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Development And Validation Of Sunlight Exposure Measurement Questionnaire (Sem-Q) For Use In Adult Population Residing In Pakistan, Quratulain Humayun, Romaina Iqbal, Iqbal Azam, Aysha Habib Khan, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Naila Baig Ansari 2016 Aga Khan University

Development And Validation Of Sunlight Exposure Measurement Questionnaire (Sem-Q) For Use In Adult Population Residing In Pakistan, Quratulain Humayun, Romaina Iqbal, Iqbal Azam, Aysha Habib Khan, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Naila Baig Ansari

Aysha Habib Khan

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D and its measurement using dosimeters is expensive and difficult for use in population-based studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires to assess sunlight exposure in healthy individuals residing in Karachi, Pakistan.

Methods: Two questionnaires with seven important items for sunlight exposure assessment were developed. Fifty four healthy adults were enrolled based on their reported sunlight exposure (high = 17, moderate = 18, low = 19) from Aga Khan University, Karachi. Over four days, study participants ...


Analyzing Mutations Of Spt7 Protein That Disrupt Interaction With Sf3b Subunits, Arryn T. Harris, Peyton J. Spreacker, Rachel Stegeman, Vikki M. Weake, Edwin C. Acosta 2016 Purdue University

Analyzing Mutations Of Spt7 Protein That Disrupt Interaction With Sf3b Subunits, Arryn T. Harris, Peyton J. Spreacker, Rachel Stegeman, Vikki M. Weake, Edwin C. Acosta

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Proper transcription, the process of converting DNA to RNA, is crucial for the health and viability of an organism. This process is regulated by many proteins, such as co-transcriptional activators; one being the protein complex known as Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase, or SAGA. While much is known about the roles of SAGA in cell processes, how SAGA’s subunits promote functionality is still unknown. The focus of this study is to analyze the purpose of SAGA’s SF3B subunits. These subunits are also found in the spliceosome, the compound responsible for generating mature RNA. SAGA has no known functions relating to this process ...


Vinyl Chloride-Diet Interactions In Liver Disease : Potential Roles Of Autophagy And Energy Management., Anna L. Lang 2016 University of Louisville

Vinyl Chloride-Diet Interactions In Liver Disease : Potential Roles Of Autophagy And Energy Management., Anna L. Lang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Vinyl chloride (VC) is a prevalent environmental toxicant that has been shown to cause liver injury at high, occupational exposures. However, most studies have not addressed interactions of low doses with risk-modifying factors. This study aims to explore low-level VC metabolite exposure interactions with other potential risk-modifying factors and their effect on underlying liver disease. We examined sub-hepatotoxic effects of a VC metabolite (chloroethanol, CE) in two murine models of liver injury using ethanol and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In both, CE significantly enhanced liver injury when compared to either ethanol or LPS alone. Previous studies have shown an increase in mTOR ...


Incidence Of Hypomagnesemia On Proton Pump Inhibitors At The Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – Ihop, Ebrahim Sabbagh, DO, Chelsey R. Houchins, James Allman, II, PharmD, Samson Teka, MD 2016 Marshall University

Incidence Of Hypomagnesemia On Proton Pump Inhibitors At The Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – Ihop, Ebrahim Sabbagh, Do, Chelsey R. Houchins, James Allman, Ii, Pharmd, Samson Teka, Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Title: Incidence of hypomagnesemia on proton pump inhibitors at the Huntington Veterans Affairs Medical Center – IHOP

Purpose:

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), both prescription and over-the-counter, are widely used for the treatment of acid-related disease states such as dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflex disease, esophagitis, and peptic ulcers. These medications are generally considered safe in most patient populations; however, there are several adverse effects that may occur with long-term use. Hypomagnesemia is a newer complication arising in the literature following multiple case reports over the past several years, although the true incidence of hypomagnesemia associated with PPI use remains unclear at this ...


Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, MD, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, MD, Franklin D. Shuler, MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, Md, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, Md, Franklin D. Shuler, Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Vitamin K is known to play an essential role in the coagulation cascade; however, a growing body of research has found that a subtype of this vitamin, vitamin K2 (menaquinone) may have a beneficial effect in osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. This purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature regarding menaquinone and its role in human health. This review discusses the physiology of menaquinone, its clinical benefits in cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, and how it may interact with certain medications. The authors conclude that menaquinone supplementation has been shown to improve carboxylation ...


Race/Sex Group Modification Of The Association Between Allostatic Load And Depression: Findings From The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010, Ganga Bey, Sharina D. Person 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Race/Sex Group Modification Of The Association Between Allostatic Load And Depression: Findings From The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010, Ganga Bey, Sharina D. Person

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Objective: We assessed whether the relationship between depression and chronic stress as measured in allostatic load (AL) differs by race and sex among US black and white adults.

Methods: Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010, we examined race/sex modification of the relationship between AL and depression in black and white women and men aged 18-64 years (n=6431). AL scores, ranging from 0-9, were calculated using 9 cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic biomarkers; scores ≥ 4 were considered “high-risk”. Depression was assessed using the PHQ-9; scores ≥ 10 indicate clinical depression. Logistic regression models estimated odds ...


An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church 2016 Trinity College

An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church

Senior Theses and Projects

A growing body of research suggests that dopaminergic cell death seen in Parkinson’s disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress, with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species, is the hallmark biochemical product of mitochondrial dysfunction. The ketogenic diet has been found to enhance mitochondrial energy production, protect against reactive oxygen species-generated cell death, and increase adenosine, a purine that modulates dopamine activity. The current study evaluates the effects of a long-term (5-month) ketogenic diet on behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical measures in PINK1-KO rats, a new animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Both wild-type and PINK1-KO animals fed a ...


Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen 1980- 2016 University of Louisville

Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen 1980-

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol consumption can cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Chronic alcohol consumption causes a pro-oxidant environment in the liver and increases hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acrolein is the most reactive and toxic aldehyde generated through lipid peroxidation. Acrolein forms protein adducts and triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, which are recognized etiologic factors in ALD. Several studies have established the critical role of the gut-liver axis in ALD pathogenesis, wherein alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction contributes to liver injury. This study investigates, in vitro and in vivo, the ...


Validation Of The Use Of Doubly Labeled Water For Measuring Metabolic Rate In Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Horridus), Caitlin Hirsh 2016 University of Arkansas Fayetteville

Validation Of The Use Of Doubly Labeled Water For Measuring Metabolic Rate In Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Horridus), Caitlin Hirsh

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The doubly labeled water method is an isotopic technique for measuring field metabolic rate and water flux rates of free-living animals. We present a validation of the use doubly labeled water for measuring metabolic rate and water loss in Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus). For this study seven animals of varying body size were used with masses ranging from 148 to 650 grams. Prior to dosing, blood samples were taken to establish background isotope levels for each animal. Snakes were injected with water enriched with isotopes of oxygen (18O) and hydrogen (2H, deuterium). The injected isotopes were then allowed to equilibrate ...


Protein Studies: The Function Of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (Car) And Its Associated Ligands, Jacob M. Amburn 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Protein Studies: The Function Of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (Car) And Its Associated Ligands, Jacob M. Amburn

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Fructose Mediated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Is Attenuated By Ho-1-Sirt1 Module In Murine Hepatocytes And Mice Fed A High Fructose Diet, Komal Sodhi, Nitin Puri, Gaia Favero, Sarah Stevens, Charles Meadows, Nader G. Abraham, Rita Rezzani, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Edward Lebovics, Joseph I. Shapiro 2016 Marshall University

Fructose Mediated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Is Attenuated By Ho-1-Sirt1 Module In Murine Hepatocytes And Mice Fed A High Fructose Diet, Komal Sodhi, Nitin Puri, Gaia Favero, Sarah Stevens, Charles Meadows, Nader G. Abraham, Rita Rezzani, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Edward Lebovics, Joseph I. Shapiro

Nader G. Abraham

Background

Oxidative stress underlies the etiopathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a potent endogenous antioxidant gene that plays a key role in decreasing oxidative stress. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) belongs to the family of NAD-dependent de-acyetylases and is modulated by cellular redox.

