Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

12,608 Full-Text Articles 32,988 Authors 2,150,366 Downloads 239 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Sciences

Faceted Search

12,608 full-text articles. Page 1 of 470.

Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee 2019 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The NLRC4 inflammasome is a crucial part of the innate immune response against bacterial infections. We found that NLRC4 inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) is greatly dependent on interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8). NLRC4-mediated caspase-1 activation and subsequent production of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and cell death were impaired in IRF8-deficient cells. IRF8 mediated the transcription of genes encoding NAIPs, the receptors for NLRC4 inflammasome, which recognize bacterial flagellin and type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins. IRF8 was critical for host survival following infection with Salmonella Typhimurium or Burkholderia thailandensis. Furthermore, mice deficient in IRF8 were ...


The Myth Of "It's All In Your Head", 2019 DePaul University

The Myth Of "It's All In Your Head"

DePaul Magazine

Researchers at DePaul's Center for Community Research are mapping the brain to uncover the causes of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Psychologist Leonard Jason has been carrying out community-based epidemiology prevalence studies that show that about one million Americans, many of them from ethnic minorities, are afflicted with the condition.


Protein Carbonylation Of An Amino Acid Residue Of The Na/K‐Atpase Α1 Subunit Determines Na/K‐Atpase Signaling And Sodium Transport In Renal Proximal Tubular Cells, Yanling Yan, Anna P. Shapiro, Brahma R. Mopidevi, Muhammad Chaudhry, Kyle Maxwell, Steven T. Haller, Christopher A. Drummond, David J. Keendey, Jiang Tian, Deepak Malhorta, Zijian Xie, Joseph I. Shapiro MD, Jiang Liu 2019 Marshall University

Protein Carbonylation Of An Amino Acid Residue Of The Na/K‐Atpase Α1 Subunit Determines Na/K‐Atpase Signaling And Sodium Transport In Renal Proximal Tubular Cells, Yanling Yan, Anna P. Shapiro, Brahma R. Mopidevi, Muhammad Chaudhry, Kyle Maxwell, Steven T. Haller, Christopher A. Drummond, David J. Keendey, Jiang Tian, Deepak Malhorta, Zijian Xie, Joseph I. Shapiro Md, Jiang Liu

Muhammad Chaudhry

Background We have demonstrated that cardiotonic steroids, such as ouabain, signaling through the Na/K‐ATPase, regulate sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. By direct carbonylation modification of the Pro222 residue in the actuator (A) domain of pig Na/K‐ATPase α1 subunit, reactive oxygen species are required for ouabain‐stimulated Na/K‐ATPase/c‐Src signaling and subsequent regulation of active transepithelial 22Na+ transport. In the present study we sought to determine the functional role of Pro222 carbonylation in Na/K‐ATPase signaling and sodium handling.

Methods and Results Stable pig α1 knockdown LLC‐PK1‐originated PY ...


Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2019 Marshall University

Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Muhammad Chaudhry

Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the generation and maintenance of an obesity phenotype in both isolated adipocytes and intact animals. Because we had identified that the Na/K-ATPase can amplify oxidant signaling, we speculated that a peptide designed to inhibit this pathway, pNaKtide, might ameliorate an obesity phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we first performed studies in isolated murine preadipocytes (3T3L1 cells) and found that pNaKtide attenuated oxidant stress and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Complementary experiments in C57Bl6 mice ...


Effect Of Different Collegiate Sports On Cortical Bone In The Tibia, L. A. Weidauer, M. M. Eilers, T. L. Binkley, M. D. Vukovich, B. L. Specker 2019 South Dakota State University

Effect Of Different Collegiate Sports On Cortical Bone In The Tibia, L. A. Weidauer, M. M. Eilers, T. L. Binkley, M. D. Vukovich, B. L. Specker

