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An Unusual Pulmonary Complication Of Statin Medication, Milliejoan Mongalo, Madhvi Shah, Lynne J. Goebel 2017 Marshall University

An Unusual Pulmonary Complication Of Statin Medication, Milliejoan Mongalo, Madhvi Shah, Lynne J. Goebel

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Statins or hydroxyl-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have proven efficacy at decreasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although statins have been prescribed safely, there should be more awareness of the possible adverse effects. Recently, we encountered a patient who had unexplained dyspnea, weakness, and immobility. The patient’s symptoms were alleviated after discontinuing the statin medication. Although we have no concrete evidence that her symptoms were due to the medication, the temporal relationship of symptom improvement upon discontinuation of the statin, led us to the conclusion that it could potentially have been the cause. Unexplained dyspnea is not listed as ...


Serial Deletion Reveals Structural Basis And Stability For The Core Enzyme Activity Of Human Glutaminase 1 Isoforms: Relevance To Excitotoxic Neurodegeneration., Yuju Li, Justin Peer, Runze Zhao, Yinghua Xu, Beiqing Wu, Yi Wang, Changhai Tian, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C. Zheng 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Serial Deletion Reveals Structural Basis And Stability For The Core Enzyme Activity Of Human Glutaminase 1 Isoforms: Relevance To Excitotoxic Neurodegeneration., Yuju Li, Justin Peer, Runze Zhao, Yinghua Xu, Beiqing Wu, Yi Wang, Changhai Tian, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C. Zheng

Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience

BACKGROUND: Glutaminase 1 is a phosphate-activated metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glutaminolysis, which converts glutamine into glutamate. Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter of excitatory synapses, executing important physiological functions in the central nervous system. There are two isoforms of glutaminase 1, KGA and GAC, both of which are generated through alternative splicing from the same gene. KGA and GAC both transcribe 1-14 exons in the N-terminal, but each has its unique C-terminal in the coding sequence. We have previously identified that KGA and GAC are differentially regulated during inflammatory stimulation and HIV infection. Furthermore, glutaminase 1 has ...


Correlation Study: Student Success In Biochemistry As A Prerequisite For Integrated Pharmacology And Medicinal Chemistry, April Filter, Stacy Lin, Sydney Schultz, Rachel Anderson, Tori Twinem, Denise S. Simpson, Melissa J. Beck 2017 Cedarville University

Correlation Study: Student Success In Biochemistry As A Prerequisite For Integrated Pharmacology And Medicinal Chemistry, April Filter, Stacy Lin, Sydney Schultz, Rachel Anderson, Tori Twinem, Denise S. Simpson, Melissa J. Beck

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Background

A rise in new schools of pharmacy has led to implementation of new curriculums. Pharmacy schools must adhere to standards set by the Accreditation Council of Pharmacy Education in order to provide knowledge of foundational sciences and prepare pharmacy students for the future. Prerequisites are typically foundational science courses taken early in the program so that students have the knowledge necessary to be excellent pharmacists. Within the Cedarville University School of Pharmacy, Biochemistry is a prerequisite course for Integrated Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology (PCoMedChem).

Objectives

The goal of this study is to determine if Biochemistry should remain a prerequisite ...


Constitutive Activation Of Kappa Opioid Receptors At Ventral Tegmental Area Inhibitory Synapses Following Acute Stress., Abigail M Polter, Kelsey Barcomb, Rudy W Chen, Paige M Dingess, Nicholas M Graziane, Travis E Brown, Julie A Kauer 2017 George Washington University

Constitutive Activation Of Kappa Opioid Receptors At Ventral Tegmental Area Inhibitory Synapses Following Acute Stress., Abigail M Polter, Kelsey Barcomb, Rudy W Chen, Paige M Dingess, Nicholas M Graziane, Travis E Brown, Julie A Kauer

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Stressful experiences potently activate kappa opioid receptors (κORs). κORs in the ventral tegmental area regulate multiple aspects of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic cell function. Here we show that at GABAergic synapses on rat VTA dopamine neurons, a single exposure to a brief cold-water swim stress induces prolonged activation of κORs. This is mediated by activation of the receptor during the stressor followed by a persistent, ligand-independent constitutive activation of the κOR itself. This lasting change in function is not seen at κORs at neighboring excitatory synapses, suggesting distinct time courses and mechanisms of regulation of different subsets of κORs. We also ...


