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Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey 2018 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus able to colonize a wide variety of environments. In the human host, P. aeruginosa can establish an acute infection or persist and create a chronic infection. P. aeruginosa is able to establish a niche and persist in human hosts by using a wide array of virulence factors used for: movement, killing host cells, and evading immune cells and antibiotics. Understanding virulence factors and their regulation has proved to be an important means of combating the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa as well as the ever-increasing threat of drug resistance. By targeting virulence factors ...


Isolation Of Cryptococcus-Like Yeast From Natural Environments, Sarah L. Ward, Brian Hoeynck, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2018 Aurora Health Care

Isolation Of Cryptococcus-Like Yeast From Natural Environments, Sarah L. Ward, Brian Hoeynck, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Cryptococcus (C. gatti and C. neoformans) causes meningitis and pneumonia in immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts, and several cases are diagnosed at Aurora Health Care each year. Cryptococcus is infrequently isolated from the environment, despite being the presumed infection source, with no known isolations in Wisconsin since 1964. C. gatti-endemic areas are expanding worldwide, and it is commonly isolated from tree hollows.

Purpose: To isolate pathogenic Cryptococcus from Wisconsin natural sites.

Methods: Samples were obtained from tree structures and natural and built surfaces in northern and southern Wisconsin (103 samples) and northeast Ohio (8) from April 2017 to December ...


Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

LSAMP Poster Presentations

Antibiotics can leave the host gut microbiome susceptible to Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile colonization and lethal toxin production. For instance, clindamycin-induced susceptibility to C. difficile infection (CDI) results in rapid fatality in hamster models, yet vancomycin has been shown to offer increased survival in hamsters challenged with C. difficile. We aim to develop an antibiotic treatment that will facilitate CDI susceptibility without prompt fatality in hamster models. An antibiotic regimen starting with a continuous vancomycin treatment along with a single clindamycin dosage is thought to reduce the major disruption in the indigenous gut microbiome and prevent clindamycin-induced death. Quantitative polymerase chain ...


Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky 2018 George Washington University

Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV infection is associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), even in patients successfully treated with the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the relationship between HIV, cART, and pathogenesis of CVD remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected subjects receiving or not receiving cART. One hundred nine newly diagnosed HIV-infected subjects and one hundred nine uninfected age-matched controls (all males) without the history of CVD, hypertension, or diabetes were recruited into the present study. Cross-sectional analysis at baseline (BL) showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides ...


Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr. 2018 University of Louisville

Coping With Chronic Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Diagnosis To Therapy, Veronica Corcino, Leslie Beavin, Shengli Lu, Ashley Ross, Carmen V. Sciortino Jr.

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Introductory Medical Microbiology Ancillary Materials, Veronica Morin, Andrew Dawson 2018 Georgia Highlands College

Introductory Medical Microbiology Ancillary Materials, Veronica Morin, Andrew Dawson

Biological Sciences Ancillary Materials

This set of lecture materials, laboratory notes, and activities are ancillary materials created for use with OpenStax Microbiology. The materials were created under a Round Nine Textbook Transformation Grant.

Topics covered include:

  • The Cell
  • Prokaryotes
  • Eukaryotes
  • Acellular Pathogens
  • Microbial Metabolism
  • Microbial Growth
  • Biochemistry of the Bacterial Genome
  • Microbial Genetics
  • Microbial Growth
  • Antimicrobial Drugs
  • Pathogenicity
  • Epidemiology
  • Immune System


Introductory Medical Microbiology, Veronica Morin, Andrew Dawson 2018 Georgia Highlands College

Introductory Medical Microbiology, Veronica Morin, Andrew Dawson

Biological Sciences Grants Collections

This Grants Collection for Introductory Medical Microbiology was created under a Round Nine ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.

Affordable Learning Georgia Grants Collections are intended to provide faculty with the frameworks to quickly implement or revise the same materials as a Textbook Transformation Grants team, along with the aims and lessons learned from project teams during the implementation process.

Documents are in .pdf format, with a separate .docx (Word) version available for download. Each collection contains the following materials:

  • Linked Syllabus
  • Initial Proposal
  • Final Report


Retrograde Axonal Transport Of Rabies Virus Is Unaffected By Interferon Treatment But Blocked By Emetine Locally In Axons., Margaret A. MacGibeny, Orkide O. Koyuncu, Christoph Wirblich, Matthias J. Schnell, Lynn W. Enquist 2018 Princeton University

Retrograde Axonal Transport Of Rabies Virus Is Unaffected By Interferon Treatment But Blocked By Emetine Locally In Axons., Margaret A. Macgibeny, Orkide O. Koyuncu, Christoph Wirblich, Matthias J. Schnell, Lynn W. Enquist

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Neuroinvasive viruses, such as alpha herpesviruses (αHV) and rabies virus (RABV), initially infect peripheral tissues, followed by invasion of the innervating axon termini. Virus particles must undergo long distance retrograde axonal transport to reach the neuron cell bodies in the peripheral or central nervous system (PNS/CNS). How virus particles hijack the axonal transport machinery and how PNS axons respond to and regulate infection are questions of significant interest. To track individual virus particles, we constructed a recombinant RABV expressing a P-mCherry fusion protein, derived from the virulent CVS-N2c strain. We studied retrograde RABV transport in the presence or absence ...


Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart 2018 George Washington University

Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD transcription factor signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In this article, we review how TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activation lies at the intersection of proinflammatory signaling by immune receptors and anti-inflammatory signaling by TGF-β receptors. Additionally, we discuss the role of TGF-β in the mechanobiology of cancer. Understanding how TGF-β dampens proinflammatory responses and induces pro-survival mechanical signals throughout cancer development is critical for designing therapeutics that ...


Resistome Of Carbapenem- And Colistin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Clinical Isolates, Sara Lomonaco, Matthew A. Crawford, Christine Lascols, Ruth E. Timme, Kevin Anderson, David R. Hodge, Debra J. Fisher, Segaran P. Pillai, Stephen A. Morse, Erum Khan 2018 U.S. Food & Drug Administration

Resistome Of Carbapenem- And Colistin-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Clinical Isolates, Sara Lomonaco, Matthew A. Crawford, Christine Lascols, Ruth E. Timme, Kevin Anderson, David R. Hodge, Debra J. Fisher, Segaran P. Pillai, Stephen A. Morse, Erum Khan

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemases, bacterial enzymes able to inactivate most β-lactam antibiotics, in Enterobacteriaceae is of increasing concern. The concurrent spread of resistance against colistin, an antibiotic of last resort, further compounds this challenge further. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can play a significant role in the rapid and accurate detection/characterization of existing and emergent resistance determinants, an essential aspect of public health surveillance and response activities to combat the spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. In the current study, WGS data was used to characterize the genomic content of antimicrobial resistance genes, including those encoding carbapenemases, in 10 multidrug-resistant ...


Characterizing The Role Of Fungal Shape In A Zebrafish Model Of Invasive Candidiasis, Brittany Seman 2018 University of Maine

Characterizing The Role Of Fungal Shape In A Zebrafish Model Of Invasive Candidiasis, Brittany Seman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Candida albicans is a common hospital-acquired fungal infection, and disseminated disease claims up to one-half of those afflicted. C. albicans has a unique ability to differentiate its shape during infection, and this differentiation is thought to be a major virulence factor during invasive infections. Each shape is proposed to have a specialized role: filaments drive tissue invasion and yeast mediate dissemination to the bloodstream. However, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses for two reasons. First, rigorous testing of shape-specific roles requires diverse strategies of shape modulation that restrict the possibility of manipulation-specific artifacts. Second, although connecting shape to ...


Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty 2018 Nazareth College of Rochester

Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty

#History: A Journal of Student Research

At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were ...


Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson 2018 University of Kentucky

Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The SpoVG protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds to specific sites of DNA and RNA. The bacterium regulates transcription of spoVG during the natural tick-mammal infectious cycle and in response to some changes in culture conditions. Bacterial levels of spoVG mRNA and SpoVG protein did not necessarily correlate, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms also control protein levels. Consistent with this, SpoVG binds to its own mRNA, adjacent to the ribosome-binding site. SpoVG also binds to two DNA sites in the glpFKD operon and to two RNA sites in glpFKD mRNA; that operon encodes genes necessary for glycerol catabolism ...


Samhd1 Phosphorylation Coordinates The Anti-Hiv-1 Response By Diverse Interferons And Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition., Matthew A Szaniawski, Adam M Spivak, James E Cox, Jonathan L Catrow, Timothy Hanley, Elizabeth S C P Williams, Michel J Tremblay, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles 2018 George Washington University

Samhd1 Phosphorylation Coordinates The Anti-Hiv-1 Response By Diverse Interferons And Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition., Matthew A Szaniawski, Adam M Spivak, James E Cox, Jonathan L Catrow, Timothy Hanley, Elizabeth S C P Williams, Michel J Tremblay, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Macrophages are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection despite abundant expression of antiviral proteins. Perhaps the most important antiviral protein is the restriction factor sterile alpha motif domain and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1). We investigated the role of SAMHD1 and its phospho-dependent regulation in the context of HIV-1 infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and the ability of various interferons (IFNs) and pharmacologic agents to modulate SAMHD1. Here we show that stimulation by type I, type II, and to a lesser degree, type III interferons share activation of SAMHD1 via dephosphorylation at threonine-592 as ...


