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Frontal White Matter Integrity In Adults With Down Syndrome With And Without Dementia, David K. Powell, Allison Caban-Holt, Greg A. Jicha, William C. Robertson, Roberta Davis, Brian T. Gold, Frederick A. Schmitt, Elizabeth Head 2014 University of Kentucky

Frontal White Matter Integrity In Adults With Down Syndrome With And Without Dementia, David K. Powell, Allison Caban-Holt, Greg A. Jicha, William C. Robertson, Roberta Davis, Brian T. Gold, Frederick A. Schmitt, Elizabeth Head

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center Faculty Publications

Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease after the age of 40 years. To detect white matter (WM) changes in the brain linked to dementia, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging was used. We hypothesized that adults with DS without dementia (DS n = 10), DS with dementia (DSAD n = 10) and age matched non-DS subjects (CTL n = 10) would show differential levels of FA and an association with scores from the Brief Praxis Test and the Severe Impairment Battery. WM integrity differences in DS compared with CTL were found predominantly in the ...


Differential Regulation Of Iress In The Aurora A Mrna By Bfgf Through The Mtor Complex Torc2 Modulates Aurora A Kinase Expression, Roy L. Voice III 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

Differential Regulation Of Iress In The Aurora A Mrna By Bfgf Through The Mtor Complex Torc2 Modulates Aurora A Kinase Expression, Roy L. Voice Iii

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Identifying the mechanisms that contribute to tumorigenesis is a major area of focus in our fight against cancer. Epithelial malignant tumors, such as breast, colon, ovarian and pancreatic cancers have been shown to overexpress proteins that control cell mitosis, growth, and proliferation. One of those proteins is the Aurora A kinase. Aurora A kinase is a member of a small family of kinases that contribute to mitotic events such as centrosome duplication, separation, and maturation. Aurora A overexpression leads to genomic instability, which can contribute to tumorigenesis, on the other hand, inhibiting Aurora A expression leads to apoptosis, making it ...


9-Phenanthrol And Flufenamic Acid Inhibit Calcium Oscillations In Hl-1 Mouse Cardiomyocytes, Rees A. Burt 2014 East Tennessee State University

9-Phenanthrol And Flufenamic Acid Inhibit Calcium Oscillations In Hl-1 Mouse Cardiomyocytes, Rees A. Burt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Electrical potentials exist across the membranes of nearly every cell type in the body. In addition, excitable cells, such as neurons, myocytes and even some endocrine cells elicit electrochemical fluctuations, action potentials (AP), in the cell membrane to initiate cell-to-cell communication or intracellular processes. The basis for the electrical potential is rooted within an array of complex interactions between monovalent ions and their associated membrane channels and transporters that regulate the flux of these charged species across the hydrophobic bilayer. Here, an expansion of our recently published work [1] will serve to explore the modern concepts regarding the origin of ...


Tip150 Potential Interaction With Glycogen Synthase Kinase (Gsk)-3-Beta To Facilitate Cell Migration, Maryam Chaudhry 2014 Georgia State University

Tip150 Potential Interaction With Glycogen Synthase Kinase (Gsk)-3-Beta To Facilitate Cell Migration, Maryam Chaudhry

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Picrotoxin And Ethanol On Crayfish Escape And Central Motor Pattern Neural Circuits, Rebecca Bierman, Nathan Hardcastle, Colin Istvan 2014 Georgia State University

The Effects Of Picrotoxin And Ethanol On Crayfish Escape And Central Motor Pattern Neural Circuits, Rebecca Bierman, Nathan Hardcastle, Colin Istvan

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


L-Carnitine Supplementation: A Potential Treatment For Cancer Cachexia, Aaron Kwong, Obaidullah Khan, Katrina Fleming, Sina Moshiri, Muhammad Hashmi 2014 McMaster University

L-Carnitine Supplementation: A Potential Treatment For Cancer Cachexia, Aaron Kwong, Obaidullah Khan, Katrina Fleming, Sina Moshiri, Muhammad Hashmi

The Meducator

Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that exhibits rampant muscle wasting, unintentional weight loss, fatigue, weakness, and overall loss of appetite, none of which can be abated by an increase in caloric intake. Metabolic derailment by cachexia is so severe in cancer patients that it can shorten lifetime expectancy and lead to death before the course of treatment is finished. Etiology may involve proinflammatory cytokines, but the abnormal loss of muscle, protein, and fat suggests an underlying metabolic dysfunction that contributes to cachexia. Previous research has shown reduction of L-carnitine in cachectic patients and chemotherapy-induced damage to the L-carnitine transport system ...


