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Alamethicin In Lipid Bilayers: Combined Use Of X-Ray Scattering And Md Simulations, Jianjun Pan, D. Peter Tieleman, John F. Nagle, Norbert Kučerka, Prof. Stephanie Tristram-Nagle Ph.D. 2016 Carnegie Mellon University

Alamethicin In Lipid Bilayers: Combined Use Of X-Ray Scattering And Md Simulations, Jianjun Pan, D. Peter Tieleman, John F. Nagle, Norbert Kučerka, Prof. Stephanie Tristram-Nagle Ph.D.

John Copeland Nagle

We study fully hydrated bilayers of two di-monounsaturated phospholipids diC18:1PC (DOPC) and diC22:1PC with varying amounts of alamethicin (Alm). We combine the use of X-ray diffuse scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to determine the orientation of alamethicin in model lipids. Comparison of the experimental and simulated form factors shows that Alm helices are inserted transmembrane at high humidity and high concentrations, in agreement with earlier results. The X-ray scattering data and the MD simulations agree that membrane thickness changes very little up to 1/10 Alm/ DOPC. In contrast, the X-ray data indicate that the thicker diC22:1PC ...


Induction Of Dusp9 In Xenografts From Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Increases Mammary Cancer Stem Cells, Albert Barrios, Meher Parveen, PhD, Easter Thames, Melanie Baker, Shelha Pervin, PhD 2016 Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science

Induction Of Dusp9 In Xenografts From Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Increases Mammary Cancer Stem Cells, Albert Barrios, Meher Parveen, Phd, Easter Thames, Melanie Baker, Shelha Pervin, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Breast cancer remains a complex disease that kills 40,000 women every year. Initiation and progression of breast cancer is influenced by heterogeneous groups of cells, including mammary cancer stem cells (MCSCs). Progression of this dreadful disease is driven by many signaling pathways among which MAPK pathway is highly prominent. Since targeting prominent kinases in MAPK pathway has been unsuccessful to control breast cancer, it is important to examine the phosphatases that regulate the activity of these kinases.

Using xenograft model from breast cancer cell lines, our lab has found that during the initial stages of xenograft development (week 1-4 ...


Development And Validation Of Sunlight Exposure Measurement Questionnaire (Sem-Q) For Use In Adult Population Residing In Pakistan, Quratulain Humayun, Romaina Iqbal, Iqbal Azam, Aysha Habib Khan, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Naila Baig Ansari 2016 Aga Khan University

Development And Validation Of Sunlight Exposure Measurement Questionnaire (Sem-Q) For Use In Adult Population Residing In Pakistan, Quratulain Humayun, Romaina Iqbal, Iqbal Azam, Aysha Habib Khan, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Naila Baig Ansari

Aysha Habib Khan

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D and its measurement using dosimeters is expensive and difficult for use in population-based studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires to assess sunlight exposure in healthy individuals residing in Karachi, Pakistan.

Methods: Two questionnaires with seven important items for sunlight exposure assessment were developed. Fifty four healthy adults were enrolled based on their reported sunlight exposure (high = 17, moderate = 18, low = 19) from Aga Khan University, Karachi. Over four days, study participants ...


Topographical Expression Of Class Ia And Class Ii Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Enzymes In Normal Human Tissues Is Consistent With A Role In Differentiation, Soha Salama El Sheikh, Jan Domin, Prakitpunthu Tomtitchong, Paul Abel, Gordon Stamp, El-Nasir Lalani 2016 Imperial College School of Medicine

Topographical Expression Of Class Ia And Class Ii Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Enzymes In Normal Human Tissues Is Consistent With A Role In Differentiation, Soha Salama El Sheikh, Jan Domin, Prakitpunthu Tomtitchong, Paul Abel, Gordon Stamp, El-Nasir Lalani

El Nasir Lalani

Background: Growth factor, cytokine and chemokine-induced activation of PI3K enzymes constitutes the start of a complex signalling cascade, which ultimately mediates cellular activities such as proliferation, differentiation, chemotaxis, survival, trafficking, and glucose homeostasis. The PI3K enzyme family is divided into 3 classes; class I (subdivided into IA and IB), class II (PI3K-C2α, PI3K-C2β and PI3K-C2γ) and class III PI3K. Expression of these enzymes in human tissue has not been clearly defined.

