering From Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Diet, Exercise, Weight Reduction And Herbal Remedies, Brenda Martinez-Puente

Nursing | Senior Theses

The purpose of this research study is to compare the views of traditional versus alternative treatments available to women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) suffering from metabolic complications. Alternative treatments include diet, exercise, herbal remedies, or any combination of the three. Pharmacological interventions for the conditions associated with PCOS such as metformin, used to control glucose levels, and clomiphene, used to treat infertility. Through the literature review, articles show herbs and plant products to have similar mechanisms of actions as the pharmacological interventions, but with less side effects. For example, cinnamon was shown to increase insulin sensitivity and pomegranate juice ...


Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

This is the first presentation in the new Shelter-in-Place lecture series. This first lecture is two-fold. First, it covers the basics of the COVID-19 virus including: how it spreads, possible origin, and other pertinent information. This portion of the presentation was followed by an overview of the international recruitment efforts in response to the virus, including: student perspectives, recruitment methods, and other important information.


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


Mechanisms Of Insulin Resistance Related To White, Beige, And Brown Adipocytes, Michael P. Czech 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mechanisms Of Insulin Resistance Related To White, Beige, And Brown Adipocytes, Michael P. Czech

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The diminished glucose lowering effect of insulin in obesity, called "insulin resistance," is associated with glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, and other serious maladies. Many publications on this topic have suggested numerous hypotheses on the molecular and cellular disruptions that contribute to the syndrome. However, significant uncertainty remains on the mechanisms of its initiation and long-term maintenance.

SCOPE OF REVIEW: To simplify insulin resistance analysis, this review focuses on the unifying concept that adipose tissue is a central regulator of systemic glucose homeostasis by controlling liver and skeletal muscle metabolism. Key aspects of adipose function related to insulin resistance ...


Exogenous Gdf11, But Not Gdf8, Reduces Body Weight And Improves Glucose Homeostasis In Mice, Ryan G. Walker, Hye Lim Noh, Taekyoon Kim, Jason K. Kim, Richard T. Lee 2020 Harvard University

Exogenous Gdf11, But Not Gdf8, Reduces Body Weight And Improves Glucose Homeostasis In Mice, Ryan G. Walker, Hye Lim Noh, Taekyoon Kim, Jason K. Kim, Richard T. Lee

Open Access Articles

Insulin resistance is associated with aging in mice and humans. We have previously shown that administration of recombinant GDF11 (rGDF11) to aged mice alters aging phenotypes in the brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. While the closely related protein GDF8 has a role in metabolism, limited data are available on the potential metabolic effects of GDF11 or GDF8 in aging. To determine the metabolic effects of these two ligands, we administered rGDF11 or rGDF8 protein to young or aged mice fed a standard chow diet, short-term high-fat diet (HFD), or long-term HFD. Under nearly all of these diet conditions, administration of ...


Hypercholesterolemia Accelerates The Aging Phenotypes Of Hematopoietic Stem Cells By A Tet1-Dependent Pathway, Guodong Tie, Jinglian Yan, Lyne Khair, Amanda A. Tutto, Louis M. Messina 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hypercholesterolemia Accelerates The Aging Phenotypes Of Hematopoietic Stem Cells By A Tet1-Dependent Pathway, Guodong Tie, Jinglian Yan, Lyne Khair, Amanda A. Tutto, Louis M. Messina

Open Access Articles

Hypercholesterolemia accelerates the phenotypes of aging in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). As yet, little is known about the underlying mechanism. We found that hypercholesterolemia downregulates Ten eleven translocation 1 (Tet1) in HSCs. The total HSC population was increased, while the long-term (LT) population, side population and reconstitution capacity of HSCs were significantly decreased in Tet1(-/-) mice. Expression of the Tet1 catalytic domain in HSCs effectively restored the LT population and reconstitution capacity of HSCs isolated from Tet1(-/-) mice. While Tet1 deficiency upregulated the expression of p19 and p21 in HSCs by decreasing the H3K27me3 modification, the restoration of Tet1 activity ...


