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The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised individuals such as cystic fibrosis patients. B. cepacia infections are typically characterized by the formation of complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Because B. cepacia biofilms are difficult to eradicate using antibiotics, it is important to pursue alternative treatment methods. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a type of therapy that uses light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen to elicit cell death through the production of reactive oxygen species. PDT has been shown in previous studies to be successful in killing both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we ...


Dynamic Transcriptomes Identify Biogenic Amines And Insect-Like Hormonal Regulation For Mediating Reproduction In Schistosoma Japonicum., Jipeng Wang, Ying Yu, Haimo Shen, Tao Qing, Yuanting Zheng, Qing Li, Xiaojin Mo, Shuqi Wang, Nana Li, Riyi Chai, Bin Xu, Mu Liu, Paul J Brindley, Donald P McManus, Zheng Feng, Leming Shi, Wei Hu 2017 George Washington University

Dynamic Transcriptomes Identify Biogenic Amines And Insect-Like Hormonal Regulation For Mediating Reproduction In Schistosoma Japonicum., Jipeng Wang, Ying Yu, Haimo Shen, Tao Qing, Yuanting Zheng, Qing Li, Xiaojin Mo, Shuqi Wang, Nana Li, Riyi Chai, Bin Xu, Mu Liu, Paul J Brindley, Donald P Mcmanus, Zheng Feng, Leming Shi, Wei Hu

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Eggs produced by the mature female parasite are responsible for the pathogenesis and transmission of schistosomiasis. Female schistosomes rely on a unique male-induced strategy to accomplish reproductive development, a process that is incompletely understood. Here we map detailed transcriptomic profiles of male and female Schistosoma japonicum across eight time points throughout the sexual developmental process from pairing to maturation. The dynamic gene expression pattern data reveal clear sex-related characteristics, indicative of an unambiguous functional division between males and females during their interplay. Cluster analysis, in situ hybridization and RNAi assays indicate that males likely use biogenic amine neurotransmitters through the ...


The Final (Oral Ebola) Vaccine Trial On Captive Chimpanzees?, Peter D. Walsh, Drishya Kurup, Dana L. Hasselschwert, Christoph Wirblich, Jason E. Goetzmann, Matthias J. Schnell 2017 University of Cambridge

The Final (Oral Ebola) Vaccine Trial On Captive Chimpanzees?, Peter D. Walsh, Drishya Kurup, Dana L. Hasselschwert, Christoph Wirblich, Jason E. Goetzmann, Matthias J. Schnell

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Could new oral vaccine technologies protect endangered wildlife against a rising tide of infectious disease? We used captive chimpanzees to test oral delivery of a rabies virus (RABV) vectored vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), a major threat to wild chimpanzees and gorillas. EBOV GP and RABV GP-specific antibody titers increased exponentially during the trial, with rates of increase for six orally vaccinated chimpanzees very similar to four intramuscularly vaccinated controls. Chimpanzee sera also showed robust neutralizing activity against RABV and pseudo-typed EBOV. Vaccination did not induce serious health complications. Blood chemistry, hematologic, and body mass correlates of psychological stress suggested ...


The Host Microbiome Regulates And Maintains Human Health: A Primer And Perspective For Non-Microbiologists, Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A. Sela, Alexander J. Muller, James M. Mullin, Korin Albert, John P. Gilligan, Katherine DiGuilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George P. Prendergast 2017 Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania

The Host Microbiome Regulates And Maintains Human Health: A Primer And Perspective For Non-Microbiologists, Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A. Sela, Alexander J. Muller, James M. Mullin, Korin Albert, John P. Gilligan, Katherine Diguilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George P. Prendergast

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Humans consider themselves discrete autonomous organisms, but recent research is rapidly strengthening the appreciation that associated microorganisms make essential contributions to human health and well being. Each person is inhabited and also surrounded by his/her own signature microbial cloud. A low diversity of microorganisms is associated with a plethora of diseases, including allergy, diabetes, obesity, arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, an interaction of microorganisms with the host immune system is required for a healthy body. Exposure to microorganisms from the moment we are born and appropriate microbiome assembly during childhood are essential for establishing an ...


