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Benefit Of Intensity Modulated Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy For Post Mastectomy Chest Wall Irradiation, John Doiron 2018 Louisiana State University

Benefit Of Intensity Modulated Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy For Post Mastectomy Chest Wall Irradiation, John Doiron

LSU Master's Theses

Purpose: The delivery of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) with bolus electron conformal therapy (BECT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer can reduce second cancer complication probability (SCCP) compared to modern rotational intensity modulated x-ray (IMXT) techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or Tomotherapy. However, rotational IMXT yields superior levels of dose homogeneity compared to BECT. This study investigates the use of intensity modulated (IM) BECT (IM-BECT) to improve dose homogeneity in the chest wall (CW) region of the PMRT planning target volume (PTV) abutted to parallel opposed IMXT tangents for the remaining PTV for a clinically-representative set of patients ...


The Future Of Nuclear Security: A Medical Physicist’S Perspective, Katharine E. Thomson 2017 Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust

The Future Of Nuclear Security: A Medical Physicist’S Perspective, Katharine E. Thomson

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Planning for the future of nuclear security is a vital and complex task, requiring cooperation and contribution from many disciplines and industries. This diversity of expertise should include the medical sector, which faces many of the same challenges as the nuclear industry: controlling access to dangerous material, creating a strong security culture, cooperating with the wider world and engaging the public.

Medical physicists, of which the author is one, oversee all aspects of small-scale radiation use. This paper discusses three key areas increasingly important to both medical and nuclear uses of radioactive materials: public engagement, prevention of nuclear and radiological ...


Electrospun Collagen Nanofibers For Tissue Engineering, Nisha Sharma 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Electrospun Collagen Nanofibers For Tissue Engineering, Nisha Sharma

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Design and fabrication of the scaffold is an important part of the tissue engineering process. Nanofibrous scaffolds based on proteins are gaining increasing acceptance due to its structural similarity to the extracellular matrix. Making use of the electrospinning technique, rat tail collagen type I nanofibers were produced using a collagen in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) solution. In addition to optimizing the electrospinning process parameters, the effect of humidity on fiber morphology and diameter was investigated for fiber size control for particular tissue engineering applications. A generalized humidity effect on polymer fiber diameter of the polymer solution electrospinning process was developed. The as ...


Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Regulate Adipocyte Differentiation Of Mouse 3t3 Cells, Via Pgc-1Α Activation, Which Is Required For Ho-1 Expression And Increased Mitochondrial Function, Maayan Waldman, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Joseph Schragenheim, Komal Sodhi, Shailendra P. Singh, Daohong Lin, Anand Lakhkar, Jiangwei Li, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Arad, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Attallah Kappas, Nader G. Abraham 2017 Marshall University

Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Regulate Adipocyte Differentiation Of Mouse 3t3 Cells, Via Pgc-1Α Activation, Which Is Required For Ho-1 Expression And Increased Mitochondrial Function, Maayan Waldman, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Joseph Schragenheim, Komal Sodhi, Shailendra P. Singh, Daohong Lin, Anand Lakhkar, Jiangwei Li, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Arad, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Attallah Kappas, Nader G. Abraham

Nader G. Abraham

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) contributes to browning of white adipose stem cells to ameliorate obesity/diabetes and insulin resistance. In the current study, we show that EET altered preadipocyte function, enhanced peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC-1α) expression, and increased mitochondrial function in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte subjected to adipogenesis. Cells treated with EET resulted in an increase, P < 0.05, in PGC-1α and a decrease in mitochondria-derived ROS (MitoSox), P < 0.05. The EET increase in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels is dependent on activation of PGC-1α as cells deficient in PGC-1α (PGC-1α knockout adipocyte cell) have an impaired ability to ...


Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Regulate Adipocyte Differentiation Of Mouse 3t3 Cells, Via Pgc-1Α Activation, Which Is Required For Ho-1 Expression And Increased Mitochondrial Function, Maayan Waldman, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Joseph Schragenheim, Komal Sodhi, Shailendra P. Singh, Daohong Lin, Anand Lakhkar, Jiangwei Li, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Arad, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Attallah Kappas, Nader G. Abraham 2017 Marshall University

Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Regulate Adipocyte Differentiation Of Mouse 3t3 Cells, Via Pgc-1Α Activation, Which Is Required For Ho-1 Expression And Increased Mitochondrial Function, Maayan Waldman, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Joseph Schragenheim, Komal Sodhi, Shailendra P. Singh, Daohong Lin, Anand Lakhkar, Jiangwei Li, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Arad, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Attallah Kappas, Nader G. Abraham

Komal Sodhi

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) contributes to browning of white adipose stem cells to ameliorate obesity/diabetes and insulin resistance. In the current study, we show that EET altered preadipocyte function, enhanced peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC-1α) expression, and increased mitochondrial function in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte subjected to adipogenesis. Cells treated with EET resulted in an increase, P < 0.05, in PGC-1α and a decrease in mitochondria-derived ROS (MitoSox), P < 0.05. The EET increase in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels is dependent on activation of PGC-1α as cells deficient in PGC-1α (PGC-1α knockout adipocyte cell) have an impaired ability to express HO-1, P < 0.02. Additionally, adipocytes treated with EET exhibited an increase in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a PGC-1α-dependent manner, P < 0.05. The increase in PGC-1α was associated with an increase in β-catenin, P < 0.05, adiponectin expression, P < 0.05, and lipid accumulation, P < 0.02. EET decreased heme levels and mitochondria-derived ROS (MitoSox), P < 0.05, compared to adipocytes that were untreated. EET also decreased mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST) mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05). Adipocyte secretion of EET act in an autocrine/paracrine manner to increase PGC-1α is required for activation of HO-1 expression. This is the first study to dissect the mechanism by which the antiadipogenic and anti-inflammatory lipid, EET, induces the PGC-1α signaling cascade and reprograms the adipocyte phenotype by regulating mitochondrial function and HO-1 expression, leading to an increase in healthy, that is, small, adipocytes and a decrease in adipocyte enlargement and terminal differentiation. This is manifested by an increase in mitochondrial function and an increase in the canonical Wnt signaling cascade during adipocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation.


Current Prevalence Rate Of Latex Allergy: Why It Remains A Problem?, Miaozong Wu, James McIntosh, Jian Liu 2017 Marshall University

Current Prevalence Rate Of Latex Allergy: Why It Remains A Problem?, Miaozong Wu, James Mcintosh, Jian Liu

Jian Liu

OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review the current prevalence rate of latex allergy among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and the general public, and to investigate why latex is still a ubiquitous occupational health hazard.

METHODS: Scientific publications on PubMed, particularly those published within the last five years, and current regulations from agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed. Consumer and commercial products that may contain latex were also surveyed.

RESULTS: Approximately 12 million tons of natural rubber latex is produced annually and is widely used to manufacture millions of consumer and commercial products. Only limited number of ...


Current Prevalence Rate Of Latex Allergy: Why It Remains A Problem?, Miaozong Wu, James McIntosh, Jian Liu 2017 Marshall University

Current Prevalence Rate Of Latex Allergy: Why It Remains A Problem?, Miaozong Wu, James Mcintosh, Jian Liu

James McIntosh

OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review the current prevalence rate of latex allergy among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and the general public, and to investigate why latex is still a ubiquitous occupational health hazard.

METHODS: Scientific publications on PubMed, particularly those published within the last five years, and current regulations from agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed. Consumer and commercial products that may contain latex were also surveyed.

RESULTS: Approximately 12 million tons of natural rubber latex is produced annually and is widely used to manufacture millions of consumer and commercial products. Only limited number of ...


