Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, 2018 University of Pennsylvania
Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein
Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles
Memory failures are frustrating and often the result of ineffective encoding. One approach to improving memory outcomes is through direct modulation of brain activity with electrical stimulation. Previous efforts, however, have reported inconsistent effects when using open-loop stimulation and often target the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes. Here we use a closed-loop system to monitor and decode neural activity from direct brain recordings in humans. We apply targeted stimulation to lateral temporal cortex and report that this stimulation rescues periods of poor memory encoding. This system also improves later recall, revealing that the lateral temporal cortex is a reliable target ...
Analysis Of Diagnostic, Preventive, And Disease-Modifying Therapeutic Measures Of Alzheimer’S Disease, 2017 Nova Southeastern University
Analysis Of Diagnostic, Preventive, And Disease-Modifying Therapeutic Measures Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Ghazal Habib Havoutis
HCNSO Student Capstones
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common late-onset neurodegenerative disorder and cause of dementia, characterized by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaque deposits. The heterogeneous nature of the disease (both genetically and environmentally) makes it difficult to prevent or cure. Without prevention, the prevalence of AD is expected to triple by 2050. However, because the diagnosis of AD is usually preceded by years of cognitive impairment, early detection may aid in reducing prevalence. Thus, there is a need for validated diagnostic measures for early and improved diagnosis and prevention. In this review, current and ongoing classifiers of ...
Generation Of A Patient-Derived Brain Metastasis Breast Cancer Cell Line Via Novel Orthotopic Injection Placement And Serial Mouse Transplantation To Develop Pdx Mouse Model, 2017 Aurora Research Institute
Generation Of A Patient-Derived Brain Metastasis Breast Cancer Cell Line Via Novel Orthotopic Injection Placement And Serial Mouse Transplantation To Develop Pdx Mouse Model, Amber L. Lacrosse, Denise M. Coley, Paul J. Mintz, Santhi D. Konduri, Richard A. Rovin, Amin B. Kassam
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Background: The incidence of brain metastasis appears to be increasing, potentially due to advanced technology that aids early diagnosis. Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) have high translational value, as these models retain key functional characteristics of the patient tumor. PDX models are useful to understand the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and to identify new treatment targets. However, generating a first-line PDX model is challenging as engraftment failure is high. Serial transplanting tumor tissue via mouse-to-mouse propagation increases engraftment rates and decreases PDX development time. Herein we report methods to generate a PDX cell line from patient-derived tumor tissue that includes the cerebral ...
Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, 2017 University of Alberta
Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Background: Neuroinflammation in the brain consequent to activation of microglia is viewed as an important component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is known to activate microglia and unleash an inflammatory cascade that eventually results in neuronal dysfunction and death. In this study, we sought to identify the presence of amylin receptors on human fetal and murine microglia and determine whether Aβ activation of the inflammasome complex and subsequent release of cytokines is mediated through these receptors.
Methods: The presence of dimeric components of the amylin receptor (calcitonin receptor and receptor activity modifying protein 3) were ...
Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, 2017 Brown University
Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI. Moderate to severe TBI elicits neuroinflammation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is associated with memory deficits. Here we demonstrate that CN2097 significantly reduces the post-traumatic synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and inhibits the ...
The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, 2017 Marquette University
The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, Chung Lung Chan
Dissertations (2009 -)
Humans and animals are constantly exposed to external stimuli. The ability to process reward value of a stimulus is critical to guiding appropriate behavior and essential for survival. These processes are regulated by neuronal activity and neurochemical signaling in the reward circuitry, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The NAc receives dopaminergic inputs from the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends GABAergic projections to the ventral pallidum (VP). Electrophysiological studies have characterized phasic neuronal responses in the NAc that differential encode appetitive and aversive taste stimuli. Exposure to an appetitive taste stimulus evoked predominantly phasic inhibitory responses in the ...
Intratracheal Instillation Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Hepatic Toxicity In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Siva Krishna Nalabotu, Madhukar Babu Kolli, William E. Triest, Jane Y. Ma, Nandini Dpk Manne, Anjaiah Katta, Hari S. Addagarla, Kevin M. Rice, Eric R. Blough
Background: Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods and results: Compared with control animals, CeO2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05). Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal ...
