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Frontal White Matter Integrity In Adults With Down Syndrome With And Without Dementia, David K. Powell, Allison Caban-Holt, Greg A. Jicha, William C. Robertson, Roberta Davis, Brian T. Gold, Frederick A. Schmitt, Elizabeth Head 2014 University of Kentucky

Frontal White Matter Integrity In Adults With Down Syndrome With And Without Dementia, David K. Powell, Allison Caban-Holt, Greg A. Jicha, William C. Robertson, Roberta Davis, Brian T. Gold, Frederick A. Schmitt, Elizabeth Head

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center Faculty Publications

Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease after the age of 40 years. To detect white matter (WM) changes in the brain linked to dementia, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging was used. We hypothesized that adults with DS without dementia (DS n = 10), DS with dementia (DSAD n = 10) and age matched non-DS subjects (CTL n = 10) would show differential levels of FA and an association with scores from the Brief Praxis Test and the Severe Impairment Battery. WM integrity differences in DS compared with CTL were found predominantly in the ...


Differential Regulation Of Iress In The Aurora A Mrna By Bfgf Through The Mtor Complex Torc2 Modulates Aurora A Kinase Expression, Roy L. Voice III 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

Differential Regulation Of Iress In The Aurora A Mrna By Bfgf Through The Mtor Complex Torc2 Modulates Aurora A Kinase Expression, Roy L. Voice Iii

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Identifying the mechanisms that contribute to tumorigenesis is a major area of focus in our fight against cancer. Epithelial malignant tumors, such as breast, colon, ovarian and pancreatic cancers have been shown to overexpress proteins that control cell mitosis, growth, and proliferation. One of those proteins is the Aurora A kinase. Aurora A kinase is a member of a small family of kinases that contribute to mitotic events such as centrosome duplication, separation, and maturation. Aurora A overexpression leads to genomic instability, which can contribute to tumorigenesis, on the other hand, inhibiting Aurora A expression leads to apoptosis, making it ...


9-Phenanthrol And Flufenamic Acid Inhibit Calcium Oscillations In Hl-1 Mouse Cardiomyocytes, Rees A. Burt 2014 East Tennessee State University

9-Phenanthrol And Flufenamic Acid Inhibit Calcium Oscillations In Hl-1 Mouse Cardiomyocytes, Rees A. Burt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Electrical potentials exist across the membranes of nearly every cell type in the body. In addition, excitable cells, such as neurons, myocytes and even some endocrine cells elicit electrochemical fluctuations, action potentials (AP), in the cell membrane to initiate cell-to-cell communication or intracellular processes. The basis for the electrical potential is rooted within an array of complex interactions between monovalent ions and their associated membrane channels and transporters that regulate the flux of these charged species across the hydrophobic bilayer. Here, an expansion of our recently published work [1] will serve to explore the modern concepts regarding the origin of ...


Control Of Inflammation In Pancreatic Β-Cells: Role Of Arylpyrazole Compounds, Whitney Lyn Powell 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Control Of Inflammation In Pancreatic Β-Cells: Role Of Arylpyrazole Compounds, Whitney Lyn Powell

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement represents an event in which students involved in undergraduate research can present research projects at the University of Tennessee.


Activation Of Hindbrain Neurons Is Mediated By Portal-Mesenteric Vein Glucosensors During Slow-Onset Hypoglycemia, MaryAnn Bohland, Aleksey V. Matveyenko, Maziyar Saberi, Arshad M. Khan, Alan G. Watts, Casey M. Donovan 2014 University of Texas at El Paso

Activation Of Hindbrain Neurons Is Mediated By Portal-Mesenteric Vein Glucosensors During Slow-Onset Hypoglycemia, Maryann Bohland, Aleksey V. Matveyenko, Maziyar Saberi, Arshad M. Khan, Alan G. Watts, Casey M. Donovan

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

Hypoglycemic detection at the portal-mesenteric vein (PMV) appears mediated by spinal afferents and is critical for the counter-regulatory response (CRR) to slow-onset, but not rapid-onset, hypoglycemia. Since rapid-onset hypoglycemia induces Fos protein expression in discrete brain regions, we hypothesized that denervation of the PMV or lesioning spinal afferents would suppress Fos expression in the dorsal medulla during slow-onset hypoglycemia, revealing a central nervous system reliance on PMV glucosensors. Rats undergoing PMV deafferentation via capsaicin, celiac-superior mesenteric ganglionectomy (CSMG), or total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (TSV) were exposed to hyperinsulinemic–hypoglycemic clamps where glycemia was lowered slowly over 60–75 min. In response ...


