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Trypanosoma Brucei Prmt1 Is A Nucleic Acid Binding Protein With A Role In Energy Metabolism And The Starvation Stress Response., Lucie Kafková, Chengjian Tu, Kyle L. Pazzo, Kyle P. Smith, Erik W. Debler, Kimberly S. Paul, Jun Qu, Laurie K. Read 2018 University at Buffalo, State University of New York

Trypanosoma Brucei Prmt1 Is A Nucleic Acid Binding Protein With A Role In Energy Metabolism And The Starvation Stress Response., Lucie Kafková, Chengjian Tu, Kyle L. Pazzo, Kyle P. Smith, Erik W. Debler, Kimberly S. Paul, Jun Qu, Laurie K. Read

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

In Trypanosoma brucei and related kinetoplastid parasites, transcription of protein coding genes is largely unregulated. Rather, mRNA binding proteins, which impact processes such as transcript stability and translation efficiency, are the predominant regulators of gene expression. Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that preferentially targets RNA binding proteins and is, therefore, likely to have a substantial impact on T. brucei biology. The data presented here demonstrate that cells depleted of T. brucei PRMT1 (TbPRMT1), a major type I protein arginine methyltransferase, exhibit decreased virulence in an animal model. To understand the basis of this phenotype, quantitative global proteomics was employed ...


Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey 2018 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus able to colonize a wide variety of environments. In the human host, P. aeruginosa can establish an acute infection or persist and create a chronic infection. P. aeruginosa is able to establish a niche and persist in human hosts by using a wide array of virulence factors used for: movement, killing host cells, and evading immune cells and antibiotics. Understanding virulence factors and their regulation has proved to be an important means of combating the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa as well as the ever-increasing threat of drug resistance. By targeting virulence factors ...


Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited By Recombinant Lassa-Rabies Vaccine Are Critical For Protection Against Lassa Fever., Tiago Abreu-Mota, Katie R. Hagen, Kurt Cooper, Peter B. Jahrling, Gene Tan, Christoph Wirblich, Reed F. Johnson, Matthias J. Schnell 2018 Thomas Jefferson University; University of Minho; Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães

Non-Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited By Recombinant Lassa-Rabies Vaccine Are Critical For Protection Against Lassa Fever., Tiago Abreu-Mota, Katie R. Hagen, Kurt Cooper, Peter B. Jahrling, Gene Tan, Christoph Wirblich, Reed F. Johnson, Matthias J. Schnell

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Lassa fever (LF), caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a viral hemorrhagic fever for which no approved vaccine or potent antiviral treatment is available. LF is a WHO priority disease and, together with rabies, a major health burden in West Africa. Here we present the development and characterization of an inactivated recombinant LASV and rabies vaccine candidate (LASSARAB) that expresses a codon-optimized LASV glycoprotein (coGPC) and is adjuvanted by a TLR-4 agonist (GLA-SE). LASSARAB elicits lasting humoral response against LASV and RABV in both mouse and guinea pig models, and it protects both guinea pigs and mice against LF. We ...


A Virus-Encoded Type I Interferon Decoy Receptor Enables Evasion Of Host Immunity Through Cell-Surface Binding., Bruno Hernáez, Juan Manuel Alonso-Lobo, Imma Montanuy, Cornelius Fischer, Sascha Sauer, Luis J. Sigal, Noemí Sevilla, Antonio Alcamí 2018 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

A Virus-Encoded Type I Interferon Decoy Receptor Enables Evasion Of Host Immunity Through Cell-Surface Binding., Bruno Hernáez, Juan Manuel Alonso-Lobo, Imma Montanuy, Cornelius Fischer, Sascha Sauer, Luis J. Sigal, Noemí Sevilla, Antonio Alcamí

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Soluble cytokine decoy receptors are potent immune modulatory reagents with therapeutic applications. Some virus-encoded secreted cytokine receptors interact with glycosaminoglycans expressed at the cell surface, but the biological significance of this activity in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we show the type I interferon binding protein (IFNα/βBP) encoded by vaccinia and ectromelia viruses requires of this cell binding activity to confer full virulence to these viruses and to retain immunomodulatory activity. Expression of a variant form of the IFNα/βBP that inhibits IFN activity, but does not interact with cell surface glycosaminoglycans, results in highly attenuated viruses with a ...