Current Prevalence Rate Of Latex Allergy: Why It Remains A Problem?, Miaozong Wu, James McIntosh, Jian Liu 2017 Marshall University

Current Prevalence Rate Of Latex Allergy: Why It Remains A Problem?, Miaozong Wu, James Mcintosh, Jian Liu

Miaozong Wu

OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review the current prevalence rate of latex allergy among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and the general public, and to investigate why latex is still a ubiquitous occupational health hazard.

METHODS: Scientific publications on PubMed, particularly those published within the last five years, and current regulations from agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed. Consumer and commercial products that may contain latex were also surveyed.

RESULTS: Approximately 12 million tons of natural rubber latex is produced annually and is widely used to manufacture millions of consumer and commercial products. Only limited number of ...


A Review Of The Institute Of Medicine’S Analysis Of Using Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research, Robert C. Jones, Ray Greek 2017 California State University, Chico

A Review Of The Institute Of Medicine’S Analysis Of Using Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research, Robert C. Jones, Ray Greek

Robert C. Jones, Ph.D.

We argue that the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine’s 2011 report, Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Assessing the Necessity, are methodologically and ethically confused. We argue that a proper understanding of evolution and complexity theory in terms of the science and ethics of using chimpanzees in biomedical research would have had led the committee to recommend not merely limiting but eliminating the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research. Specifically, we argue that a proper understanding of the difference between the gross level of examination of species and examinations on finer levels can shed light on important ...


Gadgets And Grieving: A Chronological Analysis On The Ways In Which Advancements In Medical Technologies Have Altered The Grieving Process, Grace McNair 2017 Abilene Christian University

Gadgets And Grieving: A Chronological Analysis On The Ways In Which Advancements In Medical Technologies Have Altered The Grieving Process, Grace Mcnair

Dialogue & Nexus

Since the 1940s, both end-of-life care and advancements in medical technologies have expanded exponentially. This article explores the advancements in medical technologies and how these have altered the way that Western society grieves death. With the capabilities to prolong life, the family, the patient, and the medical team, all grieve the end of life in different ways. This article provides a chronological analysis of palliative care, hospice care, and various medical advancements. These changes in medicine are then paralleled with alterations in the bereavement process. This article explores historical narratives of Western society’s transformation of grief through the lens ...


Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2017 Marshall University

Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Jiang Liu

Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the generation and maintenance of an obesity phenotype in both isolated adipocytes and intact animals. Because we had identified that the Na/K-ATPase can amplify oxidant signaling, we speculated that a peptide designed to inhibit this pathway, pNaKtide, might ameliorate an obesity phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we first performed studies in isolated murine preadipocytes (3T3L1 cells) and found that pNaKtide attenuated oxidant stress and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Complementary experiments in C57Bl6 mice ...


The Design Of An Instrument To Assess Clinical Laboratories Efficacy Post Implementation Of The Patient Protection Affordable Care Act, Harry McDonald Jr. 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

The Design Of An Instrument To Assess Clinical Laboratories Efficacy Post Implementation Of The Patient Protection Affordable Care Act, Harry Mcdonald Jr.

Dissertations

The healthcare system in the United States has undergone substantial changes in support of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). On March 23, 2010, the implementation of the new healthcare law brought universal healthcare access to all Americans, while attempting to increase quality and decrease medical costs. The new law promotes more of a quality-focused, outcome-based model rather than a pay-for-fee service model; thus, moving the paradigm from infrequent to preemptive healthcare. The PPACA postulates as the only way to achieve cost savings while increasing quality and access. Never before has there been such an extensive change to ...


Post-Intensive Care Syndrome: Comparison Of Educational Interventions To Educate Parents Of Children Hospitalized In The Pediatric Intensive Care Unit At St. Louis Children’S Hospital, Stephanie A. Esses 2017 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Post-Intensive Care Syndrome: Comparison Of Educational Interventions To Educate Parents Of Children Hospitalized In The Pediatric Intensive Care Unit At St. Louis Children’S Hospital, Stephanie A. Esses

Dissertations

Background: Family members of children hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) can develop cognitive, psychological, and physical manifestations of post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). Targeted education to help parents/caregivers recognize the signs and symptoms of PICS may result in better awareness of the syndrome and greater willingness to seek and receive support during their child’s PICU admission.