Potential Therapies For Cystic Fibrosis: A Look At Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Correctors And Potentiators, Spencer G. Jones 2014 McMaster University

Potential Therapies For Cystic Fibrosis: A Look At Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Correctors And Potentiators, Spencer G. Jones

The Meducator

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is caused by a mutation of the anion channel termed the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Treatment for CF has improved over time; however, many therapies focus only on alleviating symptoms as they occur. There have been recent advances in therapies that repair mutant CFTR, including the administration of small molecules called CFTR modulators. CFTR modulators fall under two categories: correctors that prevent early degradation of CFTR and potentiators that increase conductance of existing CFTR. This review discusses the advantages of repairing mutant CFTR, some recent advances in treatment ...


Type 2 Diabetes: What Went Wrong With Insulin?, Kimia Sorouri, Ellen Liang 2014 McMaster University

Type 2 Diabetes: What Went Wrong With Insulin?, Kimia Sorouri, Ellen Liang

The Meducator

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is a pathological condition characterized by an inadequate response to insulin, a hormone responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. NIDDM comprises of 90-95% of all cases of diabetes.1

Normally, insulin is released by pancreatic beta cells into the bloodstream, acting on receptors found in tissues such as skeletal muscle and the liver.2 The binding of insulin to insulin receptors stimulates glucose uptake into cells and the storage of glucose as glycogen (glycogenesis).3 Evidence suggests that genetic mutations may increase susceptibility to NIDDM. Specifically, a reduction of insulin ...


Acute Brachial Artery Responses To Endurance And High-Intensity Interval Exercise In Young Healthy Males, Greg M. McGill 2014 McMaster University

Acute Brachial Artery Responses To Endurance And High-Intensity Interval Exercise In Young Healthy Males, Greg M. Mcgill

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Purpose: Habitual aerobic exercise improves vascular function; however, the acute vascular response to exercise is poorly understood. The present investigation compared the time course of acute changes in vascular function following two different types of aerobic exercise. Methods: Ten untrained males (23 ± 2 yrs) completed one bout of sustained moderate-intensity cycling (END) (30 mins at 55% peak power) or high-intensity interval (HIT) cycling (10 one-minute intervals at 80% peak power) on different days. Endothelium-dependent dilation was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (baFMD) at baseline, immediately post-exercise, 1 hour post-exercise and 24 hours post-exercise. Endothelium-independent dilation was assessed via nitroglycerin ...


The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua 2014 McMaster University

The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, and there has been growing insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory basis of this disease. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of asthma has progressively shifted focus from downstream effectors, such as mast cells and eosinophils, up to Th2 lymphocytes and their proallergic cytokines. Even more upstream in the allergic cascade are dendritic cells (DCs), potent APCs that orchestrate immune responses. Evidence supporting a role of DCs in regulating airway allergic inflammation is derived mainly from animal studies. In animal models of asthma, myeloid DCs (mDCs) induce and maintain ...


Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jovana Lubarda 2014 McMaster University

Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jovana Lubarda

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative movement disorder involving protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. The current dissertation, motivated by a lack of valid biomarkers and sustainable therapies, examined the potential application of a novel target for therapeutics and diagnostics of PD — the multifunctional, heat-shock like protein Catecholamine-Regulated Protein 40 (CRP40). The goal of this program of research was to elucidate further the implications of CRP40 in PD using a variety of molecular biology, bioinformatics, and clinical approaches through integrative collaborations with academia, government, and industry partners to translate scientific findings into real world solutions. Chapters 2 ...


Fibrocytes In Chronic Lung Disease, Shyam S. Maharaj 2014 McMaster University

Fibrocytes In Chronic Lung Disease, Shyam S. Maharaj

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

The focus of this thesis was the role of fibrocytes in chronic lung disease. These bone marrow derived cells have been identified in the lung and the circulation in patient samples and animal models of lung injury. However, the precise mechanistic role of the fibrocyte is still to be elucidated.

