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Pedigree Structure And Kinship Measurements Of A Mid-Michigan Community: A New North American Population Isolate Identified, Joseph D. Bonner, Rachel Fisher, James Klein, Qing Lu, Ellen Wilch, Karen H. Friderici, Jill L. Elfenbein, Debra L. Schutte, Brian C. Schutte 2014 Wayne State University

Pedigree Structure And Kinship Measurements Of A Mid-Michigan Community: A New North American Population Isolate Identified, Joseph D. Bonner, Rachel Fisher, James Klein, Qing Lu, Ellen Wilch, Karen H. Friderici, Jill L. Elfenbein, Debra L. Schutte, Brian C. Schutte

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Previous studies identified a cluster of individuals with an autosomal recessive form of deafness that resides in a small region of mid-Michigan. We hypothesized that affected members from this community descend from a defined founder population. Using public records and personal interviews, we constructed a genealogical database that includes the affected individuals and their extended families as descendants of 461 settlers who emigrated from the Eifel region of Germany between 1836 and 1875. The genealogical database represents a 13-generation pedigree that includes 27,747 descendants of these settlers. Among these descendants, 13,784 are presumed living. Many of the extant ...


Lactase Persistence Variants In Arabia And In The African Arabs, Edita Priehodova, Abdelhay Abdelsawy, Evelyne Heyer, Viktor Cerny 2014 Wayne State University

Lactase Persistence Variants In Arabia And In The African Arabs, Edita Priehodova, Abdelhay Abdelsawy, Evelyne Heyer, Viktor Cerny

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that had either started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but had also experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the ...


Celiac Disease As A Model For The Evolution Of Multifactorial Disease In Humans, Aaron Sams, John Hawks 2014 Wayne State University

Celiac Disease As A Model For The Evolution Of Multifactorial Disease In Humans, Aaron Sams, John Hawks

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Celiac disease (CD) is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory condition that results in injury of the mucosal lining of the small intestine upon ingestion of wheat gluten and related proteins from barley and rye. Although the exact mechanisms leading to CD are not fully understood, the genetic basis of CD has been relatively well characterized. In this review we briefly review the history of discovery, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and current understanding of the genetics underlying CD risk. Then, we discuss what is known about the current distribution and evolutionary history of genes underlying CD risk in light of other evolutionary models ...


Histological Evaluation Of The Cryo-Destruction Of The Zona Glomerulosa (Outermost Layer) Of The Adrenal Cortex, Huda Ahmed, Jonida Pone 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Histological Evaluation Of The Cryo-Destruction Of The Zona Glomerulosa (Outermost Layer) Of The Adrenal Cortex, Huda Ahmed, Jonida Pone

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The outer portion, or cortex, of the adrenal gland produces three hormones, two of which are highly critical to normal function of the body. The cortex itself is divided into three layers, each responsible for a certain hormone synthesis. The outermost layer (zona glomerulosa) produces aldosterone, a hormone involved in the regulation of body sodium, blood volume, and blood pressure. The middle layer produces co rticosterone, a hormone that is active in a variety of biological functions, and necessary for life. Due to its effects on blood volume, aldosterone has been implicated in the development of hypertension, or high blood ...


Dual Energy Imaging For Determining Urinary Calculi Composition: A Theoretical And Experimental Study With Computed Tomography, Stephanie Nykamp 2014 Western University

Dual Energy Imaging For Determining Urinary Calculi Composition: A Theoretical And Experimental Study With Computed Tomography, Stephanie Nykamp

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Urinary calculi is a common problem worldwide and is associated with substantial patient morbidity and healthcare costs. The choice of treatment is dependent on the composition of the stone. Currently that can only be determined once it has been removed which is too late to impact treatment decisions. Considerable investigation into the use of dual-energy CT (DECT) for determining stone composition has lead to mixed results. The varied results may be due to inherent sources of error and it is unclear whether the mixed results with DECT are due to CT artifacts or insufficient fundamental difference in the linear attenuation ...


