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Functional Alterations Of Ion Channels From Cardiac Fibroblasts In Heart Diseases, Gracious R. Ross, Arshad Jahangir 2016 Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani Center for Integrative Research on Cardiovascular Aging, Aurora Research Institute, Aurora Health Care

Functional Alterations Of Ion Channels From Cardiac Fibroblasts In Heart Diseases, Gracious R. Ross, Arshad Jahangir

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

In an aged population, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of fatality and morbidity. Age-related fibrotic remodeling of the heart contributes to progressive myocardial dysfunction. Cardiac fibroblasts (CF), responsible for the maintenance of extracellular matrix and fibrosis process, play an important role in cardiac health and disease. CFs influence myocardial function by their chemical, electrical and mechanical interactions with cardiomyocytes through extracellular matrix deposition or secretion of cytokines and growth factors. These, in turn, are modulated by ion channels, macromolecular pores in the plasma membrane that allow selective ionic fluxes of major ions like K+, Ca2+, Na+ or Cl ...


Tgf-Β1 Increases Resistance Of Nih/3t3 Fibroblasts Toward Apoptosis Through Activation Of Smad2/3 And Erk1/2 Pathways, Ulugbek Negmadjanov, Alisher Holmuhamedov, Larisa Emelyanova, Hao Xu, Farhan Rizvi, Gracious R. Ross, A. Jamil Tajik, Yang Shi, Ekhson Holmuhamedov, Arshad Jahangir 2016 Aurora Research Institute

Tgf-Β1 Increases Resistance Of Nih/3t3 Fibroblasts Toward Apoptosis Through Activation Of Smad2/3 And Erk1/2 Pathways, Ulugbek Negmadjanov, Alisher Holmuhamedov, Larisa Emelyanova, Hao Xu, Farhan Rizvi, Gracious R. Ross, A. Jamil Tajik, Yang Shi, Ekhson Holmuhamedov, Arshad Jahangir

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose

Excessive fibrosis has been suggested to result from persistence of fibroblasts in injured tissue due to impaired apoptosis, but signaling pathways are not fully defined.

Methods

Suppression of apoptotic cell death following transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exposure was studied using the culture of NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Caspase-3 activity, propidium iodide staining and annexin V binding induced by Fas-ligand (FasL) in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts in the absence and presence of TGF-β1 was determined, and relative contribution of signaling through Smad2/3 and noncanonical Erk1/2 and Akt pathways was dissected by assessing phosphorylation status of these kinases and ...


Characterization Of Aqps In Mouse, Rat, And Human Colon And Their Selective Regulation By Bile Acids., Jonathan Yde, S J. Keely, Qi Wu, Johan F. Borg, Natalia Lajczak, Aoife O'Dwyer, Peter Dalsgaard, Robert A Fenton, Hanne B Moeller 2016 Aarhus University

Characterization Of Aqps In Mouse, Rat, And Human Colon And Their Selective Regulation By Bile Acids., Jonathan Yde, S J. Keely, Qi Wu, Johan F. Borg, Natalia Lajczak, Aoife O'Dwyer, Peter Dalsgaard, Robert A Fenton, Hanne B Moeller

Molecular Medicine Articles

In normal individuals, the epithelium of the colon absorbs 1.5-2 l of water a day to generate dehydrated feces. However, in the condition of bile acid malabsorption (BAM), an excess of bile acids in the colon results in diarrhea. Several studies have attempted to address the mechanisms contributing to BAM induced by various bile acids. However, none have addressed a potential dysregulation of aquaporin (AQP) water channels, which are responsible for the majority of transcellular water transport in epithelial cells, as a contributing factor to the onset of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of BAM. In this study, we aimed ...


Rnai Nanotechnology: A Platform For Sirna Screening And Cancer Gene Therapy, Mayurbhai Ravikant Patel 2016 Seton Hall University

Rnai Nanotechnology: A Platform For Sirna Screening And Cancer Gene Therapy, Mayurbhai Ravikant Patel

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Over the past two decades, advances in RNA structural biology have improved our understanding of the structures and folding properties of naturally occurring RNAs. RNA sequences and structures participate in many specific biological functions, such as those performed by messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), micro RNA (miRNA), short-interfering RNA (siRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and many others. The noncoding RNAs, such as siRNA, do not express proteins but have been utilized in a wide range of applications, including RNA interference (RNAi) and the regulation of mRNA expression. These important biological functions have been implemented in gene ...


