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Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Addressing Hydrocephaly In Viet Nam: A Plausible Prevention And Intervention Medical Support Program Proposal, Chelle McIntyre-Brewer 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Addressing Hydrocephaly In Viet Nam: A Plausible Prevention And Intervention Medical Support Program Proposal, Chelle Mcintyre-Brewer

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Families affected by hydrocephalus in Viet Nam have few options for sustainable treatment for a myriad of reasons, primarily centering on barriers to care prevalent to minority, underserved, and economically disadvantaged populations. High morbidity and abandonment rates often result from these circumstances. An interdisciplinary examination of the factors contributing to causal concerns reveals unique cultural considerations, language and literacy barriers, ethnic and geographic differences, as well as economic and governmental issues greatly impacting patient outcome for this condition. The author contends that a program that addresses sociological concerns, along with the medical treatment of the patient, proffers the opportunity for ...


Silencing Of The Pink1 Gene Expression By Conditional Rnai Does Not Induce Dopaminergic Neuron Death In Mice., Hongxia Zhou, Björn H Falkenburger, Jörg B Schulz, Kim Tieu, Zuoshang Xu, Xu Gang Xia 2018 Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University

Silencing Of The Pink1 Gene Expression By Conditional Rnai Does Not Induce Dopaminergic Neuron Death In Mice., Hongxia Zhou, Björn H Falkenburger, Jörg B Schulz, Kim Tieu, Zuoshang Xu, Xu Gang Xia

Kim Tieu

Transgenic RNAi, an alternative to the gene knockout approach, can induce hypomorphic phenotypes that resemble those of the gene knockout in mice. Conditional transgenic RNAi is an attractive choice of method for reverse genetics in vivo because it can achieve temporal and spatial silencing of targeted genes. Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used to drive the expression of RNAi transgenes in animals. Tested in transgenic mice, a Cre-loxP inducible U6 promoter drove the broad expression of an shRNA against the Pink1 gene whose loss-of-functional mutations cause one form of familial Parkinson's disease. The expression of the ...


Disparities In Healthcare Coverage And Utilization After Expanded Dependent Coverage, Tina Hernandez-Boussard, Doug E. Morrison, Lu Tian, Sanjay Basu 2018 Stanford University

Disparities In Healthcare Coverage And Utilization After Expanded Dependent Coverage, Tina Hernandez-Boussard, Doug E. Morrison, Lu Tian, Sanjay Basu

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background. A goal of expanding insurance coverage is reducing racial disparities in healthcare utilization, however the effects of such expansions under the affordable care act (ACA) on disparities remain unclear. The 2010 dependent coverage expansion provided an opportunity to evaluate disparities following a major coverage expansion.

Objectives. We sought to understand changes in emergency department (ED)utilization following a major insurance expansion, the 2010 dependent coverage expansion.

Research Design. We present changes in coverage and utilization among young adults (19-25 years old) before and after the dependent coverage expansion, compared to a control group (26-31 years old) unaffected by the ...


Pediatric Obesity: Influence On Drug Dosing And Therapeutics, Barbara Ameer PharmD, MBA, BCPS, FCP, Michael Weintraub MD 2018 Rutgers – Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

Pediatric Obesity: Influence On Drug Dosing And Therapeutics, Barbara Ameer Pharmd, Mba, Bcps, Fcp, Michael Weintraub Md

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Obesity is an ongoing global health concern and has only recently been recognized as a chronic disease of energy homeostasis and fuel partitioning. Obesity afflicts 17% of US children and adolescents. Severe obesity (³120% of the 95th percentile of BMI-for-age, or a BMI of ³35 kg/m2) is the fastest growing subgroup and now approaches 6% of all US youth. Health consequences (e.g., type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease) are related in a dose-dependent manner to severity of obesity. Since therapeutic interventions are less effective in severe obesity, prevention is a high priority.

Treatment plans involving combinations ...


Representing Diversity In The Dish: Using Patient-Derived In Vitro Models To Recreate The Heterogeneity Of Neurological Disease, Layla T. Ghaffari, Alexander Starr, Andrew T. Nelson, Rita Sattler 2018 Barrow Neurological Institute, Dignity Health-St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center

Representing Diversity In The Dish: Using Patient-Derived In Vitro Models To Recreate The Heterogeneity Of Neurological Disease, Layla T. Ghaffari, Alexander Starr, Andrew T. Nelson, Rita Sattler

Department of Neuroscience

Neurological diseases, including dementias such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) and degenerative motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are responsible for an increasing fraction of worldwide fatalities. Researching these heterogeneous diseases requires models that endogenously express the full array of genetic and epigenetic factors which may influence disease development in both familial and sporadic patients. Here, we discuss the two primary methods of developing patient-derived neurons and glia to model neurodegenerative disease: reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are differentiated into neurons or glial cells, or directly converting (DC ...