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey ...


Exploring The Heteromeric Interface Of The 5-Ht2a-Mglu2 Receptor Complex, Mohamed Aarif Abdul Kareem 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Exploring The Heteromeric Interface Of The 5-Ht2a-Mglu2 Receptor Complex, Mohamed Aarif Abdul Kareem

Theses and Dissertations

Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder characteristic of several neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate being in imbalance. Early therapies focused solely on dopamine antagonism and second-generation antipsychotics focused on the dopamine and serotonin systems and their respective G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins. Although debate for dimerization of certain classes of GPCR exist, the establishment of an mGlu2-5-HT2A heterocomplex, which is implicated in schizophrenia is of interest. Previous studies have used a mutation-based approach to identify transmembrane domain 4 (TM4) as the domain responsible in mGlu2 for mediating heteromerization before narrowing down the individual amino acids responsible for ...


Biomarkers Of Inflammation In Heart Failure Patients With Reduced And Preserved Ejection Fractions: Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Michelle Lynne Stone 2020 University of North Florida

Biomarkers Of Inflammation In Heart Failure Patients With Reduced And Preserved Ejection Fractions: Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Michelle Lynne Stone

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Purpose Examine the relationships between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-1 (sTNF-R1) and the cumulative risk of heart failure with reduced (HFrEF) and preserved (HFpEF) ejection fractions in a diverse, population-based sample. Methods Study sample included 6,814 adult (45-84 years of age) men and women who participated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) associated with elevated baseline hs-CRP (> 3-10 mg/L), IL-6 (> 75th percentile) and sTNF-R1 (> 75th percentile) and risk of overall HF ...


The Effect Of Intermittent Cooling On Simulated Basketball Game Performance, Dalton E. Cousin 2020 Georgia Southern University

The Effect Of Intermittent Cooling On Simulated Basketball Game Performance, Dalton E. Cousin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Context: Hyperthermia is induced during prolonged exercise which promotes fatigue and a decline in performance. Basketball athletes have trouble preventing an onset of hyperthermia; thus, cryotherapy is applied intermittently to combat the negative effects.

Objective: To determine, (1) effect intermittent cooling has on simulated basketball performance, perceived exertion and perceived recovery; and (2) change in performance while applying two different forms of intermittent cooling during the Basketball Specific Fatigue Protocol (BSFP).

Design: Crossover study design.

Setting: Indoor collegiate basketball court.

Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen competitively trained recreational basketball athletes (15 males, 1 female; age = 21.1 ± 1.2 yr ...


The Use Of Probiotics To Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia In Adults, Michael Roper, Paige Douthett 2019 James Madison University

The Use Of Probiotics To Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia In Adults, Michael Roper, Paige Douthett

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2016 to 2019

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of preventing the acquisition of ventilator- associated pneumonia with the use of probiotic supplementation, as compared to a placebo, among hospitalized adult men and women receiving more than 24 hours of mechanical ventilation. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted through PubMed and Scopus using the search terms “ventilator”, “probiotics”, and “prevention”. Records were excluded from the analysis if they were published before 2015, full text was not available, studies other than randomized control trial or cohort studies, and if the study population was less than 18 years old. Results: Of ...


Coordination Of Airway Protective Behaviors And Swallow: Effects Of Afferent Feedback And Sex., Alyssa D. Huff 2019 University of Louisville

Coordination Of Airway Protective Behaviors And Swallow: Effects Of Afferent Feedback And Sex., Alyssa D. Huff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation represents a series of studies describing mechanisms related to breathing, upper airway behaviors and their coordination in man and animal. Chapter two transformed the cough swallow aspiration protocol from the cat (previous work) to the human introducing a new strategy, volume targeting, in swallow breathing coordination. Chapter three evaluated swallow breathing coordination at increasing altitudes. As respiratory drive altered due to hypoxia and hypocapnia, swallow breathing coordination shifted toward inspiration occurring during the transition from inspiration and expiration. The collection of the two previous studies led to development of an animal model to evaluate volume targeting and mechanisms ...


