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Perceptual Variations In Thermoregulation During Exercise In A Hot Environment, William C. Alger 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Perceptual Variations In Thermoregulation During Exercise In A Hot Environment, William C. Alger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Professionals are seeking to find ways to prevent exertional heat illness (EHI) in populations working in hot environments as well as populations that are physically active. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate individuals’ ability to accurately perceive core temperature ranges associated with homeothermic and EHI temperatures during exercise. Ten physically active males exercised on a treadmill at a self-selected rate until core temperature reached 39°C. Participants rated perceived core and skin temperature on 100 mm scales each time core temperature increased 0.25˚ C (37.5-39.0˚ C), along with thermal comfort and sweating sensation ...


The Effects Of Direct Peritoneal Resuscitation On Leukocyte Infiltration After Acute Brain Death., Jessica Lee Weaver 2016 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Direct Peritoneal Resuscitation On Leukocyte Infiltration After Acute Brain Death., Jessica Lee Weaver

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Brain death triggers an inflammatory response that is associated with worse outcomes for recipients of transplanted organs procured from brain dead donors. The intestine has been shown to release inflammatory mediators in other types of shock, but its role is brain death is not well described. Direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) improves visceral organ blood flow and has been shown to reduce inflammation after hemorrhagic shock. Better understanding of this inflammatory process within the peripheral organs, the effects of DPR, and the role of the intestine could aid in better resuscitation of potential organ donors. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were ...


Seniors Welcome! Avoiding The Trap Of Age Limits In Health Research, Arshad Jahangir 2016 Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani Center for Integrative Research on Cardiovascular Aging, Aurora Research Institute

Seniors Welcome! Avoiding The Trap Of Age Limits In Health Research, Arshad Jahangir

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

The guest editor introduces this specialty issue of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, which focuses on cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. The reality of an aging population has increased the need for better evidence-based medicine in older patients. However, randomized controlled trials frequently exclude such patients, especially those with comorbidities, from study. This practice ignores the fact that physiologic changes to the cardiovascular system caused by the aging process and aging-associated diseases create clinical dilemmas distinct from those in younger patients. Considering the rising costs of health care and growing incidence of cardiovascular disease, research efforts and resources ...


Effects Of Auditory Vection Speed And Directional Congruence On Perceptions Of Visual Vection, Isabella Alexis Gagliano 2016 Old Dominion University

Effects Of Auditory Vection Speed And Directional Congruence On Perceptions Of Visual Vection, Isabella Alexis Gagliano

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Spatial disorientation is a major contributor to aircraft mishaps. One potential contributing factor is vection, an illusion of self-motion. Although vection is commonly thought of as a visual illusion, it can also be produced through audition. The purpose of the current experiment was to explore interactions between conflicting visual and auditory vection cues, specifically with regard to the speed and direction of rotation. The ultimate goal was to explore the extent to which aural vection could diminish or enhance the perception of visual vection. The study used a 3 × 2 within-groups factorial design. Participants were exposed to three levels of ...


The Substrate Of The Biopsychosocial Influences In The Carcinogenesis Of The Digestive Tract, Georgică C. Târtea, Cristina Florescu, Daniel Pirici, Daniel Caragea, Elena A. Târtea, Cristin C. Vere 2016 Cardiology Resident Doctor, PhD Student Internal Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania

The Substrate Of The Biopsychosocial Influences In The Carcinogenesis Of The Digestive Tract, Georgică C. Târtea, Cristina Florescu, Daniel Pirici, Daniel Caragea, Elena A. Târtea, Cristin C. Vere

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Digestive cancer represents a severe public health problem, being one of the main causes of death. It is considered a multifactorial disease, with hereditary predisposition, environmental factors, and other factors involved in carcinogenesis. Both the evolution and the pathogenesis of digestive neoplasms remain incompletely elucidated. As a multifactorial disease, it can be approached by taking into account the biopsychosocial influences via enteric nervous system. Many peptides and non-peptides having a neurotransmitter role can be found in the enteric nervous system, which can influence the neoplastic process directly or indirectly by affecting some angiogenic, growth, and metastasis factors. However, neurotransmitters can ...


