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The 11s Proteasomal Activator Regγ Impacts Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Aggregation And Motor Neuron Viability Through Distinct Mechanisms., Jill M. Yersak, Heather L. Montie, Erica S. Chevalier-Larsen, Yuhong Liu, Lan Huang, Martin Rechsteiner, Diane E. Merry 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

The 11s Proteasomal Activator Regγ Impacts Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Aggregation And Motor Neuron Viability Through Distinct Mechanisms., Jill M. Yersak, Heather L. Montie, Erica S. Chevalier-Larsen, Yuhong Liu, Lan Huang, Martin Rechsteiner, Diane E. Merry

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is caused by expression of a polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded androgen receptor (AR). The inefficient nuclear proteasomal degradation of the mutant AR results in the formation of nuclear inclusions containing amino-terminal fragments of the mutant AR. PA28γ (also referred to as REGγ) is a nuclear 11S-proteasomal activator with limited proteasome activation capabilities compared to its cytoplasmic 11S (PA28α, PA28β) counterparts. To clarify the role of REGγ in polyQ-expanded AR metabolism, we carried out genetic and biochemical studies in cell models of SBMA. Overexpression of REGγ in a PC12 cell model of SBMA increased polyQ-expanded AR ...


Structure Activity Relationship Studies Of Novel Diarylpentanoid Analogs Targeting The Androgen Receptor In Prostate Cancer Cells, Haili Coffin, Marco Bisoffi 2017 Chapman University

Structure Activity Relationship Studies Of Novel Diarylpentanoid Analogs Targeting The Androgen Receptor In Prostate Cancer Cells, Haili Coffin, Marco Bisoffi

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The development of prostate cancer (PCa) relies strongly on the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway by its natural ligand dihydrotestosterone. Furthermore, PCa progression to metastatic disease represents oncogene addiction to AR activity. Androgen ablation therapy is thus a mainstay therapy against this disease, but the development of ligand-independent AR activation and persisting AR expression eventually leads to castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Therefore, down-regulation of AR expression in PCa cells may be an effective therapeutic modality. The diarylpentanoid ca27 has previously been shown to down-regulate AR expression by an unknown mechanism of action. The present work represents a ...


Role Of Dendritic Cells In Pathology Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Neonates, Bishwas Shrestha 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Role Of Dendritic Cells In Pathology Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Neonates, Bishwas Shrestha

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of bronchiolitis in children. We have shown that neonatal mice respond to primary RSV infection with T helper type 2 (Th2) biased immune responses, which are enhanced following reinfection. Dendritic cells (DCs) including myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) play important roles in driving host responses to RSV infection. mDCs present antigens to help Th cells differentiate, and pDCs protect against viral infection through type I interferons (IFNs). Despite data demonstrating importance of mDCs and pDCs in protection against RSV, it has not been studied in an age appropriate ...


Foxo3 Increases Mir-34a To Cause Palmitate-Induced Cholangiocyte Lipoapoptosis., Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Bailey A. Stringham, Ashley M. Mohr, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Sizhao Lu, Mary A. Smith, Dee Harrison-Findik, Justin L. Mott 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Foxo3 Increases Mir-34a To Cause Palmitate-Induced Cholangiocyte Lipoapoptosis., Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Bailey A. Stringham, Ashley M. Mohr, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Sizhao Lu, Mary A. Smith, Dee Harrison-Findik, Justin L. Mott

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients have elevated plasma saturated free fatty acid levels. These toxic fatty acids can induce liver cell death and our recent results demonstrated that the biliary epithelium may be susceptible to lipotoxicity. Here, we explored the molecular mechanisms of cholangiocyte lipoapoptosis in cell culture and in an animal model of NASH. Treatment of cholangiocytes with palmitate (PA) showed increased caspase 3/7 activity and increased levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase 3, demonstrating cholangiocyte lipoapoptosis. Interestingly, treatment with PA significantly increased the levels of microRNA miR-34a, a pro-apoptotic microRNA known to be elevated in ...


Chemical And Structural Characterization Of A Model Post-Termination Complex (Potc) For The Ribosome Recycling Reaction: Evidence For The Release Of The Mrna By Rrf And Ef-G., Nobuhiro Iwakura, Takeshi Yokoyama, Fabio Quaglia, Kaoru Mitsuoka, Kazuhiro Mio, Hideki Shigematsu, Mikako Shirouzu, Akira Kaji, Hideko Kaji 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Chemical And Structural Characterization Of A Model Post-Termination Complex (Potc) For The Ribosome Recycling Reaction: Evidence For The Release Of The Mrna By Rrf And Ef-G., Nobuhiro Iwakura, Takeshi Yokoyama, Fabio Quaglia, Kaoru Mitsuoka, Kazuhiro Mio, Hideki Shigematsu, Mikako Shirouzu, Akira Kaji, Hideko Kaji

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

A model Post-Termination Complex (PoTC) used for the discovery of Ribosome Recycling Factor (RRF) was purified and characterized by cryo-electron microscopic analysis and biochemical methods. We established that the model PoTC has mostly one tRNA, at the P/E or P/P position, together with one mRNA. The structural studies were supported by the biochemical measurement of bound tRNA and mRNA. Using this substrate, we establish that the release of tRNA, release of mRNA and splitting of ribosomal subunits occur during the recycling reaction. Order of these events is tRNA release first followed by mRNA release and splitting almost simultaneously ...


