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Chronic Stressors, Obesity Pathogenesis, And The Moderating Effect Of Internalized Weight Stigma; A Quantitative, Illinois Study, Karyn Byrne 2025 National Louis University

Chronic Stressors, Obesity Pathogenesis, And The Moderating Effect Of Internalized Weight Stigma; A Quantitative, Illinois Study, Karyn Byrne

Dissertations

The obesity epidemic is a ‘wicked’ problem with a complex web of determinants and outcomes. While generally higher for minoritized populations, prevalence rates manifest in surprising, nonlinear patterns. There is no consensus regarding treatment protocols or mitigation efforts, except that current efforts remain largely ineffective. Much research evidence that a profusion of determinants of health support obesity pathogenesis through various physiological processes and mechanisms, including the allostatic load, mitochondria functioning, the gut microbiome, and epigenetics. Intervening to support markers of the allostatic load (immunity, inflammation, and metabolic health) may provide a more effective treatment outcomes than traditional approaches, which tend …


Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Molecular Mechanisms Of Opioid Use Disorder In Human Brain Models, Emily Mendez

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a national and global public health crisis with no end in sight. While studies from animal models hint at widespread epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations of opioid drugs, the molecular consequences of long-term exposure to opioid drugs in human brain is still unclear, and human-centered translational models are necessary to discern the human cell type-specific effects of OUD.

Using postmortem brain Brodmann area 9 (BA9) from the UTHealth Brain Collection for Research on Psychiatric Disorders, I identified angiogenic gene networks perturbed in the RNA and protein of OUD subjects, as well as downregulation of many neuron-correlated …


Mapping The Maze Of Time: Unraveling Chronological Age-Induced Structural Transformations In The C57bl6 Mouse Brain, Angelica Arshoun, Adam Jasper, Ella D'Amico, Frank Yeh, Kirk Erickson, Amrita Sahu, Fabrisia Ambrosio 2024 Drexel University College of Medicine

Mapping The Maze Of Time: Unraveling Chronological Age-Induced Structural Transformations In The C57bl6 Mouse Brain, Angelica Arshoun, Adam Jasper, Ella D'Amico, Frank Yeh, Kirk Erickson, Amrita Sahu, Fabrisia Ambrosio

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


The Feigned Annoyance And Frustration Test To Activate The Sympathoadrenal Medullary System, Ted W. Gehrig III, Lee S. Berk, Robert I. Dudley, Jo A. Smith, Lida Gharibvand, Everett B. Lohman III 2024 Loma Linda University

The Feigned Annoyance And Frustration Test To Activate The Sympathoadrenal Medullary System, Ted W. Gehrig Iii, Lee S. Berk, Robert I. Dudley, Jo A. Smith, Lida Gharibvand, Everett B. Lohman Iii

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

When perceived as threatening, social interactions have been shown to trigger the sympathoadrenal medullary system as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in a physiologic stress response. The allostatic load placed on human health and physiology in the context of acute and chronic stress can have profound health consequences. The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for a lab-based stress stimulus using social-evaluative threat. While several valid, stress-stimulating protocols exist, we sought to develop one that triggered a physiologic response, did not require significant lab resources, and could be completed in around 10 min. We included 53 …


Exploring Neuroplasticity Changes In Neurotoxin-Induced Parkinson’S Disease: A Preliminary Analysis Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Tomas Gomez Jr., Daniel Salinas, Kelsey Potter-Baker, Nawaz Hack, Ramu Vadukapuram 2024 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine

Exploring Neuroplasticity Changes In Neurotoxin-Induced Parkinson’S Disease: A Preliminary Analysis Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Tomas Gomez Jr., Daniel Salinas, Kelsey Potter-Baker, Nawaz Hack, Ramu Vadukapuram

Research Symposium

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition that affects movement, cognition, gait, and significantly impacts one's quality of life. Studies have suggested that neurotoxin pre-exposure is related to PD pathology and progressive motor/non-motor deficits, though it remains unclear how neurotoxin exposure affects neuroplasticity. The present study aimed to examine neurotoxin–induced PD-associated neuroplasticity changes in relationship to mental acuity and PD motor functionalities.

