Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Neurobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

623 Full-Text Articles 2,005 Authors 182,427 Downloads 85 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Neurobiology

Faceted Search

623 full-text articles. Page 1 of 26.

Incog 2.0 Guidelines For Cognitive Rehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Part V: Memory, Diana Velikonja, Jennie Ponsford, Shannon Janzen, Amber Harnett, Eleni Patsakos, Mary Kennedy, Leanne Togher, Robert Teasell, Amanda McIntyre, Penny Welch-West, Ailene Kua, Mark Theodore Bayley 2023 Hamilton Health Sciences

Incog 2.0 Guidelines For Cognitive Rehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Part V: Memory, Diana Velikonja, Jennie Ponsford, Shannon Janzen, Amber Harnett, Eleni Patsakos, Mary Kennedy, Leanne Togher, Robert Teasell, Amanda Mcintyre, Penny Welch-West, Ailene Kua, Mark Theodore Bayley

Communication Sciences and Disorders Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction:

Memory impairments affecting encoding, acquisition, and retrieval of information after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have debilitating and enduring functional consequences. The interventional research reviewed primarily focused on mild to severe memory impairments in episodic and prospective memory. As memory is a common focus of cognitive rehabilitation, clinicians should understand and use the latest evidence. Therefore, the INCOG (“International Cognitive”) 2014 clinical practice guidelines were updated.

Methods:

An expert panel of clinicians/researchers reviewed evidence published since 2014 and developed updated recommendations for intervention for memory impairments post-TBI, a decision-making algorithm, and an audit tool for review of clinical practice. …


Incog 2.0 Guidelines For Cognitive Rehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Part Iv: Cognitive-Communication And Social Cognition Disorders, Leanne Togher, Jacinta Douglas, Lyn S. Turkstra, Penny Welch-West, Shannon Janzen, Amber Harnett, Mary Kennedy, Ailene Kua, Eleni Patsakos, Jennie Ponsford, Robert Teasell, Mark Theodore Bayley, Catherine Wiseman-Hakes 2023 The University of Sydney

Incog 2.0 Guidelines For Cognitive Rehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Part Iv: Cognitive-Communication And Social Cognition Disorders, Leanne Togher, Jacinta Douglas, Lyn S. Turkstra, Penny Welch-West, Shannon Janzen, Amber Harnett, Mary Kennedy, Ailene Kua, Eleni Patsakos, Jennie Ponsford, Robert Teasell, Mark Theodore Bayley, Catherine Wiseman-Hakes

Communication Sciences and Disorders Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction:

Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury causes significant cognitive impairments, including impairments in social cognition, the ability to recognize others' emotions, and infer others' thoughts. These cognitive impairments can have profound negative effects on communication functions, resulting in a cognitive-communication disorder. Cognitive-communication disorders can significantly limit a person's ability to socialize, work, and study, and thus are critical targets for intervention. This article presents the updated INCOG 2.0 recommendations for management of cognitive-communication disorders. As social cognition is central to cognitive-communication disorders, this update includes interventions for social cognition.

Methods:

An expert panel of clinicians/researchers reviewed evidence published since …


Incog 2.0 Guidelines For Cognitive Rehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Part Iii: Executive Functions, Eliyas Jeffay, Jennie Ponsford, Amber Harnett, Shannon Janzen, Eleni Patsakos, Jacinta Douglas, Mary Kennedy, Ailene Kua, Robert Teasell, Penny Welch-West, Mark Theodore Bayley, Robin Green 2023 KITE Research Institute

Incog 2.0 Guidelines For Cognitive Rehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Part Iii: Executive Functions, Eliyas Jeffay, Jennie Ponsford, Amber Harnett, Shannon Janzen, Eleni Patsakos, Jacinta Douglas, Mary Kennedy, Ailene Kua, Robert Teasell, Penny Welch-West, Mark Theodore Bayley, Robin Green

Communication Sciences and Disorders Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction:

Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (MS-TBI) causes debilitating and enduring impairments of executive functioning and self-awareness, which clinicians often find challenging to address. Here, we provide an update to the INCOG 2014 guidelines for the clinical management of these impairments.

