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A Follow-Up Phone Call To Post-Operative Patients Using The Five A’S, Brittney Ochs 2020 University of San Diego

A Follow-Up Phone Call To Post-Operative Patients Using The Five A’S, Brittney Ochs

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

Background: The 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported that 53 percent of people that misused pain relievers in the past year received them from a friend or relative. The NIDA describes that from 2002 to 2008 that drug abuse in service members went from 2% to 11%. Often patients are initially prescribed and introduced to opioid medication for acute pain. One such circumstance is in the perioperative period that could provide an opportunity to promote opioid-sparing techniques to reduce the exposure to opioids.

Purpose of Project: To assess discharge medication characteristics and reinforce discharge medication instructions ...


Fall Prevention Assessment In The Intermediate Care Patient Population, Dawn Rose 2020 University of San Diego

Fall Prevention Assessment In The Intermediate Care Patient Population, Dawn Rose

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Fall Prevention Assessment in the Intermediate Care Patient Population

Falls cause greater than 600,000 deaths per year and are the most common injury in people over 65 years of age. Fall prevention in the acute care setting has been identified as key goal in the most recent JCAHO review process. Falls on an intermediary care unit lead to an increased rate of morbidity, delayed discharge, and excess cost expenditure.

Even with appropriate evidence-based tools in place, Hospital A’s intermediate care unit, recorded an increased rate of falls; the highest rate in its health care system. An investigation identified ...


Twice-Daily Doravirine Overcomes The Interaction Effect From Once-Weekly Rifapentine And Isoniazid In Healthy Volunteers., Edwin Lam, Joseph Schaefer, Richard Zheng, Tingting Zhan, Walter K. Kraft 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Twice-Daily Doravirine Overcomes The Interaction Effect From Once-Weekly Rifapentine And Isoniazid In Healthy Volunteers., Edwin Lam, Joseph Schaefer, Richard Zheng, Tingting Zhan, Walter K. Kraft

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

Doravirine (DOR) is a non‐nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus‐1 (HIV‐1). Its use in combination with rifapentine (RPT), an anti‐tuberculosis antibiotic, may reduce the exposure of DOR compromising viral suppression in those living with HIV‐1 co‐infected with tuberculosis. We conducted a prospective, phase I, open label, two‐period, fixed sequence, drug interaction study to evaluate the effect of once‐weekly RPT and isoniazid (INH) on the pharmacokinetics of DOR in healthy volunteers. DOR 100 mg was administered alone twice‐daily for 4 days in period 1. In period ...


Evaluation Of A Tiered Opioid Prescribing Guideline For Inpatient Colorectal Operations, David C. Meyer 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evaluation Of A Tiered Opioid Prescribing Guideline For Inpatient Colorectal Operations, David C. Meyer

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background:

In light of the opioid epidemic, reducing excess prescription quantities while tailoring to patient need is key. We previously created an opioid prescribing guideline using retrospective institutional data to satisfy the majority of patients’ opioid needs following inpatient colorectal surgery.

Objective:

This study sought to prospectively validate an institutional prescribing guideline based on previously-defined opioid consumption patterns following inpatient colorectal operations.

Methods:

We carried out a cohort study comparing opioid prescribing and consumption patterns before (7/18 – 1/19) and after (9/19 – 2/20) adoption of a tiered opioid prescribing guideline for inpatient elective colorectal operations (colectomies, proctectomies ...


Adverse Aftereffects Of Methotrexate As Chemotherapy On Cognitive Deficits In Rat Models, Jubin Kang 2020 Liberty University

Adverse Aftereffects Of Methotrexate As Chemotherapy On Cognitive Deficits In Rat Models, Jubin Kang

Senior Honors Theses

Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have a high five-year survival rate thanks to methotrexate (MTX). However, cognitive side effects are reported, characterized as chemo brain. The study investigated if impulsiveness is part of the aberrant cognitive functions after being exposed to MTX in the early stage of physical development. Adolescent rats were injected with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or MTX. The novel object recognition (NOR) task was conducted a month after the injections to measure the memory deficits. The discounting task was performed after the rats completed training on a fixed-ratio one schedule for both levers. The NOR test showed ...


