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Metabolic Regulation Of Cellular Signaling, Rashid John Darbandi 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Metabolic Regulation Of Cellular Signaling, Rashid John Darbandi

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Using the biochemically tractable Xenopus oocyte model system, we have previously characterized a novel metabolic regulation of cell death. We found that glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) via the pentose phosphate pathway leads to increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels, a subsequent increase in cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A and activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). We recently identified coenzyme A (CoA), derived from the breakdown of acetyl-CoA, as the key metabolic signal that mediates a novel mechanism of calmodulindependent activation of CaMKII. CoA binds directly to the calmodulin (CaM) binding domain (CaMBD) of CaMKII resulting in its activation and downstream inhibitory ...


Optimizing Heart Failure Outcomes Through Diet: A Review, Farley B. Neasman III 2017 Marshall University Cardiology

Optimizing Heart Failure Outcomes Through Diet: A Review, Farley B. Neasman Iii

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Heart failure is a growing epidemic that will add significant monetary and human costs to an already overtaxed health-care system. Though promising new medications have recently been approved, this complex condition is largely preventable through aggressive risk factor modification, with diet being shown to have a greater effect than exercise. An underrated component of a healthy diet is the simple addition of nuts – the anti-inflammatory fatty acids, healthy proteins, and general availability have been shown to improve survival and reduce the primary risk factors contributing to heart failure, making the addition of nuts and legumes to the diet an attractive ...


Δfosb Regulates Gene Expression And Cognitive Dysfunction In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer's Disease., Brian F Corbett, Jason C You, Xiaohong Zhang, Mark S Pyfer, Umberto Tosi, Daniel M Iascone, Iraklis Petrof, Anupam Hazra, Chia-Hsuan Fu, Gabriel S Stephens, Annie Ashok, Suzan Aschmies, Lijuan Zhao, Eric J Nestler, Jeannie Chin 2017 Department of Neuroscience and Farber Institute for Neurosciences, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA

Δfosb Regulates Gene Expression And Cognitive Dysfunction In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer's Disease., Brian F Corbett, Jason C You, Xiaohong Zhang, Mark S Pyfer, Umberto Tosi, Daniel M Iascone, Iraklis Petrof, Anupam Hazra, Chia-Hsuan Fu, Gabriel S Stephens, Annie Ashok, Suzan Aschmies, Lijuan Zhao, Eric J Nestler, Jeannie Chin

Department of Neuroscience

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive decline and 5- to 10-fold increased seizure incidence. How seizures contribute to cognitive decline in AD or other disorders is unclear. We show that spontaneous seizures increase expression of ΔFosB, a highly stable Fos-family transcription factor, in the hippocampus of an AD mouse model. ΔFosB suppressed expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos, which is critical for plasticity and cognition, by binding its promoter and triggering histone deacetylation. Acute histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition or inhibition of ΔFosB activity restored c-Fos induction and improved cognition in AD mice. Administration of seizure-inducing agents to ...


Compatibility Of Vancomycin And Oxacillin During Simulated Y-Site Delivery, Chad A. Knoderer, Hilary M. Teibel, Kristen R. Nichols 2017 Butler University

Compatibility Of Vancomycin And Oxacillin During Simulated Y-Site Delivery, Chad A. Knoderer, Hilary M. Teibel, Kristen R. Nichols

Chad A. Knoderer

Background: Vancomycin and oxacillin may be used together as empiric coverage in patients with proven or suspected Staphylococcus aureus infections. Though vancomycin hydrochloride 20 mg/mL and oxacillin sodium 160 mg/mL are reported to be compatible via Y-site delivery, Y-site compatibility of commonly used concentrations, vancomycin 10 mg/mL and oxacillin 20 mg/mL, has not yet been reported. Objective: To determine the Y-site compatibility of vancomycin 10 mg/mL and oxacillin 20 mg/mL. Methods: One vancomycin hydrochloride 1 g vial was reconstituted with 10 mL sterile water for injection (SWFI) and diluted with 90 mL 5% dextrose ...


Optimizing Guideline-Recommended Antibiotic Doses For Pediatric Infective Endocarditis, Chad A. Knoderer, Kristen R. Nichols, Emily N. Israel, Christopher A. Thomas 2017 Butler University

Optimizing Guideline-Recommended Antibiotic Doses For Pediatric Infective Endocarditis, Chad A. Knoderer, Kristen R. Nichols, Emily N. Israel, Christopher A. Thomas

Chad A. Knoderer

The American Heart Association recently published an updated scientific statement on the management of infective endocarditis in childhood. The recommendations included for vancomycin, aminoglycoside, and β-lactam dosing and monitoring are based primarily on expert opinion and do not consider available evidence for dose optimization based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles in pediatric patients. This is concerning because even when clinically necessary, some practitioners may be hesitant to deviate from guideline-recommended doses. In this perspective, we highlight potential areas for improvement in the statement-recommended doses and summarize evidence supporting antibiotic dosing optimization. The addition of a pediatric clinical pharmacist with expertise ...