Kinetic Studies Of Dna Repair Enzyme Alkbh2, Michael R. Vittori 2017 University of Rhode Island

Kinetic Studies Of Dna Repair Enzyme Alkbh2, Michael R. Vittori

Senior Honors Projects

The genomes of living organisms are under constant bombardment from various sources, including chemical modification stemming from processes within the organisms themselves or from exogenous agents, and from radiation. These sources of genomic damage may induce structural changes in the genome’s most basic functional units, the nucleotides that comprise DNA. Damage to an organism’s DNA may result in the production of dysfunctional or nonfunctional proteins. Failure to repair such damage may result in the compounding of successive mutations within the organism’s genome, the pathogenesis of cancer and various genetic disorders in humans. To ensure their viability, organisms ...


Determining The Protective Effects Of Quercetin Against Cadmium Toxicity In Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Caroline N. Smith 2017 Bellarmine University

Determining The Protective Effects Of Quercetin Against Cadmium Toxicity In Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Caroline N. Smith

Undergraduate Theses

Cadmium is a toxic industrial and environmental pollutant found in groundwater, air, soils, food and cigarettes. Chronic intake of low levels of cadmium has been shown to result in renal dysfunction due to cell death which can occur via apoptosis as well as necrosis. Previous studies have shown that plant extracts containing quercetin, a flavonoid found in many fruits and vegetables, protect against cadmium toxicity in rat liver hepatocytes. To determine if quercetin may have a protective effect in a cadmium-treated human embryonic kidney cell line, HEK-293 cells were treated using concentrations of cadmium chloride from 10 to 50 μM ...


A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Trna Is Active In Live-Cell Protein Synthesis., Isao Masuda, Takao Igarashi, Reiko Sakaguchi, Ram G. Nitharwal, Ryuichi Takase, Kyu Young Han, Benjamin J. Leslie, Cuiping Liu, Howard Gamper, Taekjip Ha, Suparna Sanyal, Ya-Ming Hou 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Trna Is Active In Live-Cell Protein Synthesis., Isao Masuda, Takao Igarashi, Reiko Sakaguchi, Ram G. Nitharwal, Ryuichi Takase, Kyu Young Han, Benjamin J. Leslie, Cuiping Liu, Howard Gamper, Taekjip Ha, Suparna Sanyal, Ya-Ming Hou

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) perform essential tasks for all living cells. They are major components of the ribosomal machinery for protein synthesis and they also serve in non-ribosomal pathways for regulation and signaling metabolism. We describe the development of a genetically encoded fluorescent tRNA fusion with the potential for imaging in live Escherichia coli cells. This tRNA fusion carries a Spinach aptamer that becomes fluorescent upon binding of a cell-permeable and non-toxic fluorophore. We show that, despite having a structural framework significantly larger than any natural tRNA species, this fusion is a viable probe for monitoring tRNA stability in a cellular ...


Unfair Competition Governs The Interaction Of Pcpi-17 With Myosin Phosphatase (Pp1-Mypt1)., Joshua J. Filter, Byron C. Williams, Masumi Eto, David Shalloway, Michael L. Goldberg 2017 Cornell University

Unfair Competition Governs The Interaction Of Pcpi-17 With Myosin Phosphatase (Pp1-Mypt1)., Joshua J. Filter, Byron C. Williams, Masumi Eto, David Shalloway, Michael L. Goldberg

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Faculty Papers

The small phosphoprotein pCPI-17 inhibits myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP). Current models postulate that during muscle relaxation, phosphatases other than MLCP dephosphorylate and inactivate pCPI-17 to restore MLCP activity. We show here that such hypotheses are insufficient to account for the observed rapidity of pCPI-17 inactivation in mammalian smooth muscles. Instead, MLCP itself is the critical enzyme for pCPI-17 dephosphorylation. We call the mutual sequestration mechanism through which pCPI-17 and MLCP interact inhibition by unfair competition: MLCP protects pCPI-17 from other phosphatases, while pCPI-17 blocks other substrates from MLCP's active site. MLCP dephosphorylates pCPI-17 at a slow rate that is ...


