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Brain Structure In Pediatric Tourette Syndrome, Alton C. Williams, Kevin J. Black 2016 Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

Brain Structure In Pediatric Tourette Syndrome, Alton C. Williams, Kevin J. Black

Kevin J. Black, MD

Previous studies of brain structure in Tourette syndrome (TS) have produced mixed results, and most had modest sample sizes. In the present multi-center study, we used structural MRI to compare 103 children and adolescents with TS to a well-matched group of 103 children without tics. We applied voxel-based morphometry methods to test gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume differences between diagnostic groups, accounting for MRI scanner and sequence, age, sex and total GM + WM volume. The TS group demonstrated greater GM volume in posterior thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain, and lower WM volume bilaterally in orbital and medial prefrontal ...


Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Associated Visual System Dysfunction: Investigating Histopathology, Functional Correlates, And A Novel Therapeutic Immune Modulator, Natalie M. Guley 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Associated Visual System Dysfunction: Investigating Histopathology, Functional Correlates, And A Novel Therapeutic Immune Modulator, Natalie M. Guley

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Injuries associated with moderate to severe TBI can be profound, and have historically overshadowed the significant impact mild TBI (mTBI) can have on the lives of affected individuals. Mild TBI can manifest in a number of different ways, but one of the most significant and often debilitating is its impact on the visual system. In order to further investigate the underlying pathology of mTBI and test potential therapeutics, we developed a mouse model of mTBI induced by blast overpressure. In this model, a 50-60 psi blast ...


Better Together, 2016 DePaul University

Better Together

DePaul Magazine

Faculty have taken full advantage of the university's innovative intercollegiate grant program, and the resulting research is as interesting and diverse as the collaborators themselves. What is resulting is research on "Patient and Primary Care Provider Perspectives on Recreational and Therapeutic Cannabis Use Within a Changing Socioculltural and Political Context;" a new minor in climate change science and policy; a new class, Communication, Coding and Entrepreneurship; brain inflammation research; and the project "Cosmology Meets Continental Philosophy: Natural Laws and Why There Is Something Rather Than Nothing"


Differential Involvement Of Hippocampal Angiotensin 1 Receptors In Learning And Memory Processes In Bulbectomized Rats, Roman Tashev, Margarita Ivanova, Stiliana Belcheva, Iren Belcheva 2016 Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Sofia, Bulgaria

Differential Involvement Of Hippocampal Angiotensin 1 Receptors In Learning And Memory Processes In Bulbectomized Rats, Roman Tashev, Margarita Ivanova, Stiliana Belcheva, Iren Belcheva

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of AT1 receptor antagonists on learning and memory processes. The effects of angiotensin II and losartan administration into CA1 hippocampal area on the avoidance performance in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rats using active avoidance (shuttle box) test and passive avoidance (step through) test were investigated. Rats were microinjected unilaterally through implanted guide cannulas into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus and the drugs were administered separately, 5 minutes before each training session. The microinjections of losartan into the left, but not the right CA1 hippocampal area improved the acquisition and retention of active ...


Micro-Rna And Mrna Profiles Associated With Ectopic Germinal Center Formation In Thymus Samples Of Patients With Autoimmune Myas, Manjistha Sengupta, Bi-Dar Wang, Norman H. Lee, Gary Cutter, Linda Louise Kusner, Henry J. Kaminski 2016 George Washington University

Micro-Rna And Mrna Profiles Associated With Ectopic Germinal Center Formation In Thymus Samples Of Patients With Autoimmune Myas, Manjistha Sengupta, Bi-Dar Wang, Norman H. Lee, Gary Cutter, Linda Louise Kusner, Henry J. Kaminski

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder caused by antibodies directed against proteins present at the post-synaptic surface of neuromuscular junction (NMJ). A characteristic pathology of patients with early onset MG is thymic hyperplasia with ectopic germinal centers (GC). However, mechanisms that trigger and maintain thymic hyperplasia are poorly characterized. Micro-RNAs (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNAs that are increasingly appreciated to be involved in the pathology of several autoimmune diseases. In order to determine the central mechanisms involved in the pathology, thymus samples from MG patients were assessed by histology and grouped based on appearance of GC compared to ...