Evaluation Of An Unfractioned Heparin Pharmacy Dosing Protocol For The Treatment Of Venous Thromboembolism In Nonobese, Obese, And Severely Obese Patients, Chad A. Knoderer, Lindsey M. Hosch, Emily Y. Breedlove, Lauren E. Scono 2017 Butler University

Evaluation Of An Unfractioned Heparin Pharmacy Dosing Protocol For The Treatment Of Venous Thromboembolism In Nonobese, Obese, And Severely Obese Patients, Chad A. Knoderer, Lindsey M. Hosch, Emily Y. Breedlove, Lauren E. Scono

Chad A. Knoderer

Background: Despite large interpatient variability in dose response, heparin is utilized for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Current data on the optimal heparin dosing in obese patients are conflicting. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the time and dose required to achieve a therapeutic activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in nonobese, obese, and severely obese patients using a pharmacist-directed heparin dosing protocol. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study in a single-center community hospital inpatient setting. Adult patients receiving heparin for VTE treatment from July 1, 2013, to July 31, 2015, were evaluated. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: nonobese ...


Alzheimer’S Disease: Dawn Of A New Era?, Farideh Amirrad, Emira Bousoik, Kiumars Shamloo, Hassan Al-Shiyab, Viet-Hong Nguyen, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2017 Chapman University

Alzheimer’S Disease: Dawn Of A New Era?, Farideh Amirrad, Emira Bousoik, Kiumars Shamloo, Hassan Al-Shiyab, Viet-Hong Nguyen, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognition and memory, leading to significant impairment in daily activities and ultimately death. It is the most common cause of dementia, the prevalence of which increases with age; however, age is not the only predisposing factor. The pathology of this cognitive impairing disease is still not completely understood, which has limited the development of valid therapeutic options. Recent years have witnessed a wide range of novel approaches to combat this disease, so that they greatly increased our understanding of the disease and of the unique ...


A Review Of The Institute Of Medicine’S Analysis Of Using Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research, Robert C. Jones, Ray Greek 2017 California State University, Chico

A Review Of The Institute Of Medicine’S Analysis Of Using Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research, Robert C. Jones, Ray Greek

Robert C. Jones, Ph.D.

We argue that the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine’s 2011 report, Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Assessing the Necessity, are methodologically and ethically confused. We argue that a proper understanding of evolution and complexity theory in terms of the science and ethics of using chimpanzees in biomedical research would have had led the committee to recommend not merely limiting but eliminating the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research. Specifically, we argue that a proper understanding of the difference between the gross level of examination of species and examinations on finer levels can shed light on important ...


The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, Chung Lung Chan 2017 Marquette University

The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, Chung Lung Chan

Dissertations (2009 -)

Humans and animals are constantly exposed to external stimuli. The ability to process reward value of a stimulus is critical to guiding appropriate behavior and essential for survival. These processes are regulated by neuronal activity and neurochemical signaling in the reward circuitry, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The NAc receives dopaminergic inputs from the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends GABAergic projections to the ventral pallidum (VP). Electrophysiological studies have characterized phasic neuronal responses in the NAc that differential encode appetitive and aversive taste stimuli. Exposure to an appetitive taste stimulus evoked predominantly phasic inhibitory responses in the ...


Alternative Splicing Promotes Tumour Aggressiveness And Drug Resistance In African American Prostate Cancer., Bi-Dar Wang, Kristin Ceniccola, SuJin Hwang, Ramez Andrawis, Anelia Horvath, Jennifer A Freedman, Jacqueline Olender, Stefan Knapp, Travers Ching, Lana Garmire, Vyomesh Patel, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Steven R Patierno, Norman H Lee 2017 George Washington University

Alternative Splicing Promotes Tumour Aggressiveness And Drug Resistance In African American Prostate Cancer., Bi-Dar Wang, Kristin Ceniccola, Sujin Hwang, Ramez Andrawis, Anelia Horvath, Jennifer A Freedman, Jacqueline Olender, Stefan Knapp, Travers Ching, Lana Garmire, Vyomesh Patel, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Steven R Patierno, Norman H Lee

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

linical challenges exist in reducing prostate cancer (PCa) disparities. The RNA splicing landscape of PCa across racial populations has not been fully explored as a potential molecular mechanism contributing to race-related tumour aggressiveness. Here, we identify novel genome-wide, race-specific RNA splicing events as critical drivers of PCa aggressiveness and therapeutic resistance in African American (AA) men. AA-enriched splice variants of PIK3CD, FGFR3, TSC2 and RASGRP2 contribute to greater oncogenic potential compared with corresponding European American (EA)-expressing variants. Ectopic overexpression of the newly cloned AA-enriched variant, PIK3CD-S, in EA PCa cell lines enhances AKT/mTOR signalling and increases proliferative and ...


