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Dercum’S Disease: The Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, Radiological Findings, And Treatment Of A Rare, Debilitating Inflammatory Disorder, Obyda Al-Housni, Constantinos Boufeas, Valori Slane 2024 HCA Florida Kendall Hospital

Dercum’S Disease: The Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, Radiological Findings, And Treatment Of A Rare, Debilitating Inflammatory Disorder, Obyda Al-Housni, Constantinos Boufeas, Valori Slane

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction

Dercum’s disease, also known as adiposis dolorosa, is a rare syndrome characterized by the growth of multiple, and painful, subcutaneous adipose tissues that commonly present in the abdomen and extremities. The scientific community hypothesizes that Dercum’s disease is a combination of neurologic and endocrine disorders. Patients commonly describe it as chronic adipose pain, which manifests as sporadic painful flares throughout their history with the disease.

Case Presentation

We share the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department for an acute episode of left lower extremity pain and swelling associated with a previously diagnosed history of …


Actinic Granuloma Complicated By Secondary Syphilis: A Case Report, Kevin H. Nguyen, Christopher M. Wong, Ethan Q. Nguyen 2024 Western University of Health Sciences

Actinic Granuloma Complicated By Secondary Syphilis: A Case Report, Kevin H. Nguyen, Christopher M. Wong, Ethan Q. Nguyen

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction

Actinic granuloma (AG) is a rare skin eruption thought to result from a sun-induced inflammatory response attracting giant cells, which are large, multinucleated, and inflammatory, to form granulomas and degrade surrounding elastic material. Clinically, lesions begin on sun-exposed skin as pink papules and nodules that coalesce into demarcated annular plaques with a hypopigmented center. Histologically, actinic elastosis surrounds the outer annulus ring, with histiocytes and giant cells within the raised border, and the innermost central zone is filled with minimal to absent elastic fibers.

Case Presentation

We present a middle-aged female with a pruritic eruption of diffuse erythematous macules …


Headache And Vision Loss As Initial Symptoms For An Acute Invasive Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis, Thanh Le OD, Gregg Wentworth OD 2024 South Texas Veterans Health Care System

Headache And Vision Loss As Initial Symptoms For An Acute Invasive Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis, Thanh Le Od, Gregg Wentworth Od

Optometric Clinical Practice

Background: Acute invasive rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is a rare fungal infection commonly caused by Rhizopus species. It occurs in immune- compromised individuals who have acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), leukemia, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or organ transplant patients who are on immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnosing invasive ROCM is challenging because its clinical presentation can be nonspecific, and it is not frequently observed in ophthalmic practices. Case Report: A 66-year-old Hispanic male with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented with the complaint of severe headache and retrobulbar pain in the right eye. An ophthalmic examination revealed normal ocular health in both eyes. Computerized tomography …


Typhlitis In A Neutropenic Patient, Alice He BS, Wern Lynn Ng MD, Lay She Ng MD, Si Yuan Khor MD, Chandi Garg MD 2024 Drexel University College of Medicine

Typhlitis In A Neutropenic Patient, Alice He Bs, Wern Lynn Ng Md, Lay She Ng Md, Si Yuan Khor Md, Chandi Garg Md

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Li-Fraumeni Syndrome And The Benefits Of Annual Comprehensive Screening: A Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Case, Alice He BS, Wern Lynn Ng MD, Faith Seltun DO, Lay She Ng MD, Si Yuan Khor MD, Elham Nasrollahi MD, Chandi Garg MD, Rong Rong Ge MD 2024 Drexel University College of Medicine

Li-Fraumeni Syndrome And The Benefits Of Annual Comprehensive Screening: A Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Case, Alice He Bs, Wern Lynn Ng Md, Faith Seltun Do, Lay She Ng Md, Si Yuan Khor Md, Elham Nasrollahi Md, Chandi Garg Md, Rong Rong Ge Md

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome In A Patient With Recent Diagnosis Of Multiple Myeloma — An Unusual Presentation, Taha Al Hassan, Olga G. Cantu-Rodriguez, Eunbee Cho, Edgar G. Dorsey Trevino 2024 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome In A Patient With Recent Diagnosis Of Multiple Myeloma — An Unusual Presentation, Taha Al Hassan, Olga G. Cantu-Rodriguez, Eunbee Cho, Edgar G. Dorsey Trevino

Research Symposium

Background: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency that surfaces as a constellation of metabolic imbalances due to the rapid destruction of cancer cells and subsequent dissemination of their contents. However, a markedly rare subtype of TLS, known as spontaneous TLS (STLS), occurs without an evident trigger, such as cytotoxic therapy, and carries a similar mortality risk. It is paramount to recognize high-risk cases early and implement therapeutic measures to prevent complications of STLS.

