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Allatostatin C Modulates Nociception And Immunity In Drosophila., Nathaniel D Bachtel, Gary A Hovsepian, Douglas F Nixon, Ioannis Eleftherianos 2018 George Washington University

Allatostatin C Modulates Nociception And Immunity In Drosophila., Nathaniel D Bachtel, Gary A Hovsepian, Douglas F Nixon, Ioannis Eleftherianos

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Bacterial induced inflammatory responses cause pain through direct activation of nociceptive neurons, and the ablation of these neurons leads to increased immune infiltration. In this study, we investigated nociceptive-immune interactions in Drosophila and the role these interactions play during pathogenic bacterial infection. After bacterial infection, we found robust upregulation of ligand-gated ion channels and allatostatin receptors involved in nociception, which potentially leads to hyperalgesia. We further found that Allatostatin-C Receptor 2 (AstC-R2) plays a crucial role in host survival during infection with the pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. Upon examination of immune signaling in AstC-R2 deficient mutants, we demonstrated that Allatostatin-C ...


Implementation Plan To Integrate The Nanosphere Verigene Assay In A High-Volume Reference Laboratory And The Anticipated Workflow Benefits To Adopting Rapid Blood Culture Testing, Sofia Nazar 2018 Dominican University of California

Implementation Plan To Integrate The Nanosphere Verigene Assay In A High-Volume Reference Laboratory And The Anticipated Workflow Benefits To Adopting Rapid Blood Culture Testing, Sofia Nazar

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Laboratory processing pathways have a significant impact on the overall management of patients with sepsis. Retrieval and isolation of the suspected pathogen from a patient blood culture specimen is required for a definitive diagnosis of bacterial septicemia. Reference laboratories are high-volume facilities most often located some distance away from the collecting facility. Given the lengthy work up already required for blood culture pathogen analysis, reference laboratories must identify ways to optimize every step of the blood culture pathway in the effort to decrease turnaround time and mitigate lag time to final pathogen identification incurred by prolonged collection-to-incubation times. Rapid molecular ...


Cd8+ T-Cell Responses In Vaccination: Reconsidering Targets And Function In The Context Of Chronic Antigen Stimulation, Gabriela L. Cosma, Laurence Eisenlohr 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Cd8+ T-Cell Responses In Vaccination: Reconsidering Targets And Function In The Context Of Chronic Antigen Stimulation, Gabriela L. Cosma, Laurence Eisenlohr

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Cytotoxic CD8 T cells play important roles in eliminating infected and transformed cells. Owing to their potential for therapeutic applications, significant efforts are dedicated toward developing CD8 T cell-based vaccines. Thus far, CD8 T-cell vaccination strategies have had limited success therapeutically in contrast to those targeting antibody-based immunity. However, if the current challenges and gaps in the understanding of T-cell biology are overcome, the full potential of rational CD8 T-cell vaccine design might be realized. Here, we review recent progress in this direction, focusing on target selection and maintenance of function in the settings of chronic infections and cancers.


Epigenetic Regulation Of Tumor Suppressors By Helicobacter Pylori Enhances Ebv-Induced Proliferation Of Gastric Epithelial Cells, Saurabh Pandey, Hem Chandra Jha, Sanket Kumar Shukla, Meghan K. Shirley, Erle S. Robertson 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Epigenetic Regulation Of Tumor Suppressors By Helicobacter Pylori Enhances Ebv-Induced Proliferation Of Gastric Epithelial Cells, Saurabh Pandey, Hem Chandra Jha, Sanket Kumar Shukla, Meghan K. Shirley, Erle S. Robertson

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are two well-known contributors to cancer and can establish lifelong persistent infection in the host. This leads to chronic inflammation, which also contributes to development of cancer. Association with H. pylori increases the risk of gastric carcinoma, and coexistence with EBV enhances proliferation of infected cells. Further, H. pylori-EBV coinfection causes chronic inflammation in pediatric patients. We have established an H. pylori-EBV coinfection model system using human gastric epithelial cells. We showed that H. pylori infection can increase the oncogenic phenotype of EBV-infected cells and that the cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA) protein encoded by H ...


