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Noninvasive Quantification Of Tissue Sodium Concentration In The Kidney Disease Spectrum Using 23na Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Fabio R. Salerno 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Noninvasive Quantification Of Tissue Sodium Concentration In The Kidney Disease Spectrum Using 23na Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Fabio R. Salerno

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially when requiring kidney replacement therapy (hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)), is associated with extracellular water expansion with increased total body sodium. Sodium can also be accumulated in tissues independently of extracellular water. Sodium-23 magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) can quantify the concentration of sodium nuclei in tissues. Applied to the human leg, quantification of tissue sodium concentrations mainly at the skin and muscle level is possible. We hypothesized that increased tissue sodium concentrations exert toxic effects in CKD and dialysis. We aimed to (1) compare tissue sodium concentrations in adults, children and …


Worried Sick: Understanding The Implications Of Stress On A Physiological Level, Julia Saia 2022 Liberty University

Worried Sick: Understanding The Implications Of Stress On A Physiological Level, Julia Saia

Senior Honors Theses

Stress is prevalent among many individuals in today’s society. A literature review was conducted to investigate the physiological effects of stress, including the biomarkers of stress and how these interact with various body systems. The stress response is a protective mechanism to prepare the body to adequately respond to a perceived threat. However, when this response is prolonged, it begins to have a maladaptive effect on the body and can cause more harm than good. This literature review sought to compile what is known regarding the general effects of chronic stress and its impact on the nervous, immune, digestive, and …


Motoneuron Excitability Dysfunction In Als: Pseudo-Mystery Or Authentic Conundrum?, Sherif M. Elbasiouny 2022 Wright State University - Main Campus

Motoneuron Excitability Dysfunction In Als: Pseudo-Mystery Or Authentic Conundrum?, Sherif M. Elbasiouny

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), abnormalities in motoneuronal excitability are seen in early pathogenesis and throughout disease progression. Fully understanding motoneuron excitability dysfunction may lead to more effective treatments. Yet decades of research have not produced consensus on the nature, role or underlying mechanisms of motoneuron excitability dysfunction in ALS. For example, contrary to Ca excitotoxicity theory, predictions of motoneuronal hyper-excitability, normal and hypo-excitability have also been seen at various disease stages and in multiple ALS lines. Accordingly, motoneuron excitability dysfunction in ALS is a disputed topic in the field. Specifically, the form (hyper, hypo or unchanged) and what role …


Non-Invasive Transcutaneous Spinal Dc Stimulation As A Neurorehabilitation Als Therapy In Awake G93a Mice: The First Step To Clinical Translation, Morgan M. Highlander, Sherif M. Elbasiouny 2022 Wright State University

Non-Invasive Transcutaneous Spinal Dc Stimulation As A Neurorehabilitation Als Therapy In Awake G93a Mice: The First Step To Clinical Translation, Morgan M. Highlander, Sherif M. Elbasiouny

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Spinal direct current stimulation (sDCS) modulates motoneuron (MN) excitability beyond the stimulation period, making it a potential neurorehabilitation therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a MN degenerative disease in which MN excitability dysfunction plays a critical and complex role. Recent evidence confirms induced changes in MN excitability via measured MN electrophysiological properties in the SOD1 ALS mouse during and following invasive subcutaneous sDCS (ssDCS). The first aim of our pilot study was to determine the clinical potential of these excitability changes at symptom onset (P90-P105) in ALS via a novel non-invasive transcutaneous sDCS (tsDCS) treatment paradigm on un-anesthetized SOD1-G93A mice. …


Suppression Of Store-Operated Calcium Entry Channels And Cytokine Release By Cannabinoids, J. Ashot Kozak 2022 Wright State University - Main Campus

Suppression Of Store-Operated Calcium Entry Channels And Cytokine Release By Cannabinoids, J. Ashot Kozak

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Healthy Exosomes And Their Effects On Diabetic Cardiomyocytes, Miguel A. Garza, Genaro A. Ramírez-Correa, Maria Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez, Andres J. Medina 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Healthy Exosomes And Their Effects On Diabetic Cardiomyocytes, Miguel A. Garza, Genaro A. Ramírez-Correa, Maria Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez, Andres J. Medina

MEDI 9331 Scholarly Activities Clinical Years

Extracellular Vesicles, and more specifically, exosomes, are essential for effective cell-to-cell communication in a wide variety of tissues. In the last couple of decades, these nanovesicles have been proven to be active participants and regulators in many disease processes; therefore, their therapeutic effects have been widely studied and proven in various cardiovascular diseases both, in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this study aims at assessing the effects of running healthy mice exosomes on cardiomyocyte and cardiac tissue samples obtained from diabetic mice. Here, we successfully extract exosomes from mice plasma and detect their presence through the use of anti-CD9 and …