The Discovery Of A Novel, Ras-Mediated Nore1a/Pmliv Tumor Suppressor Complex., Jessica Mezzanotte Sharpe 2016 University of Louisville

The Discovery Of A Novel, Ras-Mediated Nore1a/Pmliv Tumor Suppressor Complex., Jessica Mezzanotte Sharpe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras is the most commonly activated oncogene in human cancer. Activated Ras drives cell growth and proliferation by activating multiple mitogenic signaling pathways. However, Ras also has the paradoxical ability to promote anti-growth, pro-apoptotic, and pro-senescent signaling. The signaling pathways of many of these biological effectors remain poorly defined. One group of proteins capable of promoting Ras-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest is the RASSF family of tumor suppressors. Novel Ras Effector 1A, or NORE1A, was the first member of this family discovered and is a bona fide tumor suppressor that is lost or inactivated in a number of different ...


Mechanisms Regulating Stem Cell Phenotype In Infantile Hemangioma, Niamh Richmond 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Regulating Stem Cell Phenotype In Infantile Hemangioma, Niamh Richmond

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by the differentiation of multipotential stem cells (hemSCs) into endothelial cells during the early proliferative phase, and later into adipocytes during spontaneous involution. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) has been shown to be significantly elevated upon IH involution and this coincides with repression of a developmentally-regulated transcription factor T-box 2 (TBX2). These findings implicate both TGFβ and TBX2 in mediating hemSC differentiation during IH evolution. The aim of my study is to understand the role of TGFβ and TBX2 in hemSC differentiation. I performed immunofluorescence staining to localize TBX2 protein in sectioned IH ...


Identification And Characterization Of Dna Repair Snf2/Swi2 Atpases In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Andrew Francis Morin 2016 Missouri State University

Identification And Characterization Of Dna Repair Snf2/Swi2 Atpases In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Andrew Francis Morin

MSU Graduate Theses

The Snf2/Swi2 ATPases Rad5 and Rad16 have been shown to play vital roles in a number of DNA repair pathways. In both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human cell lines, Rad5 homologs (SHPRH, HLTF) have been shown to function in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair along with pathways that repair damage after replication. The function of Rad16, unlike Rad5, has been found only in lower eukaryotes such as Saccharomyces, despite the fact that it plays an essential role in nucleotide excision repair (NER), and more specifically in the repair of silenced areas of the genome. In order to more fully ...


Microrna-186 And Metastatic Prostate Cancer., Dominique Zilpha Jones 2016 University of Louisville

Microrna-186 And Metastatic Prostate Cancer., Dominique Zilpha Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation alters cancer-associated gene expression, which contributes to cancer pathogenesis. For example, miR-186 over expression lead to enhanced proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer cell models. However, the role of miR-186 in prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. Previously, miR-186-5p was up-regulated in PCa patient serum (stage III/IV) compared to controls. Furthermore, miR-186-5p was up-regulated in metastatic PCa (PC-3, MDA PCa 2b, LNCaP) relative to normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE1). We hypothesized miR-186 inhibition will reduce aggressive PCa using metastatic cell models. To test this, we evaluated whether miR-186-5p inhibition would reduce aggressive PCa behavior and overexpression induce ...


Porphyromonas Gingivalis Gingipains Induce A Pro-Inflammatory Extracellular Microenvironment : The Role Of Par-2 And Fibronectin., Jeffrey S. Marschall 2016 University of Louisville

Porphyromonas Gingivalis Gingipains Induce A Pro-Inflammatory Extracellular Microenvironment : The Role Of Par-2 And Fibronectin., Jeffrey S. Marschall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by severe tissue destruction of the gingiva and other tooth supporting structures; if left untreated, tooth loss and disintegration of the alveolar bone occurs. This chronic inflammatory state has been linked to other systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the major pathogenic microbe in periodontitis. The main virulence factors of P. gingivalis are the Arg-aa and Lys-aa gingipains, which are proteolytic enzymes implicated in a plethora of activities that allow P. gingivalis to subvert the human immune system in the oral ...


Characterization Of The Skeletal Phenotype In Idua-W392x Knock-In Mice: Bone Metabolism Biomarkers, Christina J. Owensby 2016 Missouri State University

Characterization Of The Skeletal Phenotype In Idua-W392x Knock-In Mice: Bone Metabolism Biomarkers, Christina J. Owensby

MSU Graduate Theses

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I (MPS I, Hurlers Syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA). IDUA catalyzes the degradation of the two glycosaminoglycans (GAGs); heparin sulfate (HS) and demantan sulfate (DS). The accumulation of HS and DS makes MPS I progressive with inevitable degeneration of multiple organ systems. Accumulated excess of GAGs on the skeletal system causes dysostosis multiplex, atlantoaxial instability, thoracolumbar kyphosis, genu valgum, acetabular dysplasia, and short stature. Skeletal biomarkers of bone formation and bone resorption were compared in wild-type, heterozygous, and IDUAW392X mice. To investigate osteoblast activity, levels of the bone formation marker ...


Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg 2016 Liberty University

Intimin Likely Used To Cause Disease During Competition With Commensal Escherichia Coli, Dominique J. Richburg

Senior Honors Theses

The intimin gene in the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) island of pathogenicity is the primary attachment mechanism in Citrobacter rodentium. Intimin is a bacterial adhesin (protein) that attaches to obtain a niche/nutrient and thrive within the intestine. Intimin was deleted within C. rodentium to study colonization and pathogenesis in the murine intestine. Additionally, C. rodentium is an attaching/effacing pathogen, and a useful murine model in understanding Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection in humans. E. coli and C. rodentium cause gastroenteritis in humans and mice, respectively. C. rodentium is a murine pathogen commonly used to model gastrointestinal disease ...


Nrp2 Transcriptionally Regulates Its Downstream Effector Wdfy1., Samikshan Dutta, Sohini Roy, Navatha S. Polavaram, Gustavo B. Baretton, Michael H. Muders, Surinder K. Batra, K Datta 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Nrp2 Transcriptionally Regulates Its Downstream Effector Wdfy1., Samikshan Dutta, Sohini Roy, Navatha S. Polavaram, Gustavo B. Baretton, Michael H. Muders, Surinder K. Batra, K Datta

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Neuropilins (NRPs) are cell surface glycoproteins that often act as co-receptors for plexins and VEGF family receptors. Neuropilin-2 (NRP2), a family member of NRPs, was shown to regulate autophagy and endocytic trafficking in cancer cells, a function distinctly different from its role as a co-receptor. WD Repeat and FYVE domain containing 1 (WDFY1)-protein acts downstream of NRP2 for this function. Our results indicated that NRP2 maintains an optimum concentration of WDFY1 by negatively regulating its expression. Since increased expression of WDFY1 reduces the endocytic activity, maintenance of WDFY1 level is crucial in metastatic cancer cells to sustain high endocytic ...


Parp-2 Domain Requirements For Dna Damage-Dependent Activation And Localization To Sites Of Dna Damage., Amanda A Riccio, Gino Cingolani, John M Pascal 2016 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University

Parp-2 Domain Requirements For Dna Damage-Dependent Activation And Localization To Sites Of Dna Damage., Amanda A Riccio, Gino Cingolani, John M Pascal

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) is one of three human PARP enzymes that are potently activated during the cellular DNA damage response (DDR). DDR-PARPs detect DNA strand breaks, leading to a dramatic increase in their catalytic production of the posttranslational modification poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to facilitate repair. There are limited biochemical and structural insights into the functional domains of PARP-2, which has restricted our understanding of how PARP-2 is specialized toward specific repair pathways. PARP-2 has a modular architecture composed of a C-terminal catalytic domain (CAT), a central Trp-Gly-Arg (WGR) domain and an N-terminal region (NTR). Although the NTR is generally ...


Bestrophin Gene Mutations Cause Canine Multifocal Retinopathy: A Novel Animal Model For Best Disease, Karina Guziewicz, Barbara Zangerl, Sarah Lindauer, Robert Mullins, Lynne Sandmeyer, Bruce Grahn, Edwin Stone, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Bestrophin Gene Mutations Cause Canine Multifocal Retinopathy: A Novel Animal Model For Best Disease, Karina Guziewicz, Barbara Zangerl, Sarah Lindauer, Robert Mullins, Lynne Sandmeyer, Bruce Grahn, Edwin Stone, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE. Canine multifocal retinopathy (cmr) is an autosomal recessive disorder of multiple dog breeds. The disease shares a number of clinical and pathologic similarities with Best macular dystrophy (BMD), and cmr is proposed as a new large animal model for Best disease. METHODS. cmr was characterized by ophthalmoscopy and histopathology and compared with BMD-affected patients. BEST1 (alias VMD2), the bestrophin gene causally associated with BMD, was evaluated in the dog. Canine ortholog cDNA sequence was cloned and verified using RPE/choroid 5′- and 3′-RACE. Expression of the canine gene transcripts and protein was analyzed by Northern and Western blotting ...


Clinical Light Exposure, Photoreceptor Degeneration, And Ap-1 Activation: A Cell Death Or Cell Survival Signal In The Rhodopsin Mutant Retina?, Danian Gu, William Beltran, Zexiao Li, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Clinical Light Exposure, Photoreceptor Degeneration, And Ap-1 Activation: A Cell Death Or Cell Survival Signal In The Rhodopsin Mutant Retina?, Danian Gu, William Beltran, Zexiao Li, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE. The T4R RHO mutant dog retina shows retinal degeneration with exposures to light comparable to those used in clinical eye examinations of patients. To define the molecular mechanisms of the degeneration, AP-1 DNA-binding activity, composition, posttranslational modification of the protein complex, and modulation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathways were examined in light-exposed mutant retinas.