Enzyme-Dependent Fluorescence Recovery Of Nadh After Photobleaching To Assess Dehydrogenase Activity Of Isolated Perfused Hearts., Angel Moreno, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Rafael Jaimes, Matthew W Kay 2017 George Washington University

Enzyme-Dependent Fluorescence Recovery Of Nadh After Photobleaching To Assess Dehydrogenase Activity Of Isolated Perfused Hearts., Angel Moreno, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Rafael Jaimes, Matthew W Kay

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Reduction of NAD(+) by dehydrogenase enzymes to form NADH is a key component of cellular metabolism. In cellular preparations and isolated mitochondria suspensions, enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (ED-FRAP) of NADH has been shown to be an effective approach for measuring the rate of NADH production to assess dehydrogenase enzyme activity. Our objective was to demonstrate how dehydrogenase activity could be assessed within the myocardium of perfused hearts using NADH ED-FRAP. This was accomplished using a combination of high intensity UV pulses to photobleach epicardial NADH. Replenishment of epicardial NADH fluorescence was then imaged using low intensity UV illumination. NADH ...


Proteome Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Corpus Callosum Development., Alexander I Son, Xiaoqin Fu, Fumikazu Suto, Judy S Liu, Kazue Hashimoto-Torii, Masaaki Torii 2017 George Washington University

Proteome Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Corpus Callosum Development., Alexander I Son, Xiaoqin Fu, Fumikazu Suto, Judy S Liu, Kazue Hashimoto-Torii, Masaaki Torii

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Formation of cortical connections requires the precise coordination of numerous discrete phases. This is particularly significant with regard to the corpus callosum, whose development undergoes several dynamic stages including the crossing of axon projections, elimination of exuberant projections, and myelination of established tracts. To comprehensively characterize the molecular events in this dynamic process, we set to determine the distinct temporal expression of proteins regulating the formation of the corpus callosum and their respective developmental functions. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling was performed on early postnatal mouse corpus callosi, for which limited evidence has been obtained previously, using stable isotope of labeled ...


A Role Of Central Nell2 In The Regulation Of Feeding Behavior In Rats., Jin Kwon Jeong, Jae Geun Kim, Han Rae Kim, Tae Hwan Lee, Jeong Woo Park, Byung Ju Lee 2017 George Washington University

A Role Of Central Nell2 In The Regulation Of Feeding Behavior In Rats., Jin Kwon Jeong, Jae Geun Kim, Han Rae Kim, Tae Hwan Lee, Jeong Woo Park, Byung Ju Lee

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

A brain-enriched secreting signal peptide, NELL2, has been suggested to play multiple roles in the development, survival, and activity of neurons in mammal. We investigated here a possible involvement of central NELL2 in regulating feeding behavior and metabolism. In situ hybridization and an immunohistochemical approach were used to determine expression of NELL2 as well as its colocalization with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the rat hypothalamus. To investigate the effect of NELL2 on feeding behavior, 2 nmole of antisense NELL2 oligodeoxynucleotide was administered into the lateral ventricle of adult male rat brains for 6 consecutive days, and changes ...


A Mature Macrophage Is A Principal Hiv-1 Cellular Reservoir In Humanized Mice After Treatment With Long Acting Antiretroviral Therapy., Mariluz Araínga, Benson J. Edagwa, R. Lee Mosley, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Santhi Gorantla, Howard Gendelman 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

A Mature Macrophage Is A Principal Hiv-1 Cellular Reservoir In Humanized Mice After Treatment With Long Acting Antiretroviral Therapy., Mariluz Araínga, Benson J. Edagwa, R. Lee Mosley, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Santhi Gorantla, Howard Gendelman

Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience

BACKGROUND: Despite improved clinical outcomes seen following antiretroviral therapy (ART), resting CD4+ T cells continue to harbor latent human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1). However, such cells are not likely the solitary viral reservoir and as such defining where and how others harbor virus is imperative for eradication measures. To such ends, we used HIV-1ADA-infected NOD.Cg-Prkdc (scid) Il2rg (tm1Wjl) /SzJ mice reconstituted with a human immune system to explore two long-acting ART regimens investigating their abilities to affect viral cell infection and latency. At 6 weeks of infection animals were divided into four groups. One received long-acting (LA) cabotegravir ...


Chemogenetic Stimulation Of The Hypoglossal Neurons Improves Upper Airway Patency, Thomas Curado, Kenneth Fishbein, Huy Pho, Michael Brennick, Olga Dergacheva, David Mendelowitz, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Chemogenetic Stimulation Of The Hypoglossal Neurons Improves Upper Airway Patency, Thomas Curado, Kenneth Fishbein, Huy Pho, Michael Brennick, Olga Dergacheva, David Mendelowitz, +Several Additional Authors

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA leads to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of OSA has been linked to a defect in neuromuscular control of the pharynx. There is no effective pharmacotherapy for OSA. The objective of this study was to determine whether upper airway patency can be improved using chemogenetic approach by deploying designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) in the hypoglossal motorneurons. DREADD (rAAV5-hSyn-hM3(Gq)-mCherry) and control virus (rAAV5-hSyn-EGFP) were stereotactically administered to the hypoglossal nucleus of C57BL/6J mice. In 6–8 weeks genioglossus ...