Rapid Changes In Vascular Compliance Contribute To Cerebrovascular ​Adjustments During Vasovagal Syncope (Vvs), Aleena Sajid 2022 Western University

Rapid Changes In Vascular Compliance Contribute To Cerebrovascular ​Adjustments During Vasovagal Syncope (Vvs), Aleena Sajid

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Background: The rapid reduction in arterial pressure (AP) during VVS is associated with a decline in diastolic cerebral blood velocity (CBV) and maintained systolic CBV. We tested the hypothesis that this response may represent increased cerebrovascular compliance (Ci) in the presence of rapid hypotension.

Methods: AP and CBV were recorded from 14 otherwise healthy patients (34 ± 11 years) at rest and during head-up tilt (80°, 5-28 min). Baseline, mid-tilt, and VVS were analyzed. Individual AP and CBV waveforms were input into a modified Windkessel model to calculate Ci.

Results: Upright posture resulted in a decrease in CBV (-9 ± …


Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak 2022 Western University

Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Fibrosis is a progressive and typically irreversible disease process characterized by the excessive deposition of collagen in organs and in tissues of the musculoskeletal (MSK) system1,2. This process, which causes loss of organ and tissue function, can be initiated by micro-traumas3, an excessive and/or prolonged immune response1, the activation and proliferation of fibrosis-inducing progenitor cells4, and a pro-fibrotic extra-cellular microenvironment5. In parallel with the events that initiate fibrosis, genetic or environmental influences may cause cells and tissues to become predisposed to fibrosis development prior to initiation. This suggests that these …


The Effects Of Autophagy And Proteasomes On Tgfβ Signalling And Emt, Charles Brandon Trelford 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Autophagy And Proteasomes On Tgfβ Signalling And Emt, Charles Brandon Trelford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signalling regulates growth, proliferation, immunity, and development. Although TGFβ typically antagonizes tumour formation, tumour cells often acquire mutations within the TGFβ signalling pathway that activate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, epithelial tumour cells lose epithelial-like properties and acquire mesenchymal-like characteristics, which allows tumour cells to detach from the primary tumour and establish metastatic colonies. In addition to EMT, TGFβ augments tumourigenesis by increasing the degradation of damaged macromolecules and organelles via autophagy. Autophagy contributes to radiotherapy and chemotherapy resistance by mitigating the damages inflicted on tumour cells. Currently, there is a growing interest in the relationship …


Stromal Vascular Fraction Restores Vasodilatory Function By Reversing Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Oxidative Stress In Aging-Induced Coronary Microvascular Disease., Evan Paul Tracy 2022 University of Louisville

Stromal Vascular Fraction Restores Vasodilatory Function By Reversing Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Oxidative Stress In Aging-Induced Coronary Microvascular Disease., Evan Paul Tracy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Coronary Microvascular Disease (CMD) presents in aging post-menopausal women with chronic angina due to microvascular hyperconstriction. The objective was to identify mechanisms of adipose stromal vascular fraction’s (SVF) restorative effects on vasodilation. We hypothesize aging-induced CMD is caused by a) abrogated flow-mediated dilation (FMD) due to loss of nitric oxide signaling and b) ROS-dependent βADR desensitization & internalization, reversible by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress with SVF. Methods: Coronary microvessels were isolated from female rats either young, old, or old with SVF tail-vein injection (OSVF). Pressure myography, RNA-sequencing, immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and morphological analysis were performed to …


Pathophysiology Of Aortic Stenosis, Melissa Lee 2022 Otterbein University

Pathophysiology Of Aortic Stenosis, Melissa Lee

Nursing Student Class Projects (Formerly MSN)

Pathophysiology of Aortic Stenosis

Melissa J. Lee

Department of Nursing, Otterbein University

NURS 6810: Advanced Pathophysiology for the Advanced Practice Nurse

Dr. Deana Batross & Dr. Shivani Bhatnagar

July 29, 2022

Pathophysiology of Aortic Stenosis

Proper evaluation of co-morbidities is imperative for patient safety and successful outcomes for patients undergoing anesthesia. Aortic stenosis (AS) is one of the most complex diseases encountered in anesthesia, affecting five percent of older adults and ten percent of the 80-89-year-old-cohort (Joseph et al., 2017). The pathophysiological development of AS is the end result of an inflammatory process caused by endothelial damage from mechanical stress, …


