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Similac Special Care And Elecare Cause Neonatal Gut Injury In Mice, Karishma Rao, Heather L. Menden, Wei Yu, Inamul Haque, Susana Chavez-Bueno, Alain C. Cuna, Shahid Umar, Venkatesh Sampath 2020 CMH

Similac Special Care And Elecare Cause Neonatal Gut Injury In Mice, Karishma Rao, Heather L. Menden, Wei Yu, Inamul Haque, Susana Chavez-Bueno, Alain C. Cuna, Shahid Umar, Venkatesh Sampath

Research Days

No abstract provided.


Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes 2020 University of South Dakota

Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes

Honors Thesis

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were originally identified as two-component systems ensuring the stable inheritance of plasmids in bacterial populations. Recently, they have been identified on bacterial chromosomes where their functions remain mostly undefined. The par locus of E. faecalis plasmid pAD1 (parpAD1) was the first TA system defined in a Gram-positive bacterium and a homolog encoded on the E. faecalis chromosome (parEF0409) was later described. Related loci numbering in the hundreds have been identified throughout Gram-positive bacteria based on homology to the toxin of the system, Fst, and similarities in genetic organization and regulation. Despite their similar sequences, over-expression ...


How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current 2020 St. John Fisher College

How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Cancer is a disease that humans have been struggling to combat for centuries. It originates from the accumulation of several mutations over the life of a cell that causes it to evade cell death and multiply rapidly. It can affect any tissue in the body and can spread to other parts of the body through metastasis. Cancer comes in numerous shapes and sizes with different levels of aggression, growth speeds, and health risks. Many treatments for cancer exist today, three of the most popular being surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, which can be used in combinations with other treatments to ...


How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi k. Kamepalli MD,FIDSA,CWSP 2020 Regional Infectious diseases and infusion ctr,Inc

How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi K. Kamepalli Md,Fidsa,Cwsp

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Staphylococcus Aureus May Be Living In Your Nasal Cavity Right Now, Hannah Pedersen 2020 Concordia University St. Paul

Staphylococcus Aureus May Be Living In Your Nasal Cavity Right Now, Hannah Pedersen

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Staphylococcus aureus is a dual role bacterium and is able to live commensally in some patients, but can cause disease in others. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) causes life threatening disease in patients and can be very hard to treat since it is resistant to many antibiotics. In order for S. aureus to wreak havoc on the body, it must be able to have specific genes expressed to secrete toxins. These toxins are what causes the patients to get a wide variety of symptoms like boils, scalded skin, toxic shock syndrome, pneumonia or sepsis. This study tested eleven different isolates ...


Biological Sex Influences Susceptibility To Acinetobacter Baumannii Pneumonia In Mice, Jeremy Seto, Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker 2020 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Biological Sex Influences Susceptibility To Acinetobacter Baumannii Pneumonia In Mice, Jeremy Seto, Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker

Publications and Research

Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is an extremely versatile multidrug-resistant pathogen with a very high mortality rate; therefore, it has become crucial to understand the host response during its infection. Given the importance of mice for modeling infection and their role in preclinical drug development, equal emphasis should be placed on the use of both sexes. Through our studies using a murine model of acute pneumonia with A. baumannii, we observed that female mice were more susceptible to infection. Likewise, treatment of male mice with estradiol increased their susceptibility to infection. Analysis of the airway compartment revealed enhanced inflammation and reduced ...


Approaches To Overcome Flow Cytometry Limitations In The Analysis Of Cells From Veterinary Relevant Species, Julia Hunka, John T. Riley, Gudrun F. Debes 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Approaches To Overcome Flow Cytometry Limitations In The Analysis Of Cells From Veterinary Relevant Species, Julia Hunka, John T. Riley, Gudrun F. Debes

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for the multiparameter analysis of leukocyte subsets on the single cell level. Recent advances have greatly increased the number of fluorochrome-labeled antibodies in flow cytometry. In particular, an increase in available fluorochromes with distinct excitation and emission spectra combined with novel multicolor flow cytometers with several lasers have enhanced the generation of multidimensional expression data for leukocytes and other cell types. However, these advances have mainly benefited the analysis of human or mouse cell samples given the lack of reagents for most animal species. The flow cytometric analysis of important veterinary, agricultural, wildlife ...