The Role Of Estradiol Metabolism In Urogenital Schistosomiasis-Induced Bladder Cancer, Nuno Vale, Maria Gouveia, Gabriel Rinaldi, Julio Santos, Lucio Lara Santos, Paul J. Brindley, Jose Correia da Costa 2017 George Washington University

The Role Of Estradiol Metabolism In Urogenital Schistosomiasis-Induced Bladder Cancer, Nuno Vale, Maria Gouveia, Gabriel Rinaldi, Julio Santos, Lucio Lara Santos, Paul J. Brindley, Jose Correia Da Costa

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Urogenital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that can lead to bladder cancer. How urogenital schistosomiasis induces carcinogenesis remains unclear, although there is evidence that the human blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, the infectious agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, releases estradiol-like metabolites. These kind of compounds have been implicated in other cancers. Aiming for enhanced understanding of the pathogenesis of the urogenital schistosomiasisinduced bladder cancer, here we review, interpret, and discuss findings of estradiol-like metabolites detected in both the parasite and in the human urine during urogenital schistosomiasis. Moreover, we predict pathways and enzymes that are involved in the production of these ...


Elevated Prevalence Of Helicobacter Species And Virulence Factors In Opisthorchiasis And Associated Hepatobiliary Disease., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Eimorn Mairiang, Pisaln Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaovalux Chamgramol, Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa 2017 George Washington University

Elevated Prevalence Of Helicobacter Species And Virulence Factors In Opisthorchiasis And Associated Hepatobiliary Disease., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Eimorn Mairiang, Pisaln Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaovalux Chamgramol, Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Recent reports suggest that Opisthorchis viverrini serves as a reservoir of Helicobacter and implicate Helicobacter in pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Here, 553 age-sex matched cases and controls, 293 and 260 positive and negative for liver fluke O. viverrini eggs, of residents in Northeastern Thailand were investigated for associations among infection with liver fluke, Helicobacter and hepatobiliary fibrosis. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in O. viverrini-infected than uninfected participants. H. pylori bacterial load correlated positively with intensity of O. viverrini infection, and participants with opisthorchiasis exhibited higher frequency of virulent cagA-positive H. pylori than those free of ...


Advances In Neglected Tropical Disease Vaccines: Developing Relative Potency And Functional Assays For The Na-Gst-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine., Jill B. Brelsford, Jordan L Plieskatt, Anna Yakovleva, Amar Jariwala, Brian P Keegan, Jin Peng, Pengjun Xia, Guangzhao Li, Doreen Campbell, Maria Victoria Periago, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Diemert, Jeffrey M. Bethony 2017 George Washington University

Advances In Neglected Tropical Disease Vaccines: Developing Relative Potency And Functional Assays For The Na-Gst-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine., Jill B. Brelsford, Jordan L Plieskatt, Anna Yakovleva, Amar Jariwala, Brian P Keegan, Jin Peng, Pengjun Xia, Guangzhao Li, Doreen Campbell, Maria Victoria Periago, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Diemert, Jeffrey M. Bethony

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative ...


Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis And Human Malignancy., Hoang van Tong, Paul J. Brindley, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan 2017 George Washington University

Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis And Human Malignancy., Hoang Van Tong, Paul J. Brindley, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in ...


Yeast Help Identify Cytopathic Factors Of Zika Virus, Michael I. Bukrinsky 2017 George Washington University

Yeast Help Identify Cytopathic Factors Of Zika Virus, Michael I. Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Accumulating evidence implicates Zika virus (ZIKV) in pathogenesis of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. However, it remains unclear which viral proteins are responsible for these effects and what are the underlying mechanisms of their pathogenic activity. A recent paper by Drs. Zhao and Gallo, and their colleagues at University of Maryland in Baltimore used fission yeast for genome-wide analysis of ZIKV proteins. They demonstrated cytopathogenic activity for seven ZIKV proteins, anaC, C, prM, M, E, NS2B and NS4A. This activity was shown to be dependent on oxidative stress, and for NS4A they demonstrated involvement of the TOR ...


Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails ...


A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli 2017 George Washington University

A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Informed consent is one of the principal ethical requirements of conducting clinical research, regardless of the study setting. Breaches in the quality of the informed consent process are frequently described in reference to clinical trials conducted in developing countries, due to low levels of formal education, a lack of familiarity with biomedical research, and limited access to health services in these countries. However, few studies have directly compared the quality of the informed consent process in developed and developing countries using the same tool and in similar clinical trials. This study was conducted to compare the quality of the informed ...