Non-Equilibrium Critical Dynamics Of Bursts In Theta And Delta Rhythms As Fundamental Characteristic Of Sleep And Wake Micro-Architecture, Jilin W. J. L. Wang, Fabrizio Lombardi, Xiyun Zhang, Christelle Anaclet, Plamen Ch. Ivanov 2019 Boston University

Non-Equilibrium Critical Dynamics Of Bursts In Theta And Delta Rhythms As Fundamental Characteristic Of Sleep And Wake Micro-Architecture, Jilin W. J. L. Wang, Fabrizio Lombardi, Xiyun Zhang, Christelle Anaclet, Plamen Ch. Ivanov

Open Access Articles

Origin and functions of intermittent transitions among sleep stages, including short awakenings and arousals, constitute a challenge to the current homeostatic framework for sleep regulation, focusing on factors modulating sleep over large time scales. Here we propose that the complex micro-architecture characterizing the sleep-wake cycle results from an underlying non-equilibrium critical dynamics, bridging collective behaviors across spatio-temporal scales. We investigate theta and delta wave dynamics in control rats and in rats with lesions of sleep-promoting neurons in the parafacial zone. We demonstrate that intermittent bursts in theta and delta rhythms exhibit a complex temporal organization, with long-range power-law correlations and ...


Dietary Alpha-Ketoglutarate Promotes Beige Adipogenesis And Prevents Obesity In Middle-Aged Mice, Qiyu Tian, Junxing Zhao, Qiyuan Yang, Bo Wang, Jeanene M. Deavila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du 2019 Washington State University

Dietary Alpha-Ketoglutarate Promotes Beige Adipogenesis And Prevents Obesity In Middle-Aged Mice, Qiyu Tian, Junxing Zhao, Qiyuan Yang, Bo Wang, Jeanene M. Deavila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du

Open Access Articles

Aging usually involves the progressive development of certain illnesses, including diabetes and obesity. Due to incapacity to form new white adipocytes, adipose expansion in aged mice primarily depends on adipocyte hypertrophy, which induces metabolic dysfunction. On the other hand, brown adipose tissue burns fatty acids, preventing ectopic lipid accumulation and metabolic diseases. However, the capacity of brown/beige adipogenesis declines inevitably during the aging process. Previously, we reported that DNA demethylation in the Prdm16 promoter is required for beige adipogenesis. DNA methylation is mediated by ten-eleven family proteins (TET) using alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) as a cofactor. Here, we demonstrated that the ...


Coronary Disease Is Not Associated With Robust Alterations In Inflammatory Gene Expression In Human Epicardial Fat, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Nancy Lee, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Mark Kelly, Stanley Kc Tam, Michael P. Czech 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Coronary Disease Is Not Associated With Robust Alterations In Inflammatory Gene Expression In Human Epicardial Fat, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Nancy Lee, Khanh-Van T. Tran, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Mark Kelly, Stanley Kc Tam, Michael P. Czech

Open Access Articles

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is the visceral fat depot of the heart. Inflammation of EAT is thought to contribute to coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we hypothesized that the EAT of patients with CAD would have increased inflammatory gene expression compared with controls without CAD. Cardiac surgery patients with (n = 13) or without CAD (n = 13) were consented, and samples of EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were obtained. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays. Differential expression was defined as a 1.5-fold change (ANOVA P < 0.05). Six hundred ninety-three genes were differentially expressed between SAT and EAT in controls and 805 in cases. Expression of 326 genes was different between EAT of cases and controls; expression of 14 genes was increased in cases, while 312 were increased in controls. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR confirmed that there was no difference in expression of CCL2, CCR2, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and PAI1 between groups. Immunohistochemistry showed more macrophages in EAT than SAT, but there was no difference in their number or activation state between groups. In contrast to prior studies, we did not find increased inflammatory gene expression in the EAT of patients with CAD. We conclude that the specific adipose tissue depot, rather than CAD status, is responsible for the majority of differential gene expression.