Lee Weidauer

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sports participation on cortical bone in the tibia. Methods: 53 female collegiate athletes (25 cross-country, 16 soccer, and 12 volleyball) and 20 inactive controls had the left distal 20% tibia scanned by pQCT. Cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD) was measured within the cortical shell at the anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral regions and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Total vBMD was greater in the control group (1161±5 mg/mm3) than each of the sports (p<0.05). Soccer players (1147±5 mg/mm3) had greater vBMD than volleyball players (1136±7 mg/mm3) (p<0.05), but similar to cross-country runners (1145±5 mg/mm3). Cortical thickness was greatest in soccer players (4.1±0.1 mm), while cross-country and control subjects (3.8±0.1 mm) had greater thickness than volleyball players (3.4±0.1 mm)(p<0.05). Periosteal circumference was greater in volleyball players (71±1.4 mm) than soccer, cross-country, and control subjects (68±0.9, 69±0.8, and 66±1 mm, respectively; all, p<0.05). vBMD variation within the cortical shell was greater among control subjects (70±6 mg/cm3) than each of the athlete groups, with soccer players having lower variation than cross country runners (within-in person SD 36±6 mg/cm3 and 54±5 mg/cm3 respectively; p<0.05). Conclusion: These results indicate bone geometry and distribution within the cortical shell of ...


Exoskeletons: Used As Ppe For Injury Prevention, Terry Butler, Jason C. Gillette 2019 Lean Steps Consulting

Exoskeletons: Used As Ppe For Injury Prevention, Terry Butler, Jason C. Gillette

Jason C Gillette

THIS ARTICLE FOCUSES ON THE PREVENTION of shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) commonly associated with muscle fatigue and repetitive overuse in an occupational setting. The authors’ purpose and motivation are the potential consideration of exoskeletons as PPE for shoulder injury prevention


Systematic Literature Review Of Quetiapine For The Treatment Of Psychosis In Patients With Parkinsonism, Jack J. Chen, Henry Hua, Lilian Massihi, Ivan Portillo, Azita Alipour, William Ondo, Khashayar Dashtipour 2019 American University of Health Sciences

Systematic Literature Review Of Quetiapine For The Treatment Of Psychosis In Patients With Parkinsonism, Jack J. Chen, Henry Hua, Lilian Massihi, Ivan Portillo, Azita Alipour, William Ondo, Khashayar Dashtipour

Library Articles and Research

Objective:

The purpose of this article was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine compared with placebo or other interventions for psychosis in parkinsonism.

Methods:

Participants with a diagnosis of parkinsonism participated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine for psychotic symptoms within a defined follow-up period. The authors conducted searches on PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, and EMBASE for articles published from January 1991 to October 2017. Study methodology and patient- and treatment-level data were independently extracted and summarized by using descriptive statistics. Studies underwent quality assessment for risk of bias.

Results ...


Estimating Relationships Between Phenotypes And Subjects Drawn From Admixed Families., Elizabeth M. Blue, Lisa A. Brown, Matthew P. Conomos, Jennifer L. Kirk, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Alice B. Popejoy, Jesse Raffa, John Ranola, Ellen M. Wijsman, Timothy Thornton 2019 Marshall University

Estimating Relationships Between Phenotypes And Subjects Drawn From Admixed Families., Elizabeth M. Blue, Lisa A. Brown, Matthew P. Conomos, Jennifer L. Kirk, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Alice B. Popejoy, Jesse Raffa, John Ranola, Ellen M. Wijsman, Timothy Thornton

Alejandro Nato

Background: Estimating relationships among subjects in a sample, within family structures or caused by population substructure, is complicated in admixed populations. Inaccurate allele frequencies can bias both kinship estimates and tests for association between subjects and a phenotype. We analyzed the simulated and real family data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 19, and were aware of the simulation model.

Results: We found that kinship estimation is more accurate when marker data include common variants whose frequencies are less variable across populations. Estimates of heritability and association vary with age for longitudinally measured traits. Accounting for local ancestry identified different true associations ...


Identity-By-Descent Estimation With Population- And Pedigree-Based Imputation In Admixed Family Data, Mohamad Saad, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Fiona L. Grimson, Steven M. Lewis, Lisa A. Brown, Elizabeth M. Blue, Timothy A. Thornton, Elizabeth A. Thompson, Ellen M. Wijsman 2019 Marshall University

Identity-By-Descent Estimation With Population- And Pedigree-Based Imputation In Admixed Family Data, Mohamad Saad, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Fiona L. Grimson, Steven M. Lewis, Lisa A. Brown, Elizabeth M. Blue, Timothy A. Thornton, Elizabeth A. Thompson, Ellen M. Wijsman

Alejandro Nato

Background: In the past few years, imputation approaches have been mainly used in population-based designs of genome-wide association studies, although both family- and population-based imputation methods have been proposed. With the recent surge of family-based designs, family-based imputation has become more important. Imputation methods for both designs are based on identity-by-descent (IBD) information. Apart from imputation, the use of IBD information is also common for several types of genetic analysis, including pedigree-based linkage analysis.