Methods: In this study, we analysed the immunohistochemical topographical expression profile of class IA (anti-p85 adaptor) and class II PI3K (PI3K-C2α and PI3K-C2β) enzymes in 104 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded ...


Molecular And Cellular Biology Of Prostate Cancer, El-Nasir Lalani, Marc Elie Laniado, Paul David Abel 2016 Aga Khan University

Molecular And Cellular Biology Of Prostate Cancer, El-Nasir Lalani, Marc Elie Laniado, Paul David Abel

El Nasir Lalani

Prostate cancer is an enigmatic disease. Although prostatic-intraepithelial neoplasia appears as early as the third decade and as many as 80% of 80 year old men have epithelial cells in their prostate that fit the morphological criteria for cancer, only about 10% of men will ever have the clinical disease and less than 3% will die from it. There have been no significant proven interventions which have altered the natural history of the disease since hormone down regulation was introduced in the 1940s and new research has been poorly supported. There is however an urgent need to develop new criteria ...


Rnai Nanotechnology: A Platform For Sirna Screening And Cancer Gene Therapy, Mayurbhai Ravikant Patel 2016 Seton Hall University

Rnai Nanotechnology: A Platform For Sirna Screening And Cancer Gene Therapy, Mayurbhai Ravikant Patel

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Over the past two decades, advances in RNA structural biology have improved our understanding of the structures and folding properties of naturally occurring RNAs. RNA sequences and structures participate in many specific biological functions, such as those performed by messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), micro RNA (miRNA), short-interfering RNA (siRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and many others. The noncoding RNAs, such as siRNA, do not express proteins but have been utilized in a wide range of applications, including RNA interference (RNAi) and the regulation of mRNA expression. These important biological functions have been implemented in gene ...


Glucan Phosphatase Variants For Starch Phosphorylation, Matthew S. Gentry, Craig Vander Kooi 2016 University of Kentucky

Glucan Phosphatase Variants For Starch Phosphorylation, Matthew S. Gentry, Craig Vander Kooi

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Patents

Glucan phosphatase nucleotide or polypeptide variants of the presently-disclosed subject matter can alter the biophysical properties of starch in vitro or in planta, as well as the total starch biomass production in planta as compared to plants expressing wild-type glucan phosphatases. Plants producing the polypeptide variants of the presently-disclosed subject matter can have increased starch accumulation, increased starched biomass, and/or starch having desired biophysical properties. A method of the presently-disclosed subject matter for producing altered starch includes providing a plant that produces a glucan phosphatase polypeptide variant that comprises an amino acid mutation and collecting starch from the plant.


The Physiological Responses To Cycling Stress., Moriah Larsen 2016 Northern Arizona University

The Physiological Responses To Cycling Stress., Moriah Larsen

Skyline - The Big Sky Undergraduate Journal

Background: As the intensity of exercise increases, the risk of incidences for exertional heat illness (EHI) continues to climb. The National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) has set an official position statement; stating a “gold standard” for obtaining core body temperature is via rectal thermometry. It has been reported that other field-expedient methods of obtaining core body temperature (oral, axillary, tympanic, temporal) are invalid or unreliable sources after intense exercise in hot temperature regions. Purpose: To determine if a relationship exists between rectal temperature measurements and tympanic temperature measurements during intensive long bouts of exercise. Design: Controlled Laboratory Study. Setting: Human ...


Radiomics For Response Assessment After Stereotactic Radiotherapy For Lung Cancer, Sarah A. Mattonen 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Radiomics For Response Assessment After Stereotactic Radiotherapy For Lung Cancer, Sarah A. Mattonen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a guideline-specified treatment option for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer. After treatment, patients are followed up regularly with computed tomography (CT) imaging to determine treatment response. However, benign radiographic changes to the lung known as radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) frequently occur. Due to the large doses delivered with SABR, these changes can mimic the appearance of a recurring tumour and confound response assessment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of radiomics, for prediction of eventual local recurrence based on CT images acquired within 6 months of treatment. A ...