METHODS. Dark-adapted retinas were exposed to short-duration light flashes from a retinal camera used clinically for retinal photography and were collected at different time points after exposure. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), supershift EMSA, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were used to examine AP-1 signaling ...


Genetic And Phenotypic Variations Of Inherited Retinal Diseases In Dogs: The Power Of Within- And Across-Breed Studies, Keiko Miyadera, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Genetic And Phenotypic Variations Of Inherited Retinal Diseases In Dogs: The Power Of Within- And Across-Breed Studies, Keiko Miyadera, Gregory Acland, Gustavo Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Considerable clinical and molecular variations have been known in retinal blinding diseases in man and also in dogs. Different forms of retinal diseases occur in specific breed(s) caused by mutations segregating within each isolated breeding population. While molecular studies to find genes and mutations underlying retinal diseases in dogs have benefited largely from the phenotypic and genetic uniformity within a breed, within- and across-breed variations have often played a key role in elucidating the molecular basis. The increasing knowledge of phenotypic, allelic, and genetic heterogeneities in canine retinal degeneration has shown that the overall picture is rather more complicated ...


Overexpression Of Pd2 Leads To Increased Tumorigenicity And Metastasis In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma., Arokia Priyanka Vaz, Shonali Deb, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Parama Dey, Sakthivel Muniyan, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Saswati Karmakar, Lynette M. Smith, Sonny L. Johansson, Subodh M. Lele, M Ouellette, Moorthy P. Ponnusamy, Surinder K. Batra 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Overexpression Of Pd2 Leads To Increased Tumorigenicity And Metastasis In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma., Arokia Priyanka Vaz, Shonali Deb, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Parama Dey, Sakthivel Muniyan, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Saswati Karmakar, Lynette M. Smith, Sonny L. Johansson, Subodh M. Lele, M Ouellette, Moorthy P. Ponnusamy, Surinder K. Batra

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2), an important subunit of the human PAF complex, was identified after differential screening analysis of 19q13 amplicon, and its overexpression induces oncogenic transformation of NIH3T3 cells, hence raising the possibility of a role for PD2 in tumorigenesis and metastasis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed here the functional role and clinical significance of PD2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its pathogenesis. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we found that PD2 is detected in the acini but not in the ducts in the normal pancreas. In human PDAC specimens, PD2 was instead primarily detected in the ducts (12 ...


Role Of Sulfiredoxin Interacting Proteins In Lung Cancer Development, Hedy Chawsheen 2016 University of Kentucky

Role Of Sulfiredoxin Interacting Proteins In Lung Cancer Development, Hedy Chawsheen

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Sulfiredoxin (Srx) is an antioxidant enzyme that can be induced by oxidative stress. It promotes oncogenic phenotypes of cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and metastasis in lung, skin and colon cancers. Srx reduces the overoxidation of 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins in cells, in addition to its role of removing glutathione modification from several proteins. In this study, I explored additional physiological functions of Srx in lung cancer through studying its interacting proteins. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members, thioredoxin domain containing protein 5 (TXNDC5) and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6 (PDIA6), were detected to interact with Srx. Therefore, I proposed ...


The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is partially attributed to perturbations in lipid metabolism. Xenobiotics, such as pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals, have been associated with increased risk of CVD in multiple large-scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We and others have identified several xenobiotics as potent agonists for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that can be activated by numerous drugs as well as environmental and dietary chemicals. However, the role of PXR in mediating the pathophysiological effects of xenobiotic exposure in humans and animals remains elusive ...


Human Neural Progenitor Cells Are Productively Infected By R5-Tropic Hiv-1: Opiate Interactions On Infection And Function Involve Cdk5 Signaling, Joyce Magat Balinang 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Human Neural Progenitor Cells Are Productively Infected By R5-Tropic Hiv-1: Opiate Interactions On Infection And Function Involve Cdk5 Signaling, Joyce Magat Balinang

Theses and Dissertations

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to cause a spectrum of neurological, behavioral and motor deficits collectively termed as HIV-1 associated neurocognitive impairments (HAND). Opiates augment HIV-related CNS complications through both direct and indirect mechanisms that disrupt glial and neuronal function. All CNS macroglia and neurons derive from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) during development, and NPCs in the adult brain contribute to repair processes. Since disruptions in NPC function are known to impact CNS populations and brain function in a number of disease/injury conditions, we determined whether HIV ± opiate exposure affected the maturation and fate of human ...


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