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Medical Biophysics Commons

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An Apodized-Aperture X-Ray Detector Design For Improved Image Quality In Mammography, Tomi F. Nano 2019 The University of Western Ontario

An Apodized-Aperture X-Ray Detector Design For Improved Image Quality In Mammography, Tomi F. Nano

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

X-ray imaging for early cancer detection, such as screening mammography, requires images with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using low levels of radiation exposure. Conventional detectors consist of a matrix of sensor elements, producing images where each pixel corresponds to a single sensor element. This imposes a fundamental limitation on image contrast and SNR for imaging fine detail for a given exposure. The work presented here reconsiders x-ray image formation using a new x-ray detector design that synthesizes image pixels from a large number of very small sensor elements with the goal of optimizing contrast and SNR.

Our new detector design ...


Scintillation Event Localization In Novel Hemi-Ellipsoid Detector For Spect, Hanif R. Soysal 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Scintillation Event Localization In Novel Hemi-Ellipsoid Detector For Spect, Hanif R. Soysal

LSU Master's Theses

A high sensitivity Cardiac SPECT system using hemi-ellipsoid crystals with pinhole collimation was previously proposed by Dey et al. To investigate detector resolution for this design, the scintillation light spread on a monolithic hemi-ellipsoidal CsI crystal was simulated using Geant4 Monte Carlo. The expected distribution of scintillation light on the outer surface of the crystal from photoelectric absorption events was obtained from the simulations for selected points inside the crystal. Two sets of simulations were performed. For the first set, a look-up table (LUT) of 12 points was created and each point mapped to its expected light distribution—four points ...


Towards On-Line Plan Adaptation Of Unified Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy Using A Fast-Direct Aperture Optimization Algorithm, Michael MacFarlane 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Towards On-Line Plan Adaptation Of Unified Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy Using A Fast-Direct Aperture Optimization Algorithm, Michael Macfarlane

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plays a vital role in the treatment of cancer, with close to half of all cancer patients receiving EBRT at some point over their course of treatment. Although EBRT is a well-established form of treatment, there are a number of ways in which EBRT could still be improved in terms of quality and efficiency for treatment planning and radiation dose delivery. This thesis reports a series of improvements made to EBRT.

First, we developed and evaluated a new treatment planning technique called unified intensity-modulated arc therapy (UIMAT) which combines the optimization and delivery of rotational volumetric ...


Texture Analysis And Machine Learning To Predict Pulmonary Ventilation From Thoracic Computed Tomography, Andrew Westcott 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Texture Analysis And Machine Learning To Predict Pulmonary Ventilation From Thoracic Computed Tomography, Andrew Westcott

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leads to persistent airflow limitation, causing a large burden to patients and the health care system. Thoracic CT provides an opportunity to observe the structural pathophysiology of COPD, whereas hyperpolarized gas MRI provides images of the consequential ventilation heterogeneity. However, hyperpolarized gas MRI is currently limited to research centres, due to the high cost of gas and polarization equipment. Therefore, I developed a pipeline using texture analysis and machine learning methods to create predicted ventilation maps based on non-contrast enhanced, single-volume thoracic CT. In a COPD cohort, predicted ventilation maps were qualitatively and quantitatively related ...


Evaluation Of Ventilation Assistance For Improving Respiratory Reproducibility In Radiation Therapy, Cameron J. Sprowls 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Evaluation Of Ventilation Assistance For Improving Respiratory Reproducibility In Radiation Therapy, Cameron J. Sprowls

LSU Master's Theses

Background: Respiratory motion affects all tumor sites in the thorax and abdomen. Variations of the respiratory pattern cause variations of the tumor motion which can result in differences between the planned and delivered dose distributions. Previous breathing guidance techniques have been investigated to improve respiratory reproducibility; however, ventilation assistance has not been investigated. We evaluated using bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP) ventilation assistance for improving respiratory reproducibility in patients with tumor sites impacted by respiratory motion.

Methods: Written informed consent was obtained for 10 patients currently undergoing radiation therapy treatment. Patients participated in sessions over their course of treatment, which ...


The Effect Of Sepsis On Cerebral Microvascular Blood Flow, Laura Mawdsley, Mamadou Diop, Chris G. Ellis 2019 Western University

The Effect Of Sepsis On Cerebral Microvascular Blood Flow, Laura Mawdsley, Mamadou Diop, Chris G. Ellis

Western Research Forum

Background: Sepsis is a dysregulated host response to infection that affects 18 000 000 people worldwide, and over 325 000 000 dollars are spent treating sepsis in Canada every year. One of the symptoms of severe sepsis is an altered mental state, which is accompanied with a measured decrease in oxygen levels in the skeletal muscle microvasculature. It is hypothesized that his altered mental state is due to a lack of oxygenated blood reaching the brain.

Hypothesis: After the onset of sepsis, microvascular cerebral blood flow and oxygen levels in the blood will decrease. Onset of decreased blood flow in ...