Preclinical Evaluation And Reverse Phase Protein Array-Based Profiling Of Pi3k And Mek Inhibitors In Endometrial Carcinoma In Vitro., Ozlem Aslan, Mattia Cremona, Clare Morgan, Lydia W Cheung, Gordon B. Mills, Bryan T. Hennessy 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Preclinical Evaluation And Reverse Phase Protein Array-Based Profiling Of Pi3k And Mek Inhibitors In Endometrial Carcinoma In Vitro., Ozlem Aslan, Mattia Cremona, Clare Morgan, Lydia W Cheung, Gordon B. Mills, Bryan T. Hennessy

Molecular Medicine Articles

BACKGROUND: The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is the most commonly activated pathway in cancers due to mutations at multiple nodes and loss of PTEN. Furthermore, in endometrial cancer (EC), PI3K and RAS/RAF/MEK/MAPK (RAS/MAPK herein) pathway mutations frequently co-exist. We examined the role of PI3K and RAS/MAPK pathway mutations in determining responsiveness to therapies targeted to these pathways in vitro in EC.

METHODS: 13 EC cell lines were profiled for their PI3K pathway and KRAS mutational and PTEN protein status and treated with one MEK- and two PI3K- targeted inhibitors alone and in combination. Expression and phosphorylation ...


Breaking Symmetry In Viral Icosahedral Capsids As Seen Through The Lenses Of X-Ray Crystallography And Cryo-Electron Microscopy., Kristin N. Parent, Jason R. Schrad, Gino Cingolani 2018 Michigan State University

Breaking Symmetry In Viral Icosahedral Capsids As Seen Through The Lenses Of X-Ray Crystallography And Cryo-Electron Microscopy., Kristin N. Parent, Jason R. Schrad, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The majority of viruses on Earth form capsids built by multiple copies of one or more types of a coat protein arranged with 532 symmetry, generating an icosahedral shell. This highly repetitive structure is ideal to closely pack identical protein subunits and to enclose the nucleic acid genomes. However, the icosahedral capsid is not merely a passive cage but undergoes dynamic events to promote packaging, maturation and the transfer of the viral genome into the host. These essential processes are often mediated by proteinaceous complexes that interrupt the shell's icosahedral symmetry, providing a gateway through the capsid. In this ...


Predicting Risk Factors Of Working Aged Hemorrhagic Stroke Patients In A Tertiary Teaching Hospital In Chiang Mai, Suphannee Triamvisit, Wilaiwan Chongruksut, Wanarak Watcharasaksilp, Rujee Rattanasathien 2018 Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Predicting Risk Factors Of Working Aged Hemorrhagic Stroke Patients In A Tertiary Teaching Hospital In Chiang Mai, Suphannee Triamvisit, Wilaiwan Chongruksut, Wanarak Watcharasaksilp, Rujee Rattanasathien

Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal

Stroke is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Thailand accounting for a significant and increasing share of hospital costs. The purpose of this project is to study the epidemiology of the prevalence and its predicting factors of working aged hemorrhagic stroke (HS) patients admitted at a tertiary teaching hospital in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

We conducted a five-year retrospective descriptive study. The subjects in this study were patients diagnosed with HS, between 15-59 years of age, and admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital in Chiang Mai, Thailand from January 2009 to December 2013. A total of 404 ...


Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Closed-Loop Stimulation Of Temporal Cortex Rescues Functional Networks And Improves Memory, Yousseff Ezzyat, Paul A. Wanda, Deborah F. Levy, Allison Kadel, Ada Aka, Isaac Pedisich, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini D. Sharan, Bradley C. Lega, Alexis Burks, Robert E. Gross, Cory S. Inman, Barbara C. Jobst, Mark A. Gorenstein

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Memory failures are frustrating and often the result of ineffective encoding. One approach to improving memory outcomes is through direct modulation of brain activity with electrical stimulation. Previous efforts, however, have reported inconsistent effects when using open-loop stimulation and often target the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes. Here we use a closed-loop system to monitor and decode neural activity from direct brain recordings in humans. We apply targeted stimulation to lateral temporal cortex and report that this stimulation rescues periods of poor memory encoding. This system also improves later recall, revealing that the lateral temporal cortex is a reliable target ...