Methods: We compared the performance of several family- and population-based imputation methods in large pedigrees provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19). We also evaluated the ...


Mapping Genes With Longitudinal Phenotypes Via Bayesian Posterior Probabilities, Anthony Musolf, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Douglas Londono, Lisheng Zhou, Tara C. Matise, Derek Gordon 2019 Marshall University

Mapping Genes With Longitudinal Phenotypes Via Bayesian Posterior Probabilities, Anthony Musolf, Alejandro Q. Nato Jr., Douglas Londono, Lisheng Zhou, Tara C. Matise, Derek Gordon

Alejandro Nato

Most association studies focus on disease risk, with less attention paid to disease progression or severity. These phenotypes require longitudinal data. This paper presents a new method for analyzing longitudinal data to map genes in both population-based and family-based studies. Using simulated systolic blood pressure measurements obtained from Genetic Analysis Workshop 18, we cluster the phenotype data into trajectory subgroups. We then use the Bayesian posterior probability of being in the high subgroup as a quantitative trait in an association analysis with genotype data. This method maintains high power (>80%) in locating genes known to affect the simulated phenotype for ...


Table Of Contents, 2019 University of South Carolina

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


New Insights On Age-Related Hearing Loss, Judy R. Dubno 2019 Medical University of South Carolina

New Insights On Age-Related Hearing Loss, Judy R. Dubno

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Updates On Epigenetic Alterations To Brca1: Chemosensitivities, Haley Blum 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Updates On Epigenetic Alterations To Brca1: Chemosensitivities, Haley Blum

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) is a human tumor suppressor gene encoding the BRCA1 protein that maintains genomic integrity. Molecular events may contribute to the loss of BRCA1 function, contributing to site specific tumorigenesis. Loss of BRCA1 function may arise from mutation or epigenetic events. Germline mutations of BRCA1 have been thoroughly implicated in heritable breast and ovarian cancers. More recently, sporadic breast cancer has been shown to be driven by epigenetic alterations to the BRCA1 promoter region, specifically methylation. Breast carcinomas that present with BRCA1 promoter methylation have been associated with triple negative breast cancers, as well as ...


The Effect Of Arm Swing On Countermovement Vertical Jump Performance, Arash Mohammadzadeh Gonabadi 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Effect Of Arm Swing On Countermovement Vertical Jump Performance, Arash Mohammadzadeh Gonabadi

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Vertical jumping is one of the popular ways to evaluate ankle-knee efficiency in athletic population. Arm swing can play a crucial role in enhancing vertical jump performance. This study aimed to address the differences in kinetic and kinematic parameters during countermovement jump motion with arm swing (AS) and no arm swing (NAS). We used OpenSim to examine the efficacy of AS in reducing the impulse applied to the body and changes in range of lower limb joint angles at landing instant. We calculated the maximum vertical peak of the ground reaction force and impulse generated at landing in two different ...


Estimating Variations In Metabolic Cost Within The Stride Cycle During Level And Uphill Walking, Arash Mohammadzadeh Gonabadi 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Estimating Variations In Metabolic Cost Within The Stride Cycle During Level And Uphill Walking, Arash Mohammadzadeh Gonabadi

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Indirect calorimetry provides the average cost of a stride cycle and prevents from identifying which part of the gait cycle causes increased metabolic cost in patients, however, recent simulation methods allow estimating the time profile of metabolic cost within the stride cycle. In this study, we compare the estimations of the time profile of the metabolic cost of two simulation methods for level and uphill walking. We used kinematic, kinetic and electromyography data from level and uphill walking (one participant) to estimate the time profiles of metabolic cost using the muscle-level metabolic model of Umberger using electromyography and kinematic data ...