Sumo-Mediated Regulation Of Nlrp3 Modulates Inflammasome Activity., Rachael Barry, Sidonie Wicky John, Gianmaria Liccardi, Tencho Tenev, Isabel Jaco, Chih-Hong Chen, Justin Choi, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S Alnemri, Marcin Drag, Yuan Chen, Pascal Meier 2018 The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research; Imperial College London

Sumo-Mediated Regulation Of Nlrp3 Modulates Inflammasome Activity., Rachael Barry, Sidonie Wicky John, Gianmaria Liccardi, Tencho Tenev, Isabel Jaco, Chih-Hong Chen, Justin Choi, Paulina Kasperkiewicz, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S Alnemri, Marcin Drag, Yuan Chen, Pascal Meier

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to infection and tissue damage, and rapidly escalates the intensity of inflammation by activating interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and cell death by pyroptosis. How the NLRP3 inflammasome is negatively regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is suppressed by sumoylation. NLRP3 is sumoylated by the SUMO E3-ligase MAPL, and stimulation-dependent NLRP3 desumoylation by the SUMO-specific proteases SENP6 and SENP7 promotes NLRP3 activation. Defective NLRP3 sumoylation, either by NLRP3 mutation of SUMO acceptor lysines or depletion of MAPL, results in enhanced caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release. Conversely, depletion of SENP7 suppresses NLRP3-dependent ASC ...


Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

LSAMP Poster Presentations

Antibiotics can leave the host gut microbiome susceptible to Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile colonization and lethal toxin production. For instance, clindamycin-induced susceptibility to C. difficile infection (CDI) results in rapid fatality in hamster models, yet vancomycin has been shown to offer increased survival in hamsters challenged with C. difficile. We aim to develop an antibiotic treatment that will facilitate CDI susceptibility without prompt fatality in hamster models. An antibiotic regimen starting with a continuous vancomycin treatment along with a single clindamycin dosage is thought to reduce the major disruption in the indigenous gut microbiome and prevent clindamycin-induced death. Quantitative polymerase chain ...


Polymicrobial Sepsis Influences Nk-Cell-Mediated Immunity By Diminishing Nk-Cell-Intrinsic Receptor-Mediated Effector Responses To Viral Ligands Or Infections., Isaac J. Jensen, Christina S. Winborn, Micaela G. Fosdick, Peng Shao, Mikaela M. Tremblay, Qiang Shan, Sandeep Kumar Tripathy, Christopher M. Snyder, Hai-Hui Xue, Thomas S. Griffith, Jon C. Houtman, Vladimir P. Badovinac 2018 University of Iowa

Polymicrobial Sepsis Influences Nk-Cell-Mediated Immunity By Diminishing Nk-Cell-Intrinsic Receptor-Mediated Effector Responses To Viral Ligands Or Infections., Isaac J. Jensen, Christina S. Winborn, Micaela G. Fosdick, Peng Shao, Mikaela M. Tremblay, Qiang Shan, Sandeep Kumar Tripathy, Christopher M. Snyder, Hai-Hui Xue, Thomas S. Griffith, Jon C. Houtman, Vladimir P. Badovinac

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

The sepsis-induced cytokine storm leads to severe lymphopenia and reduced effector capacity of remaining/surviving cells. This results in a prolonged state of immunoparalysis, that contributes to enhanced morbidity/mortality of sepsis survivors upon secondary infection. The impact of sepsis on several lymphoid subsets has been characterized, yet its impact on NK-cells remains underappreciated-despite their critical role in controlling infection(s). Here, we observed numerical loss of NK-cells in multiple tissues after cecal-ligation-and-puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. To elucidate the sepsis-induced lesions in surviving NK-cells, transcriptional profiles were evaluated and indicated changes consistent with impaired effector functionality. A corresponding deficit in ...


Experimental Evaluation Of The Importance Of Colonization History In Early-Life Gut Microbiota Assembly, Inés Martínez, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Hatem Kittana, Hua Ding, Robert J. Schmaltz, Payal Joglekar, Roberto Jiménez Cardona, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven W. Kembel, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Jens C. Walther 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Experimental Evaluation Of The Importance Of Colonization History In Early-Life Gut Microbiota Assembly, Inés Martínez, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Hatem Kittana, Hua Ding, Robert J. Schmaltz, Payal Joglekar, Roberto Jiménez Cardona, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven W. Kembel, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Jens C. Walther

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The factors that govern assembly of the gut microbiota are insufficiently understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that inter-individual microbiota variation can arise solely from differences in the order and timing by which the gut is colonized early in life. Experiments in which mice were inoculated in sequence either with two complex seed communities or a cocktail of four bacterial strains and a seed community revealed that colonization order influenced both the outcome of community assembly and the ecological success of individual colonizers. Historical contingency and priority effects also occurred in Rag1-/- mice, suggesting that the adaptive immune system is ...