Methods: 7 voluntary participants experiencing early-stage PD symptoms with self-reported neurotoxin pre-exposure were enrolled in the longitudinal, repeated-measures clinical study; 2 sex-matched, age-matched, and occupation-matched healthy subjects were recruited for controlled comparative analysis (n=9). UTRGV’s Institute …


Neural Correlates Of Fear Extinction: Investing The Impact Of Puberty And Sex In Children And Adolescents Through Neuroimaging, Sneha Bhargava, Clara Zundel, Samantha Ely, Carmen Carpenter, Reem Tamimi, Leah Gowatch, MacKenna Shampine, Emilie-Clare O'Mara, Jovan Jande, Shravya Chanamolu, Ahmad Almaat, Hilary Marusak 2024 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine

Neural Correlates Of Fear Extinction: Investing The Impact Of Puberty And Sex In Children And Adolescents Through Neuroimaging, Sneha Bhargava, Clara Zundel, Samantha Ely, Carmen Carpenter, Reem Tamimi, Leah Gowatch, Mackenna Shampine, Emilie-Clare O'Mara, Jovan Jande, Shravya Chanamolu, Ahmad Almaat, Hilary Marusak

Medical Student Research Symposium

Fear-based disorders, including anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder, are more prevalent in females than males. Steroid hormones (e.g., estradiol) are involved in fear extinction learning and later recall—a process implicated in the pathophysiology of fear-based disorders. Fear-based disorders commonly emerge during the transition from childhood to adolescence, a period marked by the onset of puberty and a natural increase of steroid hormones. Here, we examined the effects of puberty, sex, and their interaction on extinction recall and underlying neural circuitry in youth. Eighty-five youth (6-17 years, 46% female) completed a two-day Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm while undergoing functional magnetic resonance …


Psilocybin With Acceptance And Commitment Therapy (Act) For The Treatment Of Social Anxiety Disorder (Sad), Aspen E. Allred 2024 Portland State University

Psilocybin With Acceptance And Commitment Therapy (Act) For The Treatment Of Social Anxiety Disorder (Sad), Aspen E. Allred

University Honors Theses

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a debilitating mental health condition characterized by an overwhelming fear and anxiety of social rejection that can lead to chronic patterns of social behavioral avoidance. Despite the existence of traditional efficacious treatments, a significant number of individuals either do not respond to treatment or experience a recurrence of symptoms over extended periods, spanning 10-12 years. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a form of acceptance-based behavioral therapy considered part of the "third wave" of cognitive behavioral therapies, has shown promising results in early studies, comparable to those of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) that is considered the …


Enriched Environment Contributes To The Recovery From Neurotoxin-Induced Parkinson’S Disease Pathology, Daphne Alcala Zúñiga, Erika Espinoza-Torres, Ranjit Kumar Das, Magaly Vargas, Alejandro Lopez-Juarez, Masoud M. Zarei, Kelsey Baker, Mario Gil, Hansapani Rodrigo, Upal Roy 2024 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Enriched Environment Contributes To The Recovery From Neurotoxin-Induced Parkinson’S Disease Pathology, Daphne Alcala Zúñiga, Erika Espinoza-Torres, Ranjit Kumar Das, Magaly Vargas, Alejandro Lopez-Juarez, Masoud M. Zarei, Kelsey Baker, Mario Gil, Hansapani Rodrigo, Upal Roy

Health & Biomedical Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that affects dopaminergic neurons. The lack of understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of PD pathology makes treating it a challenge. Several pieces of evidence support the protective role of enriched environment (EE) and exercise on dopaminergic neurons. The specific aspect(s) of neuroprotection after exposure to EE have not been identified. Therefore, we have investigated the protective role of EE on dopamine dysregulation and subsequent downregulation of DJ1 protein using in vitro and in vivo models of PD. Our study for the first time demonstrated that DJ1 expression has a direct correlation with …


Utilizing Ai Integrated Neuroimaging Technology To Expand Upon Machine Learning In Positron Emission Tomography Technology With The Aim Of Detecting Amyloid Beta Biomarkers Early In The Onset Of Alzheimer's., Ethan S. Terman 2024 Virginia Commonwealth University

Utilizing Ai Integrated Neuroimaging Technology To Expand Upon Machine Learning In Positron Emission Tomography Technology With The Aim Of Detecting Amyloid Beta Biomarkers Early In The Onset Of Alzheimer's., Ethan S. Terman