Volume Averaging Of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Impacts Retinal Segmentation In Children, Carmelina Trimboli-Heidler, Kelly Vogt, Robert A. Avery 2016 George Washington University

Volume Averaging Of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Impacts Retinal Segmentation In Children, Carmelina Trimboli-Heidler, Kelly Vogt, Robert A. Avery

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Purpose: To determine the influence of volume averaging on retinal layer thickness measures acquired with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in children.

Methods: Macular SD-OCT images were acquired using three different volume acquisition settings (i.e., ART 1, 3, and 9 volumes) in children enrolled in a prospective OCT study. Total retinal, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, and outer plexiform layer thicknesses were measured around an ETDRS grid using beta version automated segmentation software for the Spectralis. The magnitude of manual segmentation required to correct the automated segmentation was classified as either ...


Reversible Recruitment Of A Homeostatic Reserve Pool Of Synaptic Vesicles Underlies Rapid Homeostatic Plasticity Of Quantal Content, Xueyong Wang, Martin J. Pinter, Mark M. Rich 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Reversible Recruitment Of A Homeostatic Reserve Pool Of Synaptic Vesicles Underlies Rapid Homeostatic Plasticity Of Quantal Content, Xueyong Wang, Martin J. Pinter, Mark M. Rich

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Homeostatic regulation is essential for the maintenance of synaptic strength within the physiological range. The current study is the first to demonstrate that both induction and reversal of homeostatic upregulation of synaptic vesicle release can occur within seconds of blocking or unblocking acetylcholine receptors at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Our data suggest that the homeostatic upregulation of release is due to Ca2+-dependent increase in the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP). Blocking vesicle refilling prevented upregulation of quantal content (QC), while leaving baseline release relatively unaffected. This suggested that the upregulation of QC was due to mobilization ...


Southeastern Alumni Magazine- Winter 2016, Southeastern University - Lakeland 2016 Southeastern University

Southeastern Alumni Magazine- Winter 2016, Southeastern University - Lakeland

Southeastern Alumni Magazine

Dr. Aimee Franklin '07 returned to Southeastern in 2014 as an assistant professor of biology. Prior to returning, she earned her Ph.D. in Neuroscience at the University of Alabama Birmingham where she studied Fragile X Syndrome, the leading known genetic cause for autism. One of her articles published in Biological Psychology was one of the most cited articles in that journal in 2014.


Post-Tbi Hippocampal Neurogenesis In Different Tbi Models, Kaushal S. Patel 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Post-Tbi Hippocampal Neurogenesis In Different Tbi Models, Kaushal S. Patel

Theses and Dissertations

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to short-term and long-term consequences that can cause many different life-long disorders. Studies of TBI have generally focused on the acute stage; however, it is now becoming important to investigate chronic responses following TBI as clinical reports of dementia and cognitive impairments have been linked to a history of TBI. Recent data have established that cognitive function is associated with hippocampal neurogenesis. Chronic injury induced changes in the brain may affect this endogenous process. Chronic responses following TBI include cell death pathways and inflammatory responses that are persistent in the brain for months to years ...


Comorbidity Between Alzheimer’S Disease And Seizure Episodes, Maryam Amini 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Comorbidity Between Alzheimer’S Disease And Seizure Episodes, Maryam Amini

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

A mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which overexpress the human amyloid precursor protein (APP), experience Kainic Acid (KA) induced seizures that are more severe than wild type (WT) mice. The latency and severity of seizures observed in AD mice are similar to those of Synaptophysin knockout (Syp KO) mice. Addition of amyloid plaques (Aβ) to cells in vitro leads to the breakdown of Syp-VAMP2 complex. In the present study, we investigated if the breakdown of Syp-VAMP2 complex is responsible for the observed seizure activity in AD mice. The binding of cholesterol to Syp is necessary for biogenesis ...


Sex Differences In The Efficacy Of Combined Il-10 And Il-10r1 Gene Therapy For Neuropathic Pain In Mice, J Logan Brock 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Sex Differences In The Efficacy Of Combined Il-10 And Il-10r1 Gene Therapy For Neuropathic Pain In Mice, J Logan Brock

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition that affects millions of Americans. Despite decades of research, the disease is refractory to current treatments in a substantial population of patients. Recent advances in the understanding of neuropathic pain have led to the targeting of glial cells to better control the condition. Current clinical therapies do not manage the inflammatory response that originates with glial cells and contributes to this affliction. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that attenuates the inflammatory response that occurs at the neuroimmune interface in neuropathic pain models. IL-10 gene therapy has alleviated neuropathic pain in a number of animal ...