Tip150 Potential Interaction With Glycogen Synthase Kinase (Gsk)-3-Beta To Facilitate Cell Migration, Maryam Chaudhry 2014 Georgia State University

Tip150 Potential Interaction With Glycogen Synthase Kinase (Gsk)-3-Beta To Facilitate Cell Migration, Maryam Chaudhry

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Picrotoxin And Ethanol On Crayfish Escape And Central Motor Pattern Neural Circuits, Rebecca Bierman, Nathan Hardcastle, Colin Istvan 2014 Georgia State University

The Effects Of Picrotoxin And Ethanol On Crayfish Escape And Central Motor Pattern Neural Circuits, Rebecca Bierman, Nathan Hardcastle, Colin Istvan

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Using Zebrafish To Do Good: Scientific Data Management, Julie Goldman 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Using Zebrafish To Do Good: Scientific Data Management, Julie Goldman

University of Massachusetts and New England Area Librarian e-Science Symposium

E-science expands the scope of science library practices and promotes, among medical and graduate/undergraduate science students, the preservation of scientific data in relevant repositories/archives. Case studies can be used as a tool to educate and teach both medical and library science graduate/undergraduate students about the preservation of scientific data. In the medical sciences, researchers must submit a data management plan in order to secure funding for a research project. Therefore, they must understand the best practices that should be followed in their different disciplines.

This case study addresses institutional research in a biomedical neuroscience laboratory at a ...


L-Carnitine Supplementation: A Potential Treatment For Cancer Cachexia, Aaron Kwong, Obaidullah Khan, Katrina Fleming, Sina Moshiri, Muhammad Hashmi 2014 McMaster University

L-Carnitine Supplementation: A Potential Treatment For Cancer Cachexia, Aaron Kwong, Obaidullah Khan, Katrina Fleming, Sina Moshiri, Muhammad Hashmi

The Meducator

Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that exhibits rampant muscle wasting, unintentional weight loss, fatigue, weakness, and overall loss of appetite, none of which can be abated by an increase in caloric intake. Metabolic derailment by cachexia is so severe in cancer patients that it can shorten lifetime expectancy and lead to death before the course of treatment is finished. Etiology may involve proinflammatory cytokines, but the abnormal loss of muscle, protein, and fat suggests an underlying metabolic dysfunction that contributes to cachexia. Previous research has shown reduction of L-carnitine in cachectic patients and chemotherapy-induced damage to the L-carnitine transport system ...


Potential Therapies For Cystic Fibrosis: A Look At Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Correctors And Potentiators, Spencer G. Jones 2014 McMaster University

Potential Therapies For Cystic Fibrosis: A Look At Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Correctors And Potentiators, Spencer G. Jones

The Meducator

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is caused by a mutation of the anion channel termed the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Treatment for CF has improved over time; however, many therapies focus only on alleviating symptoms as they occur. There have been recent advances in therapies that repair mutant CFTR, including the administration of small molecules called CFTR modulators. CFTR modulators fall under two categories: correctors that prevent early degradation of CFTR and potentiators that increase conductance of existing CFTR. This review discusses the advantages of repairing mutant CFTR, some recent advances in treatment ...


Type 2 Diabetes: What Went Wrong With Insulin?, Kimia Sorouri, Ellen Liang 2014 McMaster University

Type 2 Diabetes: What Went Wrong With Insulin?, Kimia Sorouri, Ellen Liang

The Meducator

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is a pathological condition characterized by an inadequate response to insulin, a hormone responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. NIDDM comprises of 90-95% of all cases of diabetes.1

Normally, insulin is released by pancreatic beta cells into the bloodstream, acting on receptors found in tissues such as skeletal muscle and the liver.2 The binding of insulin to insulin receptors stimulates glucose uptake into cells and the storage of glucose as glycogen (glycogenesis).3 Evidence suggests that genetic mutations may increase susceptibility to NIDDM. Specifically, a reduction of insulin ...


