Effect Of A Novel Long-Acting Neutralizing Monoclonal Acth Antibody (Ald1611) In The Neonatal Rat: Basal And Corticosterone Responses To Acth And Hypoxic Stress, Ashley Gehrand, Jonathan M. Phillips, Kevin Malott, Hershel Raff
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Background: The control of steroidogenesis in the neonatal adrenal gland is of great clinical interest. We have demonstrated that the newborn rat [postnatal day (PD) 2] exhibits a corticosterone response to hypoxia in the absence of an increase in plasma ACTH measured by radioimmunoassay, whereas the corticosterone response to exogenous ACTH is intact. By PD8, the corticosterone response to hypoxia is ACTH-dependent. This apparently ACTH-independent response to hypoxia in the newborn rat may be due to an increase in a bioactive, non-immunoassayable form of ACTH.
Purpose: To evaluate the ACTH-independent response to hypoxia in newborn rats using a novel, specific ...
Using Pair Approximation Methods To Analyze Behavior Of A Probabilistic Cellular Automaton Model For Intracellular Cardiac Calcium Dynamics, Robert J. Rovetti
Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research
No abstract provided.
Platelet Function In Normal Pregnancy, 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Platelet Function In Normal Pregnancy, Naomi Burke
The concept for this thesis arose after a collaboration between the Platelet Biology Laboratory and the Department of Obstetrics and Gyanecology in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. They discovered a significant difference in platelet aggregation in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss using a novel platelet assay. This posed the question as to whether or not this platelet assay would eludicate different platelet reactivity at different time points in a normal, heathy pregnancy. The objective was to critically evaluate platelet reactivity in normal pregnancy using this assay which assessed platelet aggregation to several agonists at multiple ...
Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center
Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, Michael Price
Theses & Dissertations
Alcohol abuse, which can impair clearance of pathogens and debris from the airway, is associated with an increase in complications and a higher mortality rate during the progression of pneumonia. With prolonged alcohol exposure, mucociliary clearance (MCC), which depends on the coordinated beating of cilia, is dysfunctional. Effective MCC relies on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF). PKA activation and stimulation of CBF are blunted with chronic exposure to alcohol. This phenomenon is known as alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction (AICD). Previous studies have shown that concomitant feeding of mice with alcohol and antioxidants prevents AICD, suggesting a ...
Otologic Blast Injuries, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Otologic Blast Injuries, Michelle Singer
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The otologic system functions as a highly sensitive pressure transducer. Because of this, the ear is the most commonly affected organ in primary blast injury. Frequently encountered symptoms include hearing loss, tinnitus, and tympanic membrane perforations. The ear is repeatedly overlooked during triage and easily forgotten in subjects with multiple injuries after major catastrophic events such as explosions. This systematic review provides an overview of the most common otologic injuries observed after blast exposure in a variety of settings and populations. An analysis of 35 studies and an additional 23 reviews was performed in attempt to uncover patterns of otologic ...
Investigation Into The Role Of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (Pdgf) In Type I Collagen Glomerulopathy, 2018 Missouri State University
Investigation Into The Role Of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (Pdgf) In Type I Collagen Glomerulopathy, Isaac C. Springer
MSU Graduate Theses
Progressive accumulation of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins within renal glomeruli have implications for or result in renal fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, with both events culminating in renal failure. To model this accumulation the Col1a2-deficient mouse model was used. The Col1a2-deficientmouse model is characterized by a mutation in the a2(I) chain, preventing incorporation into the type I collagen molecule. As a result, an α1(I) collagen chain incorporates into the collagen triple helix forming homotrimeric type I collagen, as opposed to heterotrimeric type I collagen. This change is due to the secondary wound healing response in response to ...
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, 2018 Huntington VA Medical Center
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas
Marshall Journal of Medicine
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consist of over twenty possible symptoms that can be divided into six broad categories. These categories correlate with specific brain networks that regulate emotions, behaviors, and autonomic function. Normal functioning of these networks depends on two key regions; the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. The prefrontal cortex provides top-down executive control over amygdala, whereas the amygdala is critical for threat detection and activation of the ‘fight or flight’ response. Events that trigger extreme and/or prolonged fear can cause persisting dysregulation within the prefrontal-amygdala circuit ...