Mechanisms Of Action Of Antiseizure Drugs And The Ketogenic Diet., Michael Rogawski, Jong Rho, Wolfgang Löscher 2015 University of California - Davis

Mechanisms Of Action Of Antiseizure Drugs And The Ketogenic Diet., Michael Rogawski, Jong Rho, Wolfgang Löscher

Michael A. Rogawski

Antiseizure drugs (ASDs), also termed antiepileptic drugs, are the main form of symptomatic treatment for people with epilepsy, but not all patients become free of seizures. The ketogenic diet is one treatment option for drug-resistant patients. Both types of therapy exert their clinical effects through interactions with one or more of a diverse set of molecular targets in the brain. ASDs act by modulation of voltage-gated ion channels, including sodium, calcium, and potassium channels; by enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition through effects on GABA-A receptors, the GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) GABA uptake transporter, or GABA transaminase; through interactions ...


Loss Of Vglut3 Produces Circadian-Dependent Hyperdopaminergia And Ameliorates Motor Dysfunction And L-Dopa-Mediated Dyskinesias In A Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Christopher B. Divito, Kathy Steece-Collier, Daniel T. Case, Sean-Paul G. Williams, Jennifer A. Stancati, Lianteng Zhi, Maria E. Rubio, Caryl E. Sortwell, Timothy J. Collier, David Sulzer, Robert H. Edwards, Hui Zhang, Rebecca P. Seal 2015 University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Loss Of Vglut3 Produces Circadian-Dependent Hyperdopaminergia And Ameliorates Motor Dysfunction And L-Dopa-Mediated Dyskinesias In A Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Christopher B. Divito, Kathy Steece-Collier, Daniel T. Case, Sean-Paul G. Williams, Jennifer A. Stancati, Lianteng Zhi, Maria E. Rubio, Caryl E. Sortwell, Timothy J. Collier, David Sulzer, Robert H. Edwards, Hui Zhang, Rebecca P. Seal

Department of Neuroscience

UNLABELLED: The striatum is essential for many aspects of mammalian behavior, including motivation and movement, and is dysfunctional in motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) is expressed by striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and is thus well positioned to regulate dopamine (DA) signaling and locomotor activity, a canonical measure of basal ganglia output. We now report that VGLUT3 knock-out (KO) mice show circadian-dependent hyperlocomotor activity that is restricted to the waking cycle and is due to an increase in striatal DA synthesis, packaging, and release. Using a conditional VGLUT3 KO mouse, we show that ...


Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian Whitlock, Joseph Daniel, Lisa Amelse, Valeria Tanco, Kelly Chameroy, F Schrick 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian Whitlock, Joseph Daniel, Lisa Amelse, Valeria Tanco, Kelly Chameroy, F Schrick

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to kisspeptin in vitro may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. These studies were designed to test and compare the effects of a KISS1R agonist (FTM080) and kisspeptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) in vivo. In experiment 1 (pilot study), sheep were treated with FTM080 (500 pmol/kg BW) or sterile water (VEH) intravenosuly. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (1 h) treatment. In experiment 2, sheep were treated with KP-10 (human ...


Steroid Receptor Isoform Expression In Drosophila Nociceptor Neurons Is Required For Normal Dendritic Arbor And Sensitivity, Aidan L. McParland, Taylor L. Follansbee, Gwendolyn D. Vesenka, Alexandra E. Panaitiu, Geoffrey K. Ganter 2015 University of New England

Steroid Receptor Isoform Expression In Drosophila Nociceptor Neurons Is Required For Normal Dendritic Arbor And Sensitivity, Aidan L. Mcparland, Taylor L. Follansbee, Gwendolyn D. Vesenka, Alexandra E. Panaitiu, Geoffrey K. Ganter

Biology Student Publications

Steroid hormones organize many aspects of development, including that of the nervous system. Steroids also play neuromodulatory and other activational roles, including regulation of sensitivity to painful stimuli in mammals. In Drosophila, ecdysteroids are the only steroid hormones, and therefore the fly represents a simplified model system in which to explore mechanisms of steroid neuromodulation of nociception. In this report, we present evidence that ecdysteroids, acting through two isoforms of their nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR), modulate sensitivity to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli in the fly larva. We show that EcRA and EcRB1 are expressed by third instar larvae in ...