The Impact Of Changes In Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Location And Ownership On The Practice Of Infectious Diseases, Michael Pentella, Melvin P. Weinstein, Susan E. Beekmann, Philip M. Polgreen, Richard T. Ellison III 2020 University of Iowa

The Impact Of Changes In Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Location And Ownership On The Practice Of Infectious Diseases, Michael Pentella, Melvin P. Weinstein, Susan E. Beekmann, Philip M. Polgreen, Richard T. Ellison Iii

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Publications

The number of onsite clinical microbiology laboratories in hospitals is decreasing, likely related to the business model for laboratory consolidation and labor shortages, and this impacts a variety of clinical practices including banking isolates for clinical or epidemiologic purposes. To determine the impact of these trends, infectious disease (ID) physicians were surveyed regarding their perceptions of offsite services. Clinical microbiology practices for retention of clinical isolates for future use were also determined. Surveys were sent to members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America's (IDSA) Emerging Infections Network (EIN). The EIN is a sentinel network of ID physicians who ...


A Decerebrating Female: A Rare Presentation Of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Due To Measles, Natasha Del Rio, Yordan Orive, Andres Sobrado, Ruben Cabrera, Ilde Manuel Lee, Troy Hoang, Sherard LaCaille, Ricardo Garcia-Rivera, Robert Hernandez 2020 HCA Healthcare

A Decerebrating Female: A Rare Presentation Of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Due To Measles, Natasha Del Rio, Yordan Orive, Andres Sobrado, Ruben Cabrera, Ilde Manuel Lee, Troy Hoang, Sherard Lacaille, Ricardo Garcia-Rivera, Robert Hernandez

Internal Medicine

No abstract provided.


The Interplay Of The Oral-Gut Microbiome With Chronic Inflammation In Rheumatoid Arthritis And Crohn's Disease, Anuradha Rampersaud 2020 Nova Southeastern University

The Interplay Of The Oral-Gut Microbiome With Chronic Inflammation In Rheumatoid Arthritis And Crohn's Disease, Anuradha Rampersaud

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

Abstract

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Crohn’s Disease (CD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases that share developmental and treatment similarities. RA’s symptoms include swelling, stiffness, and pain in synovial joints, corresponding with bone and cartilage destruction. CD’s symptoms include abdominal pain, bowel obstruction, bloating, diarrhea, and fever. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the links between these two diseases and propose future treatment and prevention targets. Current treatment for RA and CD aims to suppress inflammation by targeting its mediators. However, this review noted that there should be greater focus on resolving inflammation. Both diseases ...


Cryptococcal Antigen Testing In An Integrated Medical System: Eastern Wisconsin, Marianne Klumph, Brian Hoeynck, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2020 Aurora Health Care; Center for Urban Population Health

Cryptococcal Antigen Testing In An Integrated Medical System: Eastern Wisconsin, Marianne Klumph, Brian Hoeynck, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Cryptococcosis is a serious environmentally acquired endemic fungal infection commonly associated with immunocompromised hosts. Little is known regarding frequency or distribution in Wisconsin. We explored the geodemographic and clinical features of patients tested with cryptococcal antigen tests (CrAg) — previously shown to be >90% sensitive and >90% specific — within a large health care system located in eastern Wisconsin. To examine this, we retrospectively analyzed 1465 CrAg tests on 1211 unique patients (female: 50.2%; white race: 73.9%; mean age: 53.7 ± 16.5 years). At least one CrAg result was positive in 23 of 1211 patients (1.9%). From these ...


Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson

Honors Theses and Capstones

Overall, approximately 95 percent of reported cases of vector-borne disease were associated with ticks, making these the most medically important group of arthropods in the United States.1 Despite the prevalence of tick-borne infections, the process for the diagnosis of this condition is not well studied. This study aims to analyze data from a pool of 100 patients who underwent testing for tick-borne disease in the same institution in Dover, New Hampshire during the most recent peak tick season of 2019. Information utilized in this study included: patient age, sex, location of testing (inpatient versus outpatient), diagnostic testing methods used ...


Stochastic Expression Of Sae-Dependent Virulence Genes During Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Development Is Dependent On Saes, Elizabeth A. Delmain, Derek E. Moormeier, Jennifer L. Endres, Rebecca E. Hodges, Marat R. Sadykov, Alexander R. Horswill, Kenneth W. Bayles 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Stochastic Expression Of Sae-Dependent Virulence Genes During Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Development Is Dependent On Saes, Elizabeth A. Delmain, Derek E. Moormeier, Jennifer L. Endres, Rebecca E. Hodges, Marat R. Sadykov, Alexander R. Horswill, Kenneth W. Bayles

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

The intricate process of biofilm formation in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus involves distinct stages during which a complex mixture of matrix molecules is produced and modified throughout the developmental cycle. Early in biofilm development, a subpopulation of cells detaches from its substrate in an event termed “exodus” that is mediated by SaePQRS-dependent stochastic expression of a secreted staphylococcal nuclease, which degrades extracellular DNA within the matrix, causing the release of cells and subsequently allowing for the formation of metabolically heterogenous microcolonies. Since the SaePQRS regulatory system is involved in the transcriptional control of multiple S. aureus virulence factors, the ...