Novel Long-Chain Compounds With Both Immunomodulatory And Mena Inhibitory Activities Against Staphylococcus Aureus And Its Biofilm., Seoung-Ryoung Choi, Joel Frandsen, Prabagaran Narayanasamy 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Novel Long-Chain Compounds With Both Immunomodulatory And Mena Inhibitory Activities Against Staphylococcus Aureus And Its Biofilm., Seoung-Ryoung Choi, Joel Frandsen, Prabagaran Narayanasamy

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis pathway is a potential target for evaluating antimicrobials in gram-positive bacteria. Here, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate prenyltransferase (MenA) was targeted to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) growth. MenA inhibiting, long chain-based compounds were designed, synthesized and evaluated against MRSA and menaquinone utilizing bacteria in aerobic conditions. The results showed that these bacteria were susceptible to most of the compounds. Menaquinone (MK-4) supplementation rescued MRSA growth, suggesting these compounds inhibit MK biosynthesis. 3a and 7c exhibited promising inhibitory activities with MICs ranging 1-8 μg/mL against MRSA strains. The compounds did not facilitate small colony variant formation. These compounds also ...


Identification Of Candidate Infection Genes From The Model Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora., Jonathan Vadnal, Ramesh Ratnappan, Melissa Keaney, Eric Kenney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M. Hawdon 2017 George Washington University

Identification Of Candidate Infection Genes From The Model Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora., Jonathan Vadnal, Ramesh Ratnappan, Melissa Keaney, Eric Kenney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M. Hawdon

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Despite important progress in the field of innate immunity, our understanding of host immune responses to parasitic nematode infections lags behind that of responses to microbes. A limiting factor has been the obligate requirement for a vertebrate host which has hindered investigation of the parasitic nematode infective process. The nematode parasite Heterorhabditis bacteriophora offers great potential as a model to genetically dissect the process of infection. With its mutualistic Photorhabdus luminescens bacteria, H. bacteriophora invades multiple species of insects, which it kills and exploits as a food source for the development of several nematode generations. The ability to culture ...


A Fashi Lymphoproliferative Phenotype Reveals Non-Apoptotic Fas Signalling In Htlv-1-Associated Neuroinflammation., Soraya Maria Menezes, Fabio E Leal, Tim Dierckx, Ricardo Khouri, Daniele Decanine, Gilvaneia Silva-Santos, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

A Fashi Lymphoproliferative Phenotype Reveals Non-Apoptotic Fas Signalling In Htlv-1-Associated Neuroinflammation., Soraya Maria Menezes, Fabio E Leal, Tim Dierckx, Ricardo Khouri, Daniele Decanine, Gilvaneia Silva-Santos, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 was the first human retrovirus to be associated to cancer, namely Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL), but its pathogenesis remains enigmatic, since only a minority of infected individuals develops either ATL or the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). A functional FAS -670 polymorphism in an interferon (IFN)-regulated STAT1-binding site has been associated to both ATL and HAM/TSP susceptibility. Fashi T stem cell memory (Tscm) cells have been identified as the hierarchical apex of ATL, but have not been investigated in HAM/TSP. In addition, both FAS and STAT1 have ...


Genomes Of Fasciola Hepatica From The Americas Reveal Colonization With Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related To The Agents Of Potomac Horse And Human Sennetsu Fevers., Samantha N McNulty, Jose F Tort, Gabriel Rinaldi, Bruce A Rosa, Victoria H. Mann, Patricia S. Latham, Paul J. Brindley, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Genomes Of Fasciola Hepatica From The Americas Reveal Colonization With Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related To The Agents Of Potomac Horse And Human Sennetsu Fevers., Samantha N Mcnulty, Jose F Tort, Gabriel Rinaldi, Bruce A Rosa, Victoria H. Mann, Patricia S. Latham, Paul J. Brindley, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Food borne trematodes (FBTs) are an assemblage of platyhelminth parasites transmitted through the food chain, four of which are recognized as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Fascioliasis stands out among the other NTDs due to its broad and significant impact on both human and animal health, as Fasciola sp., are also considered major pathogens of domesticated ruminants. Here we present a reference genome sequence of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica isolated from sheep, complementing previously reported isolate from cattle. A total of 14,642 genes were predicted from the 1.14 GB genome of the liver fluke. Comparative genomics indicated ...