Live assessment of lung changes in animal models of chronic lung disease allows for real time observation of changes, and gives a readout which can be translated to humans who undergo similar tests. In this thesis, we adapted an existing model of lung injury, and delivered a discrete treatment to ...


Bcl2 Expression And Bcl2/Myc Dual Expression Predicts Inferior Survival In Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma, Guldeep Uppal, MD, Zi-Xuan (Zoe) Wang, PhD, Renu Bajaj, PhD, Mark T. Curtis, MD, PhD, Charalambos C. Solomides, MD, Jon Glass, MD, Peter M. Banks, Stephen C. Peiper, MD, Jerald Z. Gong, MD 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

Bcl2 Expression And Bcl2/Myc Dual Expression Predicts Inferior Survival In Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma, Guldeep Uppal, Md, Zi-Xuan (Zoe) Wang, Phd, Renu Bajaj, Phd, Mark T. Curtis, Md, Phd, Charalambos C. Solomides, Md, Jon Glass, Md, Peter M. Banks, Stephen C. Peiper, Md, Jerald Z. Gong, Md

Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Resident's Posters

Background

Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arising from and usually confined to CNS. Understating of the pathogenesis and prognostic markers is a challenge due to rarity of this neoplasm and paucity of the material available to study. Recent studies have shown that dual expression of MYC and BCL2 in DLBCL contributes to inferior overall survival. The prognostic value of MYC and BCL2 in PCNSL is not well studied.


Interleukin-7-Dependent B Lymphocytes Are Required For The Anti-Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Response And Protective Immunity To Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Gregory S. Dickinson, PhD, Raja Vuyyuru, Timothy L. Manser, PhD, John F. Kerney, Kishore Alugupalli, PhD 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

Interleukin-7-Dependent B Lymphocytes Are Required For The Anti-Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Response And Protective Immunity To Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Gregory S. Dickinson, Phd, Raja Vuyyuru, Timothy L. Manser, Phd, John F. Kerney, Kishore Alugupalli, Phd

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Unlike human adults or adult mice, young children or young mice respond poorly to pneumococcal polysaccharides (PPS). In mice, B1b lymphocytes are the major responders to a variety of bacterial polysaccharides including PPS. Despite having B1b cells, young mice are severely impaired in responding to PPS, suggesting that B cells in the young are distinct from those in adults. Since B lymphopoeisis early in life is largely Interleukin-7 (IL-7)-independent, while in adults it is IL-7-dependent, we hypothesize that B cells developed in the presence of IL-7 are required for generating anti-PPS antibody responses. In support of this, we found ...


Bisphenol A Exposure And Cardiac Electrical Conduction In Excised Rat Hearts, Nikki G. Posnack, Rafael Jaimes III, Huda Asfour, Luther Swift, Anastasia M. Wengrowski, Narine Sarvazyan, Matthew Kay 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

Bisphenol A Exposure And Cardiac Electrical Conduction In Excised Rat Hearts, Nikki G. Posnack, Rafael Jaimes Iii, Huda Asfour, Luther Swift, Anastasia M. Wengrowski, Narine Sarvazyan, Matthew Kay

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are widely used in everyday products, such as food and beverage containers, toys and medical devices. Human biomonitoring studies have suggested that a large proportion of the population may be exposed to BPA. Recent epidemiological studies have reported correlations between increased BPA urinary concentrations and cardiovascular disease; yet the direct effects of BPA on the heart are unknown.

OBJECTIVES:

The goal of our studies was to measure BPA's effect (0.1-100 μM) on cardiac impulse propagation ex vivo, using excised whole hearts from adult rats ...


