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Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling 2019 Tulane National Primate Research Center

Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling

Virology Papers

Understanding HIV latent reservoirs in tissues is essential for the development of new strategies targeting these sites for eradication. Here, we assessed the size of latent reservoirs and the source of residual viruses in multiple lymphoid tissues of SIV-infected and fully suppressed rhesus macaques of Chinese-origin (cRMs). Eight cRMs were infected with SIVmac251 and treated with tenofovir and emtricitabine daily for 24 weeks initiated 4 weeks post-infection. Four of the eight animals reached sustained full viral suppression with undetectable viremia. The levels of cell-associated SIV DNA varied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and multiple lymphoid tissues, but with higher ...


Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Nearly all cervical cancers are causally associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). The burden of HPV-associated dysplasias in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by HIV. To investigate the role of the bacterial microbiome in cervical dysplasia, cytobrush samples were collected directly from cervical lesions of 144 Tanzanian women. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and deep sequenced. Alpha diversity metrics (Chao1, PD whole tree, and operational taxonomic unit [OTU] estimates) displayed significantly higher bacterial richness in HIV-positive patients (P = 0.01) than in HIV-negative patients. In HIV-positive patients, there was higher bacterial richness in patients with high-grade ...


Near-Atomic Structure Of A Giant Virus, Qianglin Fang, Dongjie Zhu, Irina Agarkova, Jagat Adhikari, Thomas Klose, Yue Liu, Zhenguo Chen, Yingyuan Sun, Michael L. Gross, James L. Van Etten, Xinzheng Zhang, Michael G. Rossmann 2019 Purdue University

Near-Atomic Structure Of A Giant Virus, Qianglin Fang, Dongjie Zhu, Irina Agarkova, Jagat Adhikari, Thomas Klose, Yue Liu, Zhenguo Chen, Yingyuan Sun, Michael L. Gross, James L. Van Etten, Xinzheng Zhang, Michael G. Rossmann

Virology Papers

Although the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are one of the largest group of viruses that infect many eukaryotic hosts, the near-atomic resolution structures of these viruses have remained unknown. Here we describe a 3.5 Å resolution icosahedrally averaged capsid structure of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). This structure consists of 5040 copies of the major capsid protein, 60 copies of the penton protein and 1800 minor capsid proteins of which there are 13 different types. The minor capsid proteins form a hexagonal network below the outer capsid shell, stabilizing the capsid by binding neighboring capsomers together. The ...


A Poxvirus Pseudokinase Represses Viral Dna Replication Via A Pathway Antagonized By Its Paralog Kinase, Annabel T. Olson, Zhigang Wang, Amber B. Rico, Matthew S. Wiebe 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Poxvirus Pseudokinase Represses Viral Dna Replication Via A Pathway Antagonized By Its Paralog Kinase, Annabel T. Olson, Zhigang Wang, Amber B. Rico, Matthew S. Wiebe

Virology Papers

Poxviruses employ sophisticated, but incompletely understood, signaling pathways that engage cellular defense mechanisms and simultaneously ensure viral factors are modulated properly. For example, the vaccinia B1 protein kinase plays a vital role in inactivating the cellular antiviral factor BAF, and likely orchestrates other pathways as well. In this study, we utilized experimental evolution of a B1 deletion virus to perform an unbiased search for suppressor mutations and identify novel pathways involving B1. After several passages of the ΔB1 virus we observed a robust increase in viral titer of the adapted virus. Interestingly, our characterization of the adapted viruses reveals that ...


Analytical Validation Of A Prognostic Prostate Cancer Gene Expression Assay Using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue., Paul W. Medlow, Christopher J. Steele, Andrena M. McCavigan, Wesley Reardon, Christopher M. Brown, Shauna M. Lambe, Felipe AA Ishiy, Steven M. Walker, Gemma E. Logan, Olaide Y. Raji, Viktor Berge, Betina Katz, Elaine W. Kay, Katherine M. Sheehan, Ronald W. Watson, Denis P. Harkin, Richard D. Kennedy, Laura A. Knight 2018 Almac Diagnostics Ltd.

