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Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...


Magneto-Electric Nano-Particles For Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Kun Yue, Rakesh Guduru, Jeongmin Hong, Ping Liang, Madhavan Nair, Sakhrat Khizroev 2018 Center for Nanomedicine, College of Engineering and Computing, Florida International University, Miami, Florida

Magneto-Electric Nano-Particles For Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Kun Yue, Rakesh Guduru, Jeongmin Hong, Ping Liang, Madhavan Nair, Sakhrat Khizroev

Sakhrat Khizroev

This paper for the first time discusses a computational study of using magneto-electric (ME) nanoparticles to artificially stimulate the neural activity deep in the brain. The new technology provides a unique way to couple electric signals in the neural network to the magnetic dipoles in the nanoparticles with the purpose to enable a non-invasive approach. Simulations of the effect of ME nanoparticles for non-invasively stimulating the brain of a patient with Parkinson’s Disease to bring the pulsed sequences of the electric field to the levels comparable to those of healthy people show that the optimized values for the concentration ...


Treating Adhd With Suggestion: Neurofeedback And Placebo Therapeutics, Robert T. Thibault, Samuel Vassière, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz 2018 McGill University

Treating Adhd With Suggestion: Neurofeedback And Placebo Therapeutics, Robert T. Thibault, Samuel Vassière, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. Methods: We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. Results: The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD. Conclusion: Non-deceptive suggestion-based treatments, especially those drawing on accessories from neuroscience, may offer a safe complement and potential ...


A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman 2018 University of Pennsylvania

A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i.e. the sunscreen paradigm) to determine if mPFC shows similar predictive value with this technology. Consistent with prior fMRI work ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin 2018 Liberty University

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


Oxytocin Promotes Face-Sensitive Neural Responses To Infant And Adult Faces In Mothers, Mikko J. Peltola, Lane Strathearn, Kaija Puura 2018 University of Iowa

Oxytocin Promotes Face-Sensitive Neural Responses To Infant And Adult Faces In Mothers, Mikko J. Peltola, Lane Strathearn, Kaija Puura

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Research utilizing intranasal oxytocin (OT) administration has shown that OT may increase attention and sensitivity to social cues, such as faces. Given the pivotal role of OT in parental behaviors across mammals, the paucity of intranasal OT research investigating responses to social cues in parents and particularly mothers of young children is a critical limitation. In the current study, we recorded cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether intranasal OT affects the early neural responses to emotional faces in mothers of 1-year-old infants. Using a double-blind, within-subjects design, mothers (n = 38) were administered intranasal OT and placebo on separate sessions ...


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas 2018 Huntington VA Medical Center

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review Of Dsm Criteria And Functional Neuroanatomy, Cornelius W. Thomas

Marshall Journal of Medicine

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consist of over twenty possible symptoms that can be divided into six broad categories. These categories correlate with specific brain networks that regulate emotions, behaviors, and autonomic function. Normal functioning of these networks depends on two key regions; the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. The prefrontal cortex provides top-down executive control over amygdala, whereas the amygdala is critical for threat detection and activation of the ‘fight or flight’ response. Events that trigger extreme and/or prolonged fear can cause persisting dysregulation within the prefrontal-amygdala circuit ...


Dementia Care: Confronting Myths In Clinical Management, Shirley M. Neitch MD, Charles Meadows MD, Eva Patton-Tackett MD, Kevin W. Yingling MD 2018 Marshall University

Dementia Care: Confronting Myths In Clinical Management, Shirley M. Neitch Md, Charles Meadows Md, Eva Patton-Tackett Md, Kevin W. Yingling Md

Kevin W. Yingling

Enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible ...


Dementia Care: Confronting Myths In Clinical Management, Shirley M. Neitch MD, Charles Meadows MD, Eva Patton-Tackett MD, Kevin W. Yingling MD 2018 Marshall University

Dementia Care: Confronting Myths In Clinical Management, Shirley M. Neitch Md, Charles Meadows Md, Eva Patton-Tackett Md, Kevin W. Yingling Md

Shirley M. Neitch

Enormous challenges of this pervasive life-changing condition. Seeking help, often grasping at straws, victims, and their care providers are confronted with misinformation and myths when they search the internet or other sources. When Persons with Dementia (PWD) and their caregivers believe and/or act on false information, proper treatment may be delayed, and ultimately damage can be done. In this paper, we review commonly misunderstood issues encountered in caring for PWD. Our goal is to equip Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs) with accurate information to share with patients and families, to improve the outcomes of PWD to the greatest extent possible ...


