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Synergy Of Two Low-Affinity Nlss Determines The High Avidity Of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Np For Human Importin Α Isoforms., Wei Wu, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Tyler J Florio, Lixin Zhou, Nhan L.T. Nguyen, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Gino Cingolani, Nelly Panté 2017 University of British Columbia

Synergy Of Two Low-Affinity Nlss Determines The High Avidity Of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Np For Human Importin Α Isoforms., Wei Wu, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Tyler J Florio, Lixin Zhou, Nhan L.T. Nguyen, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Gino Cingolani, Nelly Panté

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is an essential multifunctional protein that encapsidates the viral genome and functions as an adapter between the virus and the host cell machinery. NPs from all strains of influenza A viruses contain two nuclear localization signals (NLSs): a well-studied monopartite NLS1 and a less-characterized NLS2, thought to be bipartite. Through site-directed mutagenesis and functional analysis, we found that NLS2 is also monopartite and is indispensable for viral infection. Atomic structures of importin α bound to two variants of NLS2 revealed NLS2 primarily binds the major-NLS binding site of importin α, unlike NLS1 that associates ...


Taking Control: Reorganization Of The Host Cytoskeleton By Chlamydia., Jordan Wesolowski, Fabienne Paumet 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Taking Control: Reorganization Of The Host Cytoskeleton By Chlamydia., Jordan Wesolowski, Fabienne Paumet

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Both actin and microtubules are major cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells that participate in many cellular processes, including cell division and motility, vesicle and organelle movement, and the maintenance of cell shape. Inside its host cell, the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates the cytoskeleton to promote its survival and enhance its pathogenicity. In particular, Chlamydia induces the drastic rearrangement of both actin and microtubules, which is vital for its entry, inclusion structure and development, and host cell exit. As significant progress in Chlamydia genetics has greatly enhanced our understanding of how this pathogen co-opts the host cytoskeleton, we will discuss ...


Suppression Of Mrnas Encoding Cd63 Family Tetraspanins From The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis Viverrini Results In Distinct Tegument Phenotypes., Sujittra Chaiyadet, Watchara Krueajampa, Wiphawi Hipkaeo, Yada Plosan, Supawadee Piratae, Javier Sotillo, Michael Smout, Banchob Sripa, Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas, Thewarach Laha 2017 George Washington University

Suppression Of Mrnas Encoding Cd63 Family Tetraspanins From The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis Viverrini Results In Distinct Tegument Phenotypes., Sujittra Chaiyadet, Watchara Krueajampa, Wiphawi Hipkaeo, Yada Plosan, Supawadee Piratae, Javier Sotillo, Michael Smout, Banchob Sripa, Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas, Thewarach Laha

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini infects 10 million people in Southeast Asia and causes cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Fluke secreted and tegumental proteins contribute to the generation of a tumorigenic environment and are targets for drug and vaccine-based control measures. Herein, we identified two tetraspanins belonging to the CD63 family (Ov-TSP-2 and Ov-TSP-3) that are abundantly expressed in the tegument proteome of O. viverrini. Ov-tsp-2 and tsp-3 transcripts were detected in all developmental stages of O. viverrini. Protein fragments corresponding to the large extracellular loop (LEL) of each TSP were produced in recombinant form and antibodies were raised in rabbits. Ov-TSP-2 and ...


A Coal Miner With Weakness, Fatigue, Nausea, Fever, Chills, Night Sweats And Dyspnea, Larry Nichols 2017 Mercer University School of Medicine

A Coal Miner With Weakness, Fatigue, Nausea, Fever, Chills, Night Sweats And Dyspnea, Larry Nichols

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Delayed or missed diagnoses are a constant hazard in primary care. This is the case report of a 51-year-old coal miner, who presented as an ambulatory outpatient on a Friday with weakness, fatigue, nausea, fever, chills, night sweats and dyspnea. Chest x-ray on Saturday showed pneumonia and pleural effusion, while blood testing showed renal failure, but these results were not known by his physician until Monday, when he was hospitalized with severe sepsis due to fatal Austrian syndrome of pneumococcal pneumonia, endocarditis and meningitis. Analysis of the delay of diagnosis in this case suggests the possibility that a weekend effect ...