Undergraduate Research Posters

Early intervention in Alzheimer's is vital for treatment. The earlier a professional can detect symptoms and make a diagnosis the earlier a prognosis can be implemented. With the prevalence of data in our day-to-day world combined with Artificial intelligence (AI), utilizing both for machine learning can pave the way for more accurate and efficient detection of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. AI combined with Machine learning (ML) increases diagnostic efficiency and reduces human errors, making it a valuable resource for physicians and clinicians alike. With the increasing amount of data processing and image interpretation required, the ability to use AI …


Elovanoid-N34 Modulates Txnrd1 Key In Protection Against Oxidative Stress-Related Diseases, Jorgelina M. Calandria, Surjyadipta Bhattacharjee, Sayantani Kala-Bhattacharjee, Pranab K. Mukherjee, Yuehan Feng, Jakob Vowinckel, Tobias Treiber, Nicolas G. Bazan 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Elovanoid-N34 Modulates Txnrd1 Key In Protection Against Oxidative Stress-Related Diseases, Jorgelina M. Calandria, Surjyadipta Bhattacharjee, Sayantani Kala-Bhattacharjee, Pranab K. Mukherjee, Yuehan Feng, Jakob Vowinckel, Tobias Treiber, Nicolas G. Bazan

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

The thioredoxin (TXN) system is an NADPH + H+/FAD redox-triggered effector that sustains homeostasis, bioenergetics, detoxifying drug networks, and cell survival in oxidative stress-related diseases. Elovanoid (ELV)-N34 is an endogenously formed lipid mediator in neural cells from omega-3 fatty acid precursors that modulate neuroinflammation and senescence gene programming when reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis is disrupted, enhancing cell survival. Limited proteolysis (LiP) screening of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells identified TXNRD1 isoforms 2, 3, or 5, the reductase of the TXN system, as an intracellular target of ELV-N34. TXNRD1 silencing confirmed that the ELV-N34 target was isoform 2 or 3. This …


Dha Shortage Causes The Early Degeneration Of Photoreceptors And Rpe In Mice With Peroxisomal Β-Oxidation Deficiency, Daniëlle Swinkels, Sai Kocherlakota, Yannick Das, Adriaan D. Dane, Eric J.M. Wever, Frédéric M. Vaz, Nicolas G. Bazan, Paul P. Van Veldhoven, Myriam Baes 2023 KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Dha Shortage Causes The Early Degeneration Of Photoreceptors And Rpe In Mice With Peroxisomal Β-Oxidation Deficiency, Daniëlle Swinkels, Sai Kocherlakota, Yannick Das, Adriaan D. Dane, Eric J.M. Wever, Frédéric M. Vaz, Nicolas G. Bazan, Paul P. Van Veldhoven, Myriam Baes

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

PURPOSE. Patients deficient in peroxisomal β-oxidation, which is essential for the synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and breakdown of very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs), both important components of photoreceptor outer segments, develop retinopathy present with retinopathy. The representative mouse model lacking the central enzyme of this pathway, multifunctional protein 2 (Mfp2−/−), also show early-onset retinal decay and cell-autonomous retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration, accompanied by reduced plasma and retinal DHA levels. In this study, we investigated whether DHA supplementation can rescue the retinal degeneration of Mfp2−/− mice. METHODS. Mfp2+/− breeding pairs and their offspring were fed a 0.12% DHA …


Ca2+-Regulated Expression Of High Affinity Methylaminoisobutryic Acid Transport In Hippocampal Neurons Inhibited By Riluzole And Novel Neuroprotective Aminothiazoles, Jeffrey D. Erickson, Thomas Kyllo, Heike Wulff 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Ca2+-Regulated Expression Of High Affinity Methylaminoisobutryic Acid Transport In Hippocampal Neurons Inhibited By Riluzole And Novel Neuroprotective Aminothiazoles, Jeffrey D. Erickson, Thomas Kyllo, Heike Wulff

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

High affinity methylaminoisobutyric acid(MeAIB)/glutamine(Gln) transport activity regulated by neuronal firing occurs at the plasma membrane in mature rat hippocampal neuron-enriched cultures. Spontaneous Ca2+-regulated transport activity was similarly inhibited by riluzole, a benzothiazole anticonvulsant agent, and by novel naphthalenyl substituted aminothiazole derivatives such as SKA-378. Here, we report that spontaneous transport activity is stimulated by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and that phorbol-myristate acetate (PMA) increases high K+ stimulated transport activity that is inhibited by staurosporine. 4-AP-stimulated spontaneous and PMA-stimulated high K+-induced transport is not present at 7 days in vitro (DIV) and is maximal by DIV∼21. The relative affinity for MeAIB is similar …