Methods:

An expert panel of clinicians/researchers (known as INCOG) reviewed evidence published from 2014 and developed updated recommendations for the management of executive functioning and self-awareness post-MS-TBI, as well as a decision-making algorithm, and an audit tool for review of clinical practice.

Results:

A total of 8 recommendations are provided regarding executive functioning and self-awareness. Since INCOG 2014, 4 …


The Future Of Incog (Is Now), Peter Bragge, Mark Theodore Bayley, Diana Velikonja, Leanne Togher, Jennie Ponsford, Shannon Janzen, Amber Harnett, Ailene Kua, Eleni Patsakos, Amanda McIntyre, Robert Teasell, Mary Kennedy, Shawn Marshall 2023 Monash University

The Future Of Incog (Is Now), Peter Bragge, Mark Theodore Bayley, Diana Velikonja, Leanne Togher, Jennie Ponsford, Shannon Janzen, Amber Harnett, Ailene Kua, Eleni Patsakos, Amanda Mcintyre, Robert Teasell, Mary Kennedy, Shawn Marshall

Communication Sciences and Disorders Faculty Articles and Research

IT HAS BEEN 8 years since the first iteration of the INCOG clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) were published. Much has happened since 2014, and a considerable body of evidence has been published in the various domains of cognitive rehabilitation research represented in this special issue. Over this time, significant developments in the science of identifying, appraising, and distilling research evidence into practically applicable CPGs have emerged, as well as implementation efforts to ensure meaningful change in care delivery.


Incog 2.0 Guidelines For Cognitive Rehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury: What’S Changed From 2014 To Now?, Mark Theodore Bayley, Shannon Janzen, Amber Harnett, Peter Bragge, Leanne Togher, Ailene Kua, Eleni Patsakos, Lyn S. Turkstra, Robert Teasell, Mary Kennedy, Shawn Marshall, Jennie Ponsford 2023 University of Toronto

Incog 2.0 Guidelines For Cognitive Rehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury: What’S Changed From 2014 To Now?, Mark Theodore Bayley, Shannon Janzen, Amber Harnett, Peter Bragge, Leanne Togher, Ailene Kua, Eleni Patsakos, Lyn S. Turkstra, Robert Teasell, Mary Kennedy, Shawn Marshall, Jennie Ponsford

Communication Sciences and Disorders Faculty Articles and Research

IT IS CRITICAL TO KEEP clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) up to date through integration of the latest evidence. Therefore, it is with great excitement that the INCOG team presents the INCOG 2.0 Guidelines for Cognitive Rehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). In this brief introduction, we provide an overview of changes in the evidence from 2014; share insights into the current state and challenges implementing cognitive rehabilitation; and provide an overview of INCOG 2022.


Visualization And Characterization Of The Immunological Synapse Between Chlorotoxin Chimeric Antigen (Cltx-Car) Redirected T Cells And Targeted Glioblastoma Tumors, Arianna Livi 2023 Claremont Colleges

Visualization And Characterization Of The Immunological Synapse Between Chlorotoxin Chimeric Antigen (Cltx-Car) Redirected T Cells And Targeted Glioblastoma Tumors, Arianna Livi

CMC Senior Theses

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T (CAR-T) cells have demonstrated anti-tumor activity against aggressive and invasive cancers such as glioblastoma (GBM); however, clinical response rates remain low in clinical trial studies. Tumor heterogeneity and tumor microenvironment conditions pose significant challenges for treatment of GBM, thus continuous optimization of CAR-T cell therapies and identification of novel, widely expressed, and highly specific GBM antigens are vital to better patient outcomes. A newly developed CAR-T cell construct incorporating chlorotoxin (CLTX) as the targeting domain exhibited broad GBM-targeting capabilities and elicited potent cytotoxic effects during preclinical studies and is currently being tested in a phase I …


Nasal Accumulation And Metabolism Of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Following Aerosol (‘Vaping’) Administration In An Adolescent Rat Model, Alexa Torrens, Christina M Ruiz, Maricela X Martinez, Alex Mabou Tagne, Pritam Roy, Dakota Grimes, Faizy Ahmed, Valeria Lallai, Victoria Inshishian, Malia Bautista, Yen-Chu Chen, Marilyn A. Huestis, Aditi Das, Christie D Fowler, Stephen V Mahler, Daniele Piomelli 2023 University of California