Factors Involved In Suppression Of Human Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes And Impact Of Checkpoint Blockades On The Effector Functions Of Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes, Minji Choi, Andrew Wiemer, Andrea Hubbard, Brian Aneskievich
University Scholar Projects
Chronic antigenic stimulation leads to T cell exhaustion, which drastically dampens T cell effector functions. Upon exhaustion, T cells progressively lose their proliferative capacity, cytokine production, and cytotoxic effector functions against tumors. T cell exhaustion involves programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), which is an inhibitory co-stimulation receptor. Limited scope of studies has been done regarding impact of PD-1 expression on the effector functions of γδ T cells. In this study, we investigated expression of PD-1 and its impact on effector functions of human γδ T cells. When γδ T cells were stimulated with phosphoantigens (HMBPP and POM2-C-HMBP) and analyzed ...
Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, 2018 University of Connecticut
Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith
Honors Scholar Theses
The ability of the brain to extract meaningful information from complex sounds is what allows mammals to understand species-specific communication as well as important environmental cues such as the sound of water or of potential predators or prey. The auditory cortex of humans and other mammals contains multiple cortical regions that unique sensitivities to both spectral and temporal sound cues. This discourse will explore three main factors proposed to determine these distinct processing capabilities in regard to temporal sound cues; the distribution of glutamate transporters in the thalamus, the architecture of afferent pathways between the thalamus and auditory cortex, and ...
Maternal Psychological Distress And Cortsiol, 2018 DePaul University
Maternal Psychological Distress And Cortsiol, Jenna Schroeder
Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium
Background: Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal maternal distress and negative health outcomes for the unborn. There are gaps within this body of knowledge and inconsistencies in the research which make the relevant relationships unclear. If changes in maternal cortisol cause alterations in fetal development, it is important to gain an adequate understanding of how, and if, maternal psychological distress predicts maternal cortisol levels. This study is an integrative literature review that looks at the research investigating a connection between maternal psychological distress and maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy. Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) Transactional Model of Stress ...
Physiological And Cognitive Factors Related To Human Performance During The Grand Canyon Rim-To-Rim Hike, 2018 Sandia National Laboratories, NM
Physiological And Cognitive Factors Related To Human Performance During The Grand Canyon Rim-To-Rim Hike, Kristin Divis, Clifford Anderson-Bergman, Robert Abbott, Victoria Newton, Glory Emmanuel-Aviña
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments
Exposure to extreme environments is both mentally and physically taxing, leading to suboptimal performance and even life-threatening emergencies. Physiological and cognitive monitoring could provide the earliest indicator of performance decline and inform appropriate therapeutic intervention, yet little research has explored the relationship between these markers in strenuous settings. The Rim-to-Rim Wearables at the Canyon for Health (R2RWATCH) study is a research project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency to identify which physiological and cognitive phenomena collected by non-invasive wearable devices are the most related to performance in extreme environments. In a pilot study, data were ...
Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Exposure Promotes Multiple Myeloma Development In Black/6 Mice, 2018 University of Iowa
Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Exposure Promotes Multiple Myeloma Development In Black/6 Mice, Sandeep Kowkuntla
University of Iowa Honors Theses
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignancy of bone marrow plasma B cells and is associated with obesity. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to MM risk remains unclear, however, we speculate the linking factor to be sleep apnea which we simulated by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). 5TGM1 cells are a murine MM cell line derived from the KaLwRij strain that fail to routinely engraft in Black6 mice. To test the hypothesis that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) promotes the development of MM, we exposed MM-resistant C57BL/6 mice to 10h/day of CIH during the light cycle (AHI=10-12/h ...
Sleep Quality, Anxiety And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Humans, 2018 University of Iowa
Sleep Quality, Anxiety And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Humans, Melissa Rader
University of Iowa Honors Theses
Adequate sleep duration and sleep quality are essential for maintaining cardiovascular health. Short sleep duration is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, however, less is known about whether sleep quality, independent of sleep duration, is associated with CVD risk. Anxiety is also an independent risk factor for development of CVD, but how anxiety leads to CVD is unclear. Our overall hypothesis is that higher anxiety and vascular biomarkers of CVD risk (arterial stiffness and altered 24-hour blood pressure patterns) will be associated with poor sleep quality (PSQ) in healthy adults. Specifically, we hypothesize that independent of sleep duration, adults ...
Influence Of Resistance Training On Vascular Function, Hemodynamic, And Perceived Exertion Responses To Fixed Submaximal Workloads In Patients With Coronary Disease, Kerstin Grafe
Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of superimposed resistance training (RT) in aerobically trained coronary patients on systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE; 6–20 scale), and rate pressure product (RPP) at fixed submaximal workloads following a 12-week RT intervention. Additionally, pre-and post-RT measures of brachial artery reactivity, an index of endothelial function, were obtained. METHODS: Fifteen low risk coronary patients (13 men, 2 women; mean ± SD age = 66.1 ± 5.1 yrs) completed a progressive 12-week RT program that complemented their regular aerobic training regimen. Prior to training, SBP, HR, RPP, and RPE were ...
