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Neural Stem Cell Metabolic Changes In The Presence Of Interferon-Gamma, Dylan McKibben 2021 The University of Akron

Neural Stem Cell Metabolic Changes In The Presence Of Interferon-Gamma, Dylan Mckibben

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Spinal cord injury results in significant disability and health care costs due to an inability of the mature central nervous system to regenerate. One potential therapy would be implantation of neural stem cells to the injury site and stimulation of their differentiation to mature neurons. Previous work has shown that the cytokine interferon-gamma can promote this process; however, the signaling pathways induced in neural stem cells have not been well-defined. This proposal examines neural stem cell metabolic responses to signaling induced by interferon-gamma. Two questions will be answered: i) What specific metabolic pathway is activated to guide neural stem cell ...


Nutraceutical Potential For Alzheimer's Disease Treatment, Alex Gewecke 2020 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Nutraceutical Potential For Alzheimer's Disease Treatment, Alex Gewecke

Undergraduate Research Journal

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive disorder involving buildup of excessive amounts of proteins such as beta amyloid in the brain that leads to memory loss, inability to perform daily functions, and an early death. By 2060, the number of cases is forecast to nearly triple current numbers. Age is the primary risk factor for AD and no new drugs have been approved since 2003. Nutraceuticals, a broad category of substances that can be utilized for both medicinal and nutritional purposes may be able to help, which is why they are being more widely researched. Overall, a number of ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito 2020 Sunrise Health GME Consortium

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include encephalopathy, motor deficits, ataxia, and meningeal signs. In most cases, ADEM is preceded by either vaccination or viral illness. Here, we present a case with neither of the two predisposing elements.

Discussion: A 28-year-old Hispanic female presenting with substance use and suicidal ideation was placed on an involuntary psychiatric hold, started on olanzapine and scheduled for a psychiatric facility transfer. The following day, she was noted to have neurological deficits when ambulating. Computed tomography of the brain showed a right frontal ...


Adverse Aftereffects Of Methotrexate As Chemotherapy On Cognitive Deficits In Rat Models, Jubin Kang 2020 Liberty University

Adverse Aftereffects Of Methotrexate As Chemotherapy On Cognitive Deficits In Rat Models, Jubin Kang

Senior Honors Theses

Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have a high five-year survival rate thanks to methotrexate (MTX). However, cognitive side effects are reported, characterized as chemo brain. The study investigated if impulsiveness is part of the aberrant cognitive functions after being exposed to MTX in the early stage of physical development. Adolescent rats were injected with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or MTX. The novel object recognition (NOR) task was conducted a month after the injections to measure the memory deficits. The discounting task was performed after the rats completed training on a fixed-ratio one schedule for both levers. The NOR test showed ...


Anxiety In Alzheimer's Disease, Zachary Cooper 2020 Liberty University

Anxiety In Alzheimer's Disease, Zachary Cooper

Senior Honors Theses

Researchers familiar with Alzheimer’s disease have often noted the presence of comorbid anxiety symptomatology. Likewise, the occurrence of anxiety before the development of Alzheimer’s disease has been prevalent enough to warrant attention. This review seeks to elaborate on the pathophysiology behind these two conditions, and to accentuate overlapping aspects that promote a causal relationship between these two pathologies on the macroscopic and cellular levels. Subsequent evidence will show that these pathologies are not independent of each other, and that cellular mechanisms of pathology hint at their interrelatedness. Areas requiring further research that would clarify the relationship between Clinical ...


Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

This is the first presentation in the new Shelter-in-Place lecture series. This first lecture is two-fold. First, it covers the basics of the COVID-19 virus including: how it spreads, possible origin, and other pertinent information. This portion of the presentation was followed by an overview of the international recruitment efforts in response to the virus, including: student perspectives, recruitment methods, and other important information.


Time For A Change? Brain Activity And Behavioral Performance Reveal Different Dynamics At Short, Intermediate, And Long Delay Intervals During A Delay Discounting Task, Conrad A. Mohr-Eymer 2020 University of South Dakota

Time For A Change? Brain Activity And Behavioral Performance Reveal Different Dynamics At Short, Intermediate, And Long Delay Intervals During A Delay Discounting Task, Conrad A. Mohr-Eymer

Honors Thesis

In our day to day lives, the ability to make goal-oriented decisions plays a crucial role in both our work and social lives. Therefore, researchers have examined how factors such as a varying reward or delay may affect decision making. One’s performance when making intertemporal choices, decisions made between a smaller and sooner (SS) reward and a larger and later (LL) reward, are often examined to study these factors. Although time and reward magnitude are important dimensions when individuals make decisions during delay discounting, little is known about the relationship between time perception, reward magnitude, and underlying neural mechanisms ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