A Note Regarding The Mathematical Treatment Of A Class Of Steady-State Compartmental Models Of The Circulation, Ronald White 2016 Montana Tech of the University of Montana

A Note Regarding The Mathematical Treatment Of A Class Of Steady-State Compartmental Models Of The Circulation, Ronald White

Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing (CAMP)

A class of steady-state compartmental models of the circulation is examined and it is shown that the mathematical problem for this model class involves a single nonlinear equation. In an important subclass and with certain assumptions regarding the form of the Starling-type cardiac function curves, the single equation is of the form Z = μ + λ log[(1 − Z)/Z] where μ and λ are mathematical parameters related to the physiological parameters of the system and Z is proportional to the cardiac output. This result holds regardless of the number and arrangement of compartments within the model itself or of the ...


Respiratory Rate Variability In Sleeping Adults Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Guillermo Gutierrez, Jeffrey Williams, Ghadah Alrehaili, Anna McLean, Ramin Pirouz, Richard L. Amdur, Vivek Jain, Jalil Ahari, Amandeep Bawa, Shawn Kimbro 2016 George Washington University

Respiratory Rate Variability In Sleeping Adults Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Guillermo Gutierrez, Jeffrey Williams, Ghadah Alrehaili, Anna Mclean, Ramin Pirouz, Richard L. Amdur, Vivek Jain, Jalil Ahari, Amandeep Bawa, Shawn Kimbro

Surgery Faculty Publications

Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea‐hypopnea index <5, who underwent all‐night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 − H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid‐eye‐movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns.


Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mutation Suppresses Hyperhomocysteinemia-Mediated Hypertension., Anastasia Familtseva 2016 University of Louisville

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mutation Suppresses Hyperhomocysteinemia-Mediated Hypertension., Anastasia Familtseva

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been observed to promote hypertension, but the mechanisms are unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is a cellular membrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed in all cell types of the vasculature. TLR-4 activation has been shown to promote inflammation that has been associated with pathogenesis of hypertension. In this study, we hypothesize that HHcy induces hypertension by TLR-4 activation that promotes inflammatory cytokine up-regulation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death and chronic vascular inflammation. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we used C57BL/6J mice (WT); Cystathionine-β-synthase deficient mice (CBS+/-) with genetic ...


Incidence Of Hypomagnesemia On Proton Pump Inhibitors At The Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – Ihop, Ebrahim Sabbagh, DO, Chelsey R. Houchins, James Allman, II, PharmD, Samson Teka, MD 2016 Marshall University

Incidence Of Hypomagnesemia On Proton Pump Inhibitors At The Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – Ihop, Ebrahim Sabbagh, Do, Chelsey R. Houchins, James Allman, Ii, Pharmd, Samson Teka, Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Title: Incidence of hypomagnesemia on proton pump inhibitors at the Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – IHOP

Purpose:

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), both prescription and over-the-counter, are widely used for the treatment of acid-related disease states such as dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflex disease, esophagitis, and peptic ulcers. These medications are generally considered safe in most patient populations; however, there are several adverse effects that may occur with long-term use. Hypomagnesemia is a newer complication arising in the literature following multiple case reports over the past several years, although the true incidence of hypomagnesemia associated with PPI use remains unclear at this ...


Synapse Formation In Monosynaptic Sensory–Motor Connections Is Regulated By Presynaptic Rho Gtpase Cdc42, Fumiyasu Imai, David R. Ladle, Jennifer R. Leslie, Xin Duan, Tilat A. Rizvi, Georgianne M. Ciraolo, Yi Zheng, Yutaka Yoshida 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Synapse Formation In Monosynaptic Sensory–Motor Connections Is Regulated By Presynaptic Rho Gtpase Cdc42, Fumiyasu Imai, David R. Ladle, Jennifer R. Leslie, Xin Duan, Tilat A. Rizvi, Georgianne M. Ciraolo, Yi Zheng, Yutaka Yoshida

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Spinal reflex circuit development requires the precise regulation of axon trajectories, synaptic specificity, and synapse formation. Of these three crucial steps, the molecular mechanisms underlying synapse formation between group Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons and motor neurons is the least understood. Here, we show that the Rho GTPase Cdc42 controls synapse formation in monosynaptic sensory–motor connections in presynaptic, but not postsynaptic, neurons. In mice lacking Cdc42 in presynaptic sensory neurons, proprioceptive sensory axons appropriately reach the ventral spinal cord, but significantly fewer synapses are formed with motor neurons compared with wild-type mice. Concordantly, electrophysiological analyses show diminished EPSP amplitudes in ...