Human Herpesvirus 8 Infects And Replicates In Langerhans Cells And Interstitial Dermal Dendritic Cells And Impairs Their Function., Giovanna Rappocciolo, Mariel Jais, Paolo A Piazza, Diana C DeLucia, Frank J Jenkins, Charles R Rinaldo 2017 George Washington University

Human Herpesvirus 8 Infects And Replicates In Langerhans Cells And Interstitial Dermal Dendritic Cells And Impairs Their Function., Giovanna Rappocciolo, Mariel Jais, Paolo A Piazza, Diana C Delucia, Frank J Jenkins, Charles R Rinaldo

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The predominant types of dendritic cells (DC) in the skin and mucosa are Langerhans cells (LC) and interstitial dermal DC (iDDC). LC and iDDC process cutaneous antigens and migrate out of the skin and mucosa to the draining lymph nodes to present antigens to T and B cells. Because of the strategic location of LC and iDDC and the ability of these cells to capture and process pathogens, we hypothesized that they could be infected with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (Kaposi's sarcoma [KS]-associated herpesvirus) and have an important role in the development of KS. We have previously shown ...


The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins

Tracy Collins, Ph.D.

Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised individuals such as cystic fibrosis patients. B. cepacia infections are typically characterized by the formation of complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Because B. cepacia biofilms are difficult to eradicate using antibiotics, it is important to pursue alternative treatment methods. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a type of therapy that uses light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen to elicit cell death through the production of reactive oxygen species. PDT has been shown in previous studies to be successful in killing both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we ...


Evaluating A Preoperative Protocol That Includes Magnetic Resonance Imaging For Lymph Node Metastasis In The Cholangiocarcinoma Screening And Care Program (Cascap) In Thailand., Metha Songthamwat, Nittaya Chamadol, Narong Khuntikeo, Jadsada Thinkhamrop, Supinda Koonmee, Nathaphop Chaichaya, Jeffrey Bethony, Bandit Thinkhamrop 2017 George Washington University

Evaluating A Preoperative Protocol That Includes Magnetic Resonance Imaging For Lymph Node Metastasis In The Cholangiocarcinoma Screening And Care Program (Cascap) In Thailand., Metha Songthamwat, Nittaya Chamadol, Narong Khuntikeo, Jadsada Thinkhamrop, Supinda Koonmee, Nathaphop Chaichaya, Jeffrey Bethony, Bandit Thinkhamrop

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Treatment planning especially liver resection in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) depends on the extension of tumor and lymph node metastasis which is included as a key criterion for operability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a rapid and powerful tool for the detection of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and in the current manuscript is assessed as a critical tool in the preoperative protocol for liver resection for treatment of CCA. However, the accuracy of MRI to detect LNM from CCA had yet to be comprehensively evaluated.

METHODS: The accuracy of MRI to detect LNM was assessed in a cohort of individuals with ...


T-Cell Responses Targeting Hiv Nef Uniquely Correlate With Infected Cell Frequencies After Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy., Allison S Thomas, Kimberley L Jones, Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K McMahon, Joshua C Cyktor, Dora Chan, Szu-Han Huang, Ronald Truong, Alberto Bosque, Amanda B Macedo, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Joseph J Eron, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Samuel Simmens, Bruce D Walker, John W Mellors, R Brad Jones 2017 George Washington University

T-Cell Responses Targeting Hiv Nef Uniquely Correlate With Infected Cell Frequencies After Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy., Allison S Thomas, Kimberley L Jones, Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K Mcmahon, Joshua C Cyktor, Dora Chan, Szu-Han Huang, Ronald Truong, Alberto Bosque, Amanda B Macedo, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Joseph J Eron, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Samuel Simmens, Bruce D Walker, John W Mellors, R Brad Jones

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses limit viral replication in untreated infection. After the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), these responses decay and the infected cell population that remains is commonly considered to be invisible to T-cells. We hypothesized that HIV antigen recognition may persist in ART-treated individuals due to low-level or episodic protein expression. We posited that if persistent recognition were occurring it would be preferentially directed against the early HIV gene products Nef, Tat, and Rev as compared to late gene products, such as Gag, Pol, and Env, which have higher barriers to expression. Using a primary cell model of ...


Bacterial Development Of Resistance To Botanical Antimicrobials, Guillermo Ruiz, Tiffany Turner, Erik Nelson, Linda Sparks, Jeffrey Langland 2017 Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine

Bacterial Development Of Resistance To Botanical Antimicrobials, Guillermo Ruiz, Tiffany Turner, Erik Nelson, Linda Sparks, Jeffrey Langland

Journal of Evolution and Health

In recent years, increased numbers of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria have opportunistically and selectively expanded while the pharmaceutical discovery of new antimicrobial therapies has been lacking to combat this growing threat. Like traditional antibiotics, botanicals have historically been used to treat bacterial infections, but it remains unclear if bacteria may have the capability to develop resistance to these therapeutic botanicals. It is believed that one advantage that may prevent or slow resistance to botanical antimicrobials is the presumed presence of the multiple endogenous substances contained within a plant that may act synergistically to inhibit microbial growth. This study examined the ...