Applications Of Ct Perfusion-Based Triaging And Prognostication In Acute Ischemic Stroke, Eric A. Wright 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Applications Of Ct Perfusion-Based Triaging And Prognostication In Acute Ischemic Stroke, Eric A. Wright

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

CT Perfusion (CTP) is a minimally invasive imaging technique that aids acute ischemic stroke (AIS) triage and prognostication by determining tissue viability based on hemodynamic parameters. The goals of this research are to determine: 1) CTP thresholds for estimation of infarct and penumbra volume, 2) how CTP scan duration impacts infarct and penumbra volume estimates, and 3) reliability of CTP for predicting functional outcomes following intra-arterial therapy (IAT).

Chapter 2 introduced an experimental study for determining ischemia-time dependent thresholds for brain infarction using multimodal imaging in a porcine stroke model that is easier to implement than previous large animal stroke ...


Multi-Scale Peripheral Vasculopathy With Metabolic Syndrome, Kent Lemaster 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Multi-Scale Peripheral Vasculopathy With Metabolic Syndrome, Kent Lemaster

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The combination of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, in combination with a prothrombotic and proinflammatory state, is a condition termed Metabolic Syndrome (METS). Twenty percent of the adult population is afflicted with METS which increases the risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Further, the presence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is tightly coupled with METS which is a perfusion-demand mismatch of blood supply to active skeletal muscle resulting in painful claudication and a late-stage potential for amputation. The underlying contributors of METS associated micro-vasculopathies in the skeletal muscle, their impact on ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Three-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Using Image Quality Phantoms, Rudy Baronette 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Quantitative Analysis Of Three-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Using Image Quality Phantoms, Rudy Baronette

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In the clinical setting, weight-bearing static 2D radiographic imaging and supine 3D radiographic imaging modalities are used to evaluate radiographic changes such as, joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. These respective imaging modalities cannot distinguish between tissues with similar densities (2D imaging), and do not accurately represent functional joint loading (supine 3D imaging). Recent advances in cone-beam CT (CBCT) have allowed for scanner designs that can obtain weight-bearing 3D volumetric scans. The purpose of this thesis was to analyze, design, and implement advanced imaging techniques to quantify image quality parameters of reconstructed image volumes generated by a commercially-available ...


Validation Of A Hyperspectral Nirs Method For Measuring Tissue Oxygen Saturation, Matthew Kewin 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Validation Of A Hyperspectral Nirs Method For Measuring Tissue Oxygen Saturation, Matthew Kewin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Brain injury during preterm infancy can cause serious intellectual and behavioral disabilities, as such, measurements of cerebral health are needed to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is considered ideal for this purpose because it is non-invasive and provides a continuous measure of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), a key marker of cerebral health. Current commercial NIRS systems have considerable variability between devices and between infants restricting them to monitoring trends. Time-resolved (TR) NIRS is considered the gold standard in biomedical optics for quantifying tissue optical properties, but the technology is more complex ...


Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined by low birth weight and contributes to a variety of adult-onset diseases with different severities between males and females. However, the effects of FGR on the pulmonary surfactant are not fully elucidated. In this thesis, first, we investigated the FGR effects on the lung function and the surfactant system at the early postnatal life. It was hypothesized that FGR contributes to alterations of lung mechanics and the surfactant system during the neonatal period. Second, we assessed the FGR effects on the surfactant system in response to sepsis in adulthood. It was hypothesized that FGR ...


An Integrated Approach To Analyzing Arteriolar Network Hemodynamics., Zahra Farid 2018 The University of Western Ontario

An Integrated Approach To Analyzing Arteriolar Network Hemodynamics., Zahra Farid

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this thesis was to optimize our technique for studying blood flow in arteriolar networks by including capillary resistance and venular network geometry. We aimed to validate our technique using experimental flow measurements and Murray’s law. First, arteriolar and venular networks were reconstructed from intravital videomicroscopy (IVVM) images of the gluteus maximus muscle, and capillary resistance was estimated and distributed to each terminal arteriole (TA) segment according to its diameter. Resistance for small arterioles and venules that were likely missed in our IVVM experiments were also added to each TA segment in our reconstructed networks based on ...


Development And Validation Of A Stand-Alone Dcs System For Monitoring Absolute Cerebral Blood Flow., Mahro Khalid 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Development And Validation Of A Stand-Alone Dcs System For Monitoring Absolute Cerebral Blood Flow., Mahro Khalid

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Premature infants are at high risk of neonatal brain injury due to poor cerebrovascular regulation, leading to periods of dangerously low cerebral blood flow (CBF) and possible injury. However, there are currently no established bedside methods of monitoring CBF to alert the intensive care staff to cerebrovascular dysfunction. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging noninvasive optical technique for monitoring relative CBF. I developed a stand-alone DCS method of monitoring absolute CBF by incorporating a quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) technique. This required modifying a DCS system to capture multi-distance data to measure the tissue optical properties and to perform DCE ...


