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An Investigation Into The Prevalence Of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Within An Irish Hospital, Dylan Casey 2021 Munster Technological University, Cork

An Investigation Into The Prevalence Of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Within An Irish Hospital, Dylan Casey

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are well-recognised nosocomial pathogens that pose a significant threat to public health. Associated with poorer clinical outcomes than their vancomycin-sensitive counterparts, the prevalence of VRE in Ireland has increased in recent times, with the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network reporting that out of 29 countries, Ireland demonstrated the highest rates of vancomycin resistance among invasive Enterococcus faecium isolates between 2011 and 2014 (2011; 34.9%, 2012; 44.0%, 2013; 42.7%, 2014; 45.1%). Herein, we investigate VRE prevalence in the Mercy University Hospital (MUH) – an acute care hospital in southern Ireland. A total of 21 first-time ...


Eliminating Contamination In Umbilical Cord Blood Culture Sampling For Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis., Vilmaris Quinones Cardona, Vanessa Lowery, David Cooperberg, Endla K Anday, Alison J Carey 2021 St Christopher's Hospital for Children

Eliminating Contamination In Umbilical Cord Blood Culture Sampling For Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis., Vilmaris Quinones Cardona, Vanessa Lowery, David Cooperberg, Endla K Anday, Alison J Carey

Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers

Introduction: Despite the advantages of umbilical cord blood culture (UCBC) use for diagnosis of early onset sepsis (EOS), contamination rates have deterred neonatologists from its widespread use. We aimed to implement UCBC collection in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and apply quality improvement (QI) methods to reduce contamination in the diagnosis of early onset sepsis. Methods: Single-center implementation study utilizing quality improvement methodology to achieve 0% contamination rate in UCBC samples using the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model for improvement. UCBC was obtained in conjunction with peripheral blood cultures (PBC) in neonates admitted to the NICU due to maternal ...


The Mrna-Lnp Platform's Lipid Nanoparticle Component Used In Preclinical Vaccine Studies Is Highly Inflammatory, Sonia Ndeupen, Zhen Qin, Sonya Jacobsen, Aurélie Bouteau, Henri Estanbouli, Botond Z. Igyártó 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

The Mrna-Lnp Platform's Lipid Nanoparticle Component Used In Preclinical Vaccine Studies Is Highly Inflammatory, Sonia Ndeupen, Zhen Qin, Sonya Jacobsen, Aurélie Bouteau, Henri Estanbouli, Botond Z. Igyártó

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Vaccines based on mRNA-containing lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are a promising new platform used by two leading vaccines against COVID-19. Clinical trials and ongoing vaccinations present with varying degrees of protection levels and side effects. However, the drivers of the reported side effects remain poorly defined. Here we present evidence that Acuitas' LNPs used in preclinical nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine studies are highly inflammatory in mice. Intradermal and intramuscular injection of these LNPs led to rapid and robust inflammatory responses, characterized by massive neutrophil infiltration, activation of diverse inflammatory pathways, and production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The same dose of ...


A Strategy To Detect Emerging Non-Delta Sars-Cov-2 Variants With A Monoclonal Antibody Specific For The N501 Spike Residue, Rama Devudu Puligedda, Fetweh H Al-Saleem, Christoph Wirblich, Chandana Devi Kattala, Marko Jović, Laura Geiszler, Himani Devabhaktuni, Giora Z Feuerstein, Matthias J. Schnell, Markus Sack, Lawrence L Livornese, Scott K Dessain 2021 Lankenau Institute for Medical Research

A Strategy To Detect Emerging Non-Delta Sars-Cov-2 Variants With A Monoclonal Antibody Specific For The N501 Spike Residue, Rama Devudu Puligedda, Fetweh H Al-Saleem, Christoph Wirblich, Chandana Devi Kattala, Marko Jović, Laura Geiszler, Himani Devabhaktuni, Giora Z Feuerstein, Matthias J. Schnell, Markus Sack, Lawrence L Livornese, Scott K Dessain

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Efforts to control SARS-CoV-2 have been challenged by the emergence of variant strains that have important implications for clinical and epidemiological decision making. Four variants of concern (VOCs) have been designated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), namely, B.1.617.2 (delta), B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), and P.1 (gamma), although the last three have been downgraded to variants being monitored (VBMs). VOCs and VBMs have shown increased transmissibility and/or disease severity, resistance to convalescent SARS-CoV-2 immunity and antibody therapeutics, and the potential to evade diagnostic detection. Methods are needed ...


