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Rnai Nanotechnology: A Platform For Sirna Screening And Cancer Gene Therapy, Mayurbhai Ravikant Patel 2016 Seton Hall University

Rnai Nanotechnology: A Platform For Sirna Screening And Cancer Gene Therapy, Mayurbhai Ravikant Patel

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Over the past two decades, advances in RNA structural biology have improved our understanding of the structures and folding properties of naturally occurring RNAs. RNA sequences and structures participate in many specific biological functions, such as those performed by messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), micro RNA (miRNA), short-interfering RNA (siRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and many others. The noncoding RNAs, such as siRNA, do not express proteins but have been utilized in a wide range of applications, including RNA interference (RNAi) and the regulation of mRNA expression. These important biological functions have been implemented in gene ...


The Discovery Of A Novel, Ras-Mediated Nore1a/Pmliv Tumor Suppressor Complex., Jessica Mezzanotte Sharpe 2016 University of Louisville

The Discovery Of A Novel, Ras-Mediated Nore1a/Pmliv Tumor Suppressor Complex., Jessica Mezzanotte Sharpe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras is the most commonly activated oncogene in human cancer. Activated Ras drives cell growth and proliferation by activating multiple mitogenic signaling pathways. However, Ras also has the paradoxical ability to promote anti-growth, pro-apoptotic, and pro-senescent signaling. The signaling pathways of many of these biological effectors remain poorly defined. One group of proteins capable of promoting Ras-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest is the RASSF family of tumor suppressors. Novel Ras Effector 1A, or NORE1A, was the first member of this family discovered and is a bona fide tumor suppressor that is lost or inactivated in a number of different ...


Mechanisms Regulating Stem Cell Phenotype In Infantile Hemangioma, Niamh Richmond 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Regulating Stem Cell Phenotype In Infantile Hemangioma, Niamh Richmond

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by the differentiation of multipotential stem cells (hemSCs) into endothelial cells during the early proliferative phase, and later into adipocytes during spontaneous involution. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) has been shown to be significantly elevated upon IH involution and this coincides with repression of a developmentally-regulated transcription factor T-box 2 (TBX2). These findings implicate both TGFβ and TBX2 in mediating hemSC differentiation during IH evolution. The aim of my study is to understand the role of TGFβ and TBX2 in hemSC differentiation. I performed immunofluorescence staining to localize TBX2 protein in sectioned IH ...


Microrna-186 And Metastatic Prostate Cancer., Dominique Zilpha Jones 2016 University of Louisville

Microrna-186 And Metastatic Prostate Cancer., Dominique Zilpha Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation alters cancer-associated gene expression, which contributes to cancer pathogenesis. For example, miR-186 over expression lead to enhanced proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer cell models. However, the role of miR-186 in prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. Previously, miR-186-5p was up-regulated in PCa patient serum (stage III/IV) compared to controls. Furthermore, miR-186-5p was up-regulated in metastatic PCa (PC-3, MDA PCa 2b, LNCaP) relative to normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE1). We hypothesized miR-186 inhibition will reduce aggressive PCa using metastatic cell models. To test this, we evaluated whether miR-186-5p inhibition would reduce aggressive PCa behavior and overexpression induce ...


Porphyromonas Gingivalis Gingipains Induce A Pro-Inflammatory Extracellular Microenvironment : The Role Of Par-2 And Fibronectin., Jeffrey S. Marschall 2016 University of Louisville

Porphyromonas Gingivalis Gingipains Induce A Pro-Inflammatory Extracellular Microenvironment : The Role Of Par-2 And Fibronectin., Jeffrey S. Marschall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by severe tissue destruction of the gingiva and other tooth supporting structures; if left untreated, tooth loss and disintegration of the alveolar bone occurs. This chronic inflammatory state has been linked to other systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the major pathogenic microbe in periodontitis. The main virulence factors of P. gingivalis are the Arg-aa and Lys-aa gingipains, which are proteolytic enzymes implicated in a plethora of activities that allow P. gingivalis to subvert the human immune system in the oral ...


Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg 2016 Liberty University

Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg

Senior Honors Theses

The intimin gene in the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) island of pathogenicity is the primary attachment mechanism in Citrobacter rodentium. Intimin is a bacterial adhesin (protein) that attaches to obtain a niche/nutrient and thrive within the intestine. Intimin was deleted within C. rodentium to study colonization and pathogenesis in the murine intestine. Additionally, C. rodentium is an attaching/effacing pathogen, and a useful murine model in understanding Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection in humans. E. coli and C. rodentium cause gastroenteritis in humans and mice, respectively. C. rodentium is a murine pathogen commonly used to model gastrointestinal disease ...


