Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, 2017 University of Alberta
Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Background: Neuroinflammation in the brain consequent to activation of microglia is viewed as an important component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is known to activate microglia and unleash an inflammatory cascade that eventually results in neuronal dysfunction and death. In this study, we sought to identify the presence of amylin receptors on human fetal and murine microglia and determine whether Aβ activation of the inflammasome complex and subsequent release of cytokines is mediated through these receptors.
Methods: The presence of dimeric components of the amylin receptor (calcitonin receptor and receptor activity modifying protein 3) were ...
Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, 2017 Brown University
Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI. Moderate to severe TBI elicits neuroinflammation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is associated with memory deficits. Here we demonstrate that CN2097 significantly reduces the post-traumatic synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and inhibits the ...
The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, 2017 Marquette University
The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, Chung Lung Chan
Dissertations (2009 -)
Humans and animals are constantly exposed to external stimuli. The ability to process reward value of a stimulus is critical to guiding appropriate behavior and essential for survival. These processes are regulated by neuronal activity and neurochemical signaling in the reward circuitry, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The NAc receives dopaminergic inputs from the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends GABAergic projections to the ventral pallidum (VP). Electrophysiological studies have characterized phasic neuronal responses in the NAc that differential encode appetitive and aversive taste stimuli. Exposure to an appetitive taste stimulus evoked predominantly phasic inhibitory responses in the ...
Intratracheal Instillation Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Hepatic Toxicity In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Siva Krishna Nalabotu, Madhukar Babu Kolli, William E. Triest, Jane Y. Ma, Nandini Dpk Manne, Anjaiah Katta, Hari S. Addagarla, Kevin M. Rice, Eric R. Blough
Background: Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods and results: Compared with control animals, CeO2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05). Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal ...
Source Localization Of Brain States Associated With Canonical Neuroimaging Postures, 2017 McGill University
Source Localization Of Brain States Associated With Canonical Neuroimaging Postures, Michael Lifshitz, Robert T. Thibault, Raquel R. Roth, Amir Raz
Psychology Faculty Articles and Research
Cognitive neuroscientists rarely consider the influence that body position exerts on brain activity; yet, postural variation holds important implications for the acquisition and interpretation of neuroimaging data. Whereas participants in most behavioral and EEG experiments sit upright, many prominent brain imaging techniques (e.g., fMRI) require participants to lie supine. Here we demonstrate that physical comportment profoundly alters baseline brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG)—an imaging modality that permits multipostural acquisition. We collected resting-state MEG data from 12 healthy participants in three postures (lying supine, reclining at 45°, and sitting upright). Source-modeling analysis revealed a broadly distributed influence ...
How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze
Honors Theses AY 16/17
The intent of this project is to gain new insight into the neural circuitry that underlies decision making through understanding the connection between sensory perception and motor action. This investigation further seeks to identify whether optogenetic manipulation of specific neurons results in a change in mate choice. In defining this connection, the end goal is to combat deleterious decision making behavior in humans, such as drug addiction. Female Bengalese finches (BFs) provide an accessible model in which to investigate the neural mechanisms of behavior. Previous studies reveal that activity in the caudal portion of the mesopallium (CM) in the female ...
Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cardiac Decline And The Limitations Of Exercise., 2017 University of Louisville
Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cardiac Decline And The Limitations Of Exercise., Kathryn Michele Deveau
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
There is a general consensus that the level and the severity of spinal cord injury (SCI) impacts chronic cardiac abnormalities such that high thoracic and cervical SCI are the most severely affected. Furthermore, the extreme degree of immobility/inactivity experienced by the persons with SCI has implications on cardiac decline. Yet it has been difficult to separate the relative contributions of the decentralized autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the immediate and profound inactivity to chronic cardiac abnormalities. As such, this body of work sought to characterize a contusion SCI that results in persistent CV dysfunction. Echocardiography, Dobutamine stress echocardiography and ...
Voxel Based Morphometry In Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings, 2017 Johns Hopkins University
Voxel Based Morphometry In Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings, Bhavna J. Antony, Min Chen, Aaron Carass, Bruno M. Jedynak, Omar Al-Louzi, Sharon D. Solomon, Shiv Saidha, Peter Calabresi, Jerry L. Prince
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the human retina is now becoming established as an important modality for the detection and tracking of various ocular diseases. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a long standing neuroimaging analysis technique that allows for the exploration of the regional differences in the brain. There has been limited work done in developing registration based methods for OCT, which has hampered the advancement of VBM analyses in OCT based population studies. Following on from our recent development of an OCT registration method, we explore the potential benefits of VBM analysis in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and ...
Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, 2017 Wright State University
Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez
Francisco J. Alvarez
Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw ...
P03. Role Of Prefrontal Cortical Dopamine Transmission In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Opiate Addiction Vulnerability, Jingjing Li
Western Research Forum
PTSD and opiate addiction share strong co-morbidity and the inability to suppress obtrusive memory recall related to either stressful or rewarding experiences may be an underlying neuropsychological feature triggering PTSD and/or addiction. Our previous research has shown that dopamine (DA) transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) strongly modulates emotional memory formation: activation of the DA D4 receptor (D4R) strongly potentiates the emotional salience of normally non-salient fear memories whereas DA D1 receptor (D1R) activation blocks the behavioural recall of fear memory. Thus, while intra-PFC D4 transmission strongly controls the acquisition of emotional memory, D1 transmission is selectively involved ...
Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Peptides For Cns Dopaminergic Upregulation, 2017 University of Kentucky
Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Peptides For Cns Dopaminergic Upregulation, Luke H. Bradley, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt
Neuroscience Faculty Patents
The present invention relates to novel proteins, referred to herein as amidated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) peptides (or "Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating peptides (ADNS peptides)"), that are useful for treating brain diseases and injuries that result in dopaminergic deficiencies.
Role Of Corpus Callosum Integrity In Arm Function Differs Based On Motor Severity After Stroke, 2017 University of South Carolina - Columbia
Role Of Corpus Callosum Integrity In Arm Function Differs Based On Motor Severity After Stroke, Jill Campbell Stewart, Pritha Dewanjee, George Tran, Erin Burke Quinlan, Lucy Dodakian, Alison Mckenzie, Jill See, Steven C. Cramer
Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research
While the corpus callosum (CC) is important to normal sensorimotor function, its role in motor function after stroke is less well understood. This study examined the relationship between structural integrity of the motor and sensory sections of the CC, as reflected by fractional anisotropy (FA), and motor function in individuals with a range of motor impairment level due to stroke. Fifty-five individuals with chronic stroke (Fugl-Meyer motor score range 14 to 61) and 18 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging and a set of motor behavior tests. Mean FA from the motor and sensory regions of the CC and from ...
A Meta-Analysis Of Neuropsychological Tests Utilized In Evaluations For Post-Operative Cognitive Dysfunction In Adult Surgery Patients, Joanna H. Swartz
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Cognitive dysfunction post-surgery has a significant impact on patients’ quality of life during recovery and afterward. Several studies have been completed on post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), but since studies are varied in their methodologies and designs a metaanalysis is helpful to synthesize the current available research. The present study took a metaanalysis approach to examine neuropsychological tests most sensitive to POCD in adult surgery patients, and determine implications this would have for developing a battery of tests to evaluate for POCD pre and post-surgery. Although some assessment batteries have been proposed for certain populations (e.g., cardiac patients), little research ...
Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, 2017 Wright State University
Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, Martha Jean Sonner, Marie C. Walters, David R. Ladle
Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications
Muscle proprioceptive afferents provide feedback critical for successful execution of motor tasks via specialized mechanoreceptors housed within skeletal muscles: muscle spindles, supplied by group Ia and group II afferents, and Golgi tendon organs, supplied by group Ib afferents. The morphology of these proprioceptors and their associated afferents has been studied extensively in the cat soleus, and to a lesser degree, in the rat; however, quantitative analyses of proprioceptive innervation in the mouse soleus are comparatively limited. The present study employed genetically-encoded fluorescent reporting systems to label and analyze muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and the proprioceptive sensory neuron subpopulations supplying ...
