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The Nutrition And Food-Related Roles, Experiences And Support Needs Of Female Family Carers Of Malnourished Older Rehabilitation Patients, Skye Marshall, Dianne P. Reidlinger, Adrienne Young, Elizabeth Isenring 2016 Bond University

The Nutrition And Food-Related Roles, Experiences And Support Needs Of Female Family Carers Of Malnourished Older Rehabilitation Patients, Skye Marshall, Dianne P. Reidlinger, Adrienne Young, Elizabeth Isenring

Liz Isenring

BACKGROUND: To improve perceived value of nutrition support and patient outcomes, the present study aimed to determine the nutrition and food-related roles, experiences and support needs of female family carers of community-dwelling malnourished older adults admitted to rehabilitation units in rural New South Wales, Australia, both during admission and following discharge. METHODS: Four female family carers of malnourished rehabilitation patients aged ≥65 years were interviewed during their care-recipients' rehabilitation admission and again at 2 weeks post-discharge. The semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed reflecting an interpretative phenomenological approach by three researchers. A series of 'drivers' relevant to the research ...


The Nutrition And Food-Related Roles, Experiences And Support Needs Of Female Family Carers Of Malnourished Older Rehabilitation Patients, Skye Marshall, Dianne P. Reidlinger, Adrienne Young, Elizabeth Isenring 2016 Bond University

The Nutrition And Food-Related Roles, Experiences And Support Needs Of Female Family Carers Of Malnourished Older Rehabilitation Patients, Skye Marshall, Dianne P. Reidlinger, Adrienne Young, Elizabeth Isenring

Skye Marshall

BACKGROUND: To improve perceived value of nutrition support and patient outcomes, the present study aimed to determine the nutrition and food-related roles, experiences and support needs of female family carers of community-dwelling malnourished older adults admitted to rehabilitation units in rural New South Wales, Australia, both during admission and following discharge. METHODS: Four female family carers of malnourished rehabilitation patients aged ≥65 years were interviewed during their care-recipients' rehabilitation admission and again at 2 weeks post-discharge. The semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed reflecting an interpretative phenomenological approach by three researchers. A series of 'drivers' relevant to the research ...


Binge Ethanol Exposure Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress And Tissue Injury In The Pancreas, Zhenhua Ren, Xin Wang, Mei Xu, Fanmuyi Yang, Jacqueline A. Frank, Zun-Ji Ke, Jia Luo 2016 University of Kentucky

Binge Ethanol Exposure Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress And Tissue Injury In The Pancreas, Zhenhua Ren, Xin Wang, Mei Xu, Fanmuyi Yang, Jacqueline A. Frank, Zun-Ji Ke, Jia Luo

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Alcohol abuse is associated with both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis or pancreatic injury may result in chronic pancreatitis. We investigated ethanol-induced pancreatic injury using a mouse model of binge ethanol exposure. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to ethanol intragastrically (5 g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 10 days. Binge ethanol exposure caused pathological changes in pancreas demonstrated by tissue edema, acinar atrophy and moderate fibrosis. Ethanol caused both apoptotic and necrotic cell death which was demonstrated by the increase in active caspase-3, caspase-8, cleaved PARP, cleaved CK-18 and the secretion of high ...


Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, MD, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, MD, Franklin D. Shuler, MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, Md, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, Md, Franklin D. Shuler, Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Vitamin K is known to play an essential role in the coagulation cascade; however, a growing body of research has found that a subtype of this vitamin, vitamin K2 (menaquinone) may have a beneficial effect in osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. This purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature regarding menaquinone and its role in human health. This review discusses the physiology of menaquinone, its clinical benefits in cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, and how it may interact with certain medications. The authors conclude that menaquinone supplementation has been shown to improve carboxylation ...