A Neurobiological Pathway That Mediates Stress-Induced Drug Use, Oliver Vranjkovic 2015 Marquette University

A Neurobiological Pathway That Mediates Stress-Induced Drug Use, Oliver Vranjkovic

Dissertations (2009 -)

Cocaine addiction represents a tremendous health and financial burden on our society and the high rate of relapse to cocaine use in abstinent addicts represents a major barrier to effective therapy. Thus, understanding the factors that contribute to relapse and the underlying neurobiological processes is important for guiding the development of treatment for addiction. Stressful life events often trigger drug use in recovering addicts. The contribution of stress to drug use is problematic due to the unpredictable and often uncontrollable nature of stress. A growing literature indicates that norepinephrine and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the brain play key roles ...


Role Of Cerebrovascular Abnormality In Neurodegenerative Disease And Subcortical Ischemic Disease: Ct Perfusion And Pet Imaging, Jun Yang 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Role Of Cerebrovascular Abnormality In Neurodegenerative Disease And Subcortical Ischemic Disease: Ct Perfusion And Pet Imaging, Jun Yang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Clinical studies indicate that about 30% ~ 50% of patients have cognitive impairment after the first or recurrent stroke. Ischemic injury, particularly subcortical lesions, caused by stroke has been demonstrated to further exacerbate cognitive impairment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia. However, the mechanisms whereby cerebrovascular abnormalities contribute to neurodegeneration at early stage of disease and eventually to cognitive decline remain unclear. CT perfusion and positron emission tomography (PET) were used to investigate early mechanisms in a rat comorbid model of cerebral ischemia (CI) and β-amyloid (Aβ, a pathological hallmark of AD) toxicity, and in patients with small subcortical ...


An Overview Of Leber’S Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Matthew R. Dalton 2015 Liberty University

An Overview Of Leber’S Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Matthew R. Dalton

The Kabod

Typically affecting males ranging from 20 to 24 years of age, Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a disorder that is characterized by an acute loss of central vision. Although a heritable disease, LHON does not follow the patterns of classical Mendelian genetics. In fact, one of the most striking characteristics of LHON is that the disease is virtually always inherited maternally. Unlike most genetic disorders that result from a mutation in genomic DNA, LHON is caused by a mutation in the genetic information of mitochondria (mtDNA). Currently there is no treatment for LHON. Despite this, pharmaceutical interventions and ...


The Effect Of Sleep On Perceptual Learning And Memory Consolidation, Vanessa Claire Irsik 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Effect Of Sleep On Perceptual Learning And Memory Consolidation, Vanessa Claire Irsik

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An ability to segregate speech accurately is essential given that most auditory environments contain other overlapping conversations or environmental noise. While perceiving speech among background noise can be difficult in and of itself, those with hearing impairments can experience considerable difficulty. While training has been shown to benefit perceptual segregation of trained sounds, it is unclear how such training transfers to sounds not included in a training regimen. The current study aimed to address this question by training listeners on a portion of sounds during a vowel segregation task, and subsequently testing on both the trained sounds and untrained sounds ...


Plastin 3 Expression Does Not Modify Spinal Muscular Atrophy Severity In The ∆7 Sma Mouse, Vicki L. McGovern, Aurelie Massoni-Laporte, Xueyong Wang, Thanh T. Le, Hao T. Le, Mark M. Rich, Arthur H. M. Burghes 2015 Wright State University - Main Campus

Plastin 3 Expression Does Not Modify Spinal Muscular Atrophy Severity In The ∆7 Sma Mouse, Vicki L. Mcgovern, Aurelie Massoni-Laporte, Xueyong Wang, Thanh T. Le, Hao T. Le, Mark M. Rich, Arthur H. M. Burghes

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by loss of the SMN1 gene and retention of SMN2. TheSMN2 copy number inversely correlates with phenotypic severity and is a modifier of disease outcome. The SMN2 gene essentially differs from SMN1 by a single nucleotide in exon 7 that modulates the incorporation of exon 7 into the final SMN transcript. The majority of the SMN2transcripts lack exon 7 and this leads to a SMN protein that does not effectively oligomerize and is rapidly degraded. However theSMN2 gene does produce some full-length SMN and theSMN2 copy number along with how much ...


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