Nrp2 Transcriptionally Regulates Its Downstream Effector Wdfy1., Samikshan Dutta, Sohini Roy, Navatha S. Polavaram, Gustavo B. Baretton, Michael H. Muders, Surinder K. Batra, K Datta 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Nrp2 Transcriptionally Regulates Its Downstream Effector Wdfy1., Samikshan Dutta, Sohini Roy, Navatha S. Polavaram, Gustavo B. Baretton, Michael H. Muders, Surinder K. Batra, K Datta

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Neuropilins (NRPs) are cell surface glycoproteins that often act as co-receptors for plexins and VEGF family receptors. Neuropilin-2 (NRP2), a family member of NRPs, was shown to regulate autophagy and endocytic trafficking in cancer cells, a function distinctly different from its role as a co-receptor. WD Repeat and FYVE domain containing 1 (WDFY1)-protein acts downstream of NRP2 for this function. Our results indicated that NRP2 maintains an optimum concentration of WDFY1 by negatively regulating its expression. Since increased expression of WDFY1 reduces the endocytic activity, maintenance of WDFY1 level is crucial in metastatic cancer cells to sustain high endocytic ...


Parp-2 Domain Requirements For Dna Damage-Dependent Activation And Localization To Sites Of Dna Damage., Amanda A Riccio, Gino Cingolani, John M Pascal 2016 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University

Parp-2 Domain Requirements For Dna Damage-Dependent Activation And Localization To Sites Of Dna Damage., Amanda A Riccio, Gino Cingolani, John M Pascal

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) is one of three human PARP enzymes that are potently activated during the cellular DNA damage response (DDR). DDR-PARPs detect DNA strand breaks, leading to a dramatic increase in their catalytic production of the posttranslational modification poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to facilitate repair. There are limited biochemical and structural insights into the functional domains of PARP-2, which has restricted our understanding of how PARP-2 is specialized toward specific repair pathways. PARP-2 has a modular architecture composed of a C-terminal catalytic domain (CAT), a central Trp-Gly-Arg (WGR) domain and an N-terminal region (NTR). Although the NTR is generally ...


Bestrophin Gene Mutations Cause Canine Multifocal Retinopathy: A Novel Animal Model For Best Disease, Karina Guziewicz, Barbara Zangerl, Sarah Lindauer, Robert Mullins, Lynne Sandmeyer, Bruce Grahn, Edwin Stone, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Bestrophin Gene Mutations Cause Canine Multifocal Retinopathy: A Novel Animal Model For Best Disease, Karina Guziewicz, Barbara Zangerl, Sarah Lindauer, Robert Mullins, Lynne Sandmeyer, Bruce Grahn, Edwin Stone, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE. Canine multifocal retinopathy (cmr) is an autosomal recessive disorder of multiple dog breeds. The disease shares a number of clinical and pathologic similarities with Best macular dystrophy (BMD), and cmr is proposed as a new large animal model for Best disease. METHODS. cmr was characterized by ophthalmoscopy and histopathology and compared with BMD-affected patients. BEST1 (alias VMD2), the bestrophin gene causally associated with BMD, was evaluated in the dog. Canine ortholog cDNA sequence was cloned and verified using RPE/choroid 5′- and 3′-RACE. Expression of the canine gene transcripts and protein was analyzed by Northern and Western blotting ...


Clinical Light Exposure, Photoreceptor Degeneration, And Ap-1 Activation: A Cell Death Or Cell Survival Signal In The Rhodopsin Mutant Retina?, Danian Gu, William Beltran, Zexiao Li, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Clinical Light Exposure, Photoreceptor Degeneration, And Ap-1 Activation: A Cell Death Or Cell Survival Signal In The Rhodopsin Mutant Retina?, Danian Gu, William Beltran, Zexiao Li, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE. The T4R RHO mutant dog retina shows retinal degeneration with exposures to light comparable to those used in clinical eye examinations of patients. To define the molecular mechanisms of the degeneration, AP-1 DNA-binding activity, composition, posttranslational modification of the protein complex, and modulation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathways were examined in light-exposed mutant retinas.

METHODS. Dark-adapted retinas were exposed to short-duration light flashes from a retinal camera used clinically for retinal photography and were collected at different time points after exposure. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), supershift EMSA, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were used to examine AP-1 signaling ...