Comparison Of A Powdered, Acidified Liquid, And Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier On Clinical Outcomes In Premature Infants., Melissa Thoene, Elizabeth Lyden, Kara Weishaar, Elizabeth Elliott, Ruomei Wu, Katelyn White, Hayley Timm, Ann Anderson-Berry 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Comparison Of A Powdered, Acidified Liquid, And Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier On Clinical Outcomes In Premature Infants., Melissa Thoene, Elizabeth Lyden, Kara Weishaar, Elizabeth Elliott, Ruomei Wu, Katelyn White, Hayley Timm, Ann Anderson-Berry

Journal Articles: Medical Nutrition

We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF) vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF). A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF) is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born < 2000 g) who received one of three HMF. Growth, enteral nutrition, laboratory and demographic data were compared. 120 infants were included (P-HMF = 46, AL-HMF = 23, NAL-HMF = 51). AL-HMF infants grew slower in g/day (median 23.66 vs. P-HMF 31.27, NAL-HMF 31.74 (p < 0.05)) and in g/kg/day, median 10.59 vs. 15.37, 14.03 (p < 0.0001). AL-HMF vs. NAL-HMF infants were smaller at 36 weeks gestational age (median 2046 vs. 2404 g, p < 0.05). However AL-HMF infants received more daily calories (p = 0.21) and protein (p < 0.0001), mean 129 cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038). Three AL-HMF infants (13%) developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056). A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).


Erbb2 And P38Γ Mapk Mediate Alcohol-Induced Increase In Breast Cancer Stem Cells And Metastasis, Mei Xu, Zhenhua Ren, Xin Wang, Ashley Comer, Jacqueline A. Frank, Zun-Ji Ke, Yi Huang, Zhuo Zhang, Xianglin Shi, Siying Wang, Jia Luo 2016 University of Kentucky

Erbb2 And P38Γ Mapk Mediate Alcohol-Induced Increase In Breast Cancer Stem Cells And Metastasis, Mei Xu, Zhenhua Ren, Xin Wang, Ashley Comer, Jacqueline A. Frank, Zun-Ji Ke, Yi Huang, Zhuo Zhang, Xianglin Shi, Siying Wang, Jia Luo

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that excessive alcohol exposure increases the risk for breast cancer and enhances metastasis/recurrence. We have previously demonstrated that alcohol enhanced the migration/invasion of breast cancer cells and cancer cells overexpressing ErbB2/HER2 were more sensitive to alcohol exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms underlying alcohol-enhanced aggressiveness of breast cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a critical role in cancer metastasis and recurrence.

Methods: We evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on mammary tumor development/metastasis in MMTV-neu transgenic mice and investigated ...


Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Meeting 5-2-1-0 Recommendations Among Adolescents In The United States, Christina F. Haughton, Monica Wang, Stephenie C. Lemon 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Meeting 5-2-1-0 Recommendations Among Adolescents In The United States, Christina F. Haughton, Monica Wang, Stephenie C. Lemon

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

BACKGROUND: Obesity prevention has become a major focus of public health efforts in the United States. The Federal Government set forth national nutrition and physical activity recommendations to prevent obesity and promote well-being among children. A succinct message developed through a program in Maine “Let’s Go! 5-2-1-0” summarizes these obesity prevention behaviors including ≥5 fruit and vegetables, ≤2 hours of screen time, ≥1 hour of physical activity, and 0 sugar sweetened beverages daily. The study evaluates racial/ethnic disparities among adolescents meeting the 5-2-1-0 targets in a nationally representative sample.

METHODS: The 2011-2012 NHANES dataset was used to conduct ...


Thrombospondin 1 Deficiency Ameliorates The Development Of Adriamycin-Induced Proteinuric Kidney Disease, Hasiyeti Maimaitiyiming, Qi Zhou, Shuxia Wang 2016 University of Kentucky

Thrombospondin 1 Deficiency Ameliorates The Development Of Adriamycin-Induced Proteinuric Kidney Disease, Hasiyeti Maimaitiyiming, Qi Zhou, Shuxia Wang

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Accumulating evidence suggests that thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) is an important player in diabetic nephropathy. However, the role of TSP1 in podocyte injury and the development of non-diabetic proteinuric kidney disease is largely unknown. In the current study, by using a well-established podocyte injury model (adriamycin-induced nephropathy mouse model), we examined the contribution of TSP1 to the development of proteinuric kidney disease. We found that TSP1 was up-regulated in the glomeruli, notably in podocytes, in adriamycin injected mice before the onset of proteinuria. ADR treatment also stimulated TSP1 expression in cultured human podocytes in vitro. Moreover, increased TSP1 mediated ADR-induced podocyte ...