Murine Hypometabolism: A Putative Signaling Pathway., Trevor Thomas Hollinger 2016 Dickinson College

Murine Hypometabolism: A Putative Signaling Pathway., Trevor Thomas Hollinger

Honors Theses By Year

Hypometabolism is an important energy saving, highly regulated physiological response for some mammals; however, its mechanisms of control have yet to be fully described. It induces a reduction in metabolic rate, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. Although the degree and rate of body temperature decrease is subject to ambient temperatures, mammals still maintain control over the whole process. A major goal of hypometabolism appears to be maintaining energetic stores within the body as external food sources become sparse. Uncovering the mechanisms by which these mammals control this process is of interest as organ and tissue damage following hypometabolism ...


A Reduced Order Model For Efficient Physiological Flow Analysis In Aneurysms By Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, Gary Han Chang, Yahya Modarres-Sadeghi 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Reduced Order Model For Efficient Physiological Flow Analysis In Aneurysms By Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, Gary Han Chang, Yahya Modarres-Sadeghi

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Simulating physiological flows using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) remains to be computationally expensive and difficult for clinical usage because of the physiological flow and geometrical complexity involved in patient specific situations. We use the reduced order modeling (ROM) of such systems with high nonlinearity and geometrical non-uniformity to replace the full, nonlinear model with a low-degrees of freedom ROM model. We construct ROM models by the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method to estimate the flow-induced wall shear stress (WSS) and pressure loading of a simplified abdominal aortic aneurysm and a bifurcation cerebral aneurysm. This method allows us to investigate a ...


Physiological And Social Stress On Cognitive Performance, Doreet Nagatti, Daniele Anina, Maria Daigle, Kymberlee M. O'Brien 2016 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Physiological And Social Stress On Cognitive Performance, Doreet Nagatti, Daniele Anina, Maria Daigle, Kymberlee M. O'Brien

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Humans are highly social creatures and this provides us with a number of benefits, such as protection and support, but it also brings new avenues for stress from social sources. Basic and translational neuroendocrine research has yielded a rich set of findings and a general understanding of how acute and chronic stress can result in reduced health, earlier aging, and earlier death. Although stress can be indexed by level of cortisol, the major stress hormone in humans, many interrelated physiological systems are involved in a stress response, including the cardio and vascular systems. Research toward greater understanding of stress buffering ...


Mechanisms Of Lateral-Inhibitory Feedback From Horizontal Cells To Cone Photoreceptors At The First Synapse Of The Retina, Ted J. Warren 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Mechanisms Of Lateral-Inhibitory Feedback From Horizontal Cells To Cone Photoreceptors At The First Synapse Of The Retina, Ted J. Warren

Theses & Dissertations

Polarization of the horizontal cell (HC) membrane potential causes changes in the synaptic cleft pH that result in inhibitory feedback from HCs to cone photoreceptors (PRs). HCs average signals from many PRs and so negative feedback onto PR terminals from HCs subtracts the average luminance of the visual scene from the light responses of an individual cone. This feedback operates by changing the voltage-dependence and amplitude of the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) that regulates synaptic release. Feedback regulation of PR Ca2+ channels involves protons but the mechanism by which this pH change occurs is unclear. We investigated ...


Why Does Obesity Lead To Hypertension? Further Lessons From The Intersalt Study., Preeya T. Shah, Anna P. Shapiro, Zeid Khitan MD, Prasanna Santhanam MD, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2016 Joan C Edwards School of Medicine

Why Does Obesity Lead To Hypertension? Further Lessons From The Intersalt Study., Preeya T. Shah, Anna P. Shapiro, Zeid Khitan Md, Prasanna Santhanam Md, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Prasanna Santhanam

Objectives

To analyze correlations between major determinants of blood pressure (BP), in efforts to generate and compare predictive models that explain for variance in systolic, diastolic, and mean BP amongst participants of the Intersalt study.