Diffusion And Functional Mri Of The Brain Following Sports-Related Impacts And Concussion, Kathryn Y. Manning 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Diffusion And Functional Mri Of The Brain Following Sports-Related Impacts And Concussion, Kathryn Y. Manning

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Concussion is a prevalent injury associated with contact sports, however the underlying brain changes associated with concussion remain poorly understood. Therefore it is critical to (a) understand the complex sequelae that underlie concussion, (b) when or if the brain recovers, and (c) if there are brain changes associated with contact sports in general. Advanced imaging techniques may be sensitive to changes that persist beyond relatively prompt symptom recovery and clearance to return to play.

Resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was acquired on the 3T at Robarts Research Institute from healthy and concussed athletes from ...


Toward Optimization Of Target Planning For Magnetic Resonance Image-Targeted, 3d Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Fusion Prostate Biopsy, Peter Martin 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Toward Optimization Of Target Planning For Magnetic Resonance Image-Targeted, 3d Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Fusion Prostate Biopsy, Peter Martin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The current clinical standard for diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is 2D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy. However, this procedure has a false negative rate of 21-47% and therefore many patients return for repeat biopsies. A potential solution for improving upon this problem is “fusion” biopsy, where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for PCa detection and localization prior to biopsy. In this procedure, tumours are delineated on pre-procedural MRI and registered to the 3D TRUS needle guidance modality. However, fusion biopsy continues to yield false negative results and there remains a gap in knowledge regarding biopsy needle target selection ...


Equipment To Address Infrastructure And Human Resource Challenges For Radiotherapy In Low-Resource Settings, Rachel McCarroll 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Equipment To Address Infrastructure And Human Resource Challenges For Radiotherapy In Low-Resource Settings, Rachel Mccarroll

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Millions of people in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) are without access to radiation therapy and as rate of population growth in these regions increase and lifestyle factors which are indicative of cancer increase; the cancer burden will only rise. There are a multitude of reasons for lack of access but two themes among them are the lack of access to affordable and reliable teletherapy units and insufficient properly trained staff to deliver high quality care. The purpose of this work was to investigate to two proposed efforts to improve access to radiotherapy in low-resource areas; an upright radiotherapy ...


Optimization Of Decision Making In Personalized Radiation Therapy Using Deformable Image Registration, Jason Vickress 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Optimization Of Decision Making In Personalized Radiation Therapy Using Deformable Image Registration, Jason Vickress

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cancer has become one of the dominant diseases worldwide, especially in western countries, and radiation therapy is one of the primary treatment options for 50% of all patients diagnosed. Radiation therapy involves the radiation delivery and planning based on radiobiological models derived primarily from clinical trials. Since 2015 improvements in information technologies and data storage allowed new models to be created using the large volumes of treatment data already available and correlate the actually delivered treatment with outcomes. The goals of this thesis are to 1) construct models of patient outcomes after receiving radiation therapy using available treatment and patient ...


Investigating The Cortical, Metabolic And Behavioral Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation In Preparation For Combined Rehabilitation, Kayla N. Ryan 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Cortical, Metabolic And Behavioral Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation In Preparation For Combined Rehabilitation, Kayla N. Ryan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The goal of this thesis was to determine the cortical reorganization that occurs in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) after surgical decompression and to implement this knowledge into a new rehabilitation strategy. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique to modulate human behavior. Due to the novel electrode montage used, it was first pertinent that we determine how tDCS would modulate cortical, metabolic and motor behavior in healthy individuals.

We observed the longitudinal functional adaptations that occur in patients with CSM using functional MRI. Enhanced excitation of supplementary motor area (SMA) was observed following surgical decompression and ...


Methods For The Investigation Of Microvascular Control Of Oxygen Distribution, Richard Sove 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Methods For The Investigation Of Microvascular Control Of Oxygen Distribution, Richard Sove

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this thesis was to develop tools for studying oxygen-dependent regulation of red blood cell (RBC) flow distribution in the microcirculation. At the microvascular level, arterioles dictate the distribution of oxygen (O2) carrying RBCs to downstream capillaries, a process which needs to be tightly regulated and coupled to O2 off loading from capillaries to the tissue. To investigate potential regulatory mechanisms, an O2 exchange platform was developed to manipulate the RBC hemoglobin O2 saturation (SO2) at the muscle surface while limiting the changes in SO2 to only a single capillary network. Decreasing ...


Behavior Coding Strategies: Population Coupling And The Functional Role Of Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance In Primary Motor Cortex, Patrick Aaron Kells 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Behavior Coding Strategies: Population Coupling And The Functional Role Of Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance In Primary Motor Cortex, Patrick Aaron Kells

Theses and Dissertations

The complexities of an organism’s experience of- and interaction with the world are emergent phenomena produced by large populations of neurons within the cerebral cortex and other brain regions. The network dynamics of these populations have been shown to be sometimes synchronous, with many neurons firing together, and sometimes asynchronous, with neurons firing more independently, leading to a decades-old debate within the neuroscience community. This discrepancy comes from viewing the system at two different scales; at the single cell level, the spiking activity of two neurons within cortex tend to be rather independent, but when the average activity of ...


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