The Role Of Reactive Astrocitose In The Chronological Evolution Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Roxana M. Duncea-Borca, Vladimir Belis, Mihnea Costescu, Relu G. Calota, Reka Kutasi, Cosmin A. Moldovan 2018 Forensic Medicine of Teleorman County, Department of Forensic Medicine

The Role Of Reactive Astrocitose In The Chronological Evolution Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Roxana M. Duncea-Borca, Vladimir Belis, Mihnea Costescu, Relu G. Calota, Reka Kutasi, Cosmin A. Moldovan

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction and objectives. This study aims to investigate whether the cerebral modifications of posttraumatic reactive astrocitose can be considered an objective criterion for determining the age of traumatic cranio-cerebral lesions.

Materials and methods. The present study consists of a series of 23 medico-legal cases that underwent autopsy inTeleormanCounty(Romania) Department of Forensic Medicine during 2007–2016, with full immune-histochemical microscopic examination using GFAP staining. The study consists of two groups, a series of 13 cases with cranio-cerebral trauma with different posttraumatic survival periods and 9 cases as a control group.

Results and discussions. We discovered GFAP+ reactive astrocytes even when ...


Acute Vitreoretinal Trauma And Inflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury In Mice, Lucy P. Evans, Elizabeth A. Newell, MaryAnn Mahajan, Stephen H. Tsang, Polly J. Ferguson, Jolonda Mahoney, Christopher D. Hue, Edward W. Vogel, Barclay Morrison, Ottavio Arancio, Russell Nichols, Alexander G. Bassuk, Vinit B. Mahajan 2018 University of Iowa

Acute Vitreoretinal Trauma And Inflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury In Mice, Lucy P. Evans, Elizabeth A. Newell, Maryann Mahajan, Stephen H. Tsang, Polly J. Ferguson, Jolonda Mahoney, Christopher D. Hue, Edward W. Vogel, Barclay Morrison, Ottavio Arancio, Russell Nichols, Alexander G. Bassuk, Vinit B. Mahajan

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Objective: Limited attention has been given to ocular injuries associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The retina is an extension of the central nervous system and evaluation of ocular damage may offer a less-invasive approach to gauge TBI severity and response to treatment. We aim to characterize acute changes in the mouse eye after exposure to two different models of TBI to assess the utility of eye damage as a surrogate to brain injury.

Methods: A model of blast TBI (bTBI) using a shock tube was compared to a lateral fluid percussion injury model (LFPI) using fluid pressure applied directly ...


Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Memory failures are frustrating and often the result of ineffective encoding. One approach to improving memory outcomes is through direct modulation of brain activity with electrical stimulation. Previous efforts, however, have reported inconsistent effects when using open-loop stimulation and often target the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes. Here we use a closed-loop system to monitor and decode neural activity from direct brain recordings in humans. We apply targeted stimulation to lateral temporal cortex and report that this stimulation rescues periods of poor memory encoding. This system also improves later recall, revealing that the lateral temporal cortex is a reliable target ...


Marijuana And The Teenage Brain: Public Health Impact, Katie C. Warther 2018 University of Vermont

Marijuana And The Teenage Brain: Public Health Impact, Katie C. Warther

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

This project explores the neurobiological impact of teenage marijuana use, and the ways that public health interventions can help educate adolescents and delay the onset of use.


Investigations Of Interleukin-1 Alpha As A Novel Stroke Therapy In Experimental Ischemic Stroke, Kathleen Elizabeth Salmeron 2018 University of Kentucky

Investigations Of Interleukin-1 Alpha As A Novel Stroke Therapy In Experimental Ischemic Stroke, Kathleen Elizabeth Salmeron

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although rapid recognition and prompt treatment have dropped mortality rates, most stroke survivors are left with permanent disability. Approximately 87% of all strokes result from the thromboembolic occlusion of the cerebrovasculature (ischemic strokes). Potential stroke therapeutics have included anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as many other targets with the goal of mitigating the acute and chronic inflammatory responses typically seen in an ischemic stroke. While these approaches have had great success in preclinical studies, their clinical translation has been less successful. Master inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, are of particular interest ...


Studying Vascular Morphologies In The Aged Human Brain Using Large Autopsy Datasets, Eseosa T. Ighodaro 2018 University of Kentucky

Studying Vascular Morphologies In The Aged Human Brain Using Large Autopsy Datasets, Eseosa T. Ighodaro

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of dementia in elderly individuals, especially Black/African Americans. Within my dissertation, we focused on two vascular morphologies that affect small vessels: brain arteriolosclerosis (B-ASC) and multi-vascular profiles (MVPs). B-ASC is characterized by degenerative thickening of the wall of brain arterioles. The risk factors, cognitive sequelae, and co-pathologies of B-ASC are not fully understood. To address this, we used multimodal data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, and brain-banked tissue samples from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center (UK-ADC) brain repository. We analyzed two age at ...