Limited Immune Surveillance In Lymphoid Tissue By Cytolytic Cd4+ T Cells During Health And Hiv Disease., Marcus Buggert, Son Nguyen, Laura M. McLane, Maria Steblyanko, Nadia Anikeeva, Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Perla M Del Rio Estrada, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Kajsa Noyan, Morgan A. Reuter, Korey Demers, Johan K. Sandberg, Michael A. Eller, Hendrik Streeck, Marianne Jansson, Piotr Nowak, Anders Sönnerborg, David H. Canaday, Ali Naji, E. John Wherry, Merlin L. Robb, Steven G Deeks, Gustavo Reyes-Teran, Yuri Sykulev, Annika C. Karlsson, Michael R. Betts 2018 University of Pennsylvania; Karolinska Institutet

Limited Immune Surveillance In Lymphoid Tissue By Cytolytic Cd4+ T Cells During Health And Hiv Disease., Marcus Buggert, Son Nguyen, Laura M. Mclane, Maria Steblyanko, Nadia Anikeeva, Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Perla M Del Rio Estrada, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Kajsa Noyan, Morgan A. Reuter, Korey Demers, Johan K. Sandberg, Michael A. Eller, Hendrik Streeck, Marianne Jansson, Piotr Nowak, Anders Sönnerborg, David H. Canaday, Ali Naji, E. John Wherry, Merlin L. Robb, Steven G Deeks, Gustavo Reyes-Teran, Yuri Sykulev, Annika C. Karlsson, Michael R. Betts

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

CD4+ T cells subsets have a wide range of important helper and regulatory functions in the immune system. Several studies have specifically suggested that circulating effector CD4+ T cells may play a direct role in control of HIV replication through cytolytic activity or autocrine β-chemokine production. However, it remains unclear whether effector CD4+ T cells expressing cytolytic molecules and β-chemokines are present within lymph nodes (LNs), a major site of HIV replication. Here, we report that expression of β-chemokines and cytolytic molecules are enriched within a CD4+ T cell population with high levels of the T-box transcription factors T-bet and ...


Bibliometric Analysis Of Scholarly Publications On The Zika Virus, 1952-2016, Frances A. Delwiche 2018 University of Vermont

Bibliometric Analysis Of Scholarly Publications On The Zika Virus, 1952-2016, Frances A. Delwiche

University Libraries Faculty and Staff Publications

The 2015-2016 epidemic in the Americas caused by the Zika Virus (ZIKV) triggered a dramatic increase in the number of scholarly publications on this topic. In an effort to understand and characterize this body of literature, a bibliometric study was conducted on all articles found in PubMed that were published on the Zika virus between 1952 and 2016. Study parameters included publication date, source journal, subject and category of source journal, and country of first author. The data was frequency-ranked, enabling identification of the most highly productive journal titles, subject areas, and countries. The study concluded with a comparison between ...


Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

We report here the first whole-genome sequences for 3 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (112N, 113N, and 114N) isolated in Africa. Samples of this opportunistic pathogen were collected from nasal swabs obtained from healthy carrier dogs in Botswana. The sequence information will facilitate spatial phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.


Improving Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Using Single Molecule Mrna Sequencing., Vincent Magrini, Xin Gao, Bruce A Rosa, Sean McGrath, Xu Zhang, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, John Martin, John Hawdon, Richard K Wilson, Makedonka Mitreva 2018 George Washington University

Improving Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Using Single Molecule Mrna Sequencing., Vincent Magrini, Xin Gao, Bruce A Rosa, Sean Mcgrath, Xu Zhang, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, John Martin, John Hawdon, Richard K Wilson, Makedonka Mitreva

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The advantages of Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology include long reads, low systematic bias, and high consensus read accuracy. Here we use these attributes to improve on the genome annotation of the parasitic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum using PacBio RNA-Seq.