Anti-Herv-K (Hml-2) Capsid Antibody Responses In Hiv Elite Controllers., Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud 2017 George Washington University

Anti-Herv-K (Hml-2) Capsid Antibody Responses In Hiv Elite Controllers., Miguel De Mulder, Devi Sengupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. During HIV infection, HERV-K (HML-2) specific mRNA transcripts and viral proteins can be detected. In this study, we aimed to understand the antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag in the context of HIV-1 infection.

Results

We developed an ELISA assay using either recombinant protein or 164 redundant “15mer” HERV-K (HML-2) Gag peptides to test sera for antibody reactivity. We identified a total of eight potential HERV-K (HML-2) Gag immunogenic domains: two on ...


Stromal Cyclin D1 Promotes Heterotypic Immune Signaling And Breast Cancer Growth, Timothy G. Pestell, Xuanmao Jiao, Mukesh Kumar, Amy R. Peck, Marco Prisco, Shengqiong Deng, Zhiping Li, Adam Ertel, Matthew C. Casimiro, Xiaoming Ju, Agnese Di Rocco, Gabriele Di Sante, Sanjay Katiyar, Alison Shupp, Michael P. Lisanti, Pooja Jain, Kongming Wu, Hallgeir Rui, Douglas Craig Hooper, Zuoren Yu, Aaron R. Goldman, David W. Speicher, Lisa Laury-Kleintop, Richard G. Pestell 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Stromal Cyclin D1 Promotes Heterotypic Immune Signaling And Breast Cancer Growth, Timothy G. Pestell, Xuanmao Jiao, Mukesh Kumar, Amy R. Peck, Marco Prisco, Shengqiong Deng, Zhiping Li, Adam Ertel, Matthew C. Casimiro, Xiaoming Ju, Agnese Di Rocco, Gabriele Di Sante, Sanjay Katiyar, Alison Shupp, Michael P. Lisanti, Pooja Jain, Kongming Wu, Hallgeir Rui, Douglas Craig Hooper, Zuoren Yu, Aaron R. Goldman, David W. Speicher, Lisa Laury-Kleintop, Richard G. Pestell

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

The cyclin D1 gene encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that drives cell autonomous cell cycle progression and proliferation. Herein we show cyclin D1 abundance is increased > 30-fold in the stromal fibroblasts of patients with invasive breast cancer, associated with poor outcome. Cyclin D1 transformed hTERT human fibroblast to a cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype. Stromal fibroblast expression of cyclin D1 (cyclin D1Stroma) in vivo, enhanced breast epithelial cancer tumor growth, restrained apoptosis, and increased autophagy. Cyclin D1Stroma had profound effects on the breast tumor microenvironment increasing the recruitment of F4/80+ and CD11b+ macrophages and increasing angiogenesis. Cyclin ...


Randomized Vitamin D Supplementation In Vitamin D Deficient Obese Children From West Virginia, Yoram Elitsur MD, Deborah L. Preston 2017 Marshall University

Randomized Vitamin D Supplementation In Vitamin D Deficient Obese Children From West Virginia, Yoram Elitsur Md, Deborah L. Preston

Yoram Elitsur

Objective: Vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency is a very common problem in obese children, but clinical guidelines for maintenance or treatment have not been published for this population. The aim was to assess the benefit of 2 months Vit D supplementation given to deficient obese children from WV.

Design: Vit D deficient obese children were prospectively recruited. Exclusion criteria included <8 years, and medical conditions that may affect Vit D homeostasis. Participants were randomized into two supplement groups: 5,000IU/day (Group A) or 50,000IU/week (Group B). Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured at baseline and post-treatment.

Results: Sixty obese children were screened of whom 39 (65%) were deficient (<20ng/ml). Of the 39 recruited, 26 completed the study. The mean serum 25(OH)D after 2 months treatment were significantly higher in Group B (p= 0.02), but most reached normal levels (>30ng/ml).

Conclusions: Two months Vit D supplementation (5000IU/day or 50,000IU/week) was sufficient to normalize 25(OH)D levels in Vit D deficient obese West ...


Helicobacter-Pylori Negative Gastritis In Children—A New Clinical Enigma, Yoram Elitsur, Deborah L. Preston 2017 Marshall University

Helicobacter-Pylori Negative Gastritis In Children—A New Clinical Enigma, Yoram Elitsur, Deborah L. Preston

Yoram Elitsur

The decrease in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in children in the world gave rise to a new pathological finding termed as Hp-negative gastritis. Unfortunately, the term “Hp-negative gastritis” has not been identified as a pathological process and has the status of a “second cousin”; in most publications it was never mentioned as a subject to be dealt with, but was “left over” data that was never the topic of the manuscripts’ discussions. Only recently has the topic captured the attention of the pathologists who described this phenomenon in adults, yet the pathological and/or clinical spectrum or ...