Allatostatin C Modulates Nociception And Immunity In Drosophila., Nathaniel D Bachtel, Gary A Hovsepian, Douglas F Nixon, Ioannis Eleftherianos 2018 George Washington University

Allatostatin C Modulates Nociception And Immunity In Drosophila., Nathaniel D Bachtel, Gary A Hovsepian, Douglas F Nixon, Ioannis Eleftherianos

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Bacterial induced inflammatory responses cause pain through direct activation of nociceptive neurons, and the ablation of these neurons leads to increased immune infiltration. In this study, we investigated nociceptive-immune interactions in Drosophila and the role these interactions play during pathogenic bacterial infection. After bacterial infection, we found robust upregulation of ligand-gated ion channels and allatostatin receptors involved in nociception, which potentially leads to hyperalgesia. We further found that Allatostatin-C Receptor 2 (AstC-R2) plays a crucial role in host survival during infection with the pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. Upon examination of immune signaling in AstC-R2 deficient mutants, we demonstrated that Allatostatin-C ...


The Small Rna Complement Of Adult Schistosoma Haematobium., Andreas J Stroehlein, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Ross S Hall, Aaron R Jex, Bonnie L Webster, David Rollinson, Paul J Brindley, Robin B Gasser 2018 George Washington University

The Small Rna Complement Of Adult Schistosoma Haematobium., Andreas J Stroehlein, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Ross S Hall, Aaron R Jex, Bonnie L Webster, David Rollinson, Paul J Brindley, Robin B Gasser

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis-a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Studies of schistosome genomes have improved our understanding of the molecular biology of flatworms, but most of them have focused largely on protein-coding genes. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been explored in selected schistosome species and are suggested to play essential roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, and in modulating flatworm-host interactions. However, genome-wide small RNA data are currently lacking for key schistosomes including Schistosoma haematobium-the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis of humans.

METHODOLOGY: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other ...


Inflammasome Independent Leukotriene-B4 Production Drives Crystalline Silica Induced Sterile Inflammation., Bindu Hegde 2018 University of Louisville

Inflammasome Independent Leukotriene-B4 Production Drives Crystalline Silica Induced Sterile Inflammation., Bindu Hegde

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Silicosis is an irreversible lung inflammatory disease caused by chronic exposure to crystalline silica (CS) and is one of the most prevalent occupational diseases worldwide. Lipid chemoattractant Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) plays an important role in neutrophilic inflammation that drives silicosis and promotes lung cancer. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that CS-induced neutrophilic inflammation and lung tumor burden in K-rasLA1 mice is abrogated in the LTB4-receptor deficient mice. Another pathway whose importance is well studied in the progression of silicosis is the Nalp3 inflammasome pathway. Studies have shown inflammasome- dependent IL-1b to be important ...


Nutritional Virulence Of Legionella Pneumophila., Ashley M. Best 2018 University of Louisville

Nutritional Virulence Of Legionella Pneumophila., Ashley M. Best

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Legionella pneumophila is an environment organism that parasitizes a wide range of protozoa. Growth within the environmental host primes L. pneumophila for infection of human alveolar macrophages when contaminated aerosols are inhaled. Intracellular replication within either host requires the establishment a replicative niche, known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Biogenesis of the LCV depends on the type IVb translocation system, the Dot/Icm, to translocation >320 effectors into the host cytosol. Effectors are responsible for preventing lysosome fusion to the LCV, recruitment of ER-derived vesicles to the LCV, and modulation of a plethora of host processes to promote the ...


Implementation Plan To Integrate The Nanosphere Verigene Assay In A High-Volume Reference Laboratory And The Anticipated Workflow Benefits To Adopting Rapid Blood Culture Testing, Sofia Nazar 2018 Dominican University of California

Implementation Plan To Integrate The Nanosphere Verigene Assay In A High-Volume Reference Laboratory And The Anticipated Workflow Benefits To Adopting Rapid Blood Culture Testing, Sofia Nazar

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Laboratory processing pathways have a significant impact on the overall management of patients with sepsis. Retrieval and isolation of the suspected pathogen from a patient blood culture specimen is required for a definitive diagnosis of bacterial septicemia. Reference laboratories are high-volume facilities most often located some distance away from the collecting facility. Given the lengthy work up already required for blood culture pathogen analysis, reference laboratories must identify ways to optimize every step of the blood culture pathway in the effort to decrease turnaround time and mitigate lag time to final pathogen identification incurred by prolonged collection-to-incubation times. Rapid molecular ...


Cd8+ T-Cell Responses In Vaccination: Reconsidering Targets And Function In The Context Of Chronic Antigen Stimulation, Gabriela L. Cosma, Laurence Eisenlohr 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Cd8+ T-Cell Responses In Vaccination: Reconsidering Targets And Function In The Context Of Chronic Antigen Stimulation, Gabriela L. Cosma, Laurence Eisenlohr

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Cytotoxic CD8 T cells play important roles in eliminating infected and transformed cells. Owing to their potential for therapeutic applications, significant efforts are dedicated toward developing CD8 T cell-based vaccines. Thus far, CD8 T-cell vaccination strategies have had limited success therapeutically in contrast to those targeting antibody-based immunity. However, if the current challenges and gaps in the understanding of T-cell biology are overcome, the full potential of rational CD8 T-cell vaccine design might be realized. Here, we review recent progress in this direction, focusing on target selection and maintenance of function in the settings of chronic infections and cancers.


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