Acute Brachial Artery Responses To Endurance And High-Intensity Interval Exercise In Young Healthy Males, Greg M. McGill 2014 McMaster University

Acute Brachial Artery Responses To Endurance And High-Intensity Interval Exercise In Young Healthy Males, Greg M. Mcgill

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Purpose: Habitual aerobic exercise improves vascular function; however, the acute vascular response to exercise is poorly understood. The present investigation compared the time course of acute changes in vascular function following two different types of aerobic exercise. Methods: Ten untrained males (23 ± 2 yrs) completed one bout of sustained moderate-intensity cycling (END) (30 mins at 55% peak power) or high-intensity interval (HIT) cycling (10 one-minute intervals at 80% peak power) on different days. Endothelium-dependent dilation was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (baFMD) at baseline, immediately post-exercise, 1 hour post-exercise and 24 hours post-exercise. Endothelium-independent dilation was assessed via nitroglycerin ...


The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua 2014 McMaster University

The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, and there has been growing insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory basis of this disease. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of asthma has progressively shifted focus from downstream effectors, such as mast cells and eosinophils, up to Th2 lymphocytes and their proallergic cytokines. Even more upstream in the allergic cascade are dendritic cells (DCs), potent APCs that orchestrate immune responses. Evidence supporting a role of DCs in regulating airway allergic inflammation is derived mainly from animal studies. In animal models of asthma, myeloid DCs (mDCs) induce and maintain ...


Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jovana Lubarda 2014 McMaster University

Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jovana Lubarda

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative movement disorder involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. The current dissertation, motivated by a lack of valid biomarkers and sustainable therapies, examined the potential application of a novel target for therapeutics and diagnostics of PD — the multifunctional, heat-shock like protein Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 (CRP40). The goal of this program of research was to elucidate further the implications of CRP40 in PD using a variety of molecular biology, bioinformatics, and clinical approaches through integrative collaborations with academia, government, and industry partners to translate scientific findings into real world solutions. Chapters 2 ...


Fibrocytes In Chronic Lung Disease, Shyam S. Maharaj 2014 McMaster University

Fibrocytes In Chronic Lung Disease, Shyam S. Maharaj

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

The focus of this thesis was the role of fibrocytes in chronic lung disease. These bone marrow derived cells have been identified in the lung and the circulation in patient samples and animal models of lung injury. However, the precise mechanistic role of the fibrocyte is still to be elucidated.

Live assessment of lung changes in animal models of chronic lung disease allows for real time observation of changes, and gives a readout which can be translated to humans who undergo similar tests. In this thesis, we adapted an existing model of lung injury, and delivered a discrete treatment to ...


Bcl2 Expression And Bcl2/Myc Dual Expression Predicts Inferior Survival In Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma, Guldeep Uppal, MD, Zi-Xuan (Zoe) Wang, PhD, Renu Bajaj, PhD, Mark T. Curtis, MD, PhD, Charalambos C. Solomides, MD, Jon Glass, MD, Peter M. Banks, Stephen C. Peiper, MD, Jerald Z. Gong, MD 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

Bcl2 Expression And Bcl2/Myc Dual Expression Predicts Inferior Survival In Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma, Guldeep Uppal, Md, Zi-Xuan (Zoe) Wang, Phd, Renu Bajaj, Phd, Mark T. Curtis, Md, Phd, Charalambos C. Solomides, Md, Jon Glass, Md, Peter M. Banks, Stephen C. Peiper, Md, Jerald Z. Gong, Md

Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Resident's Posters

Background

Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arising from and usually confined to CNS. Understating of the pathogenesis and prognostic markers is a challenge due to rarity of this neoplasm and paucity of the material available to study. Recent studies have shown that dual expression of MYC and BCL2 in DLBCL contributes to inferior overall survival. The prognostic value of MYC and BCL2 in PCNSL is not well studied.