Fluorescent Sensor Arrays Can Predict And Quantify The Composition Of Multicomponent Bacterial Samples, Denis Svechkarev, Marat Sadykov, Lucas J. Houser, Kenneth W. Bayles, Aaron M. Mohs 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Fluorescent Sensor Arrays Can Predict And Quantify The Composition Of Multicomponent Bacterial Samples, Denis Svechkarev, Marat Sadykov, Lucas J. Houser, Kenneth W. Bayles, Aaron M. Mohs

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Fast and reliable identification of infectious disease agents is among the most important challenges for the healthcare system. The discrimination of individual components of mixed infections represents a particularly difficult task. In the current study we further expand the functionality of a ratiometric sensor array technology based on small-molecule environmentally-sensitive organic dyes, which can be successfully applied for the analysis of mixed bacterial samples. Using pattern recognition methods and data from pure bacterial species, we demonstrate that this approach can be used to quantify the composition of mixtures, as well as to predict their components with the accuracy of ~80 ...


Tlr2 And Caspase-1 Signaling Are Critical For Bacterial Containment But Not Clearance During Craniotomy-Associated Biofilm Infection, Amy L. Aldrich, Cortney E. Heim, Wen Shi, Rachel W. Fallet, Bin Duan, Tammy Kielian 2020 Moffitt Cancer Center

Tlr2 And Caspase-1 Signaling Are Critical For Bacterial Containment But Not Clearance During Craniotomy-Associated Biofilm Infection, Amy L. Aldrich, Cortney E. Heim, Wen Shi, Rachel W. Fallet, Bin Duan, Tammy Kielian

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

BACKGROUND: A craniotomy is required to access the brain for tumor resection or epilepsy treatment, and despite precautionary measures, infectious complications occur at a frequency of 1-3%. Approximately half of craniotomy infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) that forms a biofilm on the bone flap, which is recalcitrant to antibiotics. Our prior work in a mouse model of S. aureus craniotomy infection revealed a critical role for myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in bacterial containment and pro-inflammatory mediator production. Since numerous receptors utilize MyD88 as a signaling adaptor, the current study examined the importance of Toll-like receptor 2 ...


Monocyte Metabolic Reprogramming Promotes Pro-Inflammatory Activity And Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Clearance, Kelsey J. Yamada, Cortney E. Heim, Xinyuan Xi, Kuldeep S. Attri, Dezhen Wang, Wenting Zhang, Pankaj K. Singh, Tatiana K. Bronich, Tammy Kielian 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Monocyte Metabolic Reprogramming Promotes Pro-Inflammatory Activity And Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Clearance, Kelsey J. Yamada, Cortney E. Heim, Xinyuan Xi, Kuldeep S. Attri, Dezhen Wang, Wenting Zhang, Pankaj K. Singh, Tatiana K. Bronich, Tammy Kielian

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Biofilm-associated prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) cause significant morbidity due to their recalcitrance to immune-mediated clearance and antibiotics, with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) among the most prevalent pathogens. We previously demonstrated that S. aureus biofilm-associated monocytes are polarized to an anti-inflammatory phenotype and the adoptive transfer of pro-inflammatory macrophages attenuated biofilm burden, highlighting the critical role of monocyte/macrophage inflammatory status in dictating biofilm persistence. The inflammatory properties of leukocytes are linked to their metabolic state, and here we demonstrate that biofilm-associated monocytes exhibit a metabolic bias favoring oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and less aerobic glycolysis to facilitate their anti-inflammatory activity and ...