Case Presentation: We present the case of a 74-year-old gentleman with a recent diagnosis of Kappa-restricted multiple myeloma who presented with worsening weakness, tremors, ataxia, …


Pilot Study For Use Of An Arthrometer To Assess Joint Laxity In People With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Dawn T. Gulick, Valerie Iovine, Kerstin Palombaro 2024 Widener University

Pilot Study For Use Of An Arthrometer To Assess Joint Laxity In People With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Dawn T. Gulick, Valerie Iovine, Kerstin Palombaro

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: Joint hypermobility is a condition in which synovial joints move beyond normal limits. Approximately 10-25% of children and 5-25% of adults experience hypermobility syndrome. One such hypermobility syndrome is an inherited connective tissue disorder known as Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS). Typically, a score of 4-5 out of 9 on the Beighton scale is indicative of hypermobility in adults. Whereas 6 out of 9 is the criteria for children. No significant correlations were found between the systemic features of EDS and the Beighton score. The purpose of this pilot study was to see if an arthrometer could be used …


Hif Expression In Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (Ccrcc) Tumors Of Adults With And Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea (Osa), Olivia Heppell, Carlos Guerra Londono, Nilesh Gupta 2024 Wayne State University

Hif Expression In Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (Ccrcc) Tumors Of Adults With And Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea (Osa), Olivia Heppell, Carlos Guerra Londono, Nilesh Gupta

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction: Upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) is an important pathological feature shared by clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, it is unclear whether OSA alters the pathogenesis of ccRCC via HIF expression.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of adults undergoing nephrectomy for ccRCC was identified electronically (IRB#16040-1). The diagnosis of OSA was established with preoperative STOP-BANG scores or polysomnography. A consecutive sample of 20 individuals with and 20 without OSA was selected. Clinical characteristics and pathology results were reviewed. Resected tumor sections were immunohistochemically stained for HIF-1& HIF-2 at antibody dilutions of 1:150. Intensity and …


Covid-19-Associated Myocarditis: Screening For Early Diagnosis, Yousuf Khan, Salmman Ahmed, Samuel John Wlasowicz, Ronald G. Lott III, Xavier C. Zonna 2024 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine

Covid-19-Associated Myocarditis: Screening For Early Diagnosis, Yousuf Khan, Salmman Ahmed, Samuel John Wlasowicz, Ronald G. Lott Iii, Xavier C. Zonna

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

The SARS-CoV-2 virus (causing COVID-19), has infected about 770 million people, and caused the death of about 6.9 million people worldwide in the span of three years (John Hopkins Resource Center). Common symptoms of a patient infected with the virus include shortness of breath, fever, chills, fatigue, loss of taste or smell, and muscle aches. However, recent studies have also shown a prevalence of patients presenting with cardiac inflammation (endocarditis, myocarditis or pericarditis) as a potential comorbidity, both during the infectious stage as well as after the infection has subsided. A pattern of specific clinical markers may be indicative of …


Piriformis Syndrome With A Variant Presentation, Roberto Chuapoco, Ryan E. Linford 2024 Touro University Nevada

Piriformis Syndrome With A Variant Presentation, Roberto Chuapoco, Ryan E. Linford

Annual Research Symposium

Piriformis syndrome has long been a diagnostic quandary due to its tendency to present as other nerve-related conditions. Piriformis syndrome is commonly caused by entrapment of the sciatic nerve as it travels through the greater sciatic foramen due to hypertrophy of the piriformis muscle. However, its constellation of symptoms, including radiating pain down the thigh, can easily be mistaken for lumbosacral radiculopathy. This case report aims to address the misdiagnosis of piriformis syndrome which has prolonged pain for many patients and increased the cost of medical care. It demonstrates a 76-year-old female with a confounding presentation of piriformis syndrome: buttock …


Acute Neutrophilic Vasculitis (Leukocytoclasia) In 36 Covid-19 Autopsy Brains, Roy H. Rhodes, Gordon L. Love, Fernanda Da Silva Lameira, Maryam Sadough Shahmirzadi, Sharon E. Fox, Richard S. Vander Heide 2024 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Acute Neutrophilic Vasculitis (Leukocytoclasia) In 36 Covid-19 Autopsy Brains, Roy H. Rhodes, Gordon L. Love, Fernanda Da Silva Lameira, Maryam Sadough Shahmirzadi, Sharon E. Fox, Richard S. Vander Heide