Nasal Accumulation And Metabolism Of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Following Aerosol (‘Vaping’) Administration In An Adolescent Rat Model, Alexa Torrens, Christina M Ruiz, Maricela X Martinez, Alex Mabou Tagne, Pritam Roy, Dakota Grimes, Faizy Ahmed, Valeria Lallai, Victoria Inshishian, Malia Bautista, Yen-Chu Chen, Marilyn A. Huestis, Aditi Das, Christie D Fowler, Stephen V Mahler, Daniele Piomelli

Institute of Emerging Health Professions Faculty Papers

Passive aerosol exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in laboratory animals results in faster onset of action and less extensive liver metabolism compared to most other administration routes and might thus provide an ecologically relevant model of human cannabis inhalation. Previous studies have, however, overlooked the possibility that rodents, as obligate nose breathers, may accumulate aerosolized THC in the nasal cavity, from where the drug might directly diffuse to the brain. To test this, we administered THC (ten 5-s puffs of 100 mg/mL of THC) to adolescent (31-day-old) Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. We used liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to quantify the …


Nursing Considerations For Post-Traumatic Amnesia After A Traumatic Brain Injury, Hannah Grant 2022 Liberty University

Nursing Considerations For Post-Traumatic Amnesia After A Traumatic Brain Injury, Hannah Grant

Senior Honors Theses

A period known as post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) often follows a traumatic brain injury (TBI). PTA is characterized by anterograde and retrograde amnesia, confusion, disorientation, and agitation. The duration and severity of PTA is a key indicator of the long-term prognosis after a TBI, so proper assessment and nursing care of a PTA patient is crucial. TBIs range from mild to severe, but primarily affect the fronto-temporal lobes. In PTA, both neural lesions and white matter damage within the parahippocampal region can cause PTA. A nurse must perform a thorough assessment of a TBI patient, but, since PTA is a key …


Motoneuron Excitability Dysfunction In Als: Pseudo-Mystery Or Authentic Conundrum?, Sherif M. Elbasiouny 2022 Wright State University - Main Campus

Motoneuron Excitability Dysfunction In Als: Pseudo-Mystery Or Authentic Conundrum?, Sherif M. Elbasiouny

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), abnormalities in motoneuronal excitability are seen in early pathogenesis and throughout disease progression. Fully understanding motoneuron excitability dysfunction may lead to more effective treatments. Yet decades of research have not produced consensus on the nature, role or underlying mechanisms of motoneuron excitability dysfunction in ALS. For example, contrary to Ca excitotoxicity theory, predictions of motoneuronal hyper-excitability, normal and hypo-excitability have also been seen at various disease stages and in multiple ALS lines. Accordingly, motoneuron excitability dysfunction in ALS is a disputed topic in the field. Specifically, the form (hyper, hypo or unchanged) and what role …


Non-Invasive Transcutaneous Spinal Dc Stimulation As A Neurorehabilitation Als Therapy In Awake G93a Mice: The First Step To Clinical Translation, Morgan M. Highlander, Sherif M. Elbasiouny 2022 Wright State University

Non-Invasive Transcutaneous Spinal Dc Stimulation As A Neurorehabilitation Als Therapy In Awake G93a Mice: The First Step To Clinical Translation, Morgan M. Highlander, Sherif M. Elbasiouny

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Spinal direct current stimulation (sDCS) modulates motoneuron (MN) excitability beyond the stimulation period, making it a potential neurorehabilitation therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a MN degenerative disease in which MN excitability dysfunction plays a critical and complex role. Recent evidence confirms induced changes in MN excitability via measured MN electrophysiological properties in the SOD1 ALS mouse during and following invasive subcutaneous sDCS (ssDCS). The first aim of our pilot study was to determine the clinical potential of these excitability changes at symptom onset (P90-P105) in ALS via a novel non-invasive transcutaneous sDCS (tsDCS) treatment paradigm on un-anesthetized SOD1-G93A mice. …


Suppression Of Store-Operated Calcium Entry Channels And Cytokine Release By Cannabinoids, J. Ashot Kozak 2022 Wright State University - Main Campus