Modulator Therapy For Cystic Fibrosis: An Exploration Of Current Research, Jessalyn Rombocos 2020 Liberty University

Modulator Therapy For Cystic Fibrosis: An Exploration Of Current Research, Jessalyn Rombocos

Senior Honors Theses

Developing a drug therapy that addresses the root cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) by increasing CFTR protein levels has long been a research challenge. After genetic therapy failed because a suitable delivery system could not be found, researchers began searching for small organic molecules that could act as chaperones for CFTR. These molecules, known as modulators, allowed CFTR to be assembled correctly and function similarly to wild type CFTR. Since 2012, four modulator drugs have been developed, tested, and approved by the FDA. In October 2019, Trikafta was approved as the first triple-combination modulator drug and has completely revolutionized CF ...


Biological Sex Influences Susceptibility To Acinetobacter Baumannii Pneumonia In Mice, Jeremy Seto, Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker 2020 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Biological Sex Influences Susceptibility To Acinetobacter Baumannii Pneumonia In Mice, Jeremy Seto, Sílvia Pires, Adeline Peignier, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker

Publications and Research

Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is an extremely versatile multidrug-resistant pathogen with a very high mortality rate; therefore, it has become crucial to understand the host response during its infection. Given the importance of mice for modeling infection and their role in preclinical drug development, equal emphasis should be placed on the use of both sexes. Through our studies using a murine model of acute pneumonia with A. baumannii, we observed that female mice were more susceptible to infection. Likewise, treatment of male mice with estradiol increased their susceptibility to infection. Analysis of the airway compartment revealed enhanced inflammation and reduced ...


The Proposed Formulary Status And Evidence-Based Use Of Dupilumab (Dupixent®) For The Fda Approved Treatment Of Asthma, Katelyn Stuart, Alexis Miller, Katelyn Koebel, Karen Kier 2020 Ohio Northern University

The Proposed Formulary Status And Evidence-Based Use Of Dupilumab (Dupixent®) For The Fda Approved Treatment Of Asthma, Katelyn Stuart, Alexis Miller, Katelyn Koebel, Karen Kier

Contracts & Class Work

Each year, the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) holds a Pharmacy & Therapeutics (P&T) Competition for student pharmacists. In practice, P&T committees decide which medications will be on the institution or insurance company’s formulary. A formulary is a list of drugs that prescribers can use, or what insurance will cover. The committee is comprised of many different health care professionals, including a pharmacist. Together, they weigh the cost and evidence-based efficacy of each medication. The P&T competition begins when AMCP reveals the drug they have chosen for the year. Typically, it is a recently FDA approved ...


Renal Safety And Racial Disparity In Patients On Antiviral Treatment For Chronic Hepatitis B, Matthew Miller, Sindhuri Benjaram, Raya Kutaimy, Paul Naylor, Elizabeth May, Murray Ehrinpreis, Milton Mutchnick 2020 Wayne State University

Renal Safety And Racial Disparity In Patients On Antiviral Treatment For Chronic Hepatitis B, Matthew Miller, Sindhuri Benjaram, Raya Kutaimy, Paul Naylor, Elizabeth May, Murray Ehrinpreis, Milton Mutchnick

Medical Student Research Symposium

Background:

Many African Americans (AA) are chronically infected with Hepatitis B (HBV). While antiviral therapy is highly effective, clinical trials suggest a treatment-related decline in kidney function is possible. Given that chronic HBV predominately affects Asians worldwide, most studies have contained few AA patients. We evaluated these treatment-related kidney function changes in our predominately AA patient population.

Methods:

From 225 HBV patients, we identified 42 patients who were not co-infected with HIV or HCV, had a recent visit, and at least one earlier visit (before Jan 2017). If on treatment with antivirals it must have been for at least 2 ...


Vancomycin In Peritoneal Dialysis: Clinical Pharmacology Considerations In Therapy., Edwin Lam, Yi Ting Kayla Lien, Walter K. Kraft, Beth Piraino, Valvanera Vozmediano, Stephan Schmidt, Jingjing Zhang 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Vancomycin In Peritoneal Dialysis: Clinical Pharmacology Considerations In Therapy., Edwin Lam, Yi Ting Kayla Lien, Walter K. Kraft, Beth Piraino, Valvanera Vozmediano, Stephan Schmidt, Jingjing Zhang

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

Intraperitoneal vancomycin is the first-line therapy in the management of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. However, due to the paucity of data, vancomycin dosing for peritonitis in patients on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is empiric and based on clinical experience rather than evidence. Studies in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients have been used to provide guidelines for dosing and are often extrapolated for APD use, but it is unclear whether this is appropriate. This review summarizes the available pharmacokinetic data used to inform optimal dosing in patients on CAPD or APD. The determinants of vancomycin disposition and pharmacodynamic effects ...


Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To A Lead Benzoxaborole Due To Blocked Compound Activation And Altered Ubiquitination Or Sumoylation., Kirthana M V Sindhe, Wesley Wu, Jenny Legac, Yong-Kang Zhang, Eric E Easom, Roland A. Cooper, Jacob J Plattner, Yvonne R Freund, Joseph L DeRisi, Philip J Rosenthal 2020 University of California, San Francisco

Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To A Lead Benzoxaborole Due To Blocked Compound Activation And Altered Ubiquitination Or Sumoylation., Kirthana M V Sindhe, Wesley Wu, Jenny Legac, Yong-Kang Zhang, Eric E Easom, Roland A. Cooper, Jacob J Plattner, Yvonne R Freund, Joseph L Derisi, Philip J Rosenthal

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship

New antimalarial drugs are needed. The benzoxaborole AN13762 showed excellent activity against cultured Plasmodium falciparum, against fresh Ugandan P. falciparum isolates, and in murine malaria models. To gain mechanistic insights, we selected in vitro for P. falciparum isolates resistant to AN13762. In all of 11 independent selections with 100 to 200 nM AN13762, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) increased from 18-118 nM to 180-890 nM, and whole-genome sequencing of resistant parasites demonstrated mutations in prodrug activation and resistance esterase (PfPARE). The introduction of PfPARE mutations led to a similar level of resistance, and recombinant PfPARE hydrolyzed AN13762 to the benzoxaborole ...


Generation Of In-Frame Gene Deletion Mutants In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa And Testing For Virulence Attenuation In A Simple Mouse Model Of Infection, Meagan E. Valentine, Brandon D. Kirby, Hongwei D. Yu 2020 Marshall University

Generation Of In-Frame Gene Deletion Mutants In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa And Testing For Virulence Attenuation In A Simple Mouse Model Of Infection, Meagan E. Valentine, Brandon D. Kirby, Hongwei D. Yu

Biomedical Sciences

Microorganisms are genetically versatile and diverse and have become a major source of many commercial products and biopharmaceuticals. Though some of these products are naturally produced by the organisms, other products require genetic engineering of the organism to increase the yields of production. Avirulent strains of Escherichia coli have traditionally been the preferred bacterial species for producing biopharmaceuticals; however, some products are difficult for E. coli to produce. Thus, avirulent strains of other bacterial species could provide useful alternatives for production of some commercial products. Pseudomonas eruginosa is a common and well-studied Gram-negative bacterium that could provide a suitable alternative ...


A Phantom Of The Past: Withdrawal From Meprobamate Presenting With Focal Seizures., Thomas M. Zink, John E. Erickson 2020 Tufts University School of Medicine; Maine Medical Center

A Phantom Of The Past: Withdrawal From Meprobamate Presenting With Focal Seizures., Thomas M. Zink, John E. Erickson

Journal of Maine Medical Center

Introduction: Meprobamate (Miltown, Equinil) is a sedative-hypnotic medication that first gained popularity as an anxiolytic and later as a muscle relaxant. It is a major metabolite of the more commonly used muscle relaxant carisoprodol (Soma). In vitro and electroencephalogram studies demonstrated that meprobamate modulates gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, similar to barbiturates. Withdrawal from meprobamate manifests in symptoms ranging from mild anxiety to severe autonomic instability and death. Meprobamate is rarely prescribed, but is still given to a small subset of elderly patients.

Clinical findings: In this case of meprobamate withdrawal, the patient initially displayed altered mental status and recurrent seizures ...


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey ...