Epithelial Immunization Induces Polyfunctional Cd8+ T Cells And Optimal Mousepox Protection., Adam R Hersperger, Nicholas A Siciliano, Brian C DeHaven, Adam E. Snook, Laurence C. Eisenlohr 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

Epithelial Immunization Induces Polyfunctional Cd8+ T Cells And Optimal Mousepox Protection., Adam R Hersperger, Nicholas A Siciliano, Brian C Dehaven, Adam E. Snook, Laurence C. Eisenlohr

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

We assessed several routes of immunization with vaccinia virus (VACV) in protecting mice against ectromelia virus (ECTV). By a wide margin, skin scarification provided the greatest protection. Humoral immunity and resident-memory T cells notwithstanding, several approaches revealed that circulating, memory CD8(+) T cells primed via scarification were functionally superior and conferred enhanced virus control. Immunization via the epithelial route warrants further investigation, as it may also provide enhanced defense against other infectious agents.


Functional Imaging Of Malignant Gliomas With Ct Perfusion, Timothy Pok Chi Yeung 2014 Western University

Functional Imaging Of Malignant Gliomas With Ct Perfusion, Timothy Pok Chi Yeung

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The overall survival of patients with malignant gliomas remains dismal despite multimodality treatments. Computed tomography (CT) perfusion is a functional imaging tool for assessing tumour hemodynamics. The goals of this thesis are to 1) improve measurements of various CT perfusion parameters and 2) assess treatment outcomes in a rat glioma model and in patients with malignant gliomas. Chapter 2 addressed the effect of scan duration on the measurements of blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and permeability-surface area product (PS). Measurement errors of these parameters increased with shorter scan duration. A minimum scan duration of 90 s is recommended. Chapter ...


Intensity Based Non-Rigid Registration Of 3d Whole Mouse Optical And Mr Image Volumes, Jacqueline Kathleen Harris 2014 Western University

Intensity Based Non-Rigid Registration Of 3d Whole Mouse Optical And Mr Image Volumes, Jacqueline Kathleen Harris

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Novel magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques can be validated using accurate co-registration with histology. Whole-animal histological sections allow for simultaneous analysis of multiple tissues, and may also aid in registration by providing contextual information and structural support to tissues which if isolated from the body would be difficult to register.

This thesis explores the feasibility of co-registration between whole mouse histology with 3D MR images using an intermediate optical image volume acquired during tissue sectioning. Of the two transformations required for this approach, 3D co-registration of MR and optical images is more challenging to perform due to changes in contrast ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Type Iv: Implications For Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ali Abbas 2014 Western University

Transcriptional Regulation Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Type Iv: Implications For Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ali Abbas

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

High titers of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies have been detected in sera of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, implicating citrullinating enzymes in the pathogenesis of RA. Peptidylarginine deiminase type IV (PAD4) is a member of the PAD family of enzymes that catalyze the post- translational modification of arginine to citrulline and has been linked with RA. However, little is known about its transcriptional regulation. Therefore, our aim was to determine how transcription of PAD4 is activated in the myeloid lineage. Using bioinformatics, a potential nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) binding site was identified on the PAD4 promoter. Luciferase assays were used to ...


Physiological Levels Of Lipoxin A4 Inhibit Enac And Restore Airway Surface Liquid Height In Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelium., Mazen Al-Alawi, Paul Buchanan, Valia Verriere, Gerard Higgins, Olive McCabe, Richard W. Costello, Paul McNally, Valérie Urbach, Brian J. Harvey 2014 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Physiological Levels Of Lipoxin A4 Inhibit Enac And Restore Airway Surface Liquid Height In Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelium., Mazen Al-Alawi, Paul Buchanan, Valia Verriere, Gerard Higgins, Olive Mccabe, Richard W. Costello, Paul Mcnally, Valérie Urbach, Brian J. Harvey

Molecular Medicine Articles

In cystic fibrosis (CF), the airway surface liquid (ASL) is depleted. We previously demonstrated that lipoxin A4 (LXA4) can modulate ASL height (ASLh) through actions on Cl(-) transport. Here, we report novel effects of lipoxin on the epithelial Na(+) channel ENaC in this response. ASL dynamics and ion transport were studied using live-cell confocal microscopy and short-circuit current measurements in CF (CuFi-1) and non-CF (NuLi-1) cell cultures. Low physiological concentrations of LXA4 in the picomolar range produced an increase in ASLh which was dependent on inhibition of an amiloride-sensitive Na(+) current and stimulation of a bumetanide-sensitive Cl(-) current. These ion ...


Identifying The Prevalence Of Ncaa American Football Players Sustaining Traumatic Brain Injuries (Concussions) During Spring Practice In The Big Sky Conference, Kery R. White 2014 Big Sky Conference

Identifying The Prevalence Of Ncaa American Football Players Sustaining Traumatic Brain Injuries (Concussions) During Spring Practice In The Big Sky Conference, Kery R. White

Skyline - The Big Sky Undergraduate Journal

The goal of this study is to identify ways to minimize and/or further prevent athletic concussions in an effort to add years to athletes’ lives, greatly decrease side effects of sustaining multiple head traumas, and thus increase the quality of life for athletes around the world. Conferences such as the Pac-12 and the Ivy League are moving toward a safer method of playing the game of football, but the reality of the situation is, players are only getting bigger, stronger and faster, and they will continue to play with passion and a love for the game.

With the increased ...


Self-Assembled Gold Nanoplexes For Cancer-Targeted Sirna Delivery, Yongliang Shi 2014 The University of Southern Mississippi

Self-Assembled Gold Nanoplexes For Cancer-Targeted Sirna Delivery, Yongliang Shi

Master's Theses

Through layer-by-layer method, the authors have constructed three Au nanoplexes: AuPEI/RNA/PEI, AuPEI/RNA/PEI-mPEG, and AuPEI/NA/PEI-PEG-FA. All the nanoplexes are characterized by UV-vis spectrometry, DLS, and zeta potential. The surface density of the first layer PEI and second layer RNA were also determined. Moreover, the Au nanoplexes can protect siRNA from RNase degradation and are stable in cell culture medium.

siGLuc-ppp, ssRNA80, and siF17 were delivered by the assembled Au nanoplexes, and the results were analyzed by GLuc assay, TB assay, and Luciferase assay. In terms of RNA delivery, the Au nanoplexes AuPEI/RNA/PEI ...


Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Investigations Of Alzheimer Disease, Jacob Penner 2014 Western University

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Investigations Of Alzheimer Disease, Jacob Penner

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alzheimer disease is a progressively devastating neurodegenerative disease of the brain that impairs cognition and is ultimately fatal. Cholinesterase inhibitors are the current standard treatment for Alzheimer disease and they can alleviate some of the symptoms and thus improve quality of life. Cognitive measures aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of individuals with Alzheimer disease, but they do not directly measure disease pathophysiology. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate metabolic changes measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy within the hippocampus and posterior cingulate, two brain regions known to be effected in Alzheimer disease, following cholinesterase inhibitor treatment. Such ...


Survivin As Potential Mediator To Support Autoreactive Cell Survival In Myasthenia Gravis: A Human And Animal Model Study, Linda Louise Kusner, Michael J. Ciesielski, Alexander Marx, Henry J. Kaminski, Robert A. Fenstermaker 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Survivin As Potential Mediator To Support Autoreactive Cell Survival In Myasthenia Gravis: A Human And Animal Model Study, Linda Louise Kusner, Michael J. Ciesielski, Alexander Marx, Henry J. Kaminski, Robert A. Fenstermaker

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

The mechanisms that underlie the development and maintenance of autoimmunity in myasthenia gravis are poorly understood. In this investigation, we evaluate the role of survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, in humans and in two animal models. We identified survivin expression in cells with B lymphocyte and plasma cells markers, and in the thymuses of patients with myasthenia gravis. A portion of survivin-expressing cells specifically bound a peptide derived from the alpha subunit of acetylcholine receptor indicating that they recognize the peptide. Thymuses of patients with myasthenia gravis had large numbers of survivin-positive cells with fewer ...


Microrna Expression Differences In Human Hematopoietic Cell Lineages Enable Regulated Transgene Expression., Raúl Teruel Montoya, Xianguo Kong, Shaji Abraham, Lin Ma, Satya P Kunapuli, Michael Holinstat, Chad A Shaw, Steven E. McKenzie, Leonard Edelstein, Paul Bray 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

Microrna Expression Differences In Human Hematopoietic Cell Lineages Enable Regulated Transgene Expression., Raúl Teruel Montoya, Xianguo Kong, Shaji Abraham, Lin Ma, Satya P Kunapuli, Michael Holinstat, Chad A Shaw, Steven E. Mckenzie, Leonard Edelstein, Paul Bray

Cardeza Foundation for Hematologic Research

Blood microRNA (miRNA) levels have been associated with and shown to participate in disease pathophysiology. However, the hematopoietic cell of origin of blood miRNAs and the individual blood cell miRNA profiles are poorly understood. We report the miRNA content of highly purified normal hematopoietic cells from the same individuals. Although T-cells, B-cells and granulocytes had the highest miRNA content per cell, erythrocytes contributed more cellular miRNA to the blood, followed by granulocytes and platelets. miRNA profiling revealed different patterns and different expression levels of miRNA specific for each lineage. miR-30c-5p was determined to be an appropriate reference normalizer for cross-cell ...