Genome-Wide Profiling Reveals Functional Diversification Of ∆Fosb Gene Targets In The Hippocampus Of An Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model., Jason C. You, Gabriel S. Stephens, Chia-Hsuan Fu, Xiaohong Zhang, Yin Liu, Jeannie Chin 2018 Thomas Jefferson University; Baylor College of Medicine

Genome-Wide Profiling Reveals Functional Diversification Of ∆Fosb Gene Targets In The Hippocampus Of An Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model., Jason C. You, Gabriel S. Stephens, Chia-Hsuan Fu, Xiaohong Zhang, Yin Liu, Jeannie Chin

Department of Neuroscience

The activity-induced transcription factor ∆FosB has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a critical regulator of hippocampal function and cognition downstream of seizures and network hyperexcitability. With its long half-life (> 1 week), ∆FosB is well-poised to modulate hippocampal gene expression over extended periods of time, enabling effects to persist even during seizure-free periods. However, the transcriptional mechanisms by which ∆FosB regulates hippocampal function are poorly understood due to lack of identified hippocampal gene targets. To identify putative ∆FosB gene targets, we employed high-throughput sequencing of genomic DNA bound to ∆FosB after chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-sequencing). We compared ChIP-sequencing results ...


Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper, James S Schwaber 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper, James S Schwaber

Mary Staehle

BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use changes the brain's inflammatory state. However, there is little work examining the progression of the cytokine response during alcohol withdrawal, a period of profound autonomic and emotional upset. This study examines the inflammatory response in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC), brain regions neuroanatomically associated with affective and cardiorespiratory regulation in an in vivo rat model of withdrawal following a single chronic exposure.

METHODS: For qRT-PCR studies, we measured the expression of TNF-α, NOS-2, Ccl2 (MCP-1), MHC II invariant chain CD74, and the TNF receptor Tnfrsf1a in CeA and ...


In-Home Delivery Of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Via Virtual Reality Gaming, Alexandra L. Borstad, Roger Crawfis, Kala Phillips, Linda Pax Lowes, David Maung, Ryan McPherson, Amelia Siles, Lise Worthen-Chaudhari, Lynne V. Gauthier 2018 College of St. Scholastica

In-Home Delivery Of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Via Virtual Reality Gaming, Alexandra L. Borstad, Roger Crawfis, Kala Phillips, Linda Pax Lowes, David Maung, Ryan Mcpherson, Amelia Siles, Lise Worthen-Chaudhari, Lynne V. Gauthier

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: People with chronic hemiparesis are frequently dissatisfied with the recovery of their hand and arm, yet many lack access to effective treatments. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI therapy) effectively increases arm function and spontaneous use in persons with chronic hemiparesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and measure safety and outcomes of an in-home model of delivering CI therapy using a custom, avatar-based virtual reality game.

Methods: Seventeen individuals with chronic hemiparesis participated in this pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design study. The 10-day intervention had three components: 1) high-repetition motor practice using virtual reality gaming; 2) constraint ...


Physiological And Cognitive Factors Related To Human Performance During The Grand Canyon Rim-To-Rim Hike, Kristin Divis, Clifford Anderson-Bergman, Robert Abbott, Victoria Newton, Glory Emmanuel-Aviña 2018 Sandia National Laboratories, NM

Physiological And Cognitive Factors Related To Human Performance During The Grand Canyon Rim-To-Rim Hike, Kristin Divis, Clifford Anderson-Bergman, Robert Abbott, Victoria Newton, Glory Emmanuel-Aviña

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Exposure to extreme environments is both mentally and physically taxing, leading to suboptimal performance and even life-threatening emergencies. Physiological and cognitive monitoring could provide the earliest indicator of performance decline and inform appropriate therapeutic intervention, yet little research has explored the relationship between these markers in strenuous settings. The Rim-to-Rim Wearables at the Canyon for Health (R2RWATCH) study is a research project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency to identify which physiological and cognitive phenomena collected by non-invasive wearable devices are the most related to performance in extreme environments. In a pilot study, data were ...


Arylquinoline And Analog Compounds And Use Thereof To Treat Cancer, David S. Watt, Chunming Liu, Vivek M. Rangnekar, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Ravshan Burikhanov, Wen Zhang 2018 University of Kentucky

Arylquinoline And Analog Compounds And Use Thereof To Treat Cancer, David S. Watt, Chunming Liu, Vivek M. Rangnekar, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Ravshan Burikhanov, Wen Zhang

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Patents

The subject technology relates to arylquinoline compounds and their use for treating cancer or cancer metastasis. The compounds of the subject technology promote cells to secrete a pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor, i.e., prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), which in turn promote apoptosis in cancer cells or metastatic cells.


Sertraline, Paroxetine, And Chlorpromazine Are Rapidly Acting Anthelmintic Drugs Capable Of Clinical Repurposing., Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, John M Hawdon, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Sertraline, Paroxetine, And Chlorpromazine Are Rapidly Acting Anthelmintic Drugs Capable Of Clinical Repurposing., Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, John M Hawdon, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults. These drugs act rapidly to inhibit C. elegans feeding within minutes of exposure. Sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine also decrease motility of adult Trichuris muris whipworms, prevent hatching ...