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: Hypercytokinemia, the renin-angiotensin system, hypoxia, immune dysregulation, and vasculopathy with evidence of immune-related damage are implicated in brain morbidity in COVID-19 along with a wide variety of genomic and environmental influences. There is relatively little evidence of direct SARS-CoV-2 brain infection in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Brain histopathology of 36 consecutive autopsies of patients who were RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 was studied along with findings from contemporary and pre-pandemic historical control groups. Immunostaining for serum and blood cell proteins and for complement components was employed. Microcirculatory wall complement deposition in the COVID-19 cohort was compared to historical control cases. Comparisons …


Child Deaths Caused By Klebsiella Pneumoniae In Sub-Saharan Africa And South Asia: A Secondary Analysis Of Child Health And Mortality Prevention Surveillance (Champs) Data., Jennifer Verani, Dianna Blau, Emily Gurley, Victor Akelo, Nega Assefa, Vicky Baillie, Quique Bassat, Mussie Berhane, James Bunn, R Gunturu 2024 Center for Global Health, USA

Child Deaths Caused By Klebsiella Pneumoniae In Sub-Saharan Africa And South Asia: A Secondary Analysis Of Child Health And Mortality Prevention Surveillance (Champs) Data., Jennifer Verani, Dianna Blau, Emily Gurley, Victor Akelo, Nega Assefa, Vicky Baillie, Quique Bassat, Mussie Berhane, James Bunn, R Gunturu

Pathology, East Africa

Background; Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis in children, and antibiotic-resistant K pneumoniae is a growing public health threat. We aimed to characterize child mortality associated with this pathogen in seven high-mortality settings.

Methods; We analysed Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) data on the causes of deaths in children younger than 5 years and stillbirths in sites located in seven countries across sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and South Africa) and south Asia (Bangladesh) from Dec 9, 2016, to Dec 31, 2021. CHAMPS sites conduct active surveillance for …


Cd133-Dependent Activation Of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase /Akt/Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Signaling In Melanoma Progression And Drug Resistance, Naji Kharouf, Thomas W. Flanagan, Abdulhadi A. Alamodi, Youssef Al Hmada, Sofie Yasmin Hassan, Hosam Shalaby, Simeon Santourlidis, Sarah Lilly Hassan, Youssef Haikel, Mossad Megahed, Robert T. Brodell, Mohamed Hassan 2024 Université de Strasbourg

Cd133-Dependent Activation Of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase /Akt/Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Signaling In Melanoma Progression And Drug Resistance, Naji Kharouf, Thomas W. Flanagan, Abdulhadi A. Alamodi, Youssef Al Hmada, Sofie Yasmin Hassan, Hosam Shalaby, Simeon Santourlidis, Sarah Lilly Hassan, Youssef Haikel, Mossad Megahed, Robert T. Brodell, Mohamed Hassan

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Melanoma frequently harbors genetic alterations in key molecules leading to the aberrant activation of PI3K and its downstream pathways. Although the role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR in melanoma progression and drug resistance is well documented, targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway showed less efficiency in clinical trials than might have been expected, since the suppression of the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway-induced feedback loops is mostly associated with the activation of compensatory pathways such as MAPK/MEK/ERK. Consequently, the development of intrinsic and acquired resistance can occur. As a solid tumor, melanoma is notorious for its heterogeneity. This can be expressed in the form of genetically divergent …


Mechanisms Of Melanoma Progression And Treatment Resistance: Role Of Cancer Stem-Like Cells, Youssef Al Hmada, Robert T. Brodell, Naji Kharouf, Thomas W. Flanagan, Abdulhadi A. Alamodi, Sofie Yasmin Hassan, Hosam Shalaby, Sarah Lilly Hassan, Youssef Haikel, Mosaad Megahed, Simeon Santourlidis, Mohamed Hassan 2024 University of Mississippi School of Medicine

Mechanisms Of Melanoma Progression And Treatment Resistance: Role Of Cancer Stem-Like Cells, Youssef Al Hmada, Robert T. Brodell, Naji Kharouf, Thomas W. Flanagan, Abdulhadi A. Alamodi, Sofie Yasmin Hassan, Hosam Shalaby, Sarah Lilly Hassan, Youssef Haikel, Mosaad Megahed, Simeon Santourlidis, Mohamed Hassan