A Phantom Of The Past: Withdrawal From Meprobamate Presenting With Focal Seizures., Thomas M. Zink, John E. Erickson 2020 Tufts University School of Medicine; Maine Medical Center

A Phantom Of The Past: Withdrawal From Meprobamate Presenting With Focal Seizures., Thomas M. Zink, John E. Erickson

Journal of Maine Medical Center

Introduction: Meprobamate (Miltown, Equinil) is a sedative-hypnotic medication that first gained popularity as an anxiolytic and later as a muscle relaxant. It is a major metabolite of the more commonly used muscle relaxant carisoprodol (Soma). In vitro and electroencephalogram studies demonstrated that meprobamate modulates gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, similar to barbiturates. Withdrawal from meprobamate manifests in symptoms ranging from mild anxiety to severe autonomic instability and death. Meprobamate is rarely prescribed, but is still given to a small subset of elderly patients.

Clinical findings: In this case of meprobamate withdrawal, the patient initially displayed altered mental status and recurrent seizures ...


Assessing Morphology Of Iprgcs After Traumatic Brain Injury, Brian Foresi, Matt Smith 2020 The University of Akron

Assessing Morphology Of Iprgcs After Traumatic Brain Injury, Brian Foresi, Matt Smith

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

ipRGCs are retinal ganglion cells that project to visual processing centers of the brain for nonimage forming visual functions. The relation of ipRGCs to tramatic brain injury (TBI) is emerging as data has been published describing ipRGC functional changes in TBI affected military veterans. Major symptomologies of concussions, a mild form of TBI, also overlap with the function governed by sites in the brain with major ipRGC projection percentages. Assesing if a morphological change is occuring in the ipRGCs after a TBI could support the idea of a pathological mechanism of the injury. This study could also indicate further relevance ...


Physical Activity–Induced Neuroprotection In Parkinson’S Disease Is Mediated By Neurotrophic Factors, Hunter Twedt 2020 Iowa State University

Physical Activity–Induced Neuroprotection In Parkinson’S Disease Is Mediated By Neurotrophic Factors, Hunter Twedt

Creative Components

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurological movement disorder manifested by motor and non-motor disturbances that are brought about by degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), causing a decline in dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum. Pharmacological and surgical treatment of PD are often ineffective, cause severe side effects, and the benefits seen decrease with disease progression; therefore, there is a need to seek new therapies. Physical activity (PA), which includes exercise, is able to improve many systems in the body, including motor and cognitive function, and may serve as a viable option for remedy ...


The Efficacy Of Ketamine In Adult Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder With Symptoms Refractory To Standard Of Care Treatment., Brooke Thornton 2020 Arcadia University

The Efficacy Of Ketamine In Adult Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder With Symptoms Refractory To Standard Of Care Treatment., Brooke Thornton

Capstone Showcase

First line pharmacologic treatments for adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involve selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SNRIs). These drug classes often fail to deliver timely relief of symptoms as well as maintain longevity of symptom recurrence. This research analyzed the use of ketamine in adult patients suffering with OCD for the purposes of more efficacious management of symptoms. Although ketamine demonstrated a timelier relief of symptoms in some small clinical studies, its effects were ultimately unable to be sustained long term. Additionally, a wide range of adverse effects including dissociation, and rebound symptoms were observed. As a ...


Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Concentration Predicts Brain Atrophy And Cognition In Alzheimer's Disease, Kunal Dhiman, Veer Bala Gupta, Victor L. Villemagne, Dhamidhu Eratne, Petra L. Graham, Christopher Fowler, Pierrick Bourgeat, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven Collins, Ashley I. Bush, Christopher C. Rowe, Colin L. Masters, David Ames, Eugene Hone, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Ralph N. Martins 2020 Edith Cowan University

Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Concentration Predicts Brain Atrophy And Cognition In Alzheimer's Disease, Kunal Dhiman, Veer Bala Gupta, Victor L. Villemagne, Dhamidhu Eratne, Petra L. Graham, Christopher Fowler, Pierrick Bourgeat, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven Collins, Ashley I. Bush, Christopher C. Rowe, Colin L. Masters, David Ames, Eugene Hone, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Ralph N. Martins

ECU Publications Post 2013

Introduction
This study assessed the utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light (NfL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis, its association with amyloid and tau pathology, as well as its potential to predict brain atrophy, cognition, and amyloid accumulation.
Methods
CSF NfL concentration was measured in 221 participants from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers & Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL).
Results
CSF NfL levels as well as NfL/amyloid β (Aβ42) were significantly elevated in AD compared to healthy controls (HC; P < .001), and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to HC (P = .008 NfL; P< .001 NfL/Aβ42). CSF NfL and NfL/Aβ42 differentiated AD from HC with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.84 and 0.90, respectively. CSF NfL and NfL/Aβ42 predicted cortical amyloid load, brain atrophy, and cognition.
Discussion
CSF NfL is a biomarker of neurodegeneration, correlating with cognitive impairment and brain neuropathology.