Bidirectional Kcnq1:Β-Catenin Interaction Drives Colorectal Cancer Cell Differentiation., Raphael Rapetti-Mauss, Viviana Bustos, Warren Thomas, Jean McBryan, Harry Harvey, Natalia Lajczak, Stephen F. Madden, Bernard Pellissier, Franck Borgese, Oliver Soriani, Brian J. Harvey 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Bidirectional Kcnq1:Β-Catenin Interaction Drives Colorectal Cancer Cell Differentiation., Raphael Rapetti-Mauss, Viviana Bustos, Warren Thomas, Jean Mcbryan, Harry Harvey, Natalia Lajczak, Stephen F. Madden, Bernard Pellissier, Franck Borgese, Oliver Soriani, Brian J. Harvey

Molecular Medicine Articles

The K+ channel KCNQ1 has been proposed as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating KCNQ1:β-catenin bidirectional interactions and their effects on CRC differentiation, proliferation, and invasion. Molecular and pharmacologic approaches were used to determine the influence of KCNQ1 expression on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human CRC cell lines of varying stages of differentiation. The expression of KCNQ1 was lost with increasing mesenchymal phenotype in poorly differentiated CRC cell lines as a consequence of repression of the KCNQ1 promoter by β-catenin:T-cell factor (TCF)-4. In welldifferentiated epithelial ...


Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta 2017 Old Dominion University

Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Increased engorgement weights were noted for ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on ...


Portal Protein Functions Akin To A Dna-Sensor That Couples Genome-Packaging To Icosahedral Capsid Maturation., Ravi K. Lokareddy, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ankoor Roy, Pavel V. Afonine, Tina Motwani, Carolyn M M. Teschke, Kristin N. Parent, Gino Cingolani 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Portal Protein Functions Akin To A Dna-Sensor That Couples Genome-Packaging To Icosahedral Capsid Maturation., Ravi K. Lokareddy, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ankoor Roy, Pavel V. Afonine, Tina Motwani, Carolyn M M. Teschke, Kristin N. Parent, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or 'procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity ...


Cleavage Of Dfna5 By Caspase-3 During Apoptosis Mediates Progression To Secondary Necrotic/Pyroptotic Cell Death., Corey Rogers, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Lindsey Mayes, Diana Alnemri, Gino Cingolani, Emad S. Alnemri 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Cleavage Of Dfna5 By Caspase-3 During Apoptosis Mediates Progression To Secondary Necrotic/Pyroptotic Cell Death., Corey Rogers, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Lindsey Mayes, Diana Alnemri, Gino Cingolani, Emad S. Alnemri

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Apoptosis is a genetically regulated cell suicide programme mediated by activation of the effector caspases 3, 6 and 7. If apoptotic cells are not scavenged, they progress to a lytic and inflammatory phase called secondary necrosis. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show that caspase-3 cleaves the GSDMD-related protein DFNA5 after Asp270 to generate a necrotic DFNA5-N fragment that targets the plasma membrane to induce secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Cells that express DFNA5 progress to secondary necrosis, when stimulated with apoptotic triggers such as etoposide or vesicular stomatitis virus infection, but disassemble into small apoptotic bodies when ...


Factors Regulating Features Of Metabolic Syndrome, Sonja S. Pijut 2017 University of Kentucky

Factors Regulating Features Of Metabolic Syndrome, Sonja S. Pijut

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

The collective presence of central obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and elevated triglycerides, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose constitutes Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), a disease state that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), present in up to 90% of obese adults, is also linked to MetS. As in CVD, disruptions in cholesterol metabolism play a contributing role in the development of T2DM and NAFLD. Genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, secretion, and catabolism are diurnally regulated in the liver and adipose. Disruptions in the sleep-wake cycle are thought to potentiate metabolic ...


An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, Adam J. Foley 2017 University of Central Florida

An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, Adam J. Foley

Honors in the Major Theses

Polyamines, specifically putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are small cationic molecules found in all organisms. Cells can biosynthetically make these molecules, or alternatively, they can be transported from the extracellular environment. Malignant cells have been shown to require relatively high amounts of polyamines. There is a chemotherapeutic agent, DFMO, used to block the biosynthesis of polyamines. Many malignant cells can circumvent DFMO therapy by activating their transport system. A potential solution is to simultaneously block biosynthesis and transport of polyamines. However, little is known about the polyamine transport system in higher eukaryotes.

This thesis aims to add to the basic biological ...


Initiator Trna Genes Template The 3' Cca End At High Frequencies In Bacteria., David H. Ardell, Ya-Ming Hou 2016 University of California

Initiator Trna Genes Template The 3' Cca End At High Frequencies In Bacteria., David H. Ardell, Ya-Ming Hou

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: While the CCA sequence at the mature 3' end of tRNAs is conserved and critical for translational function, a genetic template for this sequence is not always contained in tRNA genes. In eukaryotes and Archaea, the CCA ends of tRNAs are synthesized post-transcriptionally by CCA-adding enzymes. In Bacteria, tRNA genes template CCA sporadically.