Oxidative Stress-Driven Parvalbumin Interneuron Impairment As A Common Mechanism In Models Of Schizophrenia, P Steullet, J Cabungcal, J Coyle, M Didriksen, K Gill, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Oxidative Stress-Driven Parvalbumin Interneuron Impairment As A Common Mechanism In Models Of Schizophrenia, P Steullet, J Cabungcal, J Coyle, M Didriksen, K Gill, Anthony-Samuel Lamantia, +Several Additional Authors

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons (PVIs) are crucial for maintaining proper excitatory/inhibitory balance and high-frequency neuronal synchronization. Their activity supports critical developmental trajectories, sensory and cognitive processing, and social behavior. Despite heterogeneity in the etiology across schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder, PVI circuits are altered in these psychiatric disorders. Identifying mechanism(s) underlying PVI deficits is essential to establish treatments targeting in particular cognition. On the basis of published and new data, we propose oxidative stress as a common pathological mechanism leading to PVI impairment in schizophrenia and some forms of autism. A series of animal models carrying genetic and/or ...


Genetic Targeting In Cerebellar Purkinje Cells: An Update., Anna Sługocka, Jan Wiaderkiewicz, Jaroslaw J Barski 2017 George Washington University

Genetic Targeting In Cerebellar Purkinje Cells: An Update., Anna Sługocka, Jan Wiaderkiewicz, Jaroslaw J Barski

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Since the last review paper published in Cerebellum in 2002 [1], there has been a substantial increase in the number of experiments utilizing transgenic manipulations in murine cerebellar Purkinje cells. Most of these approaches were made possible with the use of the Cre/loxP methodology and pcp2/L7 based Cre recombinase expressing transgenic mouse strains. This review aims to summarize all studies which used Purkinje cell specific transgenesis since the first use of mouse strain with Purkinje cell specific Cre expression in 2002.


We Have No Real Evidence Related To Anticoagulation Plus Aspirin For Stroke Prevention In Atrial Fibrillation, Yuxiang Wang 2017 wayne state university school of medicine

We Have No Real Evidence Related To Anticoagulation Plus Aspirin For Stroke Prevention In Atrial Fibrillation, Yuxiang Wang

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Flaker GC, Gruber M, Connolly SJ, et al. Risks and benefits of combining aspirin with anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation: an exploratory analysis of stroke prevention using an oral thrombin inhibitor in atrial fibrillation (SPORTIF) trials. Am Heart J. 2006;152:967-973. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2006.06.024


Very Rapid Onset Cannabis Dependence Risk In Relation To Co-Occurring Use Of Other Psychoactive Drugs, Olga A. Vsevolozhskaya, Fernando A. Wagner, James C. Anthony 2016 University of Kentucky

Very Rapid Onset Cannabis Dependence Risk In Relation To Co-Occurring Use Of Other Psychoactive Drugs, Olga A. Vsevolozhskaya, Fernando A. Wagner, James C. Anthony

Biostatistics Presentations

Background: Epidemiological estimates for lifetime cumulative incidence indicate that for every 9-11 who start using cannabis, one becomes a case of the cannabis dependence syndrome (CDS) – i.e., roughly 9%-11%. More recent estimates clarify that CDS risk might be much lower among ’cannabis only’ users, due in part to the fact that many ’cannabis only’ users try the drug a few times and never again. We turned to Hill functional analysis in order to study CDS probability soon after 1st cannabis use, estimated across strata defined by the number of recent days of cannabis use, with an acknowledgment that ...


In The Postoperative Cardiothoracic Surgical Patient Being Mechanically Ventilated, Is There A Difference In Outcomes When Comparing Sedation With Dexmedetomidine Versus Propofol?, Benjamin Heinrich Riebesel 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

In The Postoperative Cardiothoracic Surgical Patient Being Mechanically Ventilated, Is There A Difference In Outcomes When Comparing Sedation With Dexmedetomidine Versus Propofol?, Benjamin Heinrich Riebesel

Doctoral Nursing Capstone Projects

Patients undergoing a cardiothoracic operation typically require mechanical ventilation in the postoperative phase. Each year approximately 395,000 of these operations are performed in the United States alone. As many as 10% of these patients require reoperation within the first few hours of recovery due to complications (Barash & Cullen, 2013). This comprehensive review of the literature was performed to determine whether postoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine leads to better patient outcomes than sedation with propofol. Inclusion criteria included publications written in the English language, articles available in full text, articles written within the last 10 years, and publications with a focus ...