The Effects Of A 12-Week Jump Rope Exercise Program On Abdominal Adiposity, Vasoactive Substances, Inflammation & Vascular Function In Prehypertensive Adolescent Girls, Ronald Headid 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Effects Of A 12-Week Jump Rope Exercise Program On Abdominal Adiposity, Vasoactive Substances, Inflammation & Vascular Function In Prehypertensive Adolescent Girls, Ronald Headid

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Childhood obesity is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. It is necessary to combat unfavorable outcomes of obesity at a young age by utilizing effective interventions, such as exercise. Purpose: We sought to examine the effects of a jump rope exercise program on CVD risk factors, including body composition, vasoactive substances, inflammation, and vascular function in prehypertensive adolescent girls. Methods: Forty girls (age 14-16) were recruited and randomly assigned to a jump rope exercise group (EX, n=20) or control group (CON, n=20). Body composition, nitrate and nitrite levels, endothelin-1 (ET-1), c-reactive protein (CRP), systolic blood pressure and ...


An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Stimulants are a class of drugs that have a variety of effects on the brain, including changes in receptor activity in the brain areas responsible for- memory, attention, emotion, motor control, and the reward pathway. Stimulants may be generally classified by their availability. For example, prescription stimulants, which include drugs such as methylphenidate (Concerta™, Ritalin™) and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall™), must be prescribed by medical professionals. Another regulated stimulant, albeit one available without a prescription, is nicotine; a highly addictive chemical that is age-restricted by the U.S. federal government. Nicotine is found in tobacco products, and in tobacco-free alternatives ...


The Energy Paradox Of The Ankle-Foot Complex During Human Walking, Nikolaos Papachatzis, KOTA TAKAHASHI 2019 Department of Biomechanics

The Energy Paradox Of The Ankle-Foot Complex During Human Walking, Nikolaos Papachatzis, Kota Takahashi

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) is a multiarticular muscle that possesses the potential to alter foot’s functional and mechanical behavior, since it performs multiple significant functions during walking (e.g supports the medial longitudinal arch of the foot).The purpose of this study was to determine if the functional changes of the FHL are associated with the foot’s adaptations to the mechanical demands of walking. Backward walking is an experimental method capable of altering how the forces propagate underneath the foot and disrupting the mechanical function of the FHL muscle. We hypothesized that: (1) the muscle activity of the ...


Large Scale Dynamical Model Of Macrophage/Hiv Interactions, Sean T. Bresnahan, Matthew M. Froid 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Large Scale Dynamical Model Of Macrophage/Hiv Interactions, Sean T. Bresnahan, Matthew M. Froid

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Properties emerge from the dynamics of large-scale molecular networks that are not discernible at the individual gene or protein level. Mathematical models - such as probabilistic Boolean networks - of molecular systems offer a deeper insight into how these emergent properties arise. Here, we introduce a non-linear, deterministic Boolean model of protein, gene, and chemical interactions in human macrophage cells during HIV infection. Our model is composed of 713 nodes with 1583 interactions between nodes and is responsive to 38 different inputs including signaling molecules, bacteria, viruses, and HIV viral particles. Additionally, the model accurately simulates the dynamics of over 50 different ...


Impacts Of Dietary Nitrate On Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness, And Systemic Vascular Pressure In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Steven D. Scott, Ronald J. Headid III, Michael D. Shukis, Jeonghwa Shin, Jiwon Song, Song-Young Park 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Impacts Of Dietary Nitrate On Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness, And Systemic Vascular Pressure In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Steven D. Scott, Ronald J. Headid Iii, Michael D. Shukis, Jeonghwa Shin, Jiwon Song, Song-Young Park

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the manifestation of atherosclerotic plaque in the larger arteries of the legs, which results in impaired blood flow to the lower extremities. Markers of vascular health, including endothelial function and arterial stiffness, have been shown to be attenuated in PAD.

Purpose: We sought to examine the effects of a nitrate supplement (body mass-normalized dosage of beetroot juice) on vascular function measurements such as endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and central and peripheral blood pressure in patients with PAD. We hypothesized that acute intake of a nitrate supplement would improve vascular function.

Methods: PAD patients (stage II-III ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress