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Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee 2019 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The NLRC4 inflammasome is a crucial part of the innate immune response against bacterial infections. We found that NLRC4 inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) is greatly dependent on interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8). NLRC4-mediated caspase-1 activation and subsequent production of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and cell death were impaired in IRF8-deficient cells. IRF8 mediated the transcription of genes encoding NAIPs, the receptors for NLRC4 inflammasome, which recognize bacterial flagellin and type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins. IRF8 was critical for host survival following infection with Salmonella Typhimurium or Burkholderia thailandensis. Furthermore, mice deficient in IRF8 were ...


Improving The Genetic Diagnosis Of Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Michael Iacocca 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Improving The Genetic Diagnosis Of Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Michael Iacocca

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder of severely elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol that is widely underdiagnosed and undertreated. To improve the identification of FH and initiate timely and appropriate treatment strategies, genetic testing is becoming increasingly offered worldwide as a central part of diagnosis. I describe three main ways providing a genetic diagnosis in FH can be improved. First, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches can be used to reliably identify large-scale variant types known as copy number variations (CNVs) in the LDL receptor gene (LDLR); second, NGS methodology can be further applied to extend CNV screening to additional ...


Investigating Gαs Pepducin’S Effect On Β2ar Signaling For Chf Pharmacology, Nida Bajwa, Nathan Hopfinger, Charles Scott 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Investigating Gαs Pepducin’S Effect On Β2ar Signaling For Chf Pharmacology, Nida Bajwa, Nathan Hopfinger, Charles Scott

Phase 1

Introduction: Congestive heart failure affects nearly six million Americans and significantly impairs their quality of life. New and better interventions are needed to improve HF patients’ survival and outcomes. Pharmacologics that bias β2AR signaling towards arrestin, which promotes cardiomyocyte survival and contractility, may offer advantages over traditional β-blockers.

Objective: It has been demonstrated that peptides mimicking the C-terminus of the Gαs subunit block downstream signaling of GPCRs. The study’s objective is to determine if a pepducin derived from the C-terminus of the Gαs subunit of the β2AR could block Gs signaling but maintain arrestin-recruitment, thereby producing ...


Markers Of Mek Inhibitor Resistance In Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: Egfr Is A Potential Therapeutic Target., Marta L. Fernandez, Amy Dawson, Joshua Hoenisch, Hannah Kim, Sylvia Bamford, Clara Salamanca, Gabriel DiMattia, Trevor Shepherd, Mattia Cremona, Bryan T. Hennessy, Shawn Anderson, Stanislav Volik, Colin C. Collins, David G. Huntsman, Mark S. Carey 2019 University of British Columbia

Markers Of Mek Inhibitor Resistance In Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: Egfr Is A Potential Therapeutic Target., Marta L. Fernandez, Amy Dawson, Joshua Hoenisch, Hannah Kim, Sylvia Bamford, Clara Salamanca, Gabriel Dimattia, Trevor Shepherd, Mattia Cremona, Bryan T. Hennessy, Shawn Anderson, Stanislav Volik, Colin C. Collins, David G. Huntsman, Mark S. Carey

Molecular Medicine Articles

Background: Although low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSC) is rare, case-fatality rates are high as most patients present with advanced disease and current cytotoxic therapies are not overly effective. Recognizing that these cancers may be driven by MAPK pathway activation, MEK inhibitors (MEKi) are being tested in clinical trials. LGSC respond to MEKi only in a subgroup of patients, so predictive biomarkers and better therapies will be needed.

Methods: We evaluated a number of patient-derived LGSC cell lines, previously classified according to their MEKi sensitivity. Two cell lines were genomically compared against their matching tumors samples. MEKi-sensitive and MEKi-resistant lines were ...


Trypanosoma Brucei Prmt1 Is A Nucleic Acid Binding Protein With A Role In Energy Metabolism And The Starvation Stress Response., Lucie Kafková, Chengjian Tu, Kyle L. Pazzo, Kyle P. Smith, Erik W. Debler, Kimberly S. Paul, Jun Qu, Laurie K. Read 2018 University at Buffalo, State University of New York

Trypanosoma Brucei Prmt1 Is A Nucleic Acid Binding Protein With A Role In Energy Metabolism And The Starvation Stress Response., Lucie Kafková, Chengjian Tu, Kyle L. Pazzo, Kyle P. Smith, Erik W. Debler, Kimberly S. Paul, Jun Qu, Laurie K. Read

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

In Trypanosoma brucei and related kinetoplastid parasites, transcription of protein coding genes is largely unregulated. Rather, mRNA binding proteins, which impact processes such as transcript stability and translation efficiency, are the predominant regulators of gene expression. Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that preferentially targets RNA binding proteins and is, therefore, likely to have a substantial impact on T. brucei biology. The data presented here demonstrate that cells depleted of T. brucei PRMT1 (TbPRMT1), a major type I protein arginine methyltransferase, exhibit decreased virulence in an animal model. To understand the basis of this phenotype, quantitative global proteomics was employed ...


Sumo-Mediated Regulation Of Nlrp3 Modulates Inflammasome Activity., Rachael Barry, Sidonie Wicky John, Gianmaria Liccardi, Tencho Tenev, Isabel Jaco, Chih-Hong Chen, Justin Choi, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S Alnemri, Marcin Drag, Yuan Chen, Pascal Meier 2018 The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research; Imperial College London

Sumo-Mediated Regulation Of Nlrp3 Modulates Inflammasome Activity., Rachael Barry, Sidonie Wicky John, Gianmaria Liccardi, Tencho Tenev, Isabel Jaco, Chih-Hong Chen, Justin Choi, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S Alnemri, Marcin Drag, Yuan Chen, Pascal Meier

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to infection and tissue damage, and rapidly escalates the intensity of inflammation by activating interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and cell death by pyroptosis. How the NLRP3 inflammasome is negatively regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is suppressed by sumoylation. NLRP3 is sumoylated by the SUMO E3-ligase MAPL, and stimulation-dependent NLRP3 desumoylation by the SUMO-specific proteases SENP6 and SENP7 promotes NLRP3 activation. Defective NLRP3 sumoylation, either by NLRP3 mutation of SUMO acceptor lysines or depletion of MAPL, results in enhanced caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release. Conversely, depletion of SENP7 suppresses NLRP3-dependent ASC ...


Dna Methylation-Based Age Prediction And Telomere Length In White Blood Cells And Cumulus Cells Of Infertile Women With Normal Or Poor Response To Ovarian Stimulation., Scott J. Morin, Xin Tao, Diego Marin, Yiping Zhan, Jessica Landis, Jenna Bedard, Richard T. Scott, Emre Seli 2018 IVIRMA New Jersey; Thomas Jefferson University

Dna Methylation-Based Age Prediction And Telomere Length In White Blood Cells And Cumulus Cells Of Infertile Women With Normal Or Poor Response To Ovarian Stimulation., Scott J. Morin, Xin Tao, Diego Marin, Yiping Zhan, Jessica Landis, Jenna Bedard, Richard T. Scott, Emre Seli

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

An algorithm assessing the methylation levels of 353 informative CpG sites in the human genome permits accurate prediction of the chronologic age of a subject. Interestingly, when there is discrepancy between the predicted age and chronologic age (age acceleration or "AgeAccel"), patients are at risk for morbidity and mortality. Identification of infertile patients at risk for accelerated reproductive senescence may permit preventative action. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the "epigenetic clock" concept in reproductive age women undergoing fertility treatment by applying the age prediction algorithm in peripheral (white blood cells [WBCs]) and follicular somatic cells (cumulus cells ...


Cholesterol Metabolism And Statin Effects On An Fh Class Ii Ldl-Receptor Mutation., Linda Omer 2018 University of Louisville

Cholesterol Metabolism And Statin Effects On An Fh Class Ii Ldl-Receptor Mutation., Linda Omer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disease and has been studied with the aim of finding a curative measure for decades. FH is caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) resulting in defects in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)-receptor mediated endocytosis and development of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here I describe the use of a corrected and non-corrected LDLR FH cell model to investigate receptor-mediated endocytosis and statin effects. For these studies, we reprogrammed FH fibroblast cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and confirmed their pluripotency and ability to differentiate to hepatocyte-like cells (HLC). A clustered regularly interspaced ...


Parp-1 Regulates Dna Repair Factor Availability., M J Schiewer, Amy C. Mandigo, Nicolas Gordon, Fangjin Huang, Sanchaika Gaur, Renée de Leeuw, Shuang G Zhao, Joseph Evans, Sumin Han, Theodore Parsons, Ruth Birbe, Peter McCue, Christopher McNair, Saswati N. Chand, Ylenia Cendon-Florez, Peter Gallagher, Jennifer J McCann, Neermala Poudel Neupane, Ayesha A Shafi, Emanuela Dylgjeri, Lucas J Brand, Tapio Visakorpi, Ganesh V Raj, Costas D. Lallas, Edouard J Trabulsi, Leonard G Gomella, Adam Dicker MD, PhD, William Kevin Kelly, Benjamin E Leiby, Beatrice Knudsen, Felix Y Feng, Karen E Knudsen 2018 Department of Cancer Biology, Thomas Jefferson University; Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA

Parp-1 Regulates Dna Repair Factor Availability., M J Schiewer, Amy C. Mandigo, Nicolas Gordon, Fangjin Huang, Sanchaika Gaur, Renée De Leeuw, Shuang G Zhao, Joseph Evans, Sumin Han, Theodore Parsons, Ruth Birbe, Peter Mccue, Christopher Mcnair, Saswati N. Chand, Ylenia Cendon-Florez, Peter Gallagher, Jennifer J Mccann, Neermala Poudel Neupane, Ayesha A Shafi, Emanuela Dylgjeri, Lucas J Brand, Tapio Visakorpi, Ganesh V Raj, Costas D. Lallas, Edouard J Trabulsi, Leonard G Gomella, Adam Dicker Md, Phd, William Kevin Kelly, Benjamin E Leiby, Beatrice Knudsen, Felix Y Feng, Karen E Knudsen

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

PARP-1 holds major functions on chromatin, DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation, both of which are relevant in the context of cancer. Here, unbiased transcriptional profiling revealed the downstream transcriptional profile of PARP-1 enzymatic activity. Further investigation of the PARP-1-regulated transcriptome and secondary strategies for assessing PARP-1 activity in patient tissues revealed that PARP-1 activity was unexpectedly enriched as a function of disease progression and was associated with poor outcome independent of DNA double-strand breaks, suggesting that enhanced PARP-1 activity may promote aggressive phenotypes. Mechanistic investigation revealed that active PARP-1 served to enhance E2F1 transcription factor activity, and specifically promoted ...


Extracellular Interactions Between Fibulins And Transforming Growth Factor (Tgf)-Β In Physiological And Pathological Conditions., Takeshi Tsuda 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Extracellular Interactions Between Fibulins And Transforming Growth Factor (Tgf)-Β In Physiological And Pathological Conditions., Takeshi Tsuda

Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a multifunctional peptide growth factor that has a vital role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, inflammation, and repair in a variety of tissues, and its dysregulation mediates a number of pathological conditions including fibrotic disorders, chronic inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer progression. Regulation of TGF-β signaling is multifold, but one critical site of regulation is via interaction with certain extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments, as TGF-β is primarily secreted as a biologically inactive form sequestrated into ECM. Several ECM proteins are known to modulate TGF-β signaling via cell⁻matrix interactions, including thrombospondins, SPARC ...


Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor 2018 University of Louisville

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...


Identifying Kif Subtype That Mediates Axonal Targeting Of Kv7 Channels, Allison Houghton, Jennifer Walters, Mary Hong, Dhruv Joshi, Hee Jung Chung 2018 St. Charles Community College

Identifying Kif Subtype That Mediates Axonal Targeting Of Kv7 Channels, Allison Houghton, Jennifer Walters, Mary Hong, Dhruv Joshi, Hee Jung Chung

PRECS 2018

Early-onset Benign Familial Neonatal Epilepsy (BFNE) and Epileptic Encephalopathy (EE), are associated with mutations in neuronal KCNQ/Kv7 channel subunits Kv7.2 and Kv7.3. Kv7 channels are voltage-dependent potassium channels. Enriched at the axonal plasma membrane, they pump potassium ions out of the neurons and inhibit repetitive or burst firing of action potentials. A single neuronal Kv7 channel is a heterotetramer composed of two Kv7.2 and two Kv7.3 subunits. BFNE and EE mutations in Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 lead to decreased surface expression along the axon, which means less potassium ions are moved across the axonal ...


Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre 2018 Philippine Science High School

Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Mutations in the coding DNA of KRAS, which encodes for an active protein in the Ras signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation and growth, may be critical in the development of lung and colorectal cancer in humans. Clinical tests and therapies for cancer specifically target mutations, some of which may cause erroneous prognosis and prescription of cancer therapy posing more danger for patients with unique mutations. Therefore, characterization of non-hotspot mutations is becoming more important, where, KRAS R164L is an existing uncharacterized mutation identified through the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC). The project aimed to clone a pTarget overexpression ...


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre 2018 Philippine Science High School

Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Mutations in the coding DNA of KRAS, which encodes for an active protein in the Ras signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation and growth, may be critical in the development of lung and colorectal cancer in humans. Clinical tests and therapies for cancer specifically target mutations, some of which may cause erroneous prognosis and prescription of cancer therapy posing more danger for patients with unique mutations. Therefore, characterization of non-hotspot mutations is becoming more important, where, KRAS R164L is an existing uncharacterized mutation identified through the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC). The project aimed to clone a pTarget overexpression ...


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...


The Mitochondrial Protease Htra2 Restricts The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes., Ian Gaël Rodrigue-Gervais, Karine Doiron, Claudia Champagne, Lindsey Mayes, Gabriel André Leiva-Torres, Paulin Vanié, Todd Douglas, Silvia M. Vidal, Emad S. Alnemri, Maya Saleh 2018 McGill University; INRS-Institut Armand Frappier

The Mitochondrial Protease Htra2 Restricts The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes., Ian Gaël Rodrigue-Gervais, Karine Doiron, Claudia Champagne, Lindsey Mayes, Gabriel André Leiva-Torres, Paulin Vanié, Todd Douglas, Silvia M. Vidal, Emad S. Alnemri, Maya Saleh

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Activation of the inflammasome pathway is crucial for effective intracellular host defense. The mitochondrial network plays an important role in inflammasome regulation but the mechanisms linking mitochondrial homeostasis to attenuation of inflammasome activation are not fully understood. Here, we report that the Parkinson's disease-associated mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2 restricts the activation of ASC-dependent NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, in a protease activity-dependent manner. Consistently, disruption of the protease activity of HtrA2 results in exacerbated NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome responses in macrophages ex vivo and systemically in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that the HtrA2 protease activity regulates autophagy and controls the ...


Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, transfer endogenous RNAs between neurons over short and long distances. We have explored EVs for siRNA delivery to brain. (1) We optimized siRNA chemical modifications and siRNA conjugation to lipids for EV-mediated delivery. (2) We developed a GMP-compatible, scalable method to manufacture active EVs in bulk. (3) We characterized lipid and protein content of EVs in detail. (4) We established how protein and lipid composition relates to siRNA delivering activity of EVs, and we reverse engineered natural exosomes (small EVs) into artificial exosomes based on these data.

We established that cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs passively associate ...


Abrogation Of Transforming Growth Factor-Β-Induced Tissue Fibrosis In Tbricacol1a2cre Transgenic Mice By The Second Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ski-606 (Bosutinib)., Peter J. Wermuth, Sergio A. Jimenez 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Abrogation Of Transforming Growth Factor-Β-Induced Tissue Fibrosis In Tbricacol1a2cre Transgenic Mice By The Second Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ski-606 (Bosutinib)., Peter J. Wermuth, Sergio A. Jimenez

Jefferson Institute of Molecular Medicine Papers and Presentations

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) and other fibrotic disorders. TGF-β-mediated c-Abl and Src kinase activation induces strong profibrotic cascade signaling. The purpose of this study was to test in vivo the antifibrotic activity of Bosutinib (SKI-606), a second generation c-Abl and Src kinase inhibitor, on TGF-β induced cutaneous and pulmonary fibrosis. For this purpose, we employed the TBRIcaCol1a2Cre transgenic mice expressing an inducible constitutively active TGF-β receptor 1 constitutively activated by Col1a promoter-mediated Cre recombinase. The mice were treated parenterally with 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg ...


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