The Conquest Of Pus -- A History Of Bitumen, Creosote And Carbolic Acid, Charles T. Ambrose 2018 University of Kentucky

The Conquest Of Pus -- A History Of Bitumen, Creosote And Carbolic Acid, Charles T. Ambrose

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

In the Western world from antiquity on, open wounds were treated topically with petroleum-derived substances, such as bitumen, asphalt, pitch, and tar. The immediate aim was to stifle bleeding and ease pain but a potential benefit was preventing local corruption with pus formation. In the early 19th century, creosote was recovered from bitumen and found to reduce suppuration. Carbolic acid was later isolated from creosote and recognized as an underlying active agent. In the 1860s, carbolic acid was first employed by Jules Lemaire to treat local skin infections and later by Joseph Lister to prevent the suppuration in compound fractures ...


Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky 2018 George Washington University

Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV infection is associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), even in patients successfully treated with the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the relationship between HIV, cART, and pathogenesis of CVD remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected subjects receiving or not receiving cART. One hundred nine newly diagnosed HIV-infected subjects and one hundred nine uninfected age-matched controls (all males) without the history of CVD, hypertension, or diabetes were recruited into the present study. Cross-sectional analysis at baseline (BL) showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides ...


Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr. 2018 University of Louisville

Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr.

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Rna-Seq Reveals Transcriptomic Program Associated With Stemness In Taxane Resistant Prostate Cancer, Christina K. Cajigas-Du Ross 2018 Loma Linda University

Rna-Seq Reveals Transcriptomic Program Associated With Stemness In Taxane Resistant Prostate Cancer, Christina K. Cajigas-Du Ross

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

There is no cure for advanced prostate cancer (PCa), and taxane chemotherapy is the only treatment option once other therapies have failed. However, this is problematic since all patients eventually develop chemoresistance. Emerging treatments for advanced PCa have shown promise at the benchside, but clinical trials have not resulted in newly approved drugs due in part to redundant survival pathways utilized by prostate tumor cells to maintain therapy-resistance. Using RNAsequencing—an innovative approach for quantifying gene expression changes—this dissertation sought to elucidate chemoresistance-associated molecular pathways as a catalyst to develop new therapeutic targets. Results revealed a differential upregulation of ...


Introductory Medical Microbiology Ancillary Materials, Veronica Morin, Andrew Dawson 2018 Georgia Highlands College

Introductory Medical Microbiology Ancillary Materials, Veronica Morin, Andrew Dawson

Biological Sciences Ancillary Materials

This set of lecture materials, laboratory notes, and activities are ancillary materials created for use with OpenStax Microbiology. The materials were created under a Round Nine Textbook Transformation Grant.

Topics covered include:

  • The Cell
  • Prokaryotes
  • Eukaryotes
  • Acellular Pathogens
  • Microbial Metabolism
  • Microbial Growth
  • Biochemistry of the Bacterial Genome
  • Microbial Genetics
  • Microbial Growth
  • Antimicrobial Drugs
  • Pathogenicity
  • Epidemiology
  • Immune System


Introductory Medical Microbiology, Veronica Morin, Andrew Dawson 2018 Georgia Highlands College

Introductory Medical Microbiology, Veronica Morin, Andrew Dawson

Biological Sciences Grants Collections

This Grants Collection for Introductory Medical Microbiology was created under a Round Nine ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.

Affordable Learning Georgia Grants Collections are intended to provide faculty with the frameworks to quickly implement or revise the same materials as a Textbook Transformation Grants team, along with the aims and lessons learned from project teams during the implementation process.

Documents are in .pdf format, with a separate .docx (Word) version available for download. Each collection contains the following materials:

  • Linked Syllabus
  • Initial Proposal
  • Final Report


Retrograde Axonal Transport Of Rabies Virus Is Unaffected By Interferon Treatment But Blocked By Emetine Locally In Axons., Margaret A. MacGibeny, Orkide O. Koyuncu, Christoph Wirblich, Matthias J. Schnell, Lynn W. Enquist 2018 Princeton University

Retrograde Axonal Transport Of Rabies Virus Is Unaffected By Interferon Treatment But Blocked By Emetine Locally In Axons., Margaret A. Macgibeny, Orkide O. Koyuncu, Christoph Wirblich, Matthias J. Schnell, Lynn W. Enquist

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Neuroinvasive viruses, such as alpha herpesviruses (αHV) and rabies virus (RABV), initially infect peripheral tissues, followed by invasion of the innervating axon termini. Virus particles must undergo long distance retrograde axonal transport to reach the neuron cell bodies in the peripheral or central nervous system (PNS/CNS). How virus particles hijack the axonal transport machinery and how PNS axons respond to and regulate infection are questions of significant interest. To track individual virus particles, we constructed a recombinant RABV expressing a P-mCherry fusion protein, derived from the virulent CVS-N2c strain. We studied retrograde RABV transport in the presence or absence ...