Mait Cells Are Reduced In Frequency And Functionally Impaired In Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection: Potential Clinical Implications., Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Benjamin C Greenspun, Emanuela A S Costa, Aluisio C Segurado, Esper G Kallas, Douglas F Nixon, Fabio E Leal 2017 George Washington University

Mait Cells Are Reduced In Frequency And Functionally Impaired In Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection: Potential Clinical Implications., Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Benjamin C Greenspun, Emanuela A S Costa, Aluisio C Segurado, Esper G Kallas, Douglas F Nixon, Fabio E Leal

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HTLV-1 infection is associated with several inflammatory disorders, including the neurodegenerative condition HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is unclear why a minority of infected subjects develop HAM/TSP. The cellular immune response has been implicated in the development of inflammatory alterations in these patients; however the pathogenic mechanisms for disease progression remain unclear. Furthermore, HTLV-1-infected individuals have an increase incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, suggesting that immunological defect are associated with HTLV-1 infection. Evidence suggests an important role for Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in the early control of Mtb infection. Chronic viral infections like HIV ...


Severe Mortality Impact Of The 1957 Influenza Pandemic In Chile., Gerardo Chowell, Lone Simonsen, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jose Flores, Mark A Miller, Cécile Viboud 2016 George Washington University

Severe Mortality Impact Of The 1957 Influenza Pandemic In Chile., Gerardo Chowell, Lone Simonsen, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jose Flores, Mark A Miller, Cécile Viboud

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower-income settings.

METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile, including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city, and investigated risk factors for severe mortality impact across regions.

RESULTS: Chile exhibited two waves of excess mortality in winter 1957 and 1959 with a cumulative excess mortality rate of 12 per 10 000, and a ~10-fold mortality difference across provinces. High excess mortality rates were associated with high baseline mortality (R(2) =41.8%; P=.02), but not with latitude (P>.7 ...


Membrane-Active Epithelial Keratin 6a Fragments (Kamps) Are Unique Human Antimicrobial Peptides With A Non-Αβ Structure., Judy T.Y. Lee, Guangshun Wang, Yu Tong Tam, Connie Tam 2016 Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute

Membrane-Active Epithelial Keratin 6a Fragments (Kamps) Are Unique Human Antimicrobial Peptides With A Non-Αβ Structure., Judy T.Y. Lee, Guangshun Wang, Yu Tong Tam, Connie Tam

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Antibiotic resistance is a pressing global health problem that threatens millions of lives each year. Natural antimicrobial peptides and their synthetic derivatives, including peptoids and peptidomimetics, are promising candidates as novel antibiotics. Recently, the C-terminal glycine-rich fragments of human epithelial keratin 6A were found to have bactericidal and cytoprotective activities. Here, we used an improved 2-dimensional NMR method coupled with a new protocol for structural refinement by low temperature simulated annealing to characterize the solution structure of these kerain-derived antimicrobial peptides (KAMPs). Two specific KAMPs in complex with membrane mimicking sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles displayed amphipathic conformations with only ...


Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2016 Marshall University

Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Yanling Yan

Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the generation and maintenance of an obesity phenotype in both isolated adipocytes and intact animals. Because we had identified that the Na/K-ATPase can amplify oxidant signaling, we speculated that a peptide designed to inhibit this pathway, pNaKtide, might ameliorate an obesity phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we first performed studies in isolated murine preadipocytes (3T3L1 cells) and found that pNaKtide attenuated oxidant stress and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Complementary experiments in C57Bl6 mice ...


P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi SenGupta 2016 George Washington University

P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi Sengupta

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Chronic HIV infection is characterized by increased immune activation and immunosenescence. p16 INK4a (p16) is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase antagonist family that inhibits cellular proliferation, and its protein expression increases during normal chronological aging. However, some infectious diseases can increase the expression of this anti-proliferative protein, potentially accelerating immunological aging and dysfunction. In order to investigate the immunological aging in HIV patients, p16 protein expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, in T cell subsets in a cohort of chronically HIV-infected patients on and off ART as well as age-matched healthy controls. Results showed that untreated HIV-infected subjects exhibited ...


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