Objective: to evaluate three targeted PICS educational interventions to increase PICS awareness among parents/caregivers in the St. Louis Children’s Hospital (SLCH) PICU.

Results: A total of 62 parents/caregivers received one of three educational interventions: informational brochures (n ...


Air Pollution: An Emerging Concern On The Cardiovascular System, Lauren Martin, Husnia Akrami 2017 Lynchburg College

Air Pollution: An Emerging Concern On The Cardiovascular System, Lauren Martin, Husnia Akrami

Student Scholar Showcase

No abstract provided.


Undergraduate Research On General Aviation Hypoxia: A Student’S Perspective, Claire Schindler 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Undergraduate Research On General Aviation Hypoxia: A Student’S Perspective, Claire Schindler

Discovery Day - Prescott

During the fall academic term of 2016, an opportunity arose through the College of Aviation to serve as an undergraduate research assistant. Through discussion with faculty mentors, it was decided that a severely overlooked aspect of the aviation industry was survivors of hypoxia, especially in the less regulated general aviation community. The problem this study addresses is the uncertainty of the common circumstances that general aviation pilots find themselves in that create a hypoxic state, as well as whether or not that pilot reported the occurrence to the proper establishments. The results of this study showed not only those that ...


Delayed Diagnosis Of Shunt Overdrainage Following Functional Hemispherotomy And Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement In A Hemimegalencephaly Patient, Yasunori Nagahama, David Peters, Sho Kumonda, Adam Vesole, Charuta Joshi, Brian J Dlouhy, Hiroto Kawasaki 2017 University of Iowa

Delayed Diagnosis Of Shunt Overdrainage Following Functional Hemispherotomy And Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement In A Hemimegalencephaly Patient, Yasunori Nagahama, David Peters, Sho Kumonda, Adam Vesole, Charuta Joshi, Brian J Dlouhy, Hiroto Kawasaki

Department of Neurosurgery Publications

Shunt overdrainage represents a nebulous condition of variable clinical and imaging presentations, where the diagnosis is primarily clinical. The condition presents a diagnostic challenge particularly in patients with cognitive impairment and developmental delays. Here we present a 3-year-old boy with drug-resistant focal onset seizures due to hemimegalencephaly who previously underwent functional hemispherotomy followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for postoperative hydrocephalus. The subsequent clinical course was complicated by delayed diagnosis of shunt overdrainage in the absence of significant image findings. Maintaining a high index of suspicion for the possibility of shunt overdrainage is critical even in the face of unremarkable imaging ...


Investigation Of Radiation Injury In The Esophagus From Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Using Novel Imaging Biomarkers, Joshua S. Niedzielski 2016 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Investigation Of Radiation Injury In The Esophagus From Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Using Novel Imaging Biomarkers, Joshua S. Niedzielski

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Radiation injury in the esophagus occurs with high frequency from the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Radiation esophagitis is an acute normal tissue toxicity that negatively affects treatment efficacy by limiting dose and potentially interrupting radiation therapy. Clinical quantification of this toxicity is typically achieved by utilizing physician grading scales, assigning complication severity on an ordinal scale of symptom presentation and/or physician chosen interventions. These criteria are subjective in nature, both from the physician assigning the grade and the patient reporting the symptom. Furthermore, radiation therapy planning guidelines for the esophagus are derived from toxicity prediction models ...


Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Regulate Adipocyte Differentiation Of Mouse 3t3 Cells, Via Pgc-1Α Activation, Which Is Required For Ho-1 Expression And Increased Mitochondrial Function, Maayan Waldman, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Joseph Schragenheim, Komal Sodhi, Shailendra P. Singh, Daohong Lin, Anand Lakhkar, Jiangwei Li, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Arad, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Attallah Kappas, Nader G. Abraham 2016 Marshall University

Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Regulate Adipocyte Differentiation Of Mouse 3t3 Cells, Via Pgc-1Α Activation, Which Is Required For Ho-1 Expression And Increased Mitochondrial Function, Maayan Waldman, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Joseph Schragenheim, Komal Sodhi, Shailendra P. Singh, Daohong Lin, Anand Lakhkar, Jiangwei Li, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Arad, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Attallah Kappas, Nader G. Abraham

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) contributes to browning of white adipose stem cells to ameliorate obesity/diabetes and insulin resistance. In the current study, we show that EET altered preadipocyte function, enhanced peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC-1α) expression, and increased mitochondrial function in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte subjected to adipogenesis. Cells treated with EET resulted in an increase, P < 0.05, in PGC-1α and a decrease in mitochondria-derived ROS (MitoSox), P < 0.05. The EET increase in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels is dependent on activation of PGC-1α as cells deficient in PGC-1α (PGC-1α knockout adipocyte cell) have an impaired ability to express HO-1, P < 0.02. Additionally, adipocytes treated with EET exhibited an increase in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a PGC-1α-dependent manner, P < 0.05. The increase in PGC-1α was associated with an increase in β-catenin, P < 0.05, adiponectin expression, P < 0.05, and lipid accumulation, P < 0.02. EET decreased heme levels and mitochondria-derived ROS (MitoSox), P < 0.05, compared to adipocytes that were untreated. EET also decreased mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST) mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05). Adipocyte secretion of EET act in an autocrine/paracrine manner to increase PGC-1α is required for activation of HO-1 expression. This is the first study to dissect the mechanism by which the antiadipogenic and anti-inflammatory lipid, EET, induces the PGC-1α signaling cascade and reprograms the adipocyte phenotype by regulating mitochondrial function and HO-1 expression, leading to an increase in healthy, that is, small, adipocytes and a decrease in adipocyte enlargement and terminal differentiation. This is manifested by an increase in mitochondrial function and an increase in the canonical Wnt signaling cascade during adipocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation.


Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2016 Marshall University

Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Yanling Yan

Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the generation and maintenance of an obesity phenotype in both isolated adipocytes and intact animals. Because we had identified that the Na/K-ATPase can amplify oxidant signaling, we speculated that a peptide designed to inhibit this pathway, pNaKtide, might ameliorate an obesity phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we first performed studies in isolated murine preadipocytes (3T3L1 cells) and found that pNaKtide attenuated oxidant stress and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Complementary experiments in C57Bl6 mice ...


Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Linked To C9orf72-Als/Ftd., Thomas Westergard, Brigid K Jensen, Xinmei Wen, Jingli Cai, Elizabeth Kropf, Lorraine Iacovitti, Piera Pasinelli, Davide Trotti 2016 Jefferson Weinberg ALS Center, Vickie and Jack Farber Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, Thomas Jefferson University

Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Linked To C9orf72-Als/Ftd., Thomas Westergard, Brigid K Jensen, Xinmei Wen, Jingli Cai, Elizabeth Kropf, Lorraine Iacovitti, Piera Pasinelli, Davide Trotti

Faculty papers Farber Institute for Neurosciences

Aberrant hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic change underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). RNA transcripts containing these expansions undergo repeat-associated non-ATG translation (RAN-T) to form five dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs). DPRs are found as aggregates throughout the CNS of C9orf72-ALS/FTD patients, and some cause degeneration when expressed in vitro in neuronal cultures and in vivo in animal models. The spread of characteristic disease-related proteins drives the progression of pathology in many neurodegenerative diseases. While DPR toxic mechanisms continue to be investigated, the potential for DPRs to spread has yet to be ...


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