Infectious Diseases, Bert Chapman 2014 Purdue University

Infectious Diseases, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides information about the role of infectious diseases in the early years of U.S. History, with particular emphasis on how they impacted injuries sustained in military conflict.


Pathscan Enabler At Md Anderson Cancer Center, George McNamara 2014 The University of Texas

Pathscan Enabler At Md Anderson Cancer Center, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 20140703 - Additional Pathscan and Tiki_Goddess related resources

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/52

http://home.earthlink.net/~tiki_goddess/

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/1/

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/11/

https://www.linkedin.com/in/georgemcnamara

Our Pathscan Enabler IV, delivered July 2014, uses the QuickScan software to scan a histology slide in "two clicks" (after loading the

slide):

1. Push the QuickScan button on the front of the Pathscan Enabler.

2. Click the Scan button in the QuickScan pop-up application (optional: change scan area in the Prescan image window).

The image gets saved as a TIFF file to ...


Succinate Dehydrogenase Deficiency In Sporadic Pituitary Adenomas: A Potential Mechanism For Tumorigenesis, Edward Andrews, MD, Stacey K. Mardekian, MD, Markku Miettinen, Mark T. Curtis, MD 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

Succinate Dehydrogenase Deficiency In Sporadic Pituitary Adenomas: A Potential Mechanism For Tumorigenesis, Edward Andrews, Md, Stacey K. Mardekian, Md, Markku Miettinen, Mark T. Curtis, Md

Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Resident's Posters

In order to determine whether succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency plays a role in spor-adic, non-familial pituitary adenomas, we analyzed 80 pituitary adenomas for SDH deficiency from patients without familial tumor syndromes or without known SDH deficiency-associated neoplasms. SDH deficiency was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for SDHB since the loss of any of the four SDH subunits results in the loss of SDHB expression. Three pituitary adenomas showed complete loss of SDHB staining, and of these two also showed loss of SDHA staining. We further characterized these adenomas by looking at Ki67, IGF1R, and 5-hmC levels via IHC. SDHx ...


Frontal White Matter Integrity In Adults With Down Syndrome With And Without Dementia, David K. Powell, Allison Caban-Holt, Greg A. Jicha, William C. Robertson, Roberta Davis, Brian T. Gold, Frederick A. Schmitt, Elizabeth Head 2014 University of Kentucky

Frontal White Matter Integrity In Adults With Down Syndrome With And Without Dementia, David K. Powell, Allison Caban-Holt, Greg A. Jicha, William C. Robertson, Roberta Davis, Brian T. Gold, Frederick A. Schmitt, Elizabeth Head

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center Faculty Publications

Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease after the age of 40 years. To detect white matter (WM) changes in the brain linked to dementia, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging was used. We hypothesized that adults with DS without dementia (DS n = 10), DS with dementia (DSAD n = 10) and age matched non-DS subjects (CTL n = 10) would show differential levels of FA and an association with scores from the Brief Praxis Test and the Severe Impairment Battery. WM integrity differences in DS compared with CTL were found predominantly in the ...


The Regulator Of G Protein Signaling (Rgs) Domain Of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 (Grk5) Regulates Plasma Membrane Localization And Function., Hua Xu, Xiaoshan Jiang, Ke Shen, Christopher C. Fischer, Philip B Wedegaertner 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

The Regulator Of G Protein Signaling (Rgs) Domain Of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 (Grk5) Regulates Plasma Membrane Localization And Function., Hua Xu, Xiaoshan Jiang, Ke Shen, Christopher C. Fischer, Philip B Wedegaertner

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated GPCRs at the plasma membrane (PM). Here GRK5/GRK4 chimeras and point mutations in GRK5 identify a short sequence within the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain in GRK5 that is critical for GRK5 PM localization. This region of the RGS domain of GRK5 coincides with a region of GRK6 and GRK1 shown to form a hydrophobic dimeric interface (HDI) in crystal structures. Coimmunoprecipitation (coIP) and acceptor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays show that expressed GRK5 self-associates in cells, whereas GRK5-M165E/F166E (GRK5-EE), containing hydrophilic mutations in the HDI ...


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