Development Of A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience To Introduce Drug-Receptor Concepts, Hollie I. Swanson, Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge, Thushani Rodrigo-Peiris, Lin Xiang, Vincent M. Cassone 2016 University of Kentucky

Development Of A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience To Introduce Drug-Receptor Concepts, Hollie I. Swanson, Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge, Thushani Rodrigo-Peiris, Lin Xiang, Vincent M. Cassone

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Course-based research experiences (CUREs) are currently of high interest due to their potential for engaging undergraduate students in authentic research and maintaining their interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. As part of a campuswide initiative called STEMCats, which is a living learning program offered to freshman STEM majors at the University of Kentucky funded by a grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we have developed a CURE for freshmen interested in pursuing health care careers. Our course, entitled “Drug–Drug Interactions in Breast Cancer,” utilized a semester-long, in-class authentic research project and instructor-led discussions to engage students ...


Proportion Of Heart Failure Patients Who Meet Criteria For Malnutrition Upon Hospital Admission Based On Aspen Guidelines, Sarah L. Johnson 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Proportion Of Heart Failure Patients Who Meet Criteria For Malnutrition Upon Hospital Admission Based On Aspen Guidelines, Sarah L. Johnson

Theses & Dissertations

Background: Current research estimates that approximately 50 percent of heart failure patients are categorized as malnourished. Heart failure patients are at increased risk of malnourishment due to increased catabolic processes that increase resting energy expenditure, decrease appetite, impair nutrient absorption, and lead to unintentional weight loss. The goal of standardized diagnostic criteria is to identify malnutrition early for more effective treatment. Current studies suggest the association of early diagnosis and nutrition intervention with increased positive patient outcomes and improved quality of life for heart failure (HF) patients. However, the proportion of patients with HF who meet criteria for malnutrition at ...


Vitamin A Compounds In Mothers And Infants At Birth, Jenna M. Paseka 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Vitamin A Compounds In Mothers And Infants At Birth, Jenna M. Paseka

Theses & Dissertations

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the vitamin A status in mothers and infants at birth in the United States. The main objective of this study is to determine associations between maternal and infant serum retinol, provitamin A carotenoids, and non-provitamin A carotenoids. The secondary aim is to explore the relationship between maternal intake and maternal and infant serum levels of vitamin A compounds.

METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of 34 mothers and their infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Maternal and cord blood samples were collected at delivery. Serum retinol, lutein + zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, and ...


Vitamin D Supplementation: Preventing Fractures, Courtney L. Carn, Michael S. Doherty 2016 James Madison University

Vitamin D Supplementation: Preventing Fractures, Courtney L. Carn, Michael S. Doherty

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2016 to 2019

Objective: To assess the ability of vitamin D supplementation in preventing musculoskeletal fractures. Methods: Systematic literature review using Google Scholar search terms “vitamin D supplementation” and “preventing hip fractures” from 2006-2015. Only RCTs, meta-analysis, and clinical guidelines were included. Results: Our search resulted in one meta-analysis and two randomized controlled trials. Conclusion: The summation of our investigation into vitamin D deficiency and the presence of musculoskeletal fractures has proven to be relatively inconclusive. The resulting data from our three studies did not provide any definitive proof that improved vitamin D levels correlates with better bone health.


Evaluating Dietary Quality And Taste Preferences With A Simple Liking Survey: Application To Studying Individuals With Morbid Obesity, Marina L. Zoghbi 2016 University of Connecticut

Evaluating Dietary Quality And Taste Preferences With A Simple Liking Survey: Application To Studying Individuals With Morbid Obesity, Marina L. Zoghbi

Honors Scholar Theses

Feasible ways are needed to screen for dietary behaviors and taste preferences in clinical settings. We examined the internal validity and reliability of a brief survey to assess food preferences and dietary behaviors among morbidly obese individuals considering bariatric surgery. Survey-reported liking is a proxy for dietary intake, correlating with reported food intake and biomarkers of nutritional status (Sharafi et al, 2015) and linking taste genetics with diet and health (Pallister et al, 2015). Methods –Enrolled were 138 morbidly obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery, who completed a 100-item liking survey of foods/beverages, physical/sedentary activities, and pleasurable/unpleasurable experiences ...


Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Over 30% of adults in the US are obese. A primary contributor to obesity is an unhealthy diet related to imbalanced macronutrients. Diets higher in protein (PRO) are associated with increased energy expenditure (EE) and reduced food intake. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if protein source at breakfast influences EE in young men (n=4; ages 18-35). Participants consumed three isocaloric (whey (WP), pea (PP), beef (BP); 275 kcal, 62% PRO, 23% CHO, 15% Fat) drinks in randomized, crossover design with a one-week washout period. Each test day EE, appetite, and cravings were assessed at ...


Network-Driven Plasma Proteomics Expose Molecular Changes In The Alzheimer's Brain, Philipp A. Jaeger, Kurt M. Lucin, Markus Britschgi, Badri Vardarajan, Ruo-Pan Huang, Elizabeth D. Kirby, Rachelle Abbey, Bradley F. Boeve, Adam L. Boxer, Lindsay A. Farrer, NiCole Finch, Neill R. Graff-Radford, Elizabeth Head, Matan Hofree, Ruochun Huang, Hudson Johns, Anna Karydas, David S. Knopman, Andrey Loboda, Eliezer Masliah, Ramya Narasimhan, Ronald C. Petersen, Alexei Podtelezhnikov, Suraj Pradhan, Rosa Rademakers, Chung-Huan Sun, Steven G. Younkin, Bruce L. Miller, Trey Ideker, Tony Wyss-Coray 2016 Stanford University

Network-Driven Plasma Proteomics Expose Molecular Changes In The Alzheimer's Brain, Philipp A. Jaeger, Kurt M. Lucin, Markus Britschgi, Badri Vardarajan, Ruo-Pan Huang, Elizabeth D. Kirby, Rachelle Abbey, Bradley F. Boeve, Adam L. Boxer, Lindsay A. Farrer, Nicole Finch, Neill R. Graff-Radford, Elizabeth Head, Matan Hofree, Ruochun Huang, Hudson Johns, Anna Karydas, David S. Knopman, Andrey Loboda, Eliezer Masliah, Ramya Narasimhan, Ronald C. Petersen, Alexei Podtelezhnikov, Suraj Pradhan, Rosa Rademakers, Chung-Huan Sun, Steven G. Younkin, Bruce L. Miller, Trey Ideker, Tony Wyss-Coray

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Biological pathways that significantly contribute to sporadic Alzheimer’s disease are largely unknown and cannot be observed directly. Cognitive symptoms appear only decades after the molecular disease onset, further complicating analyses. As a consequence, molecular research is often restricted to late-stage post-mortem studies of brain tissue. However, the disease process is expected to trigger numerous cellular signaling pathways and modulate the local and systemic environment, and resulting changes in secreted signaling molecules carry information about otherwise inaccessible pathological processes.

Results: To access this information we probed relative levels of close to 600 secreted signaling proteins from patients’ blood samples ...


The Effects Of Iron Deficiency Anemia And Iron Supplementation In Pregnancy, Anna J. Cox 2016 Liberty University

The Effects Of Iron Deficiency Anemia And Iron Supplementation In Pregnancy, Anna J. Cox

Senior Honors Theses

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a condition that occurs in both underdeveloped and developed countries worldwide. This disorder is diagnosed in an individual who presents the common signs and symptoms of anemia along with consistently low clinical markers of stored iron. Iron deficiency (ID) usually precedes a diagnosis of IDA as the insufficient amount of iron often goes undetected until one’s quality of life is diminished. Certain populations, such as women who are pregnant or of reproductive age, are particularly at risk for ID and the development of IDA. During pregnancy, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for iron is ...


Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans MD, Elias Salloum MD, Matthew K. Wingate MD, Thomas Melvin MD, Grant S. Buchanan MD, Franklin D. Shuler MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University

Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans Md, Elias Salloum Md, Matthew K. Wingate Md, Thomas Melvin Md, Grant S. Buchanan Md, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Phd

Franklin D. Shuler

Vitamin D is known to play an essential role in calcium homeostasis; however, excessive amounts can have harmful effects. Calcium and vitamin D levels are known to be influenced by drug interactions and pathology ranging from of cancer to cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D supplementation has become widespread, and it is important for clinicians to understand the way that certain conditions and medications interact with vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to outline the benefits and adverse effects of vitamin D and how its levels are affected by certain pathologic and pharmacologic interactions.


Effects Of Olfactory Sense On Chocolate Craving, Michael W. Firmin, Aubrey Gillette, Taylor E. Hobbs 2016 Cedarville University

Effects Of Olfactory Sense On Chocolate Craving, Michael W. Firmin, Aubrey Gillette, Taylor E. Hobbs

The Research and Scholarship Symposium (2013-2019)

Chocolate has been referred to as one of the most socially acceptable addictions. It is one of America’s most craved foods, and women tend to crave it more frequently than men. Kemps and Tiggemann (2013) conducted an innovative experiment to reconcile the ideas of mental imagery, scent, and craving. After presenting images of sweet foods and having female undergraduate students smell a neutral scent, the researchers found that the neutral smell decreased craving for sweet foods.

In the present study, researchers sought to replicate many aspects of Kemps and Tiggemann’s design. This new study went one step further ...


Lifestyle And Biological Risk Factors For Liver Fibrosis In The Miami Adult Studies On Hiv (Mash) Cohort: An Hiv Infected And Hiv/Hcv Co-Infected Population, Tiffanie S. Stewart 2016 Florida International University

Lifestyle And Biological Risk Factors For Liver Fibrosis In The Miami Adult Studies On Hiv (Mash) Cohort: An Hiv Infected And Hiv/Hcv Co-Infected Population, Tiffanie S. Stewart

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Liver disease is now a leading cause of non-AIDS related morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH). The present study investigated the interplay between adverse lifestyle factors that are prevalent in PLWH, biological mediators of liver pathogenesis, and a non-invasive measure of liver fibrosis (FIB-4 index) in HIV mono- and HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.

The results of this investigation in the Miami Adult Studies of HIV (MASH) cohort show that the odds of liver fibrosis progression significantly increased over two years for HIV mono-infected participants who drank alcohol hazardously (OR 3.038, P=0.048), and had BMI ...


Resveratrol Supplementation Confers Neuroprotection In Cortical Brain Tissue Of Nonhuman Primates Fed A High-Fat/Sucrose Diet, Michel Bernier, Devin Wahl, Ahmed Ali, Joanne Allard, Shakeela Faulkner, Artur Wnorowski, Mitesh Sanghvi, Ruin Moaddel, Irene Alfaras, Julie A. Mattison, Stefano Tarantini, Zsuzsanna Tucsek, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar, Kevin J. Pearson, Rafael de Cabo 2016 National Institute on Aging

Resveratrol Supplementation Confers Neuroprotection In Cortical Brain Tissue Of Nonhuman Primates Fed A High-Fat/Sucrose Diet, Michel Bernier, Devin Wahl, Ahmed Ali, Joanne Allard, Shakeela Faulkner, Artur Wnorowski, Mitesh Sanghvi, Ruin Moaddel, Irene Alfaras, Julie A. Mattison, Stefano Tarantini, Zsuzsanna Tucsek, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar, Kevin J. Pearson, Rafael De Cabo

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Previous studies have shown positive effects of long-term resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in preventing pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, arterial stiffening and metabolic decline induced by high-fat/high-sugar (HFS) diet in nonhuman primates. Here, the analysis was extended to examine whether RSV may reduce dietary stress toxicity in the cerebral cortex of the same cohort of treated animals. Middle-aged male rhesus monkeys were fed for 2 years with HFS alone or combined with RSV, after which whole-genome microarray analysis of cerebral cortex tissue was carried out along with ELISA, immunofluorescence, and biochemical analyses to examine markers of vascular health and inflammation in ...


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