Il-10 And Tgf-Β Increase Connexin-43 Expression And Membrane Potential Of Hl-1 Cardiomyocytes Coupled With Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Cora B. Cox, Mike Castro, Thomas L. Brown, Nancy J. Bigley 2022 Wright State University

Il-10 And Tgf-Β Increase Connexin-43 Expression And Membrane Potential Of Hl-1 Cardiomyocytes Coupled With Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Cora B. Cox, Mike Castro, Thomas L. Brown, Nancy J. Bigley

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Cardiac resident macrophages facilitate electrical conduction by interacting with cardiomyocytes via connexin-43 (Cx43) hemichannels. Cx43 is critical for impulse propagation and coordination between muscle contractions. Cardiomyocyte electrophysiology can be altered when coupled with noncardiomyocyte cell types such as M2c tissue-resident macrophages. Using cocultures of murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, we examined the hypothesis that cytokine signals, TGF-β1 and IL-10, upregulate Cx43 expression at points of contact between the two cell types. These cytokine signals maintain the macrophages in an M2c anti-inflammatory phenotype, mimicking cardiac resident macrophages. The electrophysiology of cardiomyocytes was examined using di-8-ANEPPS potentiometric dye, which reflects …


How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan 2022 The University of San Francisco

How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mosquitos, the most lethal species throughout human history, are the most prevalent source of vector-borne diseases and therefore a major global health burden. Mosquito-borne disease incidence is expected to shift with environmental change. These changes can be predicted using species distribution models. With the wide variety of methods used for models, consensus for improving accuracy and comparability is needed. A comparative analysis of three recent modeling approaches revealed that integrating modeling techniques compensates for trade-offs associated with a singular approach. An area that represents a critical gap in our ability to predict mosquito behavior in response to changing climate factors, …


A Case Report On Causes Of Covid-19 Induced Psychosis And Treatments, Jennifer Pires, Steven Sarner 2022 Rowan University

A Case Report On Causes Of Covid-19 Induced Psychosis And Treatments, Jennifer Pires, Steven Sarner

Stratford Campus Research Day

COVID-19 is a viral infection that is caused by an RNA virus in a subfamily of Coronaviridae named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS CoV 2). The family also includes severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) which have previously been shown to cause respiratory symptoms and psychosis with immunoreactivity to IgG.


Alternate Site Pacing And The Impact On Intracellular Calcium Handling During The Post-Extrasystolic Cardiac Cycle, Kent Ozcan, Lawrence Mulligan 2022 Rowan University

Alternate Site Pacing And The Impact On Intracellular Calcium Handling During The Post-Extrasystolic Cardiac Cycle, Kent Ozcan, Lawrence Mulligan

Stratford Campus Research Day

Objective: Previous work has shown that alternate site (RV apex) results in myocardial dysfunction. With the development of tools to place endocardial pacing leads in locations that create physiological pacing activation, we sought to evaluate how ventricular trans-septal or left ventricular apical placement pacing differs from right atrial pacing. We will evaluate how these chronic pacing modes impact the PR and RF at baseline, 0, and 16 weeks in the canine heart.

Methods: Quantitative analysis will be performed on previously generated data. The data set includes pacing of 15 dogs total (8 with trans-septal leads & 7 with left ventricular …


A Neurophysiological Investigation Of Listening Effort In Normal Hearing Adults Using Fnirs And Pupillometry, Jessica Defenderfer 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

A Neurophysiological Investigation Of Listening Effort In Normal Hearing Adults Using Fnirs And Pupillometry, Jessica Defenderfer

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Real-world conversations are often accompanied by some sort of interference that challenges the clarity of the speaker’s message, causing listeners to exert more effort to understand speech. Previous research has demonstrated that when listening to speech becomes difficult, various regions of the brain are recruited beyond those which engage during optimal listening conditions. However, the neural correlates that underly listening effort are not fully understood. Importantly, the pupillary response can be used to index listening effort, such that pupil size increases with increasing cognitive demand. I proposed that pupillometry can be used to characterize the cortical response, such that changes …


Parkinson's Disease And Exercise: Steps Into A Hopeful Future, Jacob Barker 2022 Longwood University