Whole Genome Sequence Data Implicate Rbfox1 In Epilepsy Risk In Baboons, Mark Z. Kos, Melanie A. Carless, Lucy Blondell, Mary M. Leland, Koyle D. Knape, Harald H. H. Goring, Charles A. Szabo 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Whole Genome Sequence Data Implicate Rbfox1 In Epilepsy Risk In Baboons, Mark Z. Kos, Melanie A. Carless, Lucy Blondell, Mary M. Leland, Koyle D. Knape, Harald H. H. Goring, Charles A. Szabo

Research Symposium

Background: Baboons exhibit a genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) that resembles juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and may represent a suitable genetic model for human epilepsy. The genetic underpinnings of epilepsy were investigated in a baboon colony at the Southwest National Primate Research Center (San Antonio, TX) through the analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data.

Methods: Baboon WGS data were obtained for 38 cases and 19 healthy controls from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive and, after standard QC filtering, two subsets of variants were examined: (1) 20,881 SNPs from baboon homologs of 19 candidate GGE genes; and (2) 36,169 protein-altering SNPs. Association tests …


Palmitoylation As A Regulator Of Maguk Proteins Postsynaptic Localization, Rozena Shirvani-Arani, Santiago Balderas, Yonghong Zhang, Xioaqian Fang 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Palmitoylation As A Regulator Of Maguk Proteins Postsynaptic Localization, Rozena Shirvani-Arani, Santiago Balderas, Yonghong Zhang, Xioaqian Fang

Research Symposium

Synaptic plasticity is the ability of the brain to make changes and the changes occur at synapses. To achieve the complicated functions, a good number of proteins are present at synapse and are called synaptic proteins. To stabilize these proteins at synapses, proteins are modified through posttranslational modifications (PTMs). The most studied PTMs include phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, palmitoylation, etc. Palmitoylation is a type of lipid modification and has received more attention recently for its contribution to protein trafficking, localization, and interaction in various synaptic plasticity. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family includes PSD-95, PSD-93 (also known as chapsyn-110), SAP102, …


Can Alternative Medical Methods Evoke Neuro-Functional Somatosensory Responses? A Case Study Suggesting Functional Improvement, Alhasn Otaif, Mashan E. Alshammari, Christine G. Gerin 2023 Texas A & M University - Corpus Christi

Can Alternative Medical Methods Evoke Neuro-Functional Somatosensory Responses? A Case Study Suggesting Functional Improvement, Alhasn Otaif, Mashan E. Alshammari, Christine G. Gerin

Research Symposium

Somatosensory pathways act as the avenue in transferring information concerning the body and its interaction with the external environment to the brain. We aim to demonstrate that through studying somatosensory, motor cortical and subcortical networks, we can explain functional recovery after stimulations applied as an alternative medical treatment. Those stimulations might have evidenced neural pathways and networks important in recovery of function. Materials and methods: The de-identified medical reports of nine patients with initial presentations of cerebral trauma or stroke inducing paralysis were studied.These included the alternative treatments they received and other available materials such as videos and photographs. Patients …


Integrated Inflammatory Signaling Landscape Response After Delivering Elovanoid Free-Fatty-Acid Precursors Leading To Experimental Stroke Neuroprotection, Madigan M. Reid, Ludmila Belayev, Larissa Khoutorova, Pranab K. Mukherjee, Andre Obenaus, Kierany Shelvin, Stacey Knowles, Sung Ha Hong, Nicolas G. Bazan 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Integrated Inflammatory Signaling Landscape Response After Delivering Elovanoid Free-Fatty-Acid Precursors Leading To Experimental Stroke Neuroprotection, Madigan M. Reid, Ludmila Belayev, Larissa Khoutorova, Pranab K. Mukherjee, Andre Obenaus, Kierany Shelvin, Stacey Knowles, Sung Ha Hong, Nicolas G. Bazan