3,4,5-Trichloroaniline Nephrotoxicity In Vitro: Potential Role Of Free Radicals And Renal Biotransformation, Christopher Racine, Dakota Ward, Dianne K. Anestis, Travis Ferguson, Deborah Preston, Gary O. Rankin 2017 Marshall University

3,4,5-Trichloroaniline Nephrotoxicity In Vitro: Potential Role Of Free Radicals And Renal Biotransformation, Christopher Racine, Dakota Ward, Dianne K. Anestis, Travis Ferguson, Deborah Preston, Gary O. Rankin

Dianne K. Anestis

Chloroanilines are widely used in the manufacture of drugs, pesticides and industrial intermediates. Among the trichloroanilines, 3,4,5-trichloroaniline (TCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the nephrotoxic potential of TCA in vitro and to determine if renal biotransformation and/or free radicals contributed to TCA cytotoxicity using isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) from male Fischer 344 rats as the animal model. IRCC (~4 million cells/mL; 3 mL) were incubated with TCA (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mM) for 60–120 min. In some experiments ...


3,4,5-Trichloroaniline Nephrotoxicity In Vitro: Potential Role Of Free Radicals And Renal Biotransformation, Christopher Racine, Dakota Ward, Dianne K. Anestis, Travis Ferguson, Deborah Preston, Gary O. Rankin 2017 Marshall University

3,4,5-Trichloroaniline Nephrotoxicity In Vitro: Potential Role Of Free Radicals And Renal Biotransformation, Christopher Racine, Dakota Ward, Dianne K. Anestis, Travis Ferguson, Deborah Preston, Gary O. Rankin

Deborah L Preston

Chloroanilines are widely used in the manufacture of drugs, pesticides and industrial intermediates. Among the trichloroanilines, 3,4,5-trichloroaniline (TCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the nephrotoxic potential of TCA in vitro and to determine if renal biotransformation and/or free radicals contributed to TCA cytotoxicity using isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) from male Fischer 344 rats as the animal model. IRCC (~4 million cells/mL; 3 mL) were incubated with TCA (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mM) for 60–120 min. In some experiments ...


3,4,5-Trichloroaniline Nephrotoxicity In Vitro: Potential Role Of Free Radicals And Renal Biotransformation, Christopher Racine, Dakota Ward, Dianne K. Anestis, Travis Ferguson, Deborah Preston, Gary O. Rankin 2017 Marshall University

3,4,5-Trichloroaniline Nephrotoxicity In Vitro: Potential Role Of Free Radicals And Renal Biotransformation, Christopher Racine, Dakota Ward, Dianne K. Anestis, Travis Ferguson, Deborah Preston, Gary O. Rankin

Deborah L Preston

Chloroanilines are widely used in the manufacture of drugs, pesticides and industrial intermediates. Among the trichloroanilines, 3,4,5-trichloroaniline (TCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the nephrotoxic potential of TCA in vitro and to determine if renal biotransformation and/or free radicals contributed to TCA cytotoxicity using isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) from male Fischer 344 rats as the animal model. IRCC (~4 million cells/mL; 3 mL) were incubated with TCA (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mM) for 60–120 min. In some experiments ...


3,4,5-Trichloroaniline Nephrotoxicity In Vitro: Potential Role Of Free Radicals And Renal Biotransformation, Christopher Racine, Dakota Ward, Dianne K. Anestis, Travis Ferguson, Deborah Preston, Gary O. Rankin 2017 Marshall University

3,4,5-Trichloroaniline Nephrotoxicity In Vitro: Potential Role Of Free Radicals And Renal Biotransformation, Christopher Racine, Dakota Ward, Dianne K. Anestis, Travis Ferguson, Deborah Preston, Gary O. Rankin

Gary O. Rankin

Chloroanilines are widely used in the manufacture of drugs, pesticides and industrial intermediates. Among the trichloroanilines, 3,4,5-trichloroaniline (TCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the nephrotoxic potential of TCA in vitro and to determine if renal biotransformation and/or free radicals contributed to TCA cytotoxicity using isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) from male Fischer 344 rats as the animal model. IRCC (~4 million cells/mL; 3 mL) were incubated with TCA (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mM) for 60–120 min. In some experiments ...