Parkinson's Disease And Exercise: Steps Into A Hopeful Future, Jacob Barker

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

In the world of medicine and disease interventions, exercise is too often underlooked as a viable form of treatment or complementary treatment to medication. This is especially true with Parkinson’s Disease, a disease that attacks the basal ganglia of the brain and impairs neuromuscular function. In my analysis, I read a perspective from a PD patient, Gerry Hill, who has struggled with the disease himself and how he used physical activity to aid in his battle with the disease for both physical and psychological aid. Additionally, I performed research to understand how exercise benefits function within the brain. Aerobic exercise, …


Biostimulation With Low-Level Laser Therapy And Its Effects On Soft And Hard Tissue Regeneration. Literature Review, Anida Maria Babtan, Aranka Ilea, Claudia Nicoleta Feurdean, Sabino Ceci, Berate Pula, Sebastian Candrea, Daniela Azzollini, Fabio Piras, Luigi Curatoli, Alberto Corriero, Assunta Patano, Francesco Valente, Maria Elena Maggiore, Antonio Mancini, Delia Giovanniello, Ludovica Nucci, Rossella Elia, Adina Sirbu, Nausica Bianca Petrescu, Codruta Mirica, Andrea Galderisi, Filippo Cardarelli 2022 Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy

Biostimulation With Low-Level Laser Therapy And Its Effects On Soft And Hard Tissue Regeneration. Literature Review, Anida Maria Babtan, Aranka Ilea, Claudia Nicoleta Feurdean, Sabino Ceci, Berate Pula, Sebastian Candrea, Daniela Azzollini, Fabio Piras, Luigi Curatoli, Alberto Corriero, Assunta Patano, Francesco Valente, Maria Elena Maggiore, Antonio Mancini, Delia Giovanniello, Ludovica Nucci, Rossella Elia, Adina Sirbu, Nausica Bianca Petrescu, Codruta Mirica, Andrea Galderisi, Filippo Cardarelli

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Objective. Low-Level Laser Therapy encourages the healing process, reduces inflammation and pain. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of Low-Level Laser Therapy on tissue regeneration with special attention to hard tissues and to compare the effect of several wave lengths in the proliferation and differentiation of cells. Methods. The keywords used were “bone regeneration”, “laser therapy”, “photobiomodulation” OR “bio-stimulation”, “Low-Level Laser therapy” OR “LLLT”, “osteoblast proliferation” AND “differentiation”. Results. The bio-stimulation with Low-Level Laser Therapy also seems to interfere with the osseous integration of implants, by increasing its adherence on the bone-implant surfaces. Evidence has shown …


The Vespa Project: Virtual Reality Interventions For Neurocognitive And Developmental Disorders, Emanuele Maria Merlo, Liam Alexander MacKenzie Myles, Salvatore Marco Pappalardo 2022 University of Messina, Department of Adult and Childhood Human Pathology “Gaetano Barresi”, Messina, Italy

The Vespa Project: Virtual Reality Interventions For Neurocognitive And Developmental Disorders, Emanuele Maria Merlo, Liam Alexander Mackenzie Myles, Salvatore Marco Pappalardo

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

VESPA is a financed project supported by the Sicilian Regional Research and Development funds, and it is structured by the development, research and validation of Virtual Reality (VR) based application for the diagnosis and treatment of neurocognitive conditions. In particular, this article presents its characteristics, referred to as the first (2013-2015) and second (2021-ongoing) generations of VESPA, with particular reference to literature regarding the VR technology application and development, the VR treatment of neurocognitive conditions and prior versions of this intervention. Through a comprehensive review of the research conducted over the last 5 years, evidence has emerged supporting VESPA’s aim …


Influence Of Core Temperature On Psychomotor Performance During Cold Weather Military Training, Douglas Jones, Rebecca Weller, Stephen Eggan, Nicholas Roberts, Weimin Zheng, Jay Heaney, Timothy Dunn 2022 Naval Health Research Center

Influence Of Core Temperature On Psychomotor Performance During Cold Weather Military Training, Douglas Jones, Rebecca Weller, Stephen Eggan, Nicholas Roberts, Weimin Zheng, Jay Heaney, Timothy Dunn

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Purpose: Cold environments may deteriorate psychomotor performance due to slowing of neuronal signals, distractions caused by pain and discomfort, and a loss of manual dexterity. The extent to which core temperature (Tc) influences psychomotor performance in the cold has not been established. Therefore, psychomotor performance and Tc were assessed during a cold weather military training exercise to evaluate this relationship.

Methods: Thirty-six military personnel (age: 26 ± 4 yr, ht: 175 ± 8 cm, wt: 79.1 ± 11.1 kg) participating in cold weather training volunteered for this study. Participants completed a 10-min immersion in cold (1°C) water, …


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