An Immunomics Approach To Schistosome Antigen Discovery: Antibody Signatures Of Naturally Resistant And Chronically Infected Individuals From Endemic Areas, Soraya Gaze, Patrick Driguez, Mark S. Pearson, Tiago Mendes, Denise L. Doolan, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +14 additional authors 2014 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

An Immunomics Approach To Schistosome Antigen Discovery: Antibody Signatures Of Naturally Resistant And Chronically Infected Individuals From Endemic Areas, Soraya Gaze, Patrick Driguez, Mark S. Pearson, Tiago Mendes, Denise L. Doolan, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +14 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that is responsible for almost 300,000 deaths annually. Mass drug administration (MDA) is used worldwide for the control of schistosomiasis, but chemotherapy fails to prevent reinfection with schistosomes, so MDA alone is not sufficient to eliminate the disease, and a prophylactic vaccine is required. Herein, we take advantage of recent advances in systems biology and longitudinal studies in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Brazil to pilot an immunomics approach to the discovery of schistosomiasis vaccine antigens. We selected mostly surface-derived proteins, produced them using an in vitro rapid translation system and then printed them ...


Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance And Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Patients Treated With Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: Predictors And Clinically Correlated Evidence Of Neuroplasticity, Kathryn Y. Manning 2014 Western University

Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance And Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Patients Treated With Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: Predictors And Clinically Correlated Evidence Of Neuroplasticity, Kathryn Y. Manning

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hemiplegic cerebral palsy is characterized by unilateral upper limb impairment and patients often compensate by performing most tasks with their unaffected arm. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) directly combats this learned non-use by casting the unaffected arm and forcing the patient to repetitively practice skills with the hemiplegic limb. Subjects with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were recruited from Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Thames Valley Children’s Centre and McMaster Children’s Hospital. MRI acquisitions and clinical evaluations were collected at baseline, 1 and 6-months later. The case group participated in a CIMT camp after baseline evaluations and was compared to an ...


Quantitative Susceptibility Imaging Of Tissue Microstructure Using Ultra-High Field Mri, David A. Rudko 2014 Western University

Quantitative Susceptibility Imaging Of Tissue Microstructure Using Ultra-High Field Mri, David A. Rudko

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis has used ultra-high field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the fundamental relationships between tissue microstructure and such susceptibility-based contrast parameters as the apparent transverse relaxation rate (R2*), the local Larmor frequency shift (LFS) and quantitative volume magnetic susceptibility (QS). The interaction of magnetic fields with biological tissues results in shifts in the LFS which can be used to distinguish underlying cellular architecture. The LFS is also linked to the relaxation properties of tissues in a gradient echo MRI sequence. Equally relevant, histological analysis has identified iron and myelin as two major sources of the LFS ...


Autoantibodies To Agrin In Myasthenia Gravis Patients, Bin Zhang, Chengyong Shen, Beverly Bealmear, Samia Ragheb, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Richard A. Lewis, Robert P. Lisak, Lin Mei 2014 Wayne State University

Autoantibodies To Agrin In Myasthenia Gravis Patients, Bin Zhang, Chengyong Shen, Beverly Bealmear, Samia Ragheb, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Richard A. Lewis, Robert P. Lisak, Lin Mei

Immunology and Microbiology Faculty Research Publications

To determine if patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) have antibodies to agrin, a proteoglycan released by motor neurons and is critical for neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation, we collected serum samples from 93 patients with MG with known status of antibodies to acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle specific kinase (MuSK) and lipoprotein-related 4 (LRP4) and samples from control subjects (healthy individuals and individuals with other diseases). Sera were assayed for antibodies to agrin. We found antibodies to agrin in 7 serum samples of MG patients. None of the 25 healthy controls and none of the 55 control neurological patients had agrin antibodies ...


Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-1 As A Novel Target For The Antiangiogenic Treatment Of Breast Cancer, Cecilia L. Speyer, Ali H. Hachem, Ali A. Assi, Jennifer S. Johnson, John Austin Devries, David H. Gorski 2014 Wayne State University

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-1 As A Novel Target For The Antiangiogenic Treatment Of Breast Cancer, Cecilia L. Speyer, Ali H. Hachem, Ali A. Assi, Jennifer S. Johnson, John Austin Devries, David H. Gorski

Department of Surgery

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are normally expressed in the central nervous system, where they mediate neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Certain cancers, including melanoma and gliomas, express various mGluR subtypes that have been implicated as playing a role in disease progression. Recently, we detected metabotropic glutamate receptor-1 (gene: GRM1; protein: mGluR1) in breast cancer and found that it plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor growth. In addition to cancer cells, brain endothelial cells express mGluR1. In light of these studies, and because angiogenesis is both a prognostic indicator in cancer correlating with a poorer prognosis ...


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