Sh2 Ligand-Like Effects Of Second Cytosolic Domain Of Na/K-Atpase Α1 Subunit On Src Kinase, Moumita Banerjee, Qiming Duan, Zijian Xie 2017 Marshall University

Sh2 Ligand-Like Effects Of Second Cytosolic Domain Of Na/K-Atpase Α1 Subunit On Src Kinase, Moumita Banerjee, Qiming Duan, Zijian Xie

Zijian Xie

Our previous studies have suggested that the α1 Na/K-ATPase interacts with Src to form a receptor complex. In vitro binding assays indicate an interaction between second cytosolic domain (CD2) of Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit and Src SH2 domain. Since SH2 domain targets Src to specific signaling complexes, we expressed CD2 as a cytosolic protein and studied whether it could act as a Src SH2 ligand in LLC-PK1 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses indicated a direct binding of CD2 to Src, consistent with the in vitro binding data. Functionally, CD2 expression increased basal Src activity, suggesting a Src SH2 ligand-like property of ...


Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat MD, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah PhD 2017 Marshall University

Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat Md, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah Phd

Darshana Shah

Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.


Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat MD, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah PhD 2017 Marshall University

Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat Md, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah Phd

Yousef R. Shweihat

Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.


Numerically Solving A System Of Pdes Modeling Chronic Wounds Treated With Oxygen Therapy, Stefan Stryker 2017 Western Kentucky University

Numerically Solving A System Of Pdes Modeling Chronic Wounds Treated With Oxygen Therapy, Stefan Stryker

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers are the leading cause of non-traumatic amputations in developed countries. For researchers to better understand the physiology of these wounds, a mathematical model describing oxygen levels at the wound site can be used to help predict healing responses. The model utilizes equations that are modified from work by Guffey (2015) that consists of four variables – oxygen, bacteria, neutrophils, and chemoattractant within a system of partial differential equations. Our research focuses on numerically solving these partial differential equations using a finite volume approach. This numerical solver will be important for future research in optimization ...


Inhibition Of Cholinergic Signaling Causes Apoptosis In Human Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma, Jamie K. Lau, Kathleen C. Brown, Brent A. Thornhill, Clayton M. Crabtree, Aaron M. Dom, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Christopher A. McNees, Cody A. Stover, A. Betts Carpenter, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, Brandon S. Shiflett, Piyali Dasgupta 2017 Marshall University

Inhibition Of Cholinergic Signaling Causes Apoptosis In Human Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma, Jamie K. Lau, Kathleen C. Brown, Brent A. Thornhill, Clayton M. Crabtree, Aaron M. Dom, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Christopher A. Mcnees, Cody A. Stover, A. Betts Carpenter, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, Brandon S. Shiflett, Piyali Dasgupta

Kathleen C. Brown

Recent case-controlled clinical studies show that bronchioalveolar carcinomas (BAC) are correlated with smoking. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, accelerates cell proliferation through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In this study, we show that human BACs produce acetylcholine (ACh) and contain several cholinergic factors including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), choline transporter 1 (CHT1, SLC5A7), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT, SLC18A3), and nACh receptors (AChRs, CHRNAs). Nicotine increased the production of ACh in human BACs, and ACh acts as a growth factor for these cells. Nicotine-induced ACh production was mediated by α7-, α3β2-, and β3-nAChRs, ChAT and VAChT pathways. We observed that ...


Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity Against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer In Cell Culture And Nude Mice Models Via The E2f Pathway, Kathleen C. Brown, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, A. Betts Carpenter, Jamie K. Lau, Piyali Dasgupta 2017 Marshall University

Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity Against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer In Cell Culture And Nude Mice Models Via The E2f Pathway, Kathleen C. Brown, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, A. Betts Carpenter, Jamie K. Lau, Piyali Dasgupta

Kathleen C. Brown

Background: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and low survival rates. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli peppers, displays antiproliferative activity in prostate and epidermoid cancer in vitro. However, the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin has not been studied in human SCLCs. The present manuscript fills this void of knowledge and explores the anti-proliferative effect of capsaicin in SCLC in vitro and in vivo.

Methodology/Principal Findings: BrdU assays and PCNA ELISAs showed that capsaicin displays robust anti-proliferative activity in four human SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, capsaicin ...


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