Cancer Vaccines And Immunotherapy For Tumor Prevention And Treatment, Jagmohan Singh, Wilbur Bowne, Adam E. Snook 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

Cancer Vaccines And Immunotherapy For Tumor Prevention And Treatment, Jagmohan Singh, Wilbur Bowne, Adam E. Snook

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

In this editorial, we highlight articles published in this Special Issue of Vaccines on "Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy for Tumor Prevention and Treatment", recent developments in the field of cancer vaccines, and the potential for immunotherapeutic combinations in cancer care. This issue covers important developments and progress being made in the cancer vaccine field and possible future directions for exploring new technologies to produce optimal immune responses against cancer and expand the arena of prophylactic and therapeutic cancer vaccines for the treatment of this deadly disease.


Intestinal Dysbiosis – A New Treatment Target In The Prevention Of Colorectal Cancer, Florinela-Andrada Dumitru, Sergiu Ioan Micu, Roxana Emanuela Popoiag, Marilena Musat, Andreea Daniela Caloian, Valentin Calu, Vlad Denis Constantin, Daniela Gabriela Balan, Cornelia Nitipir, Florin Enache 2021 EMERGENCY HOSPITAL OF CONSTANTA, DEPARTMENT OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, CONSTANTA, ROMANIA

Intestinal Dysbiosis – A New Treatment Target In The Prevention Of Colorectal Cancer, Florinela-Andrada Dumitru, Sergiu Ioan Micu, Roxana Emanuela Popoiag, Marilena Musat, Andreea Daniela Caloian, Valentin Calu, Vlad Denis Constantin, Daniela Gabriela Balan, Cornelia Nitipir, Florin Enache

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The gastrointestinal microbiome contains at least 100 trillion microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi), whose distribution varies from the mouth to the rectum spatially and temporally throughout one's lifetime. The microbiome benefits from advancing research due to its major role in human health. Studies indicate that its functions are immunity, metabolic processes and mucosal barrier. The disturbances of these functions, dysbiosis, influence physiology, lead to diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and colon tumorigenesis. The third most common form of cancer, colorectal cancer, is the result of many factors and genes, and although the link between dysbiosis and this type of cancer ...


Understanding The Effect Of Dietary Palmitic Acid On Glycolysis During Innate Immune Memory In Macrophages, Khaleda A. Aqaei 2021 Portland State University

Understanding The Effect Of Dietary Palmitic Acid On Glycolysis During Innate Immune Memory In Macrophages, Khaleda A. Aqaei

University Honors Theses

Trained immunity is long-term innate immune memory induced by a primary stimulus, which leads to hyper-inflammation upon secondary stimulation with a homologous or heterologous ligand. Trained immunity is mediated by epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of the target cell and leads to modification of gene expression and cellular function. Classically, trained immunity is initiated by β-glucans, an inflammatory molecule found on the exterior of fungal species. Interestingly, our lab has recently described that dietary fatty acids can initiate trained immunity, working through similar pathways as β-glucans. Specifically, our data show that a pre-treatment with a specific dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA ...


Prion Disease: A Challenging Diagnosis, Jeffrey F. Spindel, Anita M. Fletcher, William T. Smith, Rodrigo Cavallazzi 2021 University of Louisville

Prion Disease: A Challenging Diagnosis, Jeffrey F. Spindel, Anita M. Fletcher, William T. Smith, Rodrigo Cavallazzi

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Human prion diseases are a group of rare encephalopathies resulting in rapidly progressive dementia and ultimately death. While there are no effective treatments for any form of prion disease, prompt and efficient diagnosis is essential to prevent the spread of the self-propagating protein, which may occur through aerosols, and avoid unnecessary or invasive testing. Diagnosis relies largely on physical examination, with many nonspecific findings, and laboratory testing, which has wide ranges of reported accuracy and high false positive rates with diseases such as Alzheimer’s dementia.

Methods: Patients who underwent testing for prion disease were retrospectively identified from the ...


Microbial Influence On Alzheimer's Disease, Ashley N. Hamby 2021 University of Louisville

Microbial Influence On Alzheimer's Disease, Ashley N. Hamby

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


Development Of A Recombinant Vaccine Against Human Onchocerciasis., David Abraham, John Graham-Brown, Darrick Carter, Sean A. Gray, Jessica A. Hess, Benjamin L. Makepeace, Sara Lustigman 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

Development Of A Recombinant Vaccine Against Human Onchocerciasis., David Abraham, John Graham-Brown, Darrick Carter, Sean A. Gray, Jessica A. Hess, Benjamin L. Makepeace, Sara Lustigman

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Introduction: Human onchocerciasis caused by the filarial nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus remains a major cause of debilitating disease infecting millions primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa. The development of a prophylactic vaccine, along with mass drug administration, would facilitate meeting the goal of onchocerciasis elimination by 2030.