Determinants Of Postnatal Spleen Tissue Regeneration And Organogenesis, Jonathan K H Tan, Takeshi Watanabe 2018 Bond University

Determinants Of Postnatal Spleen Tissue Regeneration And Organogenesis, Jonathan K H Tan, Takeshi Watanabe

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

The spleen is an organ that filters the blood and is responsible for generating blood-borne immune responses. It is also an organ with a remarkable capacity to regenerate. Techniques for splenic auto-transplantation have emerged to take advantage of this characteristic and rebuild spleen tissue in individuals undergoing splenectomy. While this procedure has been performed for decades, the underlying mechanisms controlling spleen regeneration have remained elusive. Insights into secondary lymphoid organogenesis and the roles of stromal organiser cells and lymphotoxin signalling in lymph node development have helped reveal similar requirements for spleen regeneration. These factors are now considered in the regulation ...


Benefit Of Intensity Modulated Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy For Post Mastectomy Chest Wall Irradiation, John Doiron 2018 Louisiana State University

Benefit Of Intensity Modulated Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy For Post Mastectomy Chest Wall Irradiation, John Doiron

LSU Master's Theses

Purpose: The delivery of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) with bolus electron conformal therapy (BECT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer can reduce second cancer complication probability (SCCP) compared to modern rotational intensity modulated x-ray (IMXT) techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or Tomotherapy. However, rotational IMXT yields superior levels of dose homogeneity compared to BECT. This study investigates the use of intensity modulated (IM) BECT (IM-BECT) to improve dose homogeneity in the chest wall (CW) region of the PMRT planning target volume (PTV) abutted to parallel opposed IMXT tangents for the remaining PTV for a clinically-representative set of patients ...


Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Treatment Ameliorates Peritonitis-Induced Diaphragm Dysfunction, Shinichi Asano, Ravikumar Arvapalli, Nandini D. Manne, Mani Maheshwari, Bing Ma, Kevin M. Rice, Vellaisamy Selvaraj, Eric Blough 2018 Marshall University

Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Treatment Ameliorates Peritonitis-Induced Diaphragm Dysfunction, Shinichi Asano, Ravikumar Arvapalli, Nandini D. Manne, Mani Maheshwari, Bing Ma, Kevin M. Rice, Vellaisamy Selvaraj, Eric Blough

Bing Ma

The severe inflammation observed during sepsis is thought to cause diaphragm dysfunction, which is associated with poor patient prognosis. Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities suggesting that these particles may be of potential use for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. To investigate this possibility, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham control, CeO2 nanoparticle treatment only (0.5 mg/kg iv), sepsis, and sepsis+CeO2 nanoparticles. Sepsis was induced by the introduction of cecal material (600 mg/kg) directly into the peritoneal cavity. Nanoparticle treatment decreased ...


Differential Impact Of Rb Status On E2f1 Reprogramming In Human Cancer., Christopher McNair, Kexin Xu, Amy C. Mandigo, Matteo Benelli, Benjamin E. Leiby, Daniel Rodrigues, Johan Lindberg, Henrik Gronberg, Mateus Crespo, Bram De Laere, Luc Dirix, Tapio Visakorpi, Fugen Li, Felix Y. Feng, Johann de Bono, Francesca Demichelis, Mark A. Rubin, Myles Brown, Karen E. Knudsen 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Differential Impact Of Rb Status On E2f1 Reprogramming In Human Cancer., Christopher Mcnair, Kexin Xu, Amy C. Mandigo, Matteo Benelli, Benjamin E. Leiby, Daniel Rodrigues, Johan Lindberg, Henrik Gronberg, Mateus Crespo, Bram De Laere, Luc Dirix, Tapio Visakorpi, Fugen Li, Felix Y. Feng, Johann De Bono, Francesca Demichelis, Mark A. Rubin, Myles Brown, Karen E. Knudsen

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

The tumor suppressor protein retinoblastoma (RB) is mechanistically linked to suppression of transcription factor E2F1-mediated cell cycle regulation. For multiple tumor types, loss of RB function is associated with poor clinical outcome. RB action is abrogated either by direct depletion or through inactivation of RB function; however, the basis for this selectivity is unknown. Here, analysis of tumor samples and cell-free DNA from patients with advanced prostate cancer showed that direct RB loss was the preferred pathway of disruption in human disease. While RB loss was associated with lethal disease, RB-deficient tumors had no proliferative advantage and exhibited downstream effects ...


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