RESULTS: In order to understand the variation in how prokaryotic tRNA genes template CCA, we re-annotated tRNA genes in tRNAdb-CE database version 0.8. Among 132,129 prokaryotic tRNA genes, initiator tRNA genes template CCA at the highest average frequency (74.1%) over all functional classes ...


A Biologically Active Tnf-Alpha Inhibitor Fails To Suppress Colitis In Balb/C Mice, Stephanie E. Biel 2016 Missouri State University

A Biologically Active Tnf-Alpha Inhibitor Fails To Suppress Colitis In Balb/C Mice, Stephanie E. Biel

MSU Graduate Theses

Tumor necrosis factor a (TNFα), a potent inflammatory cytokine, has long been established as a major driving force for pathologic inflammation. Currently, anti-TNFα therapies are the standard in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) management; however, one-third of IBD patients fail to respond to anti-TNFα therapies. Previous data from this lab indicate that TNFα Converting Enzyme (TACE) inhibition does not ameliorate colitis in BALB/C mice. Thus, we hypothesized that TNFα is not a critical component in the BALB/C model of colitis. To test this, acute colitis was induced in BALB/C mice by consumption of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS ...


Tgf-Β1 Increases Resistance Of Nih/3t3 Fibroblasts Toward Apoptosis Through Activation Of Smad2/3 And Erk1/2 Pathways, Ulugbek Negmadjanov, Alisher Holmuhamedov, Larisa Emelyanova, Hao Xu, Farhan Rizvi, Gracious R. Ross, A. Jamil Tajik, Yang Shi, Ekhson Holmuhamedov, Arshad Jahangir 2016 Aurora Research Institute

Tgf-Β1 Increases Resistance Of Nih/3t3 Fibroblasts Toward Apoptosis Through Activation Of Smad2/3 And Erk1/2 Pathways, Ulugbek Negmadjanov, Alisher Holmuhamedov, Larisa Emelyanova, Hao Xu, Farhan Rizvi, Gracious R. Ross, A. Jamil Tajik, Yang Shi, Ekhson Holmuhamedov, Arshad Jahangir

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose

Excessive fibrosis has been suggested to result from persistence of fibroblasts in injured tissue due to impaired apoptosis, but signaling pathways are not fully defined.

Methods

Suppression of apoptotic cell death following transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exposure was studied using the culture of NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Caspase-3 activity, propidium iodide staining and annexin V binding induced by Fas-ligand (FasL) in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts in the absence and presence of TGF-β1 was determined, and relative contribution of signaling through Smad2/3 and noncanonical Erk1/2 and Akt pathways was dissected by assessing phosphorylation status of these kinases and ...


Functional Alterations Of Ion Channels From Cardiac Fibroblasts In Heart Diseases, Gracious R. Ross, Arshad Jahangir 2016 Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani Center for Integrative Research on Cardiovascular Aging, Aurora Research Institute, Aurora Health Care

Functional Alterations Of Ion Channels From Cardiac Fibroblasts In Heart Diseases, Gracious R. Ross, Arshad Jahangir

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

In an aged population, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of fatality and morbidity. Age-related fibrotic remodeling of the heart contributes to progressive myocardial dysfunction. Cardiac fibroblasts (CF), responsible for the maintenance of extracellular matrix and fibrosis process, play an important role in cardiac health and disease. CFs influence myocardial function by their chemical, electrical and mechanical interactions with cardiomyocytes through extracellular matrix deposition or secretion of cytokines and growth factors. These, in turn, are modulated by ion channels, macromolecular pores in the plasma membrane that allow selective ionic fluxes of major ions like K+, Ca2+, Na+ or Cl ...


Tamoxifen Suppresses The Growth Of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cells., Cormac J. Jennings, Najihah Zainal, Izyan MM Dahlan, Elaine W. Kay, Brian J. Harvey, Warren Thomas 2016 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Tamoxifen Suppresses The Growth Of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cells., Cormac J. Jennings, Najihah Zainal, Izyan Mm Dahlan, Elaine W. Kay, Brian J. Harvey, Warren Thomas

Molecular Medicine Articles

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy most often associated with exposure to asbestos. Recent evidence points to oestrogen receptor (ER)-β having a tumour-suppressor role in MPM progression, and this raises the question of whether selective modulators of ERs could play a role in augmenting MPM therapy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the action of tamoxifen in inhibiting the growth and modulating the cisplatin sensitivity of four MPM cell lines.

RESULTS: Tamoxifen inhibited the growth of MPM cells and also modulated their sensitivity to cisplatin. The MPM cell lines expressed ERβ, but the actions ...


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