Analytical Validation Of A Prognostic Prostate Cancer Gene Expression Assay Using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue., Paul W. Medlow, Christopher J. Steele, Andrena M. Mccavigan, Wesley Reardon, Christopher M. Brown, Shauna M. Lambe, Felipe Aa Ishiy, Steven M. Walker, Gemma E. Logan, Olaide Y. Raji, Viktor Berge, Betina Katz, Elaine W. Kay, Katherine M. Sheehan, Ronald W. Watson, Denis P. Harkin, Richard D. Kennedy, Laura A. Knight

Pathology Articles

BACKGROUND: There is a clear need for assays that can predict the risk of metastatic prostate cancer following curative procedures. Importantly these assays must be analytically robust in order to provide quality data for important clinical decisions. DNA microarray based gene expression assays measure several analytes simultaneously and can present specific challenges to analytical validation. This study describes the analytical validation of one such assay designed to predict metastatic recurrence in prostate cancer using primary formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumour material.

METHODS: Accuracy was evaluated with a method comparison study between the assay development platform (Prostate Disease Specific Array) and ...


High Affinity Binding Of H3k14ac Through Collaboration Of Bromodomains 2, 4 And 5 Is Critical For The Molecular And Tumor Suppressor Functions Of Pbrm1., Lili Liao, Nilda L. Alicea-Velázquez, Lauren Langbein, Xiaohua Niu, Weijia Cai, Eun-Ah Cho, Meiling Zhang, Celeste B. Greer, Qin Yan, Michael S. Cosgrove, Haifeng Yang 2018 Thomas Jefferson University; Yale University

High Affinity Binding Of H3k14ac Through Collaboration Of Bromodomains 2, 4 And 5 Is Critical For The Molecular And Tumor Suppressor Functions Of Pbrm1., Lili Liao, Nilda L. Alicea-Velázquez, Lauren Langbein, Xiaohua Niu, Weijia Cai, Eun-Ah Cho, Meiling Zhang, Celeste B. Greer, Qin Yan, Michael S. Cosgrove, Haifeng Yang

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Polybromo-1 (PBRM1) is an important tumor suppressor in kidney cancer. It contains six tandem bromodomains (BDs), which are specialized structures that recognize acetyl-lysine residues. While BD2 has been found to bind acetylated histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14ac), it is not known whether other BDs collaborate with BD2 to generate strong binding to H3K14ac, and the importance of H3K14ac recognition for the molecular and tumor suppressor function of PBRM1 is also unknown. We discovered that full-length PBRM1, but not its individual BDs, strongly binds H3K14ac. BDs 2, 4, and 5 were found to collaborate to facilitate strong binding to H3K14ac. Quantitative ...


Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams 2018 James Madison University

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams

Physician Assistant Capstones

Background: Chest physical examination techniques are taught in academia, but their usefulness in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients in the clinical setting is controversial. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of physical examination techniques and their reliability in diagnosing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and suggest a modified teaching approach to be used in academia. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Database search of PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms “prediction of pneumonia in adults” and “prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates.” Filters were implemented to include articles that only dealt with human subjects and were full text. Articles were excluded ...


31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar 2018 Augusta University

31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Abstract

Breast cancer is the leading malignancy and leading cause of cancer-related death in women globally. The greatest barrier to a treatment is the incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying molecular regulators whose function is cellular adaptation to estrogen. One such enzyme, ATAD3A, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme, has been brought under this lab’s scrutiny. The role of ATAD3A in breast cancer progression is largely unknown but it has been shown to be a crucial mediator in promoting cell cycle progression. The two objectives of this project were: to determine whether the ATAd3A is an Estrogen Receptor-α target (ERα) and to ...