Restructuring Of The Axon Initial Segment In Mouse Models Of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Rachel Ali Rodriguez 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Restructuring Of The Axon Initial Segment In Mouse Models Of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Rachel Ali Rodriguez

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) affect more than 36% of children in countries with low- and middle- incomes (Boivin, 2015; McCoy, 2016). Interestingly, these heterogeneous disorders share a high incidence of epileptic seizures, suggesting a shared pathology. Seizures result when neuronal firing activity becomes disturbed and neurons fire excessively or in unregulated patterns. A key site in the control of neuronal firing patterns is the axon initial segment (AIS), where the local density of proteins and the morphology of the AIS in part determine the firing of neurons. We hypothesized that a disruption in the morphology and/or composition of the AIS ...


Alzheimer's And Amyloid Beta: Amyloidogenicity And Tauopathy Via Dyshomeostatic Interactions Of Amyloid Beta, Jordan Tillinghast 2019 Liberty University

Alzheimer's And Amyloid Beta: Amyloidogenicity And Tauopathy Via Dyshomeostatic Interactions Of Amyloid Beta, Jordan Tillinghast

Senior Honors Theses

This paper reviews functions of Amyloid-β (Aβ) in healthy individuals compared to the consequences of aberrant Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As extraneuronal Aβ accumulation and plaque formation are characteristics of AD, it is reasonable to infer a pivotal role for Aβ in AD pathogenesis. Establishing progress of the disease as well as the mechanism of neurodegeneration from AD have proven difficult (Selkoe, 1994). This thesis provides evidence suggesting the pathogenesis of AD is due to dysfunctional neuronal processes involving Aβ’s synaptic malfunction, abnormal interaction with tau, and disruption of neuronal homeostasis. Significant evidence demonstrates that AD symptoms ...


Cannabidiol Is Beneficial In Management Of Drug-Resistant Dravet Syndrome, Nikita Desai 2019 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Cannabidiol Is Beneficial In Management Of Drug-Resistant Dravet Syndrome, Nikita Desai

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Devinsky O, Cross H, Laux L, et al. Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(21):2011-2020. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1611618.


Reduced Gabaergic Signaling At The Axon Initial Segment Decreases Vigilance State Transitioning, Austin John Boren 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Reduced Gabaergic Signaling At The Axon Initial Segment Decreases Vigilance State Transitioning, Austin John Boren

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Sleep is a highly regulated homeostatic process that is disrupted in an estimated 50-70 million Americans. Regulation of sleep depends upon coordinated signaling of multiple neurotransmitter systems. In particular, inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling is required to suppress wake-active brain regions in order to initiate and maintain sleep states. GABA type A receptors (GABAARs) are ionotropic receptors with subunit compositions uniquely enriched on subcellular domains of target cells. α2 subunit-containing GABAARs are the primary target of GABA released onto the axon initial segment (AIS), a site critical for phasing the oscillatory activity of cortical cells. α2-containing GABAARs have previously been ...


Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas 2019 University of Alberta

Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Recent evidence supports involvement of amylin and the amylin receptor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have previously shown that amylin receptor antagonist, AC253, improves spatial memory in AD mouse models. Herein, we generated and screened a peptide library and identified two short sequence amylin peptides (12–14 aa) that are proteolytically stable, brain penetrant when administered intraperitoneally, neuroprotective against Aβ toxicity and restore diminished levels of hippocampal long term potentiation in AD mice. Systemic administration of the peptides for five weeks in aged 5XFAD mice improved spatial memory, reduced amyloid plaque burden, and neuroinflammation. The common ...


The Role Of The Tau N-Terminal Phosphatase-Activating Domain And Phosphorylation At Thr175 In The Formation Of Tau Cytoplasmic Inclusions, Matthew A. Hintermayer 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of The Tau N-Terminal Phosphatase-Activating Domain And Phosphorylation At Thr175 In The Formation Of Tau Cytoplasmic Inclusions, Matthew A. Hintermayer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cytoplasmic inclusions and fibrils of the microtubule-associated protein tau (tau protein) are a key neuropathological hallmark in tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with cognitive impairment. Previous research has demonstrated that the phosphorylation of tau protein at Thr175 is sufficient for the initiation of fibril formation both in vitro and in vivo. Here we use mutated tau protein constructs to demonstrate that phosphorylation at Thr175 results in the aberrant exposure of an N-terminal phosphatase-activating domain (PAD). The tau PAD interacts with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) leading to the activation of glycogen synthase ...


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