Suppression Of Store-Operated Calcium Entry Channels And Cytokine Release By Cannabinoids, J. Ashot Kozak

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib 2022 Western University

Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Translation, or the production of protein from an mRNA blueprint, is among the most fundamental processes to life as we know it. tRNAs are essential to accurate translation, as they decode the codons of mRNA and recruit corresponding amino acids. Variant tRNAs with anticodon mutations can decrease translational fidelity by recruiting the incorrect amino acid, an aberrant process known as mistranslation. When proteins are produced with incorrect amino acid sequences, they may misfold. The heat shock response functions to alleviate cellular stress caused by misfolded proteins, either by refolding or targeting misfolded proteins for degradation. Hsf1 acts as a transcriptional …


How Valuable Are Clinical Neuropsychological Assessments? A Meta-Analysis Of Neuropsychological Tests With Comparison To Common Medical Tests And Treatments, Murphy Harrell 2022 University of South Alabama

How Valuable Are Clinical Neuropsychological Assessments? A Meta-Analysis Of Neuropsychological Tests With Comparison To Common Medical Tests And Treatments, Murphy Harrell

Theses and Dissertations

There has been a general decrease in neuropsychological assessments at a time when medical diagnostic technology and treatments have expanded, leading to a faulty assumption that medical tests and healthcare treatments provide more reliable or valid data than psychological assessments. A landmark report from the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Psychological Assessment Work Group (PAWG) found that validity coefficients for many psychological tests were indistinguishable from those of medical tests (Meyer et al., 2001). An updated systematic review of the advancement in neuropsychological testing is essential to the continued advancement of the value of neuropsychological assessment in healthcare. This meta-analysis sought …


Neuropsychology Of Primary Headache Disorders: A Meta-Analysis, Jasmin H. Pizer 2022 University of South Alabama

Neuropsychology Of Primary Headache Disorders: A Meta-Analysis, Jasmin H. Pizer

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted comparing cognition on clinical measures between individuals with a primary headache disorder (PHD) and healthy controls (HC). Data Selection: The University of South Alabama Libraries’ OneSearch and PubMed, with a uniform search-strategy, were used to locate original research comparing cognition between PHD and HC samples. Analyses were modeled under random effects. Hedge’s g was used as a bias-corrected estimate of effect size. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran’s Q and I2. Data Synthesis: The initial search interval spanned inception–May 2021 and yielded 6692 results. Fifty-seven studies were analyzed. Meta-analysis showed a significant combined effect size …


Palmitoylation As A Regulator Of Maguk Proteins Postsynaptic Localization, Santiago Balderas, Rozena Shirvani-Arani, Xiaoqian Fang, Yonghong Zhang 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Palmitoylation As A Regulator Of Maguk Proteins Postsynaptic Localization, Santiago Balderas, Rozena Shirvani-Arani, Xiaoqian Fang, Yonghong Zhang

MEDI 8127 Scholarly Activities Pre-Clerkship

Synaptic plasticity is the ability of the brain to make changes and the changes occur at synapses. To achieve the complicated functions, a good number of proteins are present at synapse and are called synaptic proteins. To stabilize these proteins at synapses, proteins are modified through posttranslational modifications (PTMs). The most studied PTMs include phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, palmitoylation, etc. Palmitoylation is a type of lipid modification and has received more attention recently for its contribution to protein trafficking, localization, and interaction in various synaptic plasticity. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family includes PSD-95, PSD-93 (also known as chapsyn-110), SAP102, …


Meta-Analysis Of 175 Patients With Covid-19 And Seizures, Status Epilepticus, Or Cortical Myoclonus: An Individual Patient Data Analysis, Aditi Kappagantu BS, Helena A. Brantz MS, Amman Bhasin BA, Cristina Jageka BS, Rooqash Ali MD, Izzy Saef MD, Brittany M. Stopa MPH, Ayaz Khawaja MD 2022 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Meta-Analysis Of 175 Patients With Covid-19 And Seizures, Status Epilepticus, Or Cortical Myoclonus: An Individual Patient Data Analysis, Aditi Kappagantu Bs, Helena A. Brantz Ms, Amman Bhasin Ba, Cristina Jageka Bs, Rooqash Ali Md, Izzy Saef Md, Brittany M. Stopa Mph, Ayaz Khawaja Md

Medical Student Research Symposium

Objective

To characterize management and outcomes of seizures, status epilepticus, and cortical myoclonus in COVID-19, with individual patient data analysis of published literature.