The Effects Of Autophagy And Senescence On Sensitivity To Cisplatin In Head And Neck Cancer, Zara H. Siddiqui 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Effects Of Autophagy And Senescence On Sensitivity To Cisplatin In Head And Neck Cancer, Zara H. Siddiqui

Theses and Dissertations

While current treatments in cancer, such as chemotherapy and radiation, can generally be effective in eliminating disease in patients, there also exists the possibility of recurrence of cancer cells over time. In patients diagnosed with locally advanced head and neck carcinoma, about 50-60% develop a loco-regional recurrence within two years, and 20-30% of patients develop metastatic disease at distant sites in the body [5]. On a cellular level, one mechanism for this survival may be that natural mechanisms such as autophagy and senescence play a role in allowing cells to survive after undergoing treatment. One standard of care chemotherapy for ...


Ketamine Vs Placebo For Depression, Austin Strosser 2020 Arcadia University

Ketamine Vs Placebo For Depression, Austin Strosser

Capstone Showcase

Depression is a disease that effects millions of patients and has a variety of symptoms. It is primarily defined by depressed mood and anhedonia. The first line treatment for depression is SSRI medications. These medications have several side effects and are not effective for a large number of patients. Therefore, this study was done to review ketamine as a new treatment option for depression and see how it compares to a placebo.


The Efficacy Of Ketamine In Adult Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder With Symptoms Refractory To Standard Of Care Treatment., Brooke Thornton 2020 Arcadia University

The Efficacy Of Ketamine In Adult Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder With Symptoms Refractory To Standard Of Care Treatment., Brooke Thornton

Capstone Showcase

First line pharmacologic treatments for adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involve selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SNRIs). These drug classes often fail to deliver timely relief of symptoms as well as maintain longevity of symptom recurrence. This research analyzed the use of ketamine in adult patients suffering with OCD for the purposes of more efficacious management of symptoms. Although ketamine demonstrated a timelier relief of symptoms in some small clinical studies, its effects were ultimately unable to be sustained long term. Additionally, a wide range of adverse effects including dissociation, and rebound symptoms were observed. As a ...


Manipulation Of Ar-V7 In Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer, Sean Simpson 2020 Arcadia University

Manipulation Of Ar-V7 In Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer, Sean Simpson

Capstone Showcase

Abstract

Introduction: Prostate cancer is the leading cancer affecting men of all races in the United States, and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. If caught early, many have had success in combating the disease, but if the cancer metastasizes, the 5-year survival rate drops to only 30%. Current treatment options heavily involve hormone therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. While these treatments can be effective for early stage prostate cancer, they can fall short in preventing the spread of the cancer to other parts of the body. This review analyzes a new potential way of preventing ...


In Vivo Effects Of The Cb1 Allosteric Modulator Ldk1258, A Structural Analog Of Org-27569, Mohammed A. Mustafa 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

In Vivo Effects Of The Cb1 Allosteric Modulator Ldk1258, A Structural Analog Of Org-27569, Mohammed A. Mustafa

Theses and Dissertations

CB1 receptor allosteric modulators are an area of growing interest for their potential novel therapeutic actions. In the present study, we examined LDK1258 in a series of pharmacological in vivo tests sensitive to CB1 receptor stimulation. In the tetrad assay, LDK1258 produced significant decreases in locomotor activity and body temperature measures but did not produce either antinociception as measured in the tail-withdrawal assay or catalepsy as assessed in the bar test. These same effects were observed in both CB1 (-/-) and (+/+) mice. Moreover, LDK1258 failed to shift the dose-response curves of two orthosteric CB1 receptor agonists in the triad assay. In ...


Inhaled Vs. Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate In Severe Acute Refractory Asthma In Children, Max Wilkinson 2020 Arcadia University

Inhaled Vs. Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate In Severe Acute Refractory Asthma In Children, Max Wilkinson

Capstone Showcase

Abstract

Introduction: Asthma is an extremely prevalent lung condition that comes with life-threatening exacerbations that are sometimes refractory to standard therapy regiments. Standard therapy regiments include short acting beta agonists, short acting muscarinic agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids. After initial therapy has failed there is a wide range of adjunctive medication that can be used. One medication that has demonstrated efficacy in these circumstances is intravenous magnesium sulfate. Magnesium sulfate toxicity may result in severe neurologic and cardiac conditions. Magnesium sulfate can be administered through a nebulizer machine; this route of administration would decrease the incidence of the adverse effects of ...


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