Seeing The Invisible: Revealing Atrial Ablation Lesions Using Hyperspectral Imaging Approach, Narine Muselimyan, Luther Swift, Huda Asfour, Tigran Chahbazian, Ramesh Mazhari, Marco Mercader, Narine Sarvazyan 2016 George Washington University

Seeing The Invisible: Revealing Atrial Ablation Lesions Using Hyperspectral Imaging Approach, Narine Muselimyan, Luther Swift, Huda Asfour, Tigran Chahbazian, Ramesh Mazhari, Marco Mercader, Narine Sarvazyan

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Background

Currently, there are limited means for high-resolution monitoring of tissue injury during radiofrequency ablation procedures.

Objective

To develop the next generation of visualization catheters that can reveal irreversible atrial muscle damage caused by ablation and identify viability gaps between the lesions.

Methods

Radiofrequency lesions were placed on the endocardial surfaces of excised human and bovine atria and left ventricles of blood perfused rat hearts. Tissue was illuminated with 365nm light and a series of images were acquired from individual spectral bands within 420-720nm range. By extracting spectral profiles of individual pixels and spectral unmixing, the relative contribution of ablated ...


The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The median survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients from diagnosis is a dismal 3 years. This condition is characterized by pulmonary fibroproliferation and excess production and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in obliteration of the original tissue architecture, loss of lung function and eventual death due to respiratory failure. The main hindrance to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis is the late detection of its progression and is often of unknown cause. Tobacco smoke represents the most important environmental factor linked to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, with over 60% of IPF patients current ...


Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey 2016 George Washington University

Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Oxytocin (OT) has become a focus in investigations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The social deficits that characterize ASD may relate to reduced connectivity between brain sites on the mesolimbic reward pathway (nucleus accumbens; amygdala) that receive OT projections and contribute to social motivation, and cortical sites involved in social perception. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we show that OT administration in ASD increases activity in brain regions important for perceiving social-emotional information. Further, OT enhances connectivity between nodes of the brain's reward and socioemotional processing systems, and does so preferentially ...


Effect Of Genipin On Cisplatin- Induced Nephrotoxicity, Eglal Orner Mahgoub 2016 United Arab Emirates University

Effect Of Genipin On Cisplatin- Induced Nephrotoxicity, Eglal Orner Mahgoub

Theses

Cisplatin (CSP) is a potent and widely used chemotherapeutic agent. However, clinical efficacy of CSP is compromised due to the elicitation of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. In this study, I have investigated the nephroprotective effects of a phytochemical – genipin (GP) isolated from gardenia flower (Gardenia jasminoides), on a murine model of cisplatin-induced nephropathy. CSP-induced renal tissue injury was characterized by elevated levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and cystatin-C. In addition, levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were increased in the renal tissues of CSP administered animals. CSP also induced renal oxidative stress, evidenced by increased NADPH oxidase ...


Methods For Diagnosing And Treating Alzheimer's Disease (Ad) Using The Molecules That Stabilize Intracellular Calcium (Ca2+) Release, Philip W. Landfield, John C. Gant, Eric M. Blalock, Kuey-Chu Chen, Olivier Thibault, Nada M. Porter 2016 University of Kentucky

Methods For Diagnosing And Treating Alzheimer's Disease (Ad) Using The Molecules That Stabilize Intracellular Calcium (Ca2+) Release, Philip W. Landfield, John C. Gant, Eric M. Blalock, Kuey-Chu Chen, Olivier Thibault, Nada M. Porter

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Patents

The subject technology relates, in part, to a method of treating Alzheimer's Disease (AD), early-stage AD, elevated risk of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or other forms of age-related cognitive decline in a subject in need thereof by administering to the subject a molecule that promotes calcium-release stabilization in ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and/or inosital triphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) in brain cells. Diagnostic methods using calcium-release stabilizing immunophilins, junctophilins or calmodulin are also disclosed.


An Excitatory Cortical Feedback Loop Gates Retinal Wave Transmission In Rodent Thalamus, Yasunobu Murata, Matthew T. Colonnese 2016 George Washington University

An Excitatory Cortical Feedback Loop Gates Retinal Wave Transmission In Rodent Thalamus, Yasunobu Murata, Matthew T. Colonnese

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Spontaneous retinal waves are critical for the development of receptive fields in visual thalamus (LGN) and cortex (VC). Despite a detailed understanding of the circuit specializations in retina that generate waves, whether central circuit specializations also exist to control their propagation through visual pathways of the brain is unknown. Here we identify a developmentally transient, corticothalamic amplification of retinal drive to thalamus as a mechanism for retinal wave transmission in the infant rat brain. During the period of retinal waves, corticothalamic connections excite LGN, rather than driving feedforward inhibition as observed in the adult. This creates an excitatory feedback loop ...


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