Regulation Of Sleep Plasticity By A Thermo-Sensitive Circuit In Drosophila., 2017 UCL Institute of Neurology
Regulation Of Sleep Plasticity By A Thermo-Sensitive Circuit In Drosophila., Angelique Lamaze, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Robin Fischer, Nicolai Peschel, Kyunghee Koh, James E.C. Jepson
Department of Neuroscience
Sleep is a highly conserved and essential behaviour in many species, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the wild, sensory signalling encoding environmental information must be integrated with sleep drive to ensure that sleep is not initiated during detrimental conditions. However, the molecular and circuit mechanisms by which sleep timing is modulated by the environment are unclear. Here we introduce a novel behavioural paradigm to study this issue. We show that in male fruit flies, onset of the daytime siesta is delayed by ambient temperatures above 29 °C. We term this effect Prolonged Morning Wakefulness (PMW). We show that ...
Distinct Neural Bases Of Disruptive Behavior And Autism Symptom Severity In Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder., 2017 George Washington University
Distinct Neural Bases Of Disruptive Behavior And Autism Symptom Severity In Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder., Y.J. Daniel Yang, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Jiedi Lei, Eran Dayan, Kevin A. Pelphrey, Pamela Ventola
Pediatrics Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: Disruptive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important clinical problem, but its neural basis remains poorly understood. The current research aims to better understand the neural underpinnings of disruptive behavior in ASD, while addressing whether the neural basis is shared with or separable from that of core ASD symptoms.
METHODS: Participants consisted of 48 male children and adolescents: 31 ASD (7 had high disruptive behavior) and 17 typically developing (TD) controls, well-matched on sex, age, and IQ. For ASD participants, autism symptom severity, disruptive behavior, anxiety symptoms, and ADHD symptoms were measured. All participants were scanned while ...
Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Introduction: Amylin receptor serves as a portal for the expression of deleterious effects of amyloid b-protein (Ab), a key pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we showed that AC253, an amylin receptor antagonist, is neuroprotective against Ab toxicity in vitro and abrogates Ab-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation.
Methods: Amyloid precursor protein–overexpressing TgCRND8 mice received intracerebroventricularly AC253 for 5 months. New cyclized peptide cAC253 was synthesized and administered intraperitoneally three times a week for 10 weeks in the same mouse model. Cognitive functions were monitored, and pathologic changes were quantified biochemically and immunohistochemically.
Results: AC253, when administered intracerebroventricularly ...
Rat Hind Limb Nociceptive Withdrawal Response To Heat And Mechanical Stimuli Depends On Initial Position Of The Paw But Not Stimulus Location, Giavanna Verdi
Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current
Mammals rapidly withdraw their hind limb in response to noxious stimulation, which is a protective movement known as the nociceptive withdrawal response (NWR). The NWR has been previously studied in spinalized, decerebrated and anesthetized non-human and human mammals; however, there is minimal information on the NWR in intact, unanesthetized non-human mammals.
The first specific aim was to identify the factors that determine the direction and magnitude of the NWR in intact, unanesthetized rats. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the location of stimulation and the initial position of the paw preceding the NWR will influence the direction and magnitude ...
An Examination Into The Relationship Between Iron Deficiency And Postpartum Depression, 2016 Liberty University
An Examination Into The Relationship Between Iron Deficiency And Postpartum Depression, Sara A. Burroughs
Senior Honors Theses
Postpartum depression is recognized as the most common complication of childbearing; however, its etiology remains fairly undetermined. Many different influences have been hypothesized as to what may cause postpartum depression, including changes in levels of various hormones (such as estrogen and progesterone), a decrease in serotonin, low levels of vitamin D, social factors, and iron deficiency. The lack of strong evidence for one specific cause makes it fairly clear that there are many factors that play a role in the development of postpartum depression. Iron deficiency is one issue that is thought to contribute to the development of postpartum depression ...
Spinal Cord Injury And Autonomic Dysreflexia- A Case Report, 2016 University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine
Spinal Cord Injury And Autonomic Dysreflexia- A Case Report, Apurva Bhatt, Brit Moore, Talal Asif, Kristy E. Steigerwalt, Rebecca R. Pauly
Marshall Journal of Medicine
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a life threatening condition affecting patients with spinal cord lesions T6 level and above. A 51 year old male with a history of paraplegia due to a C6 spinal cord injury (30 years prior) presented with recurrent debilitating episodic diaphoresis, hypertension, low body temperature, and bradycardia. Previous hospitalizations presumed sepsis from UTI to be the etiology, however on further evaluation his symptoms were consistent with undiagnosed AD. This article describes a unique case presentation and reviews AD in depth, including the etiology, pathophysiology and management.