Duration Of Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms Over The Menopause Transition, Nancy E. Avis, Sybil L. Crawford, Gail A. Greendale, Joyce T. Bromberger, Susan A. Everson-Rose, Ellen B. Gold, Rachel Hess, Hadine Joffe, Howard M. Kravitz, Ping G. Tepper, Rebecca C. Thurston 2016 Wake Forest University

Duration Of Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms Over The Menopause Transition, Nancy E. Avis, Sybil L. Crawford, Gail A. Greendale, Joyce T. Bromberger, Susan A. Everson-Rose, Ellen B. Gold, Rachel Hess, Hadine Joffe, Howard M. Kravitz, Ping G. Tepper, Rebecca C. Thurston

Sybil L. Crawford

IMPORTANCE: The expected duration of menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS) is important to women making decisions about possible treatments.

OBJECTIVES: To determine total duration of frequent VMS ( > /= 6 days in the previous 2 weeks) (hereafter total VMS duration) during the menopausal transition, to quantify how long frequent VMS persist after the final menstrual period (FMP) (hereafter post-FMP persistence), and to identify risk factors for longer total VMS duration and longer post-FMP persistence.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiracial/multiethnic observational study of the menopausal transition among 3302 women enrolled at ...


Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Peptide Restoration Of Mitochondrial Activity, Luke H. Bradley, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt 2016 University of Kentucky

Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Peptide Restoration Of Mitochondrial Activity, Luke H. Bradley, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt

Anatomy and Neurobiology Faculty Patents

The present invention relates to the use of novel proteins, referred to herein as amidated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) peptides (or “Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating peptides (ADNS peptides)”), for treating brain diseases and injuries that result in dopaminergic deficiencies and mitochodrial dysfunction, e.g., reduced complex I enzyme activity.


Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle III, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja van de Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett 2016 Humane Society International

Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja Van De Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett

Gill Langley, Ph.D.

Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual ...


White Blood Cell Count Versus Temperature As Predictors Of Pediatric Bacteremia, Ashley Ashby, Loren Moscinski 2016 James Madison University

White Blood Cell Count Versus Temperature As Predictors Of Pediatric Bacteremia, Ashley Ashby, Loren Moscinski

Physician Assistant Capstones

Introduction: Although the prevalence of bacteremia has largely declined with the development of the Haemophilus Influenza Type b (Hib) and pneumococcal vaccines, it continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Thus, it is crucial to differentiate bacteremia from other illnesses via the clinical picture and laboratory test results. Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine whether there is a clinically significant difference between temperature and white blood cell (WBC) count as determinants of bacteremia in the pediatric population. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted utilizing the following terms and filters: temperature, WBC, pediatrics ...


Vitamin D Supplementation: Preventing Fractures, Courtney L. Carn, Michael S. Doherty 2016 James Madison University

Vitamin D Supplementation: Preventing Fractures, Courtney L. Carn, Michael S. Doherty

Physician Assistant Capstones

Objective: To assess the ability of vitamin D supplementation in preventing musculoskeletal fractures. Methods: Systematic literature review using Google Scholar search terms “vitamin D supplementation” and “preventing hip fractures” from 2006-2015. Only RCTs, meta-analysis, and clinical guidelines were included. Results: Our search resulted in one meta-analysis and two randomized controlled trials. Conclusion: The summation of our investigation into vitamin D deficiency and the presence of musculoskeletal fractures has proven to be relatively inconclusive. The resulting data from our three studies did not provide any definitive proof that improved vitamin D levels correlates with better bone health.


Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards 2016 James Madison University

Fecal Transplant Vs Vancomycin For Recurrent Clostridium Diffile, Lauren M. Taylor, Todd E. Edwards

Physician Assistant Capstones

Objective: To compare fecal transplant and vancomycin in the treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile to determine which has the higher cure rate. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Pubmed, Google Scholar, and TRIP database using the search terms “recurrent clostridium difficile.” Filters were implemented in the Pubmed database including: randomized control trials, English, and published in the past 5 years. Records were screened for RCT with fecal transplant and full-text. Results: van Nood et al. revealed an initial cure rate of 81% for the infusion group, and a re-treated cure rate of 94%, compared to the vancomycin alone group of 31 ...


Novel Reversal Agents For Non-Vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants, Kimberly Hoilman, Melanie Reyer 2016 James Madison University

Novel Reversal Agents For Non-Vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants, Kimberly Hoilman, Melanie Reyer

Physician Assistant Capstones

Background Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants have become an appealing alternative treatment for the prevention of stroke in non-valvular atrial fibrillation and in treatment of venous thromboembolism. The major limitation to the use of these drugs is the lack of reversal agents. The purpose of this review is to investigate the development and efficacy of novel agents for reversal of NOACs. Methods Two separate literature searches were conducted in the PubMed database using the terms “prothrombin complex concentrate” and “idarucizumab”, respectively. Only in vivo clinical trials involving human subjects within the last five years were included for possible analysis. Studies with ...


Comparing Direct Factor Xa Inhibitors And Warfarin In The Prevention Of Stroke In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation, Alessandra Lof, Stephanie Pillai 2016 James Madison University

Comparing Direct Factor Xa Inhibitors And Warfarin In The Prevention Of Stroke In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation, Alessandra Lof, Stephanie Pillai

Physician Assistant Capstones

Objective: To evaluate the overall efficacy, advantages, and disadvantages of treatment with direct factor Xa inhibitors as compared to warfarin in the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods: A quantitative meta-analysis was performed on three separate studies, each of which evaluated the efficacy and safety outcomes of a direct factor Xa inhibitor versus warfarin in preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The direct factor Xa inhibitors that were evaluated included apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban. Results: The direct factor Xa inhibitors were found to be as effective, and in some cases more effective, than warfarin in preventing ...


Routine Screening For Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Is It For Everyone?, Catherine E. Nowak 2016 James Madison University

Routine Screening For Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Is It For Everyone?, Catherine E. Nowak

Physician Assistant Capstones

Objective: Determine whether routine abdominal ultrasound screening in all men ages 65 and over, not just those who are symptomatic or at risk, would be beneficial in reducing the mortality rate from abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: The clinical question investigated is whether routine ultrasound screening of AAA for men over age 65 reduces AAA-related mortality as compared to not routinely screening. Searches were done through PubMed using the keywords: screening, abdominal aortic aneurysm, reduce, and mortality. Citations used by the USPSTF AAA screening guidelines were also added to the literature search. In PubMed, further limitations ...


Blimp-1–Mediated Cd4 T Cell Exhaustion Causes Cd8 T Cell Dysfunction During Chronic Toxoplasmosis, Sujin Hwang, Dustin A. Cobb, Rajarshi Bhadra, Ben Youngblood, Imtiaz A. Khan 2016 George Washington University

Blimp-1–Mediated Cd4 T Cell Exhaustion Causes Cd8 T Cell Dysfunction During Chronic Toxoplasmosis, Sujin Hwang, Dustin A. Cobb, Rajarshi Bhadra, Ben Youngblood, Imtiaz A. Khan

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

CD8, but not CD4, T cells are considered critical for control of chronic toxoplasmosis. Although CD8 exhaustion has been previously reported inToxoplasma encephalitis (TE)–susceptible model, our current work demonstrates that CD4 not only become exhausted during chronic toxoplasmosis but this dysfunction is more pronounced than CD8 T cells. Exhausted CD4 population expressed elevated levels of multiple inhibitory receptors concomitant with the reduced functionality and up-regulation of Blimp-1, a transcription factor. Our data demonstrates for the first time that Blimp-1 is a critical regulator for CD4 T cell exhaustion especially in the CD4 central memory cell subset. Using a ...


Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis

Master's Theses

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...


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