Methods

Data from the Intersalt study, consisting of nearly 10,000 subjects from 32 different countries, were reviewed and analyzed. Published mean values of 24 hour urinary electrolyte excretion (Na+, K+), 24 hour urine creatinine excretion, body mass index (BMI, kg/m^2), and blood pressure data were extracted and imported into Matlab™ for stepwise linear regression analysis.

Results

As shown earlier, strong correlations between ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun 2016 University of Connecticut

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


Why Does Obesity Lead To Hypertension? Further Lessons From The Intersalt Study., Preeya T. Shah, Anna P. Shapiro, Zeid Khitan MD, Prasanna Santhanam MD, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2016 Joan C Edwards School of Medicine

Why Does Obesity Lead To Hypertension? Further Lessons From The Intersalt Study., Preeya T. Shah, Anna P. Shapiro, Zeid Khitan Md, Prasanna Santhanam Md, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Joseph I Shapiro MD

Objectives

To analyze correlations between major determinants of blood pressure (BP), in efforts to generate and compare predictive models that explain for variance in systolic, diastolic, and mean BP amongst participants of the Intersalt study.

Methods

Data from the Intersalt study, consisting of nearly 10,000 subjects from 32 different countries, were reviewed and analyzed. Published mean values of 24 hour urinary electrolyte excretion (Na+, K+), 24 hour urine creatinine excretion, body mass index (BMI, kg/m^2), and blood pressure data were extracted and imported into Matlab™ for stepwise linear regression analysis.

Results

As shown earlier, strong correlations between ...


The Mind Body Problem, Part Three: Ascension Of Sexual Function To Cerebral Level, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland 2016 Carol Davila University, Department of Surgery and Psychiatry

The Mind Body Problem, Part Three: Ascension Of Sexual Function To Cerebral Level, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Physiologically, the somatic nervous system intervenes in external interaction between the body and environment, while autonomic nervous system ensures the functioning of internal organs. We present in this paper a psycho-physiological perspective suggesting that mental function (somatic in nature, because coordinates environmental interaction) is closer to and more aligned with the physiologic functioning of autonomic nervous system (due to autonomy, duality, etc.). At opposite end, sexual function (autonomic in nature, erection for example being a parasympathetic vasodilatory reflex) seems to be compatible and even dependent by a somatic participation (erectile response is rather induced by environmental stimuli than internal visceral ...


Caffeine Enhances Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis In Rats, Claire Coleman, Rhiannon Shelton, Kathryn Clark, Colleen M. Novak, Lydia A. Heemstra 2016 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Caffeine Enhances Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis In Rats, Claire Coleman, Rhiannon Shelton, Kathryn Clark, Colleen M. Novak, Lydia A. Heemstra

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Caffeine and its derivatives have been used, alone and in combination with other phytochemicals, as weight-loss supplements. Caffeine impacts several physiological and behavioral aspects of energy balance. Here, we investigate the potential for caffeine to enhance non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) even when activity level is held constant. To do this, muscle thermogenesis and energy expenditure (EE) were measured in rats during treadmill walking regimens, with and without caffeine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Muscle heat dissipation was significantly increased by caffeine only at the end of the 25-min treadmill test. Activity-related EE, on the other hand, was significantly increased throughout ...


Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans MD, Elias Salloum MD, Matthew K. Wingate MD, Thomas Melvin MD, Grant S. Buchanan MD, Franklin D. Shuler MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University

Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans Md, Elias Salloum Md, Matthew K. Wingate Md, Thomas Melvin Md, Grant S. Buchanan Md, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Vitamin D is known to play an essential role in calcium homeostasis; however, excessive amounts can have harmful effects. Calcium and vitamin D levels are known to be influenced by drug interactions and pathology ranging from of cancer to cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D supplementation has become widespread, and it is important for clinicians to understand the way that certain conditions and medications interact with vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to outline the benefits and adverse effects of vitamin D and how its levels are affected by certain pathologic and pharmacologic interactions.


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