Methods

Systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Criteria included new-onset seizures, status epilepticus, and/or cortical myoclonus with concomitant COVID-19. COVID-19 severity was dichotomized into mild and severe cases. Good outcome was defined as discharge without severe deficits, and/or return to baseline.

Results

A total of 105 studies reporting 176 patients (male 56.3%;mean age 47.8,SD 25.6) were included. Status epilepticus occurred in 47 patients (26.7%) and myoclonus in 41 (23.3%). Severe COVID-19 occurred in …


Intrabody-Mediated Postsynaptic Recruitment Of Camkiiα Improves Memory, Anthony Chifor, Jeongyoon Choi Dr., Joongkyu Park Dr. 2022 Wayne State University

Intrabody-Mediated Postsynaptic Recruitment Of Camkiiα Improves Memory, Anthony Chifor, Jeongyoon Choi Dr., Joongkyu Park Dr.

Medical Student Research Symposium

Long-term potentiation (LTP), the selective strengthening of specific synapses based on recent activity, has widely been accepted as the biological mechanism responsible for learning and memory. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in LTP, which when activated, result in a surge of postsynaptic intracellular calcium levels. The calcium rise during LTP results in the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II alpha (CaMKIIa), which consequently enacts multiple cellular effects that ultimately result in the strengthening of synaptic connections. Previous work has examined the effects of CaMKIIa overexpression in rat hippocampi on spatial memory, however, significant but limited improvement in …


Il-10 And Tgf-Β Increase Connexin-43 Expression And Membrane Potential Of Hl-1 Cardiomyocytes Coupled With Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Cora B. Cox, Mike Castro, Thomas L. Brown, Nancy J. Bigley 2022 Wright State University

Il-10 And Tgf-Β Increase Connexin-43 Expression And Membrane Potential Of Hl-1 Cardiomyocytes Coupled With Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Cora B. Cox, Mike Castro, Thomas L. Brown, Nancy J. Bigley

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Cardiac resident macrophages facilitate electrical conduction by interacting with cardiomyocytes via connexin-43 (Cx43) hemichannels. Cx43 is critical for impulse propagation and coordination between muscle contractions. Cardiomyocyte electrophysiology can be altered when coupled with noncardiomyocyte cell types such as M2c tissue-resident macrophages. Using cocultures of murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, we examined the hypothesis that cytokine signals, TGF-β1 and IL-10, upregulate Cx43 expression at points of contact between the two cell types. These cytokine signals maintain the macrophages in an M2c anti-inflammatory phenotype, mimicking cardiac resident macrophages. The electrophysiology of cardiomyocytes was examined using di-8-ANEPPS potentiometric dye, which reflects …


Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria 2022 Keck Graduate Institute

Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is the target of the only FDA-approved disease-modifying treatment for AD. Accordingly, the use of transgenic mouse models that overexpress the amyloid precursor protein and thereby accumulate cerebral Aβ plaques are widely used to model human AD in mice. Therefore, immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunostaining, commonly measure the Aβ load in brain tissues derived from AD transgenic mice. Though the methods for Aβ detection and quantification have been well established and documented, the impact of the size of the …


The Effects Of Astrocytic Derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) On Cognition And Astrocytes, Destiny Wilson 2022 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Astrocytic Derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) On Cognition And Astrocytes, Destiny Wilson

Honors Theses

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a neuroendocrine signaling hormone that plays a vital role in growth and development, as well as learning and memory. Inhibition of this hormone results in cognitive impairments like those seen with age-related decline. While a majority of research has focused on the role of IGF-1 on neurons, the role of astrocytes still needs to be explored. Our research investigates how astrocytes and cognition are affected as a result of direct regulation of localized IGF-1 production in early development and after puberty. Preliminary studies in our laboratory established a connection between IGF-1 and glial fibrillary …


Digital Commons powered by bepress