Nox1-Evoked Ros Causes Fibrosis In Caerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis Through The P38/Akt Pathway, Ananya Chakraborty 2018 Augusta University

Nox1-Evoked Ros Causes Fibrosis In Caerulein-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis Through The P38/Akt Pathway, Ananya Chakraborty

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Inflammation of the pancreas can occur in two distinct forms, either in the acute form (AP) or the chronic form (CP). AP is a short-term inflammation that develops suddenly. By contrast, CP manifests from a long-term inflammation, which results in significant fibrosis of the pancreatic tissue and permanent organ damage. This is because of pro-inflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the sources of ROS is NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes, which transfer electrons across biological membranes to reduce oxygen to superoxide. The rodent genome encodes four Nox enzymes: Nox1-4. We found that Nox1 is implicated in pancreatic fibrogenesis ...


Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined by low birth weight and contributes to a variety of adult-onset diseases with different severities between males and females. However, the effects of FGR on the pulmonary surfactant are not fully elucidated. In this thesis, first, we investigated the FGR effects on the lung function and the surfactant system at the early postnatal life. It was hypothesized that FGR contributes to alterations of lung mechanics and the surfactant system during the neonatal period. Second, we assessed the FGR effects on the surfactant system in response to sepsis in adulthood. It was hypothesized that FGR ...


The Path Report Volume 2 Issue 2, Pathology Department, New York Medical College 2018 Touro College and University System

The Path Report Volume 2 Issue 2, Pathology Department, New York Medical College

Newsletters & Newspapers

No abstract provided.


Henle's Ligament: A Comprehensive Review Of Its Anatomy And Terminology Over Almost One And A Half Centuries., Raja Gnanadev, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs 2018 Neurosurgery, Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, USA.

Henle's Ligament: A Comprehensive Review Of Its Anatomy And Terminology Over Almost One And A Half Centuries., Raja Gnanadev, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Henle's ligament was first described by German physician and anatomist, Friedrich Henle, in 1871. This review article will cover Henle's original description of the ligament, historical changes in terminology, embryological studies of the ligament, and the clinical significance of Henle's ligament. This article has a particular focus on the variation in the terminology of this structure and the implications of this.


Prothrombin Complex Concentrates Or Recombinant Factor Viia Are More Effective Than Fresh-Frozen Plasma At Lowering Inr In Patients With Liver Disease, Abel J. Ignatius 2018 Wayne State University

Prothrombin Complex Concentrates Or Recombinant Factor Viia Are More Effective Than Fresh-Frozen Plasma At Lowering Inr In Patients With Liver Disease, Abel J. Ignatius

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Kwon JO, MacLaren R. Comparison of fresh-frozen plasma, four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates, and recombinant factor VIIa to facilitate procedures in critically ill patients with coagulopathy from liver disease: a retrospective cohort study. Pharmacotherapy. 2016;36(10):1047-1054. doi: 10.1002/phar.1827


Relapsed Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma With Long-Term Survival Associated With Synchronous Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Colon, Karla Sladoljev, Ena Perin, Ani Mihaljević Ferrari, Marko Klarić, Alemka Brnčić-Fischer, Senija Eminović, Danijela Vrdoljak-Mozetič, Emina Babarovic 2018 School of Medicine University of Rijeka, University of Rijeka, Croatia

Relapsed Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma With Long-Term Survival Associated With Synchronous Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Colon, Karla Sladoljev, Ena Perin, Ani Mihaljević Ferrari, Marko Klarić, Alemka Brnčić-Fischer, Senija Eminović, Danijela Vrdoljak-Mozetič, Emina Babarovic

Proceedings in Obstetrics and Gynecology

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most common and also the most aggressive subtype of ovarian cancer while squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the colon is an extremely rare histologic subtype of all colonic malignancies with poor prognosis.

Here we report a unique case of synchronous primary SCC of the colon and second recurrence of HGSOC in a patient with 15-years survival. Our patient developed two recurrent HGSOCs with disease-free survival time of five and nine years, respectively. The second recurrence of HGSOC was associated with the synchronous primary SCC of the ascending colon and was further complicated with ...


Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr. 2018 University of Louisville

Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr.

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease that affects the valves of the heart. Injection drug use is currently a leading risk factor among patients with endocarditis. We conducted a prospective study using data from hospital chart records among patients with endocarditis in London, Ontario, which has a relatively high prevalence of people who inject drugs to assess the severity of the issue and the major risk factors of mortality pertaining to this population. This study had a sample size of 353 and included a review of the incidence of admissions of endocarditis, as well as a survival analysis, using both ...


Altered Expression Of Genes Involved In Ganglioside Biosynthesis In Substantia Nigra Neurons In Parkinson's Disease., Jay S. Schneider 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Altered Expression Of Genes Involved In Ganglioside Biosynthesis In Substantia Nigra Neurons In Parkinson's Disease., Jay S. Schneider

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Reduced expression of GM1 and other major brain gangliosides GD1a, GD1b and GT1b have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) brain. Mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear but may be due to a deficit in the ganglioside biosynthetic process. The present study examined the extent to which deficits in gene expression of key biosynthetic enzymes involved in synthesis of GM1 and GD1b (B3galt4) and GD1a and GT1b (St3gal2) exist in neuromelanin-containing neurons in the PD substantia nigra (SN). In situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine gene expression of B3GALT4 and ST3GAL2 in neuromelanin-containing neurons in the SN in ...


The Comparison Of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (Sd-Oct) To Histopathology In A Patient With Diffuse Macular Drusen, Harold Salmons, Ralph Eagle, MD 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

The Comparison Of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (Sd-Oct) To Histopathology In A Patient With Diffuse Macular Drusen, Harold Salmons, Ralph Eagle, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Background: Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) has become a gold standard technique in ophthalmologic practice, and has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of retinal disease. As SD-OCT uses low interference interferometry and mathematical algorithms to produce detailed theoretical cross-sectional images of the retina, it is crucial to examine correlations between SD-OCT images and their corresponding histopathologic slides.

Methods: In the present study, careful correlative light microscopy was performed on the eye that was enucleated from an elderly patient who had a uveal melanoma and early agerelated macular degeneration evident clinically as soft drusen. SD-OCT was performed prior to enucleation ...


A New Frontier In Breast Cancer Management: Oncotype Dx, Gabriella Rollo, Jeremy Molligan, MD, Juan P. Palazzo, MD 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

A New Frontier In Breast Cancer Management: Oncotype Dx, Gabriella Rollo, Jeremy Molligan, Md, Juan P. Palazzo, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Diagnosing and prognosticating breast cancer has traditionally relied upon histomorphologic analysis and immunohistochemistry. With the recent advent of multigene molecular assays, traditional methods are being augmented with molecular biomarkers. Implementation of the Oncotype DX assay has led to a change in treatment of patients with early stage, estrogen positive cancer. Oncotype DX uses the expression of 21 genes at the mRNA level to determine a 10 year recurrence risk in node negative and 5 year recurrence risk in node positive cancer. 16 malignancy markers related to estrogen, HER2, cell proliferation, and invasion potential are compared with 5 reference genes and ...


The Use Of Liquid Biopsy In The Fight Against Cancer, Chamaka Kalutota, Emanual Rubin, MD 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

The Use Of Liquid Biopsy In The Fight Against Cancer, Chamaka Kalutota, Emanual Rubin, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

In recent years, liquid biopsy has emerged as a potential alternative/adjunct to standard tissue biopsy in the diagnosis of malignancies. Current use of this technique, which tracks distinctive molecules released from neoplastic cells including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and miRNA, has generally been limited to determining therapies in lung cancer based on detectable mutations (EFGR, EML4-ALK). However, recent studies have demonstrated the possibility for using these molecules as more efficient prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers in breast, colon, rectum, lung, liver, and pancreatic cancer. Due to the need for standardization in sampled ...


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