Extracellular Release Of Virulence Factor Major Surface Protease Via Exosomes In Leishmania Infantum Promastigotes, Skye Marshall, Patrick H. Kelly, Brajesh K. Singh, R Marshall Pope, Peter Kim, Bayan Zhanbolat, Mary E. Wilson, Chaoqun Yao 2018 University of Iowa

Extracellular Release Of Virulence Factor Major Surface Protease Via Exosomes In Leishmania Infantum Promastigotes, Skye Marshall, Patrick H. Kelly, Brajesh K. Singh, R Marshall Pope, Peter Kim, Bayan Zhanbolat, Mary E. Wilson, Chaoqun Yao

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

BACKGROUND: The Leishmania spp. protozoa are introduced into humans through a sand fly blood meal, depositing the infectious metacyclic promastigote form of the parasite into human skin. Parasites enter a variety of host cells, although a majority are found in macrophages where they replicate intracellularly during chronic leishmaniasis. Symptomatic leishmaniasis causes considerable human morbidity in endemic regions. The Leishmania spp. evade host microbicidal mechanisms partially through virulence-associated proteins such as the major surface protease (MSP or GP63), to inactivate immune factors in the host environment. MSP is a metalloprotease encoded by a tandem array of genes belonging to three msp ...


Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart 2018 George Washington University

Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD transcription factor signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In this article, we review how TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activation lies at the intersection of proinflammatory signaling by immune receptors and anti-inflammatory signaling by TGF-β receptors. Additionally, we discuss the role of TGF-β in the mechanobiology of cancer. Understanding how TGF-β dampens proinflammatory responses and induces pro-survival mechanical signals throughout cancer development is critical for designing therapeutics that ...


Resistome Of Carbapenem- And Colistin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Clinical Isolates, Sara Lomonaco, Matthew A. Crawford, Christine Lascols, Ruth E. Timme, Kevin Anderson, David R. Hodge, Debra J. Fisher, Segaran P. Pillai, Stephen A. Morse, Erum Khan 2018 U.S. Food & Drug Administration

Resistome Of Carbapenem- And Colistin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Clinical Isolates, Sara Lomonaco, Matthew A. Crawford, Christine Lascols, Ruth E. Timme, Kevin Anderson, David R. Hodge, Debra J. Fisher, Segaran P. Pillai, Stephen A. Morse, Erum Khan

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemases, bacterial enzymes able to inactivate most β-lactam antibiotics, in Enterobacteriaceae is of increasing concern. The concurrent spread of resistance against colistin, an antibiotic of last resort, further compounds this challenge further. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can play a significant role in the rapid and accurate detection/characterization of existing and emergent resistance determinants, an essential aspect of public health surveillance and response activities to combat the spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. In the current study, WGS data was used to characterize the genomic content of antimicrobial resistance genes, including those encoding carbapenemases, in 10 multidrug-resistant ...


Characterizing The Role Of Fungal Shape In A Zebrafish Model Of Invasive Candidiasis, Brittany Seman 2018 University of Maine

Characterizing The Role Of Fungal Shape In A Zebrafish Model Of Invasive Candidiasis, Brittany Seman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Candida albicans is a common hospital-acquired fungal infection, and disseminated disease claims up to one-half of those afflicted. C. albicans has a unique ability to differentiate its shape during infection, and this differentiation is thought to be a major virulence factor during invasive infections. Each shape is proposed to have a specialized role: filaments drive tissue invasion and yeast mediate dissemination to the bloodstream. However, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses for two reasons. First, rigorous testing of shape-specific roles requires diverse strategies of shape modulation that restrict the possibility of manipulation-specific artifacts. Second, although connecting shape to ...


Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson 2018 University of Kentucky

Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The SpoVG protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds to specific sites of DNA and RNA. The bacterium regulates transcription of spoVG during the natural tick-mammal infectious cycle and in response to some changes in culture conditions. Bacterial levels of spoVG mRNA and SpoVG protein did not necessarily correlate, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms also control protein levels. Consistent with this, SpoVG binds to its own mRNA, adjacent to the ribosome-binding site. SpoVG also binds to two DNA sites in the glpFKD operon and to two RNA sites in glpFKD mRNA; that operon encodes genes necessary for glycerol catabolism ...


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