Biosocial Criminology Versus The Constitution, Karen E. Balter 2018 Regis University

Biosocial Criminology Versus The Constitution, Karen E. Balter

All Regis University Theses

The continually emerging field of biosocial criminology provides a basis for productively merging biology with sociological reasonings for criminal behavior. Mainstream research in criminology focuses on environmental factors as the sole reason individuals exhibit antisocial behavior patterns and may ultimately commit crimes. Criminological research has travelled in this direction for decades. The current climate within this community subscribes heavily to the notion that biology has very little to do with why people behave the way they do, and if it did, government control would be the norm. The nature of biocriminology opens a door through which constitutional issues may enter ...


The Potential Synergistic Behaviour Of Inter- And Intra-Genus Probiotic Combinations In The Pattern And Rate Of Short Chain Fatty Acids Formation During Fibre Fermentation, Warnakulasuriya M. A. D. B. Fernando, Steve H. Flint, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, Arthur Bamunuarachchi, Stuart K. Johnson, Charles S. Brennan 2018 Edith Cowan University

The Potential Synergistic Behaviour Of Inter- And Intra-Genus Probiotic Combinations In The Pattern And Rate Of Short Chain Fatty Acids Formation During Fibre Fermentation, Warnakulasuriya M. A. D. B. Fernando, Steve H. Flint, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, Arthur Bamunuarachchi, Stuart K. Johnson, Charles S. Brennan

ECU Publications Post 2013

This study compared the rate of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production by different probiotic combinations of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to determine any synergistic effects. Six different fibre fractions were fermented with nine combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Bifidobacterium longum (BL) and Bifidobacterium breve (BB) for 0, 6, 24 and 48 h. SCFAs were quantified by gas chromatography. Inter-genus combinations of bacteria produced more SCFA, especially BB + BL + LR, compared to intra-genus that yielded the lowest SCFA production. Acetate was the most abundant, while propionate and butyrate were the most utilised. The SCFA formation was as acetate ...


Analysis Of Diagnostic, Preventive, And Disease-Modifying Therapeutic Measures Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Ghazal Habib Havoutis 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Analysis Of Diagnostic, Preventive, And Disease-Modifying Therapeutic Measures Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Ghazal Habib Havoutis

HCNSO Student Capstones

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common late-onset neurodegenerative disorder and cause of dementia, characterized by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaque deposits. The heterogeneous nature of the disease (both genetically and environmentally) makes it difficult to prevent or cure. Without prevention, the prevalence of AD is expected to triple by 2050. However, because the diagnosis of AD is usually preceded by years of cognitive impairment, early detection may aid in reducing prevalence. Thus, there is a need for validated diagnostic measures for early and improved diagnosis and prevention. In this review, current and ongoing classifiers of ...


Pitx3null Mutant (Striatal Dopamine-Deficient) Mice Have Exaggerated Spiny Projection Neuron Responses To L-Dopa And D1 Agonism And Lack Baseline Striatonigral Spiking, Ben Sagot 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Pitx3null Mutant (Striatal Dopamine-Deficient) Mice Have Exaggerated Spiny Projection Neuron Responses To L-Dopa And D1 Agonism And Lack Baseline Striatonigral Spiking, Ben Sagot

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

L-3,4 dihidroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) strongly stimulates motor activity in parkinsonian patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease. Severe striatal dopamine (DA) loss characterizes Parkinson's disease and its animal models. Given the canonical rate model of Parkinson's Disease pathophysiology based on differences in DA pharmacology manifesting as electrophysiological differences in striatal projection neuron (SPN) spike rates, SPNs should increase spiking during the motor response to l-DOPA. In fact, stimulating specific subsets of these neurons to spike in freely-moving wild type and parkinsonian animals causes or inhibits motor activity as predicted. However, pharmacological effects of DA deficiency, let alone ...


Modeling Post Stroke Respiratory Dysfunction, Apneas And Cognitive Decline, Anthony Patrizz 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Modeling Post Stroke Respiratory Dysfunction, Apneas And Cognitive Decline, Anthony Patrizz

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Modeling Post Stroke Respiratory Dysfunction,

Apneas and Cognitive Decline

Anthony Patrizz, B.A.

Advisory Professor: Louise McCullough M.D., Ph.D.

Stroke is a major cause of mortality and the leading cause of long-term disability in the US. More than 60% of individuals suffering a first time stroke develop respiratory dysfunction, prolonging recovery and increasing mortality. Post-stroke cognitive decline is a major contributor to disability and nursing home placement, therefore the cognitive consequences of Stroke Induced Respiratory Dysfunction (SIRD) need to be explored if we hope to enhance functional recovery. The first step towards treatment of the negative consequences of ...


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