Mixed-Mode Oscillations In Pyramidal Neurons Under Antiepileptic Drug Conditions, 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus
Mixed-Mode Oscillations In Pyramidal Neurons Under Antiepileptic Drug Conditions, Babak V-Ghaffari, M. Kouhnavard, Sherif M. Elbasiouny
Neuroscience, Cell Biology, & Physiology Faculty Publications
Subthreshold oscillations in combination with large-amplitude oscillations generate mixedmode oscillations (MMOs), which mediate various spatial and temporal cognition and memory processes and behavioral motor tasks. Although many studies have shown that canard theory is a reliable method to investigate the properties underlying the MMOs phenomena, the relationship between the results obtained by applying canard theory and conductancebased models of neurons and their electrophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. The goal of this study was to apply canard theory to the conductance-based model of pyramidal neurons in layer V of the Entorhinal Cortex to investigate the properties of MMOs under ...
Source Localization Of Brain States Associated With Canonical Neuroimaging Postures, 2017 McGill University
Source Localization Of Brain States Associated With Canonical Neuroimaging Postures, Michael Lifshitz, Robert T. Thibault, Raquel R. Roth, Amir Raz
Psychology Faculty Articles and Research
Cognitive neuroscientists rarely consider the influence that body position exerts on brain activity; yet, postural variation holds important implications for the acquisition and interpretation of neuroimaging data. Whereas participants in most behavioral and EEG experiments sit upright, many prominent brain imaging techniques (e.g., fMRI) require participants to lie supine. Here we demonstrate that physical comportment profoundly alters baseline brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG)—an imaging modality that permits multipostural acquisition. We collected resting-state MEG data from 12 healthy participants in three postures (lying supine, reclining at 45°, and sitting upright). Source-modeling analysis revealed a broadly distributed influence ...
How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze
Honors Theses AY 16/17
The intent of this project is to gain new insight into the neural circuitry that underlies decision making through understanding the connection between sensory perception and motor action. This investigation further seeks to identify whether optogenetic manipulation of specific neurons results in a change in mate choice. In defining this connection, the end goal is to combat deleterious decision making behavior in humans, such as drug addiction. Female Bengalese finches (BFs) provide an accessible model in which to investigate the neural mechanisms of behavior. Previous studies reveal that activity in the caudal portion of the mesopallium (CM) in the female ...
The Psychophysiological Correlates Of Personality, Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder And Social Support, 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
The Psychophysiological Correlates Of Personality, Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder And Social Support, Meghan E. Pierce
UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones
Theories considering the etiology of psychopathy suggest that trauma exposure, specifically childhood maltreatment and sexual abuse, is related to the development of callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents, which are precursors to psychopathic traits in adulthood. Furthermore, posttraumatic stress disorder has an opposite relationship with many of the emotional and behavioral components of the two-factor model of psychopathy. Specifically, PTSD is positively associated to IA and traits associated with it and negatively associated with FD. Thus, this study sought to expand upon the current theories of a trauma-based etiology of psychopathy by investigating the relationship between trauma, PTSD, and psychopathic ...
An Evaluation Of Gabab Receptors On Modulating Neuroinflammation In A Non-Transgenic Animal Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
An Evaluation Of Gabab Receptors On Modulating Neuroinflammation In A Non-Transgenic Animal Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Monica Bolton
UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss and distinct neuropathological hallmarks, including amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tau tangles (NFT). Although the etiology remains to be discovered, several risk factors exist that significantly contribute to developing AD. Diabetes is one of the major risk factors associated with AD and is characterized by disrupted insulin signaling that may contribute to or exacerbate AD pathologies. Furthermore, both disorders result in increased neuroinflammation. Considerable evidence has demonstrated that a chronic inflammatory response, in particular chronic microglia activation, promotes A production as well as the hyperphosphorylation of tau ...
Neural Processes Underlying Auditory Context Effects, 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Neural Processes Underlying Auditory Context Effects, Breanne Yerkes
UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones
Auditory information within our natural environments is disorganized and often ambiguous, leaving our auditory systems with a complex task: organizing sound into coherent objects. The auditory system uses both current and prior information to assist in completing this task. The influences of previous context on current perception have been referred to as context effects. A contrastive context effect results in a current perception that is opposite of what is expected based on the physical stimulus properties presented during an immediate context. A facilitative context effect results in a current perception that is the same as the perception during the immediate ...
Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cardiac Decline And The Limitations Of Exercise., 2017 University of Louisville
Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cardiac Decline And The Limitations Of Exercise., Kathryn Michele Deveau
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
There is a general consensus that the level and the severity of spinal cord injury (SCI) impacts chronic cardiac abnormalities such that high thoracic and cervical SCI are the most severely affected. Furthermore, the extreme degree of immobility/inactivity experienced by the persons with SCI has implications on cardiac decline. Yet it has been difficult to separate the relative contributions of the decentralized autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the immediate and profound inactivity to chronic cardiac abnormalities. As such, this body of work sought to characterize a contusion SCI that results in persistent CV dysfunction. Echocardiography, Dobutamine stress echocardiography and ...
Voxel Based Morphometry In Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings, 2017 Johns Hopkins University
Voxel Based Morphometry In Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings, Bhavna J. Antony, Min Chen, Aaron Carass, Bruno M. Jedynak, Omar Al-Louzi, Sharon D. Solomon, Shiv Saidha, Peter Calabresi, Jerry L. Prince
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the human retina is now becoming established as an important modality for the detection and tracking of various ocular diseases. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a long standing neuroimaging analysis technique that allows for the exploration of the regional differences in the brain. There has been limited work done in developing registration based methods for OCT, which has hampered the advancement of VBM analyses in OCT based population studies. Following on from our recent development of an OCT registration method, we explore the potential benefits of VBM analysis in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and ...
Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, 2017 Wright State University
Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez
Francisco J. Alvarez
Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw ...
P03. Role Of Prefrontal Cortical Dopamine Transmission In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Opiate Addiction Vulnerability, Jingjing Li
Western Research Forum
PTSD and opiate addiction share strong co-morbidity and the inability to suppress obtrusive memory recall related to either stressful or rewarding experiences may be an underlying neuropsychological feature triggering PTSD and/or addiction. Our previous research has shown that dopamine (DA) transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) strongly modulates emotional memory formation: activation of the DA D4 receptor (D4R) strongly potentiates the emotional salience of normally non-salient fear memories whereas DA D1 receptor (D1R) activation blocks the behavioural recall of fear memory. Thus, while intra-PFC D4 transmission strongly controls the acquisition of emotional memory, D1 transmission is selectively involved ...
Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Peptides For Cns Dopaminergic Upregulation, 2017 University of Kentucky
Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Peptides For Cns Dopaminergic Upregulation, Luke H. Bradley, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt
Neuroscience Faculty Patents
The present invention relates to novel proteins, referred to herein as amidated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) peptides (or "Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating peptides (ADNS peptides)"), that are useful for treating brain diseases and injuries that result in dopaminergic deficiencies.
Role Of Corpus Callosum Integrity In Arm Function Differs Based On Motor Severity After Stroke, 2017 University of South Carolina - Columbia
Role Of Corpus Callosum Integrity In Arm Function Differs Based On Motor Severity After Stroke, Jill Campbell Stewart, Pritha Dewanjee, George Tran, Erin Burke Quinlan, Lucy Dodakian, Alison Mckenzie, Jill See, Steven C. Cramer
Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research
While the corpus callosum (CC) is important to normal sensorimotor function, its role in motor function after stroke is less well understood. This study examined the relationship between structural integrity of the motor and sensory sections of the CC, as reflected by fractional anisotropy (FA), and motor function in individuals with a range of motor impairment level due to stroke. Fifty-five individuals with chronic stroke (Fugl-Meyer motor score range 14 to 61) and 18 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging and a set of motor behavior tests. Mean FA from the motor and sensory regions of the CC and from ...
A Meta-Analysis Of Neuropsychological Tests Utilized In Evaluations For Post-Operative Cognitive Dysfunction In Adult Surgery Patients, Joanna H. Swartz
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Cognitive dysfunction post-surgery has a significant impact on patients’ quality of life during recovery and afterward. Several studies have been completed on post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), but since studies are varied in their methodologies and designs a metaanalysis is helpful to synthesize the current available research. The present study took a metaanalysis approach to examine neuropsychological tests most sensitive to POCD in adult surgery patients, and determine implications this would have for developing a battery of tests to evaluate for POCD pre and post-surgery. Although some assessment batteries have been proposed for certain populations (e.g., cardiac patients), little research ...