RESULTS: We sequenced 192,888 circular consensus sequences (CCS) derived from cDNAs generated using the CloneTech SMARTer system. These SMARTer-SMRT libraries were normalized and size-selected providing a robust population of expressed structural genes for subsequent genome annotation. We demonstrate PacBio mRNA sequences based genome annotation improvement, compared to genome annotation using conventional sequencing-by-synthesis alone, by identifying 1609 (9 ...


Fatal Elizabethkingia Meningoseptica Cholangitis Following Biliary Stent Placement, Khalid Ahmed, Syeda Atia Qudsia, Abdul Rehman, Syed Hani Abidi 2018 Aga Khan University

Fatal Elizabethkingia Meningoseptica Cholangitis Following Biliary Stent Placement, Khalid Ahmed, Syeda Atia Qudsia, Abdul Rehman, Syed Hani Abidi

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Elizabethkingia (E.) meningosepticais a ubiquitous gram-negative bacillus belonging to the genus Chryseobacteriumand has been reported to cause nosocomial infections in both the immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. E. meningoseptica can colonize the biliary tree after endoscopic procedures; and cholangitis, caused by this organism, is associated with a favorable prognosis. Here, we report a fatal case of cholangitis secondary to E. meningoseptica that developed following biliary stent placement. This case suggests that E. meningoseptica can be a cause of potentially fatal biliary tract infections in patients who undergo biliary tract endoscopic procedures. Clinicians must not disregard this organism as a contaminant (or ...


Drug Repurposing For Schistosomiasis: Combinations Of Drugs Or Biomolecules., Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Fátima Gärtner, José M Correia da Costa, Nuno Vale 2018 George Washington University

Drug Repurposing For Schistosomiasis: Combinations Of Drugs Or Biomolecules., Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Fátima Gärtner, José M Correia Da Costa, Nuno Vale

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease. Control of schistosomiasis currently relies on a single drug, praziquantel, and despite its efficacy against the all schistosome species that parasitize humans, it displays some problematic drawbacks and alone is ineffective in counteracting adverse pathologies associated with infection. Moreover, due to the development of the potential emergence of PZQ-resistant strains, the search for additional or alternative antischistosomal drugs have become a public health priority. The current drug discovery for schistosomiasis has been slow and uninspiring. By contrast, repurposing of existing approved drugs may offer a safe, rapid and cost-effective alternative. Combined treatment with ...


Sertraline, Paroxetine, And Chlorpromazine Are Rapidly Acting Anthelmintic Drugs Capable Of Clinical Repurposing., Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, John M Hawdon, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Sertraline, Paroxetine, And Chlorpromazine Are Rapidly Acting Anthelmintic Drugs Capable Of Clinical Repurposing., Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, John M Hawdon, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults. These drugs act rapidly to inhibit C. elegans feeding within minutes of exposure. Sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine also decrease motility of adult Trichuris muris whipworms, prevent hatching ...


Mait Cells Are Activated In Acute Dengue Virus Infection And After In Vitro Zika Virus Infection., Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Bianca A N Santos, Nathália Silveira Barsotti, Fabiana Siroma, Douglas F Nixon, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Mait Cells Are Activated In Acute Dengue Virus Infection And After In Vitro Zika Virus Infection., Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Bianca A N Santos, Nathália Silveira Barsotti, Fabiana Siroma, Douglas F Nixon, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are members of the Flaviviridae and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito bites. Both viruses are responsible for a growing number of infections in tropical and subtropical regions. DENV infection can cause lethargy with severe morbidity and dengue shock syndrome leading to death in some cases. ZIKV is now linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal malformations including microcephaly and developmental disorders (congenital Zika syndrome). The protective and pathogenic roles played by the immune response in these infections is unknown. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a population of innate T cells with potent anti-bacterial ...