Prebiotic Diet Modulates Disruptions In Sleep, Core Body Temperature, And Locomotor Activity Produced By Circadian Disruption, 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder
Prebiotic Diet Modulates Disruptions In Sleep, Core Body Temperature, And Locomotor Activity Produced By Circadian Disruption, Brooke Bower
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Bacteria living in the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) provide beneficial roles for the host including communication with the central nervous system. Recent evidence, for example, suggests that gut-brain signaling may modulate sleep patterns. Since sleep disorders are prevalent in military personnel due to chronic stressors including circadian disruption (CDR), this study was designed to explore a potential intervention known to be efficacious in preventing several negative physiological impacts of acute intense stressor exposure, including disturbed sleep and reduced alpha diversity of the gut microbiota. Prebiotic diets are rich in plant fibers that stimulate growth and activity of healthy promoting gut ...
Development And Validation Of A Semi-Physiological Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Model To Predict Systemic And Pulmonary Exposures After Intravenous, Oral Administration And Pulmonary Inhalation Of Selected Drugs, Budesonide, Tobramycin And Ciprofloxacin, In Humans, 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University
Development And Validation Of A Semi-Physiological Pharmacokinetic (Pbpk) Model To Predict Systemic And Pulmonary Exposures After Intravenous, Oral Administration And Pulmonary Inhalation Of Selected Drugs, Budesonide, Tobramycin And Ciprofloxacin, In Humans, Bishoy Hanna
Theses and Dissertations
Using a semi-PBPK modeling/quantitative meta-analysis approach, this project investigated what factors affect pulmonary and systemic exposures of Budesonide (BUD), Tobramycin (TOB), and Ciprofloxacin (CIP) after inhalation:
Three structurally different pulmonary disposition models were developed for each drug, including pulmonary absorption (all three), excretion (TOB and CIP) and sequestration (TOB) in a peripheral and central lung compartment. Systemic disposition parameters were estimated using available human mean plasma (cp(t)) and sputum (cs(t)) concentration profiles after IV administration, and GI absorption parameters were estimated from these profiles after oral administration. Pulmonary disposition parameters were estimated from cp ...
Quantification Of The Physical Demands And Perceived Wellness Associated With Practice And Competition In Ncaa Division I College Football Players., Aaron D. Wellman
The primary aim of this thesis was to quantify the positional movement demands of pre-season and in-season practice and competition in NCAA division I football players. A secondary aim of this thesis was to examine the subsequent perceived wellness, utilizing a modified questionnaire, associated with pre-season training camp and competition throughout an NCAA division I football season.
Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, 2017 Bowling Green State University
Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo
Inflammation and gut microbiota are two areas of study that can be linked to aging in the body. As a person ages, systemic inflammation tends to increase, and changes in microbiota in the gastrointestinal system occur as well.
Validation Of Minimally-Invasive Sample Collection Methods For Measurement Of Telomere Length, 2017 University of Denver
Validation Of Minimally-Invasive Sample Collection Methods For Measurement Of Telomere Length, Stephanie A. Stout, Jue Lin, Natalie Hernandez, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Judith E. Carroll, Laura M. Glynn
Psychology Faculty Articles and Research
Objective: The discovery of telomere length (TL) as a biomarker of cellular aging and correlate of age-related disease has generated a new field of research in the biology of healthy aging. Although the most common method of sample collection for TL is venous blood draw, less-invasive DNA collection methods are becoming more widely used. However, how TL relates across tissues derived from these sample collection methods is poorly understood. The current study is the first to characterize the associations in TL across three sample collection methods: venous whole blood, finger prick dried blood spot and saliva.
Methods: TL was measured ...
Association Between Leukocyte Telomere Length And The Risk Of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: The Framingham Heart Study, 2017 University Hospital Herlev and Gentofte
Association Between Leukocyte Telomere Length And The Risk Of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: The Framingham Heart Study, Laila Staerk, Biqi Wang, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Robert H. Helm, Darae Ko, Jason A. Sherer, Patrick T. Ellinor, Steven A. Lubitz, David D. Mcmanus, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Emelia J. Benjamin, Ludovic Trinquart
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Advancing age is a prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Shorter telomere length is a biomarker of biological aging, but the link between shorter telomere length and increased risk of AF remains unclear. We examined the association between shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and incident AF.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We included AF-free participants from the observational Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort from 1995 to 1998, who had LTL measurements. We examined the association between baseline LTL and incident AF with multivariable Cox models adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, use of ...