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Melanoma is the third most common type of skin cancer, characterized by its heterogeneity and propensity to metastasize to distant organs. Melanoma is a heterogeneous tumor, composed of genetically divergent subpopulations, including a small fraction of melanoma-initiating cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and many non-cancer stem cells (non-CSCs). CSCs are characterized by their unique surface proteins associated with aberrant signaling pathways with a causal or consequential relationship with tumor progression, drug resistance, and recurrence. Melanomas also harbor significant alterations in functional genes (BRAF, CDKN2A, NRAS, TP53, and NF1). Of these, the most common are the BRAF and NRAS oncogenes, with 50% …


Exosome Shedding Is Concordant With Objective Treatment Response Rate And Stratifies Time To Progression In Treatment Naïve, Non-Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kelley G. Núñez, Dorota Wyczechowska, Mina Hibino, Tyler Sandow, Juan Gimenez, Ali R. Koksal, Yucel Aydin, Srikanta Dash, Ari J. Cohen, Paul T. Thevenot 2023 Ochsner Health

Exosome Shedding Is Concordant With Objective Treatment Response Rate And Stratifies Time To Progression In Treatment Naïve, Non-Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kelley G. Núñez, Dorota Wyczechowska, Mina Hibino, Tyler Sandow, Juan Gimenez, Ali R. Koksal, Yucel Aydin, Srikanta Dash, Ari J. Cohen, Paul T. Thevenot

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Translational strategies to characterize and monitor extracellular vesicles such as exosome (EX) shedding and the clinical impact of this data within hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In this study, EX shedding was assessed in early-stage HCC and evaluated as a stratification factor for time to progression (TTP) following first-cycle liver-directed therapy (LDT). Plasma EXs were isolated from HCC patients undergoing LDT using ultracentrifugation. Purified EXs were stained using markers CD9 and CD63 and quantified using an ImageStreamX flow cytometer. Circulating EXs expressing CD9 were isolated at 10-fold higher levels compared to CD63. The intensity of CD9+ EX shedding following LDT …


Lactic Acid Bacterial Surface Display Of Scytovirin Inhibitors For Anti-Ebolavirus Infection, Joshua Wiggins, Ngan Nguyen, Wenzhong Wei, Leah Liu Wang, Haley Hollingsead Olson, Shi-Hua Xiang 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Lactic Acid Bacterial Surface Display Of Scytovirin Inhibitors For Anti-Ebolavirus Infection, Joshua Wiggins, Ngan Nguyen, Wenzhong Wei, Leah Liu Wang, Haley Hollingsead Olson, Shi-Hua Xiang

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Scytovirin (SVN) is a lectin from cyanobacteria which has a strong inhibitory activity against Ebola virus infection. We engineered scytovirin as the inhibitor for surface display of lactic acid bacteria to block Ebola virus infection. Two different bacterial strains (Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis) were successfully engineered for scytovirin expression on the bacterial surface. These bacteria were found to be effective at neutralizing pseudotyped Ebolavirus in a cell-based assay. This approach can be utilized for prophylactic prevention, as well as for treatment. Since lactic acid bacteria can colonize the human body, a long-term efficacy could be achieved. Furthermore, …


Atm Deficiency Confers Specific Therapeutic Vulnerabilities In Bladder Cancer, Yuzhen Zhou, Judit Börcsök, Elio Adib, Sophia C. Kamran, Alexander J. Neil, Konrad Stawiski, Dory Freeman, Dag Rune Stormoen, Zsofia Sztupinszki, Amruta Samant, Amin Nassar, Raie T. Bekele, Timothy Hanlon, Henkel Valentine, Ilana Epstein, Bijaya Sharma, Kristen Felt, Philip Abbosh, Chin-Lee Wu, Jason A. Efstathiou, David T. Miyamoto, William Anderson, Zoltan Szallasi, Kent W. Mouw 2023 Albert Einstein Medical Center

Atm Deficiency Confers Specific Therapeutic Vulnerabilities In Bladder Cancer, Yuzhen Zhou, Judit Börcsök, Elio Adib, Sophia C. Kamran, Alexander J. Neil, Konrad Stawiski, Dory Freeman, Dag Rune Stormoen, Zsofia Sztupinszki, Amruta Samant, Amin Nassar, Raie T. Bekele, Timothy Hanlon, Henkel Valentine, Ilana Epstein, Bijaya Sharma, Kristen Felt, Philip Abbosh, Chin-Lee Wu, Jason A. Efstathiou, David T. Miyamoto, William Anderson, Zoltan Szallasi, Kent W. Mouw