Areas covered: Models used to study immunity to Onchocerca include natural infection of cattle with Onchocerca ochengi and O. volvulus infective third-stage larvae implanted within diffusion chambers in mice. A vaccine, comprised of two adjuvanted recombinant antigens, induced protective immunity in genetically diverse mice suggesting that it will function similarly in diverse human populations. These ...


Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond 2021 University of Texas at Tyler

Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond

Biology Theses

Increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections by antimicrobial resistant pathogens resulting in higher mortality rates and financial burden is of great concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents one of six highly virulent “ESKAPE” pathogens that exhibit considerable intrinsic drug resistance as well as mechanisms for acquiring further resistance. As many of these mechanisms are regulated through gene expression, we sought to identify regulatory strategies and patterns at play in 23 clinical isolates collected from Baku, Azerbaijan and Tyler, Texas, USA. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on six gene targets implicated in resistance and contrasted with antibiotic phenotypes. We found AmpC cephalosporinase ...


Endophytes Of Brazilian Medicinal Plants With Activity Against Phytopathogens, Jucélia Iantas, Daiani Cristina Savi, Renata da Silva Schibelbein, Sandriele Aparecida Noriler, Beatriz Marques Assad, Guilherme Dilarri, Henrique Ferreira, Jürgen Rohr, Jon S. Thorson, Khaled A. Shaaban, Chirlei Glienke 2021 Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

Endophytes Of Brazilian Medicinal Plants With Activity Against Phytopathogens, Jucélia Iantas, Daiani Cristina Savi, Renata Da Silva Schibelbein, Sandriele Aparecida Noriler, Beatriz Marques Assad, Guilherme Dilarri, Henrique Ferreira, Jürgen Rohr, Jon S. Thorson, Khaled A. Shaaban, Chirlei Glienke

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Plant diseases caused by phytopathogens are responsible for significant crop losses worldwide. Resistance induction and biological control have been exploited in agriculture due to their enormous potential. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi of leaves and petioles of medicinal plants Vochysia divergens and Stryphnodendron adstringens located in two regions of high diversity in Brazil, Pantanal, and Cerrado, respectively. We recovered 1,304 fungal isolates and based on the characteristics of the culture, were assigned to 159 phenotypes. One isolate was selected as representative of each phenotype and studied for antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens. Isolates with ...


Multiple Autonomous Cell Death Suppression Strategies Ensure Cytomegalovirus Fitness, Pratyusha Mandal, Lynsey Nagrani, Liliana Hernandez, Anita Louise McCormick, Christopher Dillon, Heather Koehler, Linda Roback, Emad S Alnemri, Douglas Green, Edward Mocarski 2021 Emory University School of Medicine

Multiple Autonomous Cell Death Suppression Strategies Ensure Cytomegalovirus Fitness, Pratyusha Mandal, Lynsey Nagrani, Liliana Hernandez, Anita Louise Mccormick, Christopher Dillon, Heather Koehler, Linda Roback, Emad S Alnemri, Douglas Green, Edward Mocarski

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Programmed cell death pathways eliminate infected cells and regulate infection-associated inflammation during pathogen invasion. Cytomegaloviruses encode several distinct suppressors that block intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, and necroptosis, pathways that impact pathogenesis of this ubiquitous herpesvirus. Here, we expanded the understanding of three cell autonomous suppression mechanisms on which murine cytomegalovirus relies: (i) M38.5-encoded viral mitochon-drial inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA), a BAX suppressor that functions in concert with M41.1-encoded viral inhibitor of BAK oligomerization (vIBO), (ii) M36-encoded viral inhibitor of caspase-8 activation (vICA), and (iii) M45-encoded viral inhibitor of RIP/RHIM activation (vIRA). Following infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages ...