Na/K-Atpase Signaling And Salt Sensitivity: The Role Of Oxidative Stress, Jiang Liu, Yanling Yan, Ying Nie 2017 Marshall University

Na/K-Atpase Signaling And Salt Sensitivity: The Role Of Oxidative Stress, Jiang Liu, Yanling Yan, Ying Nie

Yanling Yan

Other than genetic regulation of salt sensitivity of blood pressure, many factors have been shown to regulate renal sodium handling which contributes to long-term blood pressure regulation and have been extensively reviewed. Here we present our progress on the Na/K-ATPase signaling mediated sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules, from cardiotonic steroids-mediated to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling that contributes to experimental salt sensitivity.


Na/K-Atpase Signaling And Salt Sensitivity: The Role Of Oxidative Stress, Jiang Liu, Yanling Yan, Ying Nie 2017 Marshall University

Na/K-Atpase Signaling And Salt Sensitivity: The Role Of Oxidative Stress, Jiang Liu, Yanling Yan, Ying Nie

Jiang Liu

Other than genetic regulation of salt sensitivity of blood pressure, many factors have been shown to regulate renal sodium handling which contributes to long-term blood pressure regulation and have been extensively reviewed. Here we present our progress on the Na/K-ATPase signaling mediated sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules, from cardiotonic steroids-mediated to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling that contributes to experimental salt sensitivity.


Revisiting Neutrophil Responses To Toll-Like Receptor 4 : Influence Of Ligand Structures And Cellular Environments., Shuvasree Sengupta 2017 University of Louisville

Revisiting Neutrophil Responses To Toll-Like Receptor 4 : Influence Of Ligand Structures And Cellular Environments., Shuvasree Sengupta

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neutrophils respond to bacterial LPS through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which activates or potentiates immune defensive functions and prolongs cell survival. Activation of TLR4 signaling in neutrophils is beneficial for effective clearance of LPS-bearing Gram-negative bacteria, but may also drive aberrant inflammation if not stringently regulated. The regulatory processes by which neutrophil functions are calibrated to respond appropriately to different LPS-bearing bacteria are incompletely understood. Described here are investigations that reveal an unexpected sensitivity of TLR4 in neutrophils to small changes in LPS structure typical of various Gram-negative bacteria, including those that are dangerously virulent (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica ...


Helminth Infection-Induced Malignancy., Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas 2017 George Washington University

Helminth Infection-Induced Malignancy., Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Infectious diseases cause more than 20% of cancers in the developing world [1]. About a dozen pathogens including Epstein-Barr virus and human T cell lymphocytotropic virus 1 are among the well-known examples. In addition, infection with several trematodes, which are eukaryotes, can cause malignancy. The International Agency for Research on Cancer categorizes infection with the fish-borne trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium as Group 1 biological carcinogens [2]. In addition to parasitism directly damaging development, health, and prosperity of infected populations, infection with these helminths leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (bile duct cancer) and squamous ...


Parasite Microbiome Project: Systematic Investigation Of Microbiome Dynamics Within And Across Parasite-Host Interactions., Nolwenn M Dheilly, Daniel Bolnick, Seth Bordenstein, Paul J Brindley, Cédric Figuères, Edward C Holmes, Joaquín Martínez Martínez, Anna J Phillips, Robert Poulin, Karyna Rosario 2017 George Washington University

Parasite Microbiome Project: Systematic Investigation Of Microbiome Dynamics Within And Across Parasite-Host Interactions., Nolwenn M Dheilly, Daniel Bolnick, Seth Bordenstein, Paul J Brindley, Cédric Figuères, Edward C Holmes, Joaquín Martínez Martínez, Anna J Phillips, Robert Poulin, Karyna Rosario

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Understanding how microbiomes affect host resistance, parasite virulence, and parasite-associated diseases requires a collaborative effort between parasitologists, microbial ecologists, virologists, and immunologists. We hereby propose the Parasite Microbiome Project to bring together researchers with complementary expertise and to study the role of microbes in host-parasite interactions. Data from the Parasite Microbiome Project will help identify the mechanisms driving microbiome variation in parasites and infected hosts and how that variation is associated with the ecology and evolution of parasites and their disease outcomes. This is a call to arms to prevent fragmented research endeavors, encourage best practices in experimental approaches, and ...


Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat MD, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah PhD 2017 Marshall University

Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat Md, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah Phd

Darshana Shah

Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.


Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat MD, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah PhD 2017 Marshall University

Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat Md, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah Phd

Yousef R. Shweihat

Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.


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