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Trypanosoma Brucei Prmt1 Is A Nucleic Acid Binding Protein With A Role In Energy Metabolism And The Starvation Stress Response., Lucie Kafková, Chengjian Tu, Kyle L. Pazzo, Kyle P. Smith, Erik W. Debler, Kimberly S. Paul, Jun Qu, Laurie K. Read 2018 University at Buffalo, State University of New York

Trypanosoma Brucei Prmt1 Is A Nucleic Acid Binding Protein With A Role In Energy Metabolism And The Starvation Stress Response., Lucie Kafková, Chengjian Tu, Kyle L. Pazzo, Kyle P. Smith, Erik W. Debler, Kimberly S. Paul, Jun Qu, Laurie K. Read

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

In Trypanosoma brucei and related kinetoplastid parasites, transcription of protein coding genes is largely unregulated. Rather, mRNA binding proteins, which impact processes such as transcript stability and translation efficiency, are the predominant regulators of gene expression. Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that preferentially targets RNA binding proteins and is, therefore, likely to have a substantial impact on T. brucei biology. The data presented here demonstrate that cells depleted of T. brucei PRMT1 (TbPRMT1), a major type I protein arginine methyltransferase, exhibit decreased virulence in an animal model. To understand the basis of this phenotype, quantitative global proteomics was employed ...


Sumo-Mediated Regulation Of Nlrp3 Modulates Inflammasome Activity., Rachael Barry, Sidonie Wicky John, Gianmaria Liccardi, Tencho Tenev, Isabel Jaco, Chih-Hong Chen, Justin Choi, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S Alnemri, Marcin Drag, Yuan Chen, Pascal Meier 2018 The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research; Imperial College London

Sumo-Mediated Regulation Of Nlrp3 Modulates Inflammasome Activity., Rachael Barry, Sidonie Wicky John, Gianmaria Liccardi, Tencho Tenev, Isabel Jaco, Chih-Hong Chen, Justin Choi, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S Alnemri, Marcin Drag, Yuan Chen, Pascal Meier

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to infection and tissue damage, and rapidly escalates the intensity of inflammation by activating interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and cell death by pyroptosis. How the NLRP3 inflammasome is negatively regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is suppressed by sumoylation. NLRP3 is sumoylated by the SUMO E3-ligase MAPL, and stimulation-dependent NLRP3 desumoylation by the SUMO-specific proteases SENP6 and SENP7 promotes NLRP3 activation. Defective NLRP3 sumoylation, either by NLRP3 mutation of SUMO acceptor lysines or depletion of MAPL, results in enhanced caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release. Conversely, depletion of SENP7 suppresses NLRP3-dependent ASC ...


Dna Methylation-Based Age Prediction And Telomere Length In White Blood Cells And Cumulus Cells Of Infertile Women With Normal Or Poor Response To Ovarian Stimulation., Scott J. Morin, Xin Tao, Diego Marin, Yiping Zhan, Jessica Landis, Jenna Bedard, Richard T. Scott, Emre Seli 2018 IVIRMA New Jersey; Thomas Jefferson University

Dna Methylation-Based Age Prediction And Telomere Length In White Blood Cells And Cumulus Cells Of Infertile Women With Normal Or Poor Response To Ovarian Stimulation., Scott J. Morin, Xin Tao, Diego Marin, Yiping Zhan, Jessica Landis, Jenna Bedard, Richard T. Scott, Emre Seli

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

An algorithm assessing the methylation levels of 353 informative CpG sites in the human genome permits accurate prediction of the chronologic age of a subject. Interestingly, when there is discrepancy between the predicted age and chronologic age (age acceleration or "AgeAccel"), patients are at risk for morbidity and mortality. Identification of infertile patients at risk for accelerated reproductive senescence may permit preventative action. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the "epigenetic clock" concept in reproductive age women undergoing fertility treatment by applying the age prediction algorithm in peripheral (white blood cells [WBCs]) and follicular somatic cells (cumulus cells ...