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Despite efforts to identify modulatory neuroprotective mechanisms of damaging ischemic stroke cascade signaling, a void remains on an effective potential therapeutic. The present study defines neuroprotection by very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) Elovanoid (ELV) precursors C-32:6 and C-34:6 delivered intranasally following experimental ischemic stroke. We demonstrate that these precursors improved neurological deficit, decreased T2WI lesion volume, and increased SMI-71 positive blood vessels and NeuN positive neurons, indicating blood–brain barrier (BBB) protection and neurogenesis modulated by the free fatty acids (FFAs) C-32:6 and C-34:6. Gene expression revealed increased anti-inflammatory and pro-homeostatic genes and decreases in expression of pro-inflammatory genes in …


Rod-Specific Downregulation Of Omega-3 Very-Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Pathway In Age-Related Macular Degeneration, William C. Gordon, Marie Audrey I. Kautzmann, Bokkyoo Jun, Megan L. Cothern, Zhide Fang, Nicolas G. Bazan 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Rod-Specific Downregulation Of Omega-3 Very-Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Pathway In Age-Related Macular Degeneration, William C. Gordon, Marie Audrey I. Kautzmann, Bokkyoo Jun, Megan L. Cothern, Zhide Fang, Nicolas G. Bazan

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6) plays a key role in vision and is the precursor for very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs). The release of 32- and 34-carbon VLC-PUFAs and DHA from sn-1 and sn-2 of phosphatidylcholine (PC) leads to the synthesis of cell-survival mediators, the elovanoids (ELVs) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), respectively. Macula and periphery from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donor retinas were assessed for the availability of DHA-related lipids by LC-MS/MS-based lipidomic analysis and MALDI-molecular imaging. We found reduced retina DHA and VLC-PUFA pathways to synthesize omega-3 ELVs from precursors that likely resulted in altered disks and photoreceptor loss. Additionally, …


Cerebellar Interneurons Control Fear Memory Consolidation Via Learning-Induced Hcn Plasticity, Kathryn Lynn Carzoli, Georgios Kogias, Jessica Fawcett-Patel, Si-Qiong J. Liu 2023 LSU Health Science Center - New Orleans

Cerebellar Interneurons Control Fear Memory Consolidation Via Learning-Induced Hcn Plasticity, Kathryn Lynn Carzoli, Georgios Kogias, Jessica Fawcett-Patel, Si-Qiong J. Liu

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

While synaptic plasticity is considered the basis of learning and memory, modifications of the intrinsic excitability of neurons can amplify the output of neuronal circuits and consequently change behavior. However, the mechanisms that underlie learning-induced changes in intrinsic excitability during memory formation are poorly understood. In the cerebellum, we find that silencing molecular layer interneurons completely abolishes fear memory, revealing their critical role in memory consolidation. The fear conditioning paradigm produces a lasting reduction in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels in these interneurons. This change increases intrinsic membrane excitability and enhances the response to synaptic stimuli. HCN loss is driven …


Epileptic Seizure Classification Using Image-Based Data Representation, Amber Surles 2023 University of South Alabama

Epileptic Seizure Classification Using Image-Based Data Representation, Amber Surles

<strong> Theses and Dissertations </strong>

Epilepsy is a recurrence of seizures caused by a disorder of the brain in over 3.4 million people nationwide. Some people are able to predict their seizures based off prodrome, which is an early sign or symptom that usually resembles mood changes or a euphoric feeling even days to an hour before occurrence. Consequently, the natural instincts of the body to react to an upcoming attack lends credence to the existence of a pre-ictal state that precedes seizure episodes. Physicians and researchers have thus sought for an automated approach for predicting or detecting seizures.

In this research, we evaluate the …


Neural Correlates Of Comorbidity Of Anxiety Disorders And Eating Disorders, Karsen Coelho 2023 Portland State University

Neural Correlates Of Comorbidity Of Anxiety Disorders And Eating Disorders, Karsen Coelho

University Honors Theses

The presence of eating disorder and anxiety disorder comorbidity has raised the question of whether or not there is a causal relationship between them. Previous studies have found that this comorbidity has been present in various patients with anxiety disorders and eating disorders, going further to try and determine which diagnosis came first (Swinbourne et al., 2012). By conducting a literature review, studies were examined to determine neurobiological regions impacted by both disorders. Prefrontal cortex abnormalities are consistent among both disorders, contributing to differences in behavior and reward systems. With the irregular structure and activation of the amygdala, emotion and …


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