Interleukin-7-Dependent B Lymphocytes Are Required For The Anti-Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Response And Protective Immunity To Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Gregory S. Dickinson, PhD, Raja Vuyyuru, Timothy L. Manser, PhD, John F. Kerney, Kishore Alugupalli, PhD 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

Interleukin-7-Dependent B Lymphocytes Are Required For The Anti-Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Response And Protective Immunity To Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Gregory S. Dickinson, Phd, Raja Vuyyuru, Timothy L. Manser, Phd, John F. Kerney, Kishore Alugupalli, Phd

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Unlike human adults or adult mice, young children or young mice respond poorly to pneumococcal polysaccharides (PPS). In mice, B1b lymphocytes are the major responders to a variety of bacterial polysaccharides including PPS. Despite having B1b cells, young mice are severely impaired in responding to PPS, suggesting that B cells in the young are distinct from those in adults. Since B lymphopoeisis early in life is largely Interleukin-7 (IL-7)-independent, while in adults it is IL-7-dependent, we hypothesize that B cells developed in the presence of IL-7 are required for generating anti-PPS antibody responses. In support of this, we found ...


Bisphenol A Exposure And Cardiac Electrical Conduction In Excised Rat Hearts, Nikki G. Posnack, Rafael Jaimes III, Huda Asfour, Luther Swift, Anastasia M. Wengrowski, Narine Sarvazyan, Matthew Kay 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Bisphenol A Exposure And Cardiac Electrical Conduction In Excised Rat Hearts, Nikki G. Posnack, Rafael Jaimes Iii, Huda Asfour, Luther Swift, Anastasia M. Wengrowski, Narine Sarvazyan, Matthew Kay

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are widely used in everyday products, such as food and beverage containers, toys and medical devices. Human biomonitoring studies have suggested that a large proportion of the population may be exposed to BPA. Recent epidemiological studies have reported correlations between increased BPA urinary concentrations and cardiovascular disease; yet the direct effects of BPA on the heart are unknown.

OBJECTIVES:

The goal of our studies was to measure BPA's effect (0.1-100 μM) on cardiac impulse propagation ex vivo, using excised whole hearts from adult rats ...


Mir-17/20 Sensitization Of Breast Cancer Cells To Chemotherapy-Induced Apoptosis Requires Akt1., Zuoren Yu, Zengguang Xu, Gabriele Disante, Jennifer Wright, Min Wang, Yuan Li, Qian Zhao, Tao Ren, Xiaoming Ju, Ellen Gutman, Guangxue Wang, Sankar Addya, Tieyan Li, Zhendong Xiang, Chenguang Wang, Xiongfei Yang, Xiaolai Yang, Richard Pestell 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

Mir-17/20 Sensitization Of Breast Cancer Cells To Chemotherapy-Induced Apoptosis Requires Akt1., Zuoren Yu, Zengguang Xu, Gabriele Disante, Jennifer Wright, Min Wang, Yuan Li, Qian Zhao, Tao Ren, Xiaoming Ju, Ellen Gutman, Guangxue Wang, Sankar Addya, Tieyan Li, Zhendong Xiang, Chenguang Wang, Xiongfei Yang, Xiaolai Yang, Richard Pestell

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

The serine threonine kinase Akt1 has been implicated in the control of cellular metabolism, survival and growth. Herein, disruption of the ubiquitously expressed member of the Akt family of genes, Akt1, in the mouse, demonstrates a requirement for Akt1 in miRNA-mediated cellular apoptosis. The miR-17/20 cluster is known to inhibit breast cancer cellular proliferation through G1/S cell cycle arrest via binding to the cyclin D1 3'UTR. Here we show that miR-17/20 overexpression sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by either Doxorubicin or UV irradiation in MCF-7 cells via Akt1. miR-17/20 mediates apoptosis via increased p53 expression ...


The Role Of Sirtuin 1 And Ceramide In T10C12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wei Wang 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Role Of Sirtuin 1 And Ceramide In T10C12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wei Wang

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Project 1: Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in adipocytes through multiple pathways, with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) generally facilitating, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) generally opposing these reductions. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone/protein deacetylase that affects energy homeostasis, often functions coordinately with AMPK, and is capable of binding to PPARγ, thereby inhibiting its activity. This study investigated the role of SIRT1 in the response of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to t10c12 CLA by testing the following hypotheses: 1) SIRT1 is functionally required for robust TG reduction ...


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