High-Fat Diet In A Mouse Insulin-Resistant Model Induces Widespread Rewiring Of The Phosphotyrosine Signaling Network, Antje Dittmann, Norman J. Kennedy, Nina L. Soltero, Nader Morshed, Miyeko D. Mana, Omer H. Yilmaz, Roger J. Davis, Forest M. White 2019 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

High-Fat Diet In A Mouse Insulin-Resistant Model Induces Widespread Rewiring Of The Phosphotyrosine Signaling Network, Antje Dittmann, Norman J. Kennedy, Nina L. Soltero, Nader Morshed, Miyeko D. Mana, Omer H. Yilmaz, Roger J. Davis, Forest M. White

Open Access Articles

Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes and accompanying diseases have developed into a leading human health risk across industrialized and developing countries. The complex molecular underpinnings of how lipid overload and lipid metabolites lead to the deregulation of metabolic processes are incompletely understood. We assessed hepatic post-translational alterations in response to treatment of cells with saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids and the consumption of a high-fat diet by mice. These data revealed widespread tyrosine phosphorylation changes affecting a large number of enzymes involved in metabolic processes as well as canonical receptor-mediated signal transduction networks. Targeting two of the most prominently affected ...


Dysfunctional Stem And Progenitor Cells Impair Fracture Healing With Age, DR Wagner, S Karnik, ZJ Gunderson, JJ Nielsen, A Fennimore, HJ Promer, Jonathan W. Lowery Ph.D., MT Loghmani, PS Low, TO McKinley, MA Kacena, M Clauss, J Li 2019 Marian University - Indianapolis

Dysfunctional Stem And Progenitor Cells Impair Fracture Healing With Age, Dr Wagner, S Karnik, Zj Gunderson, Jj Nielsen, A Fennimore, Hj Promer, Jonathan W. Lowery Ph.D., Mt Loghmani, Ps Low, To Mckinley, Ma Kacena, M Clauss, J Li

Faculty Publications and Research

Successful fracture healing requires the simultaneous regeneration of both the bone and vasculature; mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are directed to replace the bone tissue, while endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) form the new vasculature that supplies blood to the fracture site. In the elderly, the healing process is slowed, partly due to decreased regenerative function of these stem and progenitor cells. MSCs from older individuals are impaired with regard to cell number, proliferative capacity, ability to migrate, and osteochondrogenic differentiation potential. The proliferation, migration and function of EPCs are also compromised with advanced age. Although the reasons for cellular dysfunction with ...


A Pbpk Model Of Low-Concentration Vitamin D Supplementation In The Absence Of Sunlight, Megan Sawyer 2019 Southern New Hampshire University

A Pbpk Model Of Low-Concentration Vitamin D Supplementation In The Absence Of Sunlight, Megan Sawyer

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Improving Perioperative Warming Of Surgical Patients: Implementation Of A Warming Protocol, Maghy Schrage 2019 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Improving Perioperative Warming Of Surgical Patients: Implementation Of A Warming Protocol, Maghy Schrage

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Despite the ample amount of knowledge and interventions available to keep patients warm in the operating room, the issue of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia continues to be a problem affecting surgical patients. Unfortunately, even a mild degree of hypothermia can increase a patient’s chance for negative outcomes such as surgical site infections, bleeding, and higher risk for mortality. The project involved development of a warming protocol/guideline for a small community hospital. The implementation process consisted of two separate presentations tailored to educate both nursing and anesthesia staff about the importance of warming patients, reimbursement initiatives, and appropriate interventions.

The ...


The Physiology And Hormonal Control Of Calcium, Phosphate And Vitamin D, Uri Alon 2019 Children's Mercy Hospital

The Physiology And Hormonal Control Of Calcium, Phosphate And Vitamin D, Uri Alon

Presentations

Describes calcium, phophate, and vitamin D in the context of pediatric rickets.


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