Inflammation-Type Dysbiosis Of The Oral Microbiome Associates With The Duration Of Covid-19 Symptoms And Long-Covid, John P. Haran, Evan Bradley, Abigail Zeamer, Lindsey Cincotta, Marie-Claire Salive, Protiva Dutta, Shafik Mutaawe, Otuwe Anya, Mario Meza-Segura, Ann M. Moormann, Doyle V. Ward, Beth A. McCormick, Vanni Bucci 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Inflammation-Type Dysbiosis Of The Oral Microbiome Associates With The Duration Of Covid-19 Symptoms And Long-Covid, John P. Haran, Evan Bradley, Abigail Zeamer, Lindsey Cincotta, Marie-Claire Salive, Protiva Dutta, Shafik Mutaawe, Otuwe Anya, Mario Meza-Segura, Ann M. Moormann, Doyle V. Ward, Beth A. Mccormick, Vanni Bucci

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and now many face the burden of prolonged symptoms-long-lasting COVID-19 symptoms or "long-COVID". Long-COVID is thought to be linked to immune dysregulation due to harmful inflammation, with the exact causes being unknown. Given the role of the microbiome in mediating inflammation, we aimed to examine the relationship between the oral microbiome and the duration of long-COVID symptoms. Tongue swabs were collected from patients presenting with symptoms concerning for COVID-19. Confirmed infections were followed until resolution of all symptoms. Bacterial composition was determined by metagenomic sequencing ...


Loss Of N1-Methylation Of G37 In Trna Induces Ribosome Stalling And Reprograms Gene Expression, Isao Masuda, Jae-Yeon Hwang, Thomas Christian, Sunita Maharjan, Fuad Mohammad, Howard Gamper, Allen R. Buskirk, Ya-Ming Hou 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

Loss Of N1-Methylation Of G37 In Trna Induces Ribosome Stalling And Reprograms Gene Expression, Isao Masuda, Jae-Yeon Hwang, Thomas Christian, Sunita Maharjan, Fuad Mohammad, Howard Gamper, Allen R. Buskirk, Ya-Ming Hou

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

N1-methylation of G37 is required for a subset of tRNAs to maintain the translational reading-frame. While loss of m1G37 increases ribosomal +1 frameshifting, whether it incurs additional translational defects is unknown. Here, we address this question by applying ribosome profiling to gain a genome-wide view of the effects of m1G37 deficiency on protein synthesis. Using E coli as a model, we show that m1G37 deficiency induces ribosome stalling at codons that are normally translated by m1G37-containing tRNAs. Stalling occurs during decoding of affected codons at the ribosomal A site, indicating ...


Targeting Human Langerin Promotes Hiv-1 Specific Humoral Immune Responses., Jérôme Kervevan, Aurélie Bouteau, Juliane S Lanza, Adele Hammoudi, Sandra Zurawski, Mathieu Surenaud, Lydie Dieudonné, Marion Bonnet, Cécile Lefebvre, Hakim Hocini, Romain Marlin, Aurélie Guguin, Barbara Hersant, Oana Hermeziu, Elisabeth Menu, Christine Lacabaratz, Jean-Daniel Lelièvre, Gerard Zurawski, Véronique Godot, Sandrine Henri, Botond Z. Igyártó, Yves Levy, Sylvain Cardinaud 2021 Vaccine Research Institute, Créteil, France, Inserm U955, Équipe 16, Créteil, France

Targeting Human Langerin Promotes Hiv-1 Specific Humoral Immune Responses., Jérôme Kervevan, Aurélie Bouteau, Juliane S Lanza, Adele Hammoudi, Sandra Zurawski, Mathieu Surenaud, Lydie Dieudonné, Marion Bonnet, Cécile Lefebvre, Hakim Hocini, Romain Marlin, Aurélie Guguin, Barbara Hersant, Oana Hermeziu, Elisabeth Menu, Christine Lacabaratz, Jean-Daniel Lelièvre, Gerard Zurawski, Véronique Godot, Sandrine Henri, Botond Z. Igyártó, Yves Levy, Sylvain Cardinaud

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

The main avenue for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine remains the induction of protective antibodies. A rationale approach is to target antigen to specific receptors on dendritic cells (DC) via fused monoclonal antibodies (mAb). In mouse and non-human primate models, targeting of skin Langerhans cells (LC) with anti-Langerin mAbs fused with HIV-1 Gag antigen drives antigen-specific humoral responses. The development of these immunization strategies in humans requires a better understanding of early immune events driven by human LC. We therefore produced anti-Langerin mAbs fused with the HIV-1 gp140z Envelope (αLC.Env). First, we show that primary skin human LC ...


Targeted Oral Delivery Of Paclitaxel Using Colostrum-Derived Exosomes, Raghuram Kandimalla, Farrukh Aqil, Sara S. Alhakeem, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Neha Tyagi, Ashish Agrawal, Jun Yan, Wendy Spencer, Subbarao Bondada, Ramesh C. Gupta 2021 University of Louisville

Targeted Oral Delivery Of Paclitaxel Using Colostrum-Derived Exosomes, Raghuram Kandimalla, Farrukh Aqil, Sara S. Alhakeem, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Neha Tyagi, Ashish Agrawal, Jun Yan, Wendy Spencer, Subbarao Bondada, Ramesh C. Gupta

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type accounting for 84% of all lung cancers. Paclitaxel (PAC) is a widely used drug in the treatment of a broad spectrum of human cancers, including lung. While efficacious, PAC generally is not well tolerated and its limitations include low aqueous solubility, and significant toxicity. To overcome the dose-related toxicity of solvent-based PAC, we utilized bovine colostrum-derived exosomes as a delivery vehicle for PAC for the treatment of lung cancer. Colostrum provided higher yield of exosomes and could be loaded with higher ...