Genetic And Phenotypic Variations Of Inherited Retinal Diseases In Dogs: The Power Of Within- And Across-Breed Studies, Keiko Miyadera, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Genetic And Phenotypic Variations Of Inherited Retinal Diseases In Dogs: The Power Of Within- And Across-Breed Studies, Keiko Miyadera, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Considerable clinical and molecular variations have been known in retinal blinding diseases in man and also in dogs. Different forms of retinal diseases occur in specific breed(s) caused by mutations segregating within each isolated breeding population. While molecular studies to find genes and mutations underlying retinal diseases in dogs have benefited largely from the phenotypic and genetic uniformity within a breed, within- and across-breed variations have often played a key role in elucidating the molecular basis. The increasing knowledge of phenotypic, allelic, and genetic heterogeneities in canine retinal degeneration has shown that the overall picture is rather more complicated ...


Overexpression Of Pd2 Leads To Increased Tumorigenicity And Metastasis In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma., Arokia Priyanka Vaz, Shonali Deb, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Parama Dey, Sakthivel Muniyan, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Saswati Karmakar, Lynette M. Smith, Sonny L. Johansson, Subodh M. Lele, M Ouellette, Moorthy P. Ponnusamy, Surinder K. Batra 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Overexpression Of Pd2 Leads To Increased Tumorigenicity And Metastasis In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma., Arokia Priyanka Vaz, Shonali Deb, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Parama Dey, Sakthivel Muniyan, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Saswati Karmakar, Lynette M. Smith, Sonny L. Johansson, Subodh M. Lele, M Ouellette, Moorthy P. Ponnusamy, Surinder K. Batra

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2), an important subunit of the human PAF complex, was identified after differential screening analysis of 19q13 amplicon, and its overexpression induces oncogenic transformation of NIH3T3 cells, hence raising the possibility of a role for PD2 in tumorigenesis and metastasis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed here the functional role and clinical significance of PD2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its pathogenesis. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we found that PD2 is detected in the acini but not in the ducts in the normal pancreas. In human PDAC specimens, PD2 was instead primarily detected in the ducts (12 ...


The Heli-Case Of The Missing Wrn Gene, Lisa Jeziorny, Lindsey McCurdy, Katie Michael, Jennifer Riddle, Kim Silvers 2016 Lake Forest College

The Heli-Case Of The Missing Wrn Gene, Lisa Jeziorny, Lindsey Mccurdy, Katie Michael, Jennifer Riddle, Kim Silvers

Eukaryon

Werner Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by genomic instability, accelerated telomere shortening, and premature aging. Also, Werner Syndrome patients experience increased cancer rates, believed to be directly related to the lack of interaction between the WRN gene and tumor suppressor gene p53. The WRN gene consists of three identical molecules and has both exonuclease and helicase activity, which work together in opposite directions. WRN has been shown to stimulate polymerase â, needed in DNA repair. WRN helicase activity can also bind and degrade G-quadruplexes, which inhibit transcription. Studies show that the tumor suppressor gene p53 co-localizes with WRN ...


Role Of Sulfiredoxin Interacting Proteins In Lung Cancer Development, Hedy Chawsheen 2016 University of Kentucky

Role Of Sulfiredoxin Interacting Proteins In Lung Cancer Development, Hedy Chawsheen

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Sulfiredoxin (Srx) is an antioxidant enzyme that can be induced by oxidative stress. It promotes oncogenic phenotypes of cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and metastasis in lung, skin and colon cancers. Srx reduces the overoxidation of 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins in cells, in addition to its role of removing glutathione modification from several proteins. In this study, I explored additional physiological functions of Srx in lung cancer through studying its interacting proteins. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members, thioredoxin domain containing protein 5 (TXNDC5) and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6 (PDIA6), were detected to interact with Srx. Therefore, I proposed ...


The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is partially attributed to perturbations in lipid metabolism. Xenobiotics, such as pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals, have been associated with increased risk of CVD in multiple large-scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We and others have identified several xenobiotics as potent agonists for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that can be activated by numerous drugs as well as environmental and dietary chemicals. However, the role of PXR in mediating the pathophysiological effects of xenobiotic exposure in humans and animals remains elusive ...


Comorbidity Between Alzheimer’S Disease And Seizure Episodes, Maryam Amini 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Comorbidity Between Alzheimer’S Disease And Seizure Episodes, Maryam Amini

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

A mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which overexpress the human amyloid precursor protein (APP), experience Kainic Acid (KA) induced seizures that are more severe than wild type (WT) mice. The latency and severity of seizures observed in AD mice are similar to those of Synaptophysin knockout (Syp KO) mice. Addition of amyloid plaques (Aβ) to cells in vitro leads to the breakdown of Syp-VAMP2 complex. In the present study, we investigated if the breakdown of Syp-VAMP2 complex is responsible for the observed seizure activity in AD mice. The binding of cholesterol to Syp is necessary for biogenesis ...


Non-Specific Blocking Of Mir-17-5p Guide Strand In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells By Amplifying Passenger Strand Activity., Yuan-Yuan Jin, Jade Andrade, Eric Wickstrom 2015 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Thomas Jefferson University

Non-Specific Blocking Of Mir-17-5p Guide Strand In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells By Amplifying Passenger Strand Activity., Yuan-Yuan Jin, Jade Andrade, Eric Wickstrom

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Conventional wisdom holds that only one of the two strands in a micro ribonucleic acid (miRNA) precursor duplex is selected as the active miRNA guide strand. The complementary miRNA passenger strand, however, is thought to be inactive. High levels of the oncogenic miRNA (oncomiR) guide strand called miR-17-5p is overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and can inhibit ribosomal translation of tumor suppressor gene mRNAs, such as programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) or phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). We hypothesized that knocking down the oncogenic microRNA (oncomiR) miR-17-5p might restore the expression levels of PDCD4 and PTEN tumor suppressor ...


Reprogramming To Pluripotency Using Small Molecule Compounds, Brittany E. Greenberg 2015 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Reprogramming To Pluripotency Using Small Molecule Compounds, Brittany E. Greenberg

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the use of small molecule compounds has evolved as a potential cellular reprogramming strategy. Individually, specific small molecule compounds have previously been shown to replace reprogramming transcription factors or enhance the efficiency of cellular reprogramming. More recently, a combination of small molecule compounds can replace all of the reprogramming factors. In this review, we describe in detail the generation of chemically induced pluripotent stem cells using small molecule inhibitors and activators that target either downstream protein kinases or modify chromatin structure to promote somatic cell reprogramming. In addition, epigenetic modulating small ...


Psychiatric Gene Discoveries Shape Evidence On Adhd's Biology, Anita Thapar, J. Martin, Eric Mick, A. Arias Vasquez, Kate Langley, Stephen W. Scherer, Russell Schachar, Jennifer Crosbie, N. Williams, Barbara Franke, J. Elia, J. Glessner, H. Hakonarson, M. J. Owen, S. V. Faraone, Michael C. O'Donovan, Peter Holmans 2015 Cardiff University

Psychiatric Gene Discoveries Shape Evidence On Adhd's Biology, Anita Thapar, J. Martin, Eric Mick, A. Arias Vasquez, Kate Langley, Stephen W. Scherer, Russell Schachar, Jennifer Crosbie, N. Williams, Barbara Franke, J. Elia, J. Glessner, H. Hakonarson, M. J. Owen, S. V. Faraone, Michael C. O'Donovan, Peter Holmans

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

A strong motivation for undertaking psychiatric gene discovery studies is to provide novel insights into unknown biology. Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, and large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to risk, little is known about its pathogenesis and it remains commonly misunderstood. We assembled and pooled five ADHD and control CNV data sets from the United Kingdom, Ireland, United States of America, Northern Europe and Canada. Our aim was to test for enrichment of neurodevelopmental gene sets, implicated by recent exome-sequencing studies of (a) schizophrenia and (b) autism as a means of testing the hypothesis that ...


Conservation Of Inner Nuclear Membrane Targeting Sequences In Mammalian Pom121 And Yeast Heh2 Membrane Proteins., Annemarie Kralt, Noorjahan B Jagalur, Vincent van den Boom, Ravi K Lokareddy, Anton Steen, Gino Cingolani, Maarten Fornerod, Liesbeth M Veenhoff 2015 European Research Institute for the Biology of Ageing, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen

Conservation Of Inner Nuclear Membrane Targeting Sequences In Mammalian Pom121 And Yeast Heh2 Membrane Proteins., Annemarie Kralt, Noorjahan B Jagalur, Vincent Van Den Boom, Ravi K Lokareddy, Anton Steen, Gino Cingolani, Maarten Fornerod, Liesbeth M Veenhoff

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Endoplasmic reticulum-synthesized membrane proteins traffic through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) en route to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). Although many membrane proteins pass the NPC by simple diffusion, two yeast proteins, ScSrc1/ScHeh1 and ScHeh2, are actively imported. In these proteins, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and an intrinsically disordered linker encode the sorting signal for recruiting the transport factors for FG-Nup and RanGTP-dependent transport through the NPC. Here we address whether a similar import mechanism applies in metazoans. We show that the (putative) NLSs of metazoan HsSun2, MmLem2, HsLBR, and HsLap2β are not sufficient to drive nuclear accumulation ...


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