Granulin Secreted By The Food-Borne Liver Fluke, Brandon Haugen, Shannon E Karinshak, Victoria H Mann, Anastas Popratiloff, Alex Loukas, Paul J Brindley, Michael J Smout 2018 George Washington University

Granulin Secreted By The Food-Borne Liver Fluke, Brandon Haugen, Shannon E Karinshak, Victoria H Mann, Anastas Popratiloff, Alex Loukas, Paul J Brindley, Michael J Smout

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne, zoonotic pathogen endemic to Thailand and adjacent countries in Southeast Asia. The adult developmental stage of the O. viverrini parasite excretes and secretes numerous proteins within the biliary tract including the gall bladder. Lesions caused by the feeding activities of the liver fluke represent wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing and re-injury during chronic infection, which can last for decades. Components of the excretory/secretory (ES) complement released by the worms capably drive proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells and are implicated in establishing the oncogenic milieu that leads to bile ...


Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission., Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wan, Jianqing Xu 2018 George Washington University

Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission., Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wan, Jianqing Xu

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Characterizing the transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses of multi-variant SIV infection may shed new light on the understanding of mucosal transmission. We intrarectally inoculated six Chinese rhesus macaques with a single high dose of SIVmac251 (3.1 × 104 TCID50) and obtained 985 full-length env sequences from multiple tissues at 6 and 10 days post-infection by single genome amplification (SGA). All 6 monkeys were infected with a range of 2 to 8 T/F viruses and the dominant variants from the inoculum were still dominant in different tissues from each monkey. Interestingly, our data showed that a cluster of rare T ...


Transplantation Of Schistosome Sporocysts Between Host Snails: A Video Guide., Gabriel Mouahid, Anne Rognon, Ronaldo de Carvalho Augusto, Patrick Driguez, Kathy Geyer, Shannon Karinshak, Nelia Luviano, Victoria Mann, Thomas Quack, Kate Rawlinson, George Wendt, Christoph Grunau, Hélène Moné 2018 George Washington University

Transplantation Of Schistosome Sporocysts Between Host Snails: A Video Guide., Gabriel Mouahid, Anne Rognon, Ronaldo De Carvalho Augusto, Patrick Driguez, Kathy Geyer, Shannon Karinshak, Nelia Luviano, Victoria Mann, Thomas Quack, Kate Rawlinson, George Wendt, Christoph Grunau, Hélène Moné

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease, touching roughly 200 million people worldwide. The causative agents are different Schistosoma species. Schistosomes have a complex life cycle, with a freshwater snail as intermediate host. After infection, sporocysts develop inside the snail host and give rise to human dwelling larvae. We present here a detailed step-by-step video instruction in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese that shows how these sporocysts can be manipulated and transferred from one snail to another. This procedure provides a technical basis for different types of ex vivo modifications, such as those used in functional genomics studies.


Controlled Human Hookworm Infection: Accelerating Human Hookworm Vaccine Development, David Diemert, Doreen Campbell, Jill Brelsford, Caitlyn Leasure, Guangzhao Li, Naji Younes, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Controlled Human Hookworm Infection: Accelerating Human Hookworm Vaccine Development, David Diemert, Doreen Campbell, Jill Brelsford, Caitlyn Leasure, Guangzhao Li, Naji Younes, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Controlled human hookworm infection (CHHI) is a central component of a proposed hookworm vaccination-challenge model (HVCM) to test the efficacy of candidate vaccines. Critical to CHHI is the manufacture of Necator americanus infective larvae (NaL3) according to current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) and the determination of an inoculum of NaL3 that is safe and reliably induces patent infection. Methods

cGMP-grade NaL3 were produced for a phase 1 trial in 20 healthy, hookworm-naïve adults in the United States, who received either 25 or 50 NaL3. Participants were monitored for 12–18 weeks postinfection for safety, tolerability ...