An Integrated Computational And Experimental Study To Investigate Staphylococcus Aureus Metabolism, Mohammad Mazharul Islam, Vinai Chittezham Thomas, Matthew Van Beek, Jong-Sam Ahn, Abdulelah A. Alqarzaee, Chunyi Zhou, Paul D. Fey, Kenneth W. Bayles, Rajib Saha 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Integrated Computational And Experimental Study To Investigate Staphylococcus Aureus Metabolism, Mohammad Mazharul Islam, Vinai Chittezham Thomas, Matthew Van Beek, Jong-Sam Ahn, Abdulelah A. Alqarzaee, Chunyi Zhou, Paul D. Fey, Kenneth W. Bayles, Rajib Saha

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Staphylococcus aureus is a metabolically versatile pathogen that colonizes nearly all organs of the human body. A detailed and comprehensive knowledge of staphylococcal metabolism is essential to understand its pathogenesis. To this end, we have reconstructed and experimentally validated an updated and enhanced genome-scale metabolic model of S. aureus USA300_FPR3757. The model combined genome annotation data, reaction stoichiometry, and regulation information from biochemical databases and previous strain-specific models. Reactions in the model were checked and fixed to ensure chemical balance and thermodynamic consistency. To further refine the model, growth assessment of 1920 nonessential mutants from the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library ...


Prevalence Of The Hypervirulent Nap1/Bi/027 Strain Of C. Difficile In Southwestern Virginia And Risk Factors Associated With Infection, Andrew O. Hanna, Anthony Baffoe-Bonnie, Shikha Vasudeva 2020 VCU Health System, Internal Medicine-Pediatrics

Prevalence Of The Hypervirulent Nap1/Bi/027 Strain Of C. Difficile In Southwestern Virginia And Risk Factors Associated With Infection, Andrew O. Hanna, Anthony Baffoe-Bonnie, Shikha Vasudeva

Graduate Medical Education (GME) Resident and Fellow Research Day Posters

C. difficile infection (CDI) incidence has increased over the last several decades. The BI/NAP1/027 ribotype was discovered in 2005 and has since been responsible for multiple outbreaks in the US and Canada. This subtype of C. Difficile is known to be more virulent in vivo and produce more severe disease. Limited regional data of the prevalence of this ribotype is available, which could help guide treatment. Using infection control data from a large regional hospital and a VA medical center, this study documented the prevalence of the 027 ribotype in Southwest Virginia. Patients were included if they were ...


Neutrophils Are Mediators Of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Progression In Bone, Diane L. Costanzo-Garvey, Tyler Keeley, Adam J. Case, Gabrielle F. Watson, Massar Alsamraae, Yangsheng Yu, Kaihong Su, Cortney E. Heim, Tammy Kielian, Colm Morrissey, Jeremy S Frieling, Leah M. Cook 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Neutrophils Are Mediators Of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Progression In Bone, Diane L. Costanzo-Garvey, Tyler Keeley, Adam J. Case, Gabrielle F. Watson, Massar Alsamraae, Yangsheng Yu, Kaihong Su, Cortney E. Heim, Tammy Kielian, Colm Morrissey, Jeremy S Frieling, Leah M. Cook

Journal Articles: Pathology and Microbiology

Bone metastatic prostate cancer (BM-PCa) significantly reduces overall patient survival and is currently incurable. Current standard immunotherapy showed promising results for PCa patients with metastatic, but less advanced, disease (i.e., fewer than 20 bone lesions) suggesting that PCa growth in bone contributes to response to immunotherapy. We found that: (1) PCa stimulates recruitment of neutrophils, the most abundant immune cell in bone, and (2) that neutrophils heavily infiltrate regions of prostate tumor in bone of BM-PCa patients. Based on these findings, we examined the impact of direct neutrophil-prostate cancer interactions on prostate cancer growth. Bone marrow neutrophils directly induced ...


Resistance To Ectromelia Virus Infection Requires Cgas In Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Which Can Be Bypassed With Cgamp Therapy., Eric B. Wong, Brian Montoya, Maria Ferez, Colby Stotesbury, Luis J. Sigal 2019 Thomas Jefferson University; GSK

Resistance To Ectromelia Virus Infection Requires Cgas In Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Which Can Be Bypassed With Cgamp Therapy., Eric B. Wong, Brian Montoya, Maria Ferez, Colby Stotesbury, Luis J. Sigal

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Cells sensing infection produce Type I interferons (IFN-I) to stimulate Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) that confer resistance to viruses. During lympho-hematogenous spread of the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the adaptor STING and the transcription factor IRF7 are required for IFN-I and ISG induction and resistance to ECTV. However, it is unknown which cells sense ECTV and which pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) upstream of STING is required for IFN-I and ISG induction. We found that cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), a DNA-sensing PRR, is required in bone marrow-derived (BMD) but not in other cells for IFN-I and ISG induction and for ...


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