Inhibitory Molecules Pd-1, Cd73 And Cd39 Are Expressed By Cd8+ T Cells In A Tissue-Dependent Manner And Can Inhibit T Cell Responses To Stimulation, Corinne J. Smith, Christopher M. Snyder 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

Inhibitory Molecules Pd-1, Cd73 And Cd39 Are Expressed By Cd8+ T Cells In A Tissue-Dependent Manner And Can Inhibit T Cell Responses To Stimulation, Corinne J. Smith, Christopher M. Snyder

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

The salivary gland is an important tissue for persistence and transmission of multiple viruses. Previous work showed that salivary gland tissue-resident CD8+ T cells elicited by viruses were poorly functional ex vivo. Using a model of persistent murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, we now show that CD8+ T cells in the salivary gland and other non-lymphoid tissues of mice express multiple molecules associated with T cell exhaustion including PD-1, CD73 and CD39. Strikingly however, these molecules were expressed independently of virus or antigen. Rather, PD-1-expressing T cells remained PD-1+ after migration into tissues regardless of infection, while CD73 was activated on ...


Accumulation Of Succinyl Coenzyme A Perturbs The Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Succinylome And Is Associated With Increased Susceptibility To Beta-Lactam Antibiotics, Christopher Campbell, Claire Fingleton, Merve S. Zeden, Emilio Bueno, Laura A Gallagher, Dhananjay Shinde, Jong-Sam Ahn, Heather M. Olson, Thomas L. Fillmore, Joshua N. Adkins, Fareha Razvi, Kenneth W. Bayles, Paul D. Fey, Vinai Chittezham Thomas, Felipe Cava, Geremy C. Clair, James P. O'Gara 2021 National University of Ireland, Galway

Accumulation Of Succinyl Coenzyme A Perturbs The Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Succinylome And Is Associated With Increased Susceptibility To Beta-Lactam Antibiotics, Christopher Campbell, Claire Fingleton, Merve S. Zeden, Emilio Bueno, Laura A Gallagher, Dhananjay Shinde, Jong-Sam Ahn, Heather M. Olson, Thomas L. Fillmore, Joshua N. Adkins, Fareha Razvi, Kenneth W. Bayles, Paul D. Fey, Vinai Chittezham Thomas, Felipe Cava, Geremy C. Clair, James P. O'Gara

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP2a)-dependent resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is regulated by the activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via a poorly understood mechanism. We report that mutations in sucC and sucD, but not other TCA cycle enzymes, negatively impact β-lactam resistance without changing PBP2a expression. Increased intracellular levels of succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) in the sucC mutant significantly perturbed lysine succinylation in the MRSA proteome. Suppressor mutations in sucA or sucB, responsible for succinyl-CoA biosynthesis, reversed sucC mutant phenotypes. The major autolysin (Atl) was the most succinylated protein in the proteome, and ...


Sars-Cov-2 Viral Proteins Nsp1 And Nsp13 Inhibit Interferon Activation Through Distinct Mechanisms, Christine Vazquez, Sydnie E Swanson, Seble G Negatu, Mark Dittmar, Jesse Miller, Holly Ramage, Sara Cherry, Kellie A Jurado 2021 University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine

Sars-Cov-2 Viral Proteins Nsp1 And Nsp13 Inhibit Interferon Activation Through Distinct Mechanisms, Christine Vazquez, Sydnie E Swanson, Seble G Negatu, Mark Dittmar, Jesse Miller, Holly Ramage, Sara Cherry, Kellie A Jurado

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a devastating global pandemic, infecting over 43 million people and claiming over 1 million lives, with these numbers increasing daily. Therefore, there is urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms governing SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, immune evasion, and disease progression. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 can block IRF3 and NF-κB activation early during virus infection. We also identify that the SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins NSP1 and NSP13 can block interferon activation via distinct mechanisms. NSP1 antagonizes interferon signaling by suppressing host mRNA translation, while NSP13 downregulates interferon and NF-κB promoter signaling by limiting TBK1 ...


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