Parp-1 Regulates Dna Repair Factor Availability., M J Schiewer, Amy C. Mandigo, Nicolas Gordon, Fangjin Huang, Sanchaika Gaur, Renée de Leeuw, Shuang G Zhao, Joseph Evans, Sumin Han, Theodore Parsons, Ruth Birbe, Peter McCue, Christopher McNair, Saswati N. Chand, Ylenia Cendon-Florez, Peter Gallagher, Jennifer J McCann, Neermala Poudel Neupane, Ayesha A Shafi, Emanuela Dylgjeri, Lucas J Brand, Tapio Visakorpi, Ganesh V Raj, Costas D. Lallas, Edouard J Trabulsi, Leonard G Gomella, Adam Dicker MD, PhD, William Kevin Kelly, Benjamin E Leiby, Beatrice Knudsen, Felix Y Feng, Karen E Knudsen 2018 Department of Cancer Biology, Thomas Jefferson University; Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA

Parp-1 Regulates Dna Repair Factor Availability., M J Schiewer, Amy C. Mandigo, Nicolas Gordon, Fangjin Huang, Sanchaika Gaur, Renée De Leeuw, Shuang G Zhao, Joseph Evans, Sumin Han, Theodore Parsons, Ruth Birbe, Peter Mccue, Christopher Mcnair, Saswati N. Chand, Ylenia Cendon-Florez, Peter Gallagher, Jennifer J Mccann, Neermala Poudel Neupane, Ayesha A Shafi, Emanuela Dylgjeri, Lucas J Brand, Tapio Visakorpi, Ganesh V Raj, Costas D. Lallas, Edouard J Trabulsi, Leonard G Gomella, Adam Dicker Md, Phd, William Kevin Kelly, Benjamin E Leiby, Beatrice Knudsen, Felix Y Feng, Karen E Knudsen

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

PARP-1 holds major functions on chromatin, DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation, both of which are relevant in the context of cancer. Here, unbiased transcriptional profiling revealed the downstream transcriptional profile of PARP-1 enzymatic activity. Further investigation of the PARP-1-regulated transcriptome and secondary strategies for assessing PARP-1 activity in patient tissues revealed that PARP-1 activity was unexpectedly enriched as a function of disease progression and was associated with poor outcome independent of DNA double-strand breaks, suggesting that enhanced PARP-1 activity may promote aggressive phenotypes. Mechanistic investigation revealed that active PARP-1 served to enhance E2F1 transcription factor activity, and specifically promoted ...


Extracellular Interactions Between Fibulins And Transforming Growth Factor (Tgf)-Β In Physiological And Pathological Conditions., Takeshi Tsuda 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Extracellular Interactions Between Fibulins And Transforming Growth Factor (Tgf)-Β In Physiological And Pathological Conditions., Takeshi Tsuda

Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a multifunctional peptide growth factor that has a vital role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, inflammation, and repair in a variety of tissues, and its dysregulation mediates a number of pathological conditions including fibrotic disorders, chronic inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer progression. Regulation of TGF-β signaling is multifold, but one critical site of regulation is via interaction with certain extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments, as TGF-β is primarily secreted as a biologically inactive form sequestrated into ECM. Several ECM proteins are known to modulate TGF-β signaling via cell⁻matrix interactions, including thrombospondins, SPARC ...


Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor 2018 University of Louisville

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...


Identifying Kif Subtype That Mediates Axonal Targeting Of Kv7 Channels, Allison Houghton, Jennifer Walters, Mary Hong, Dhruv Joshi, Hee Jung Chung 2018 St. Charles Community College

Identifying Kif Subtype That Mediates Axonal Targeting Of Kv7 Channels, Allison Houghton, Jennifer Walters, Mary Hong, Dhruv Joshi, Hee Jung Chung

PRECS 2018

Early-onset Benign Familial Neonatal Epilepsy (BFNE) and Epileptic Encephalopathy (EE), are associated with mutations in neuronal KCNQ/Kv7 channel subunits Kv7.2 and Kv7.3. Kv7 channels are voltage-dependent potassium channels. Enriched at the axonal plasma membrane, they pump potassium ions out of the neurons and inhibit repetitive or burst firing of action potentials. A single neuronal Kv7 channel is a heterotetramer composed of two Kv7.2 and two Kv7.3 subunits. BFNE and EE mutations in Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 lead to decreased surface expression along the axon, which means less potassium ions are moved across the axonal ...


Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre 2018 Philippine Science High School

Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Mutations in the coding DNA of KRAS, which encodes for an active protein in the Ras signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation and growth, may be critical in the development of lung and colorectal cancer in humans. Clinical tests and therapies for cancer specifically target mutations, some of which may cause erroneous prognosis and prescription of cancer therapy posing more danger for patients with unique mutations. Therefore, characterization of non-hotspot mutations is becoming more important, where, KRAS R164L is an existing uncharacterized mutation identified through the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC). The project aimed to clone a pTarget overexpression ...


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre 2018 Philippine Science High School

Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Mutations in the coding DNA of KRAS, which encodes for an active protein in the Ras signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation and growth, may be critical in the development of lung and colorectal cancer in humans. Clinical tests and therapies for cancer specifically target mutations, some of which may cause erroneous prognosis and prescription of cancer therapy posing more danger for patients with unique mutations. Therefore, characterization of non-hotspot mutations is becoming more important, where, KRAS R164L is an existing uncharacterized mutation identified through the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC). The project aimed to clone a pTarget overexpression ...


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...


The Mitochondrial Protease Htra2 Restricts The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes., Ian Gaël Rodrigue-Gervais, Karine Doiron, Claudia Champagne, Lindsey Mayes, Gabriel André Leiva-Torres, Paulin Vanié, Todd Douglas, Silvia M. Vidal, Emad S. Alnemri, Maya Saleh 2018 McGill University; INRS-Institut Armand Frappier

The Mitochondrial Protease Htra2 Restricts The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes., Ian Gaël Rodrigue-Gervais, Karine Doiron, Claudia Champagne, Lindsey Mayes, Gabriel André Leiva-Torres, Paulin Vanié, Todd Douglas, Silvia M. Vidal, Emad S. Alnemri, Maya Saleh

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Activation of the inflammasome pathway is crucial for effective intracellular host defense. The mitochondrial network plays an important role in inflammasome regulation but the mechanisms linking mitochondrial homeostasis to attenuation of inflammasome activation are not fully understood. Here, we report that the Parkinson's disease-associated mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2 restricts the activation of ASC-dependent NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, in a protease activity-dependent manner. Consistently, disruption of the protease activity of HtrA2 results in exacerbated NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome responses in macrophages ex vivo and systemically in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that the HtrA2 protease activity regulates autophagy and controls the ...


Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, transfer endogenous RNAs between neurons over short and long distances. We have explored EVs for siRNA delivery to brain. (1) We optimized siRNA chemical modifications and siRNA conjugation to lipids for EV-mediated delivery. (2) We developed a GMP-compatible, scalable method to manufacture active EVs in bulk. (3) We characterized lipid and protein content of EVs in detail. (4) We established how protein and lipid composition relates to siRNA delivering activity of EVs, and we reverse engineered natural exosomes (small EVs) into artificial exosomes based on these data.

We established that cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs passively associate ...


Abrogation Of Transforming Growth Factor-Β-Induced Tissue Fibrosis In Tbricacol1a2cre Transgenic Mice By The Second Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ski-606 (Bosutinib)., Peter J. Wermuth, Sergio A. Jimenez 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Abrogation Of Transforming Growth Factor-Β-Induced Tissue Fibrosis In Tbricacol1a2cre Transgenic Mice By The Second Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ski-606 (Bosutinib)., Peter J. Wermuth, Sergio A. Jimenez

Jefferson Institute of Molecular Medicine Papers and Presentations

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) and other fibrotic disorders. TGF-β-mediated c-Abl and Src kinase activation induces strong profibrotic cascade signaling. The purpose of this study was to test in vivo the antifibrotic activity of Bosutinib (SKI-606), a second generation c-Abl and Src kinase inhibitor, on TGF-β induced cutaneous and pulmonary fibrosis. For this purpose, we employed the TBRIcaCol1a2Cre transgenic mice expressing an inducible constitutively active TGF-β receptor 1 constitutively activated by Col1a promoter-mediated Cre recombinase. The mice were treated parenterally with 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg ...