Einstein Health Papers

Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage and ATM alterations are common in several tumor types including bladder cancer. However, the specific impact of ATM alterations on therapy response in bladder cancer is uncertain. Here, we combine preclinical modeling and clinical analyses to comprehensively define the impact of ATM alterations on bladder cancer. We show that ATM loss is sufficient to increase sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents including cisplatin and radiation. Furthermore, ATM loss drives sensitivity to DNA repair-targeted agents including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) inhibitors. ATM loss …


Comparative Analysis Of Swine Antibody Responses Following Vaccination With Live-Attenuated And Killed African Swine Fever Virus Vaccines, Hung Q. Luong, Huong T. L. Lai, Lam Q. Truong, The N. Nguyen, Hanh D. Vu, Hoa T. Nguyen, Lan T. Nguyen, Trang H. Pham, David Scott McVey, Hiep Vu 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparative Analysis Of Swine Antibody Responses Following Vaccination With Live-Attenuated And Killed African Swine Fever Virus Vaccines, Hung Q. Luong, Huong T. L. Lai, Lam Q. Truong, The N. Nguyen, Hanh D. Vu, Hoa T. Nguyen, Lan T. Nguyen, Trang H. Pham, David Scott Mcvey, Hiep Vu

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is circulating in many swine-producing countries, causing significant economic losses. It is observed that pigs experimentally vaccinated with a live-attenuated virus (LAV) but not a killed virus (KV) vaccine develop solid homologous protective immunity. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze antibody profiles between pigs vaccinated with an LAV vaccine and those vaccinated with a KV vaccine to identify potential markers of vaccineinduced protection. Thirty ASFV seronegative pigs were divided into three groups: Group 1 received a single dose of an experimental LAV, Group 2 received two doses of an experimental KV vaccine, …


Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques With Aids Co-Develop Cardiovascular Pathology And Encephalitis, Kevin S. White, Joshua A. Walker, John Wang, Patrick Autissier, Andrew D. Miller, Nadia N. Abuelezan, Rachel Burrack, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim, Kenneth C. Williams 2023 Boston College

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques With Aids Co-Develop Cardiovascular Pathology And Encephalitis, Kevin S. White, Joshua A. Walker, John Wang, Patrick Autissier, Andrew D. Miller, Nadia N. Abuelezan, Rachel Burrack, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim, Kenneth C. Williams

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Despite effective antiretroviral therapy, HIV co-morbidities remain where central nervous system (CNS) neurocognitive disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-pathology that are linked with myeloid activation are most prevalent. Comorbidities such as neurocogntive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remain prevalent among people living with HIV. We sought to investigate if cardiac pathology (inflammation, fibrosis, cardiomyocyte damage) and CNS pathology (encephalitis) develop together during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and if their co-development is linked with monocyte/ macrophage activation. We used a cohort of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with rapid AIDS and demonstrated that SIV encephalitis (SIVE) and CVD pathology occur together more frequently …


Co-Infection And Co-Localization Of Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus And Epstein-Barr Virus In Hiv-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Case Report, Peter Julius, Guobin Guobin, Stepfanie Siyumbwa, Jane Musumali, For Yue Tso, Owen Ngalamika, Trevor Kaile, Fred Maate, Phyllis Moonga, John T. West, Peter Angeletti, Charles Wood 2023 University of Zambia

Co-Infection And Co-Localization Of Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus And Epstein-Barr Virus In Hiv-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Case Report, Peter Julius, Guobin Guobin, Stepfanie Siyumbwa, Jane Musumali, For Yue Tso, Owen Ngalamika, Trevor Kaile, Fred Maate, Phyllis Moonga, John T. West, Peter Angeletti, Charles Wood

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a multifocal vascular neoplasm frequently observed in HIVpositive individuals, primarily affects the skin, mucous membranes, visceral organs, and lymph nodes. KS is associated primarily with Kaposi sarcomaassociated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. In this case report, we present a rare occurrence of co-infection and co-localization of KSHV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in KS arising from the conjunctiva, which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridization (EBER-ISH) were utilized to demonstrate the presence of KSHV and EBV infection in the ocular KS lesion. Nearly all KSHV-positive …


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