Sptransformer Proteins From The Purple Sea Urchin Opsonize Bacteria, Augment Phagocytosis, And Retard Bacterial Growth, H. Y. Chou, C. Lun, L. C. Smith 2018 George Washington University

Sptransformer Proteins From The Purple Sea Urchin Opsonize Bacteria, Augment Phagocytosis, And Retard Bacterial Growth, H. Y. Chou, C. Lun, L. C. Smith

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, has a complex and robust immune system that is mediated by a number of multi-gene families including the SpTransformer (SpTrf) gene family (formerly Sp185/333). In response to immune challenge from bacteria and various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the SpTrf genes are up-regulated in sea urchin phagocytes and express a diverse array of SpTrf proteins. We show here that SpTrf proteins from coelomocytes and isolated by nickel affinity (cNi-SpTrf) bind to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with saturable kinetics and specificity. cNi-SpTrf opsonization of the marine bacteria, Vibrio diazotrophicus ...


Synergy Of Two Low-Affinity Nlss Determines The High Avidity Of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Np For Human Importin Α Isoforms., Wei Wu, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Tyler J Florio, Lixin Zhou, Nhan L.T. Nguyen, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Gino Cingolani, Nelly Panté 2017 University of British Columbia

Synergy Of Two Low-Affinity Nlss Determines The High Avidity Of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Np For Human Importin Α Isoforms., Wei Wu, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Tyler J Florio, Lixin Zhou, Nhan L.T. Nguyen, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Gino Cingolani, Nelly Panté

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is an essential multifunctional protein that encapsidates the viral genome and functions as an adapter between the virus and the host cell machinery. NPs from all strains of influenza A viruses contain two nuclear localization signals (NLSs): a well-studied monopartite NLS1 and a less-characterized NLS2, thought to be bipartite. Through site-directed mutagenesis and functional analysis, we found that NLS2 is also monopartite and is indispensable for viral infection. Atomic structures of importin α bound to two variants of NLS2 revealed NLS2 primarily binds the major-NLS binding site of importin α, unlike NLS1 that associates ...


Taking Control: Reorganization Of The Host Cytoskeleton By Chlamydia., Jordan Wesolowski, Fabienne Paumet 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Taking Control: Reorganization Of The Host Cytoskeleton By Chlamydia., Jordan Wesolowski, Fabienne Paumet

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Both actin and microtubules are major cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells that participate in many cellular processes, including cell division and motility, vesicle and organelle movement, and the maintenance of cell shape. Inside its host cell, the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates the cytoskeleton to promote its survival and enhance its pathogenicity. In particular, Chlamydia induces the drastic rearrangement of both actin and microtubules, which is vital for its entry, inclusion structure and development, and host cell exit. As significant progress in Chlamydia genetics has greatly enhanced our understanding of how this pathogen co-opts the host cytoskeleton, we will discuss ...


Ablation Of An Ovarian Tumor Family Deubiquitinase Exposes The Underlying Regulation Governing The Plasticity Of Cell Cycle Progression In Toxoplasma Gondii, Animesh Dhara, Rodrigo de Paula Baptista, Jessica C. Kissinger, Ernest Charles Snow, Anthony P. Sinai 2017 University of Kentucky

Ablation Of An Ovarian Tumor Family Deubiquitinase Exposes The Underlying Regulation Governing The Plasticity Of Cell Cycle Progression In Toxoplasma Gondii, Animesh Dhara, Rodrigo De Paula Baptista, Jessica C. Kissinger, Ernest Charles Snow, Anthony P. Sinai

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The Toxoplasma genome encodes the capacity for distinct architectures underlying cell cycle progression in a life cycle stage-dependent manner. Replication in intermediate hosts occurs by endodyogeny, whereas a hybrid of schizogony and endopolygeny occurs in the gut of the definitive feline host. Here, we characterize the consequence of the loss of a cell cycle-regulated ovarian tumor (OTU family) deubiquitinase, OTUD3A of Toxoplasma gondii (TgOTUD3A; TGGT1_258780), in T. gondii tachyzoites. Rather than the mutation being detrimental, mutant parasites exhibited a fitness advantage, outcompeting the wild type. This phenotype was due to roughly one-third of TgOTUD3A-knockout (TgOTUD3A-KO) tachyzoites exhibiting deviations from endodyogeny ...


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