Somatic Mutation Detection In Leukemia-Derived Circulating Dna: Utility In Monitoring Clonal Dynamics And Disease Response In Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Sarah Hisham Abdelaziz Youssef 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Somatic Mutation Detection In Leukemia-Derived Circulating Dna: Utility In Monitoring Clonal Dynamics And Disease Response In Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Sarah Hisham Abdelaziz Youssef

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Despite the improved outcome associated with current treatment strategies ofpediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), relapse still represents a major challenge. Pediatric ALL demonstrates branched evolution in response to selective pressure exerted by therapy; relapse founder clones emerge from pre-leukemic clones or minor subclones present at diagnosis. It is hence crucial to develop biomarkers capable of tracking subclones throughout therapy. Current practices for monitoring disease response in leukemia rely on the analysis of BM biopsy sample at specific time points throughout therapy. Not only the invasiveness of the BM biopsy hinders the sequential sampling, but also, the currently implied techniques are ...


Different Methodologies To Characterize And Diagnose Sickle Cell Disease In Both Developed And Developing Nations, Mohammed AlHarbi 2018 Dominican University of California

Different Methodologies To Characterize And Diagnose Sickle Cell Disease In Both Developed And Developing Nations, Mohammed Alharbi

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that causes the RBC to become sickle shaped due to a mutation in the β-globin gene encoding the protein hemoglobin. This disease causes reduced oxygen carrying capacity of RBC resulting in painful crisis, hemolytic anemia, and infection susceptibility. SCD affects around 100,000 individuals in USA alone and 14 million people globally. SCD affected individuals have high mortality rates. Early detection and constant monitoring of this disease is essential. The following review focuses on various methodologies that have emerged in the diagnosis of SCD. Also, low cost methods that can be ...


Inhibition Of Dna Methyltransferase Leads To Increased Genomic 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Levels In Hematopoietic Cells., Borbála Vető, Pál Szabó, Caroline Bacquet, Anna Apró, Edit Hathy, Judit Kiss, János M. Réthelyi, Flóra Szeri, Dávid Szüts, Tamás Arányi 2018 Semmelweis University; RCNS, HAS

Inhibition Of Dna Methyltransferase Leads To Increased Genomic 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Levels In Hematopoietic Cells., Borbála Vető, Pál Szabó, Caroline Bacquet, Anna Apró, Edit Hathy, Judit Kiss, János M. Réthelyi, Flóra Szeri, Dávid Szüts, Tamás Arányi

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Faculty Papers

5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is produced from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by Ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases. The epigenetic modification 5hmC has crucial roles in both cellular development and differentiation. The 5hmC level is particularly high in the brain. While 5mC is generally associated with gene silencing/reduced expression, 5hmC is a more permissive epigenetic mark. To understand its physiological function, an easy and accurate quantification method is required. Here, we have developed a novel LC-MS/MS-based approach to quantify both genomic 5mC and 5hmC contents. The method is based on the liberation of nucleobases by formic acid. Applying this method, we characterized the levels ...


Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

We report here the first whole-genome sequences for 3 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (112N, 113N, and 114N) isolated in Africa. Samples of this opportunistic pathogen were collected from nasal swabs obtained from healthy carrier dogs in Botswana. The sequence information will facilitate spatial phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.


A Lin28b Tumor-Specific Transcript In Cancer, Weijie Guo, Zhixiang Hu, Yichao Bao, Yuchen Li, Shengli Li, Qiupeng Zheng, Dongbin Lyu, Di Chen, Tao Yu, Yan Li, Xiaodong Zhu, Jie Ding, Yingjun Zhao, Xianghuo He, Shenglin Huang 2018 University of Kentucky

A Lin28b Tumor-Specific Transcript In Cancer, Weijie Guo, Zhixiang Hu, Yichao Bao, Yuchen Li, Shengli Li, Qiupeng Zheng, Dongbin Lyu, Di Chen, Tao Yu, Yan Li, Xiaodong Zhu, Jie Ding, Yingjun Zhao, Xianghuo He, Shenglin Huang

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

The diversity and complexity of the cancer transcriptome may contain transcripts unique to the tumor environment. Here, we report a LIN28B variant, LIN28B-TST, which is specifically expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and many other cancer types. Expression of LIN28B-TST is associated with significantly poor prognosis in HCC patients. LIN28B-TST initiates from a de novo alternative transcription initiation site that harbors a strong promoter regulated by NFYA but not c-Myc. Demethylation of the LIN28B-TST promoter might be a prerequisite for its transcription and transcriptional regulation. LIN28B-TST encodes a protein isoform with additional N-terminal amino acids and is critical for cancer cell ...


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