Hypothesis

We hypothesize that fructose-induced obesity creates an inflammatory and oxidative environment conducive to the development of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether HO-1 acts through SIRT1 to form a functional module within hepatocytes to attenuate steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cardiovascular dysfunction.

Methods ...


Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, PhD, Joseph I. Shapiro, MD 2016 Marshall University

Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, Phd, Joseph I. Shapiro, Md

Joseph I Shapiro MD

The Na/K-ATPase has a signaling function which appears to be separate from its ion pumping function. This signaling function refers to the transduction of conformational changes in the Na/K-ATPase alpha1 subunit into activating Src’s tyrosine kinase activity, triggering a cascade which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulates other signaling pathways, and causes many physiological and pathophysiological effects. We have recently observed that ROS themselves as well as cardiotonic steroids can actually initiate the signal by directly inducing conformational changes in alpha1. It therefore appears that the Na/K-ATPase signal cascade can serve as a feed forward amplification ...


Fructose Mediated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Is Attenuated By Ho-1-Sirt1 Module In Murine Hepatocytes And Mice Fed A High Fructose Diet, Komal Sodhi, Nitin Puri, Gaia Favero, Sarah Stevens, Charles Meadows, Nader G. Abraham, Rita Rezzani, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Edward Lebovics, Joseph I. Shapiro 2016 Marshall University

Fructose Mediated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Is Attenuated By Ho-1-Sirt1 Module In Murine Hepatocytes And Mice Fed A High Fructose Diet, Komal Sodhi, Nitin Puri, Gaia Favero, Sarah Stevens, Charles Meadows, Nader G. Abraham, Rita Rezzani, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Edward Lebovics, Joseph I. Shapiro

Joseph I Shapiro MD

Background

Oxidative stress underlies the etiopathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a potent endogenous antioxidant gene that plays a key role in decreasing oxidative stress. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) belongs to the family of NAD-dependent de-acyetylases and is modulated by cellular redox.

Hypothesis

We hypothesize that fructose-induced obesity creates an inflammatory and oxidative environment conducive to the development of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether HO-1 acts through SIRT1 to form a functional module within hepatocytes to attenuate steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cardiovascular dysfunction.

Methods ...


Upregulation Of Heme Oxygenase-1 Combined With Increased Adiponectin Lowers Blood Pressure In Diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Through A Reduction In Endothelial Cell Dysfunction, Apoptosis And Oxidative Stress, Jian Cao, George Drummond, Kazuyoshi Inoue, Komal Sodhi, Xiao Ying Li, Shinji Omura 2016 Marshall University

Upregulation Of Heme Oxygenase-1 Combined With Increased Adiponectin Lowers Blood Pressure In Diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Through A Reduction In Endothelial Cell Dysfunction, Apoptosis And Oxidative Stress, Jian Cao, George Drummond, Kazuyoshi Inoue, Komal Sodhi, Xiao Ying Li, Shinji Omura

Komal Sodhi

This study was designed to investigate the effect of increased levels of HO-1 on hypertension exacerbated by diabetes. Diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and WKY (control) animals were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes and stannous chloride (SnCl2) to upregulate HO-1. Treatment with SnCl2 not only attenuated the increase of blood pressure (p<0.01), but also increased HO-1 protein content, HO activity and plasma adiponectin levels, decreased the levels of superoxide and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT), respectively. Reduction in oxidative stress resulted in the increased expression of Bcl-2 and AKT with a concomitant reduction in circulating endothelial cells (CEC) in the peripheral blood (p<0.005) and an improvement of femoral reactivity (response to acetylcholine). Thus induction of HO-1 accompanied with increased plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic hypertensive rats alters the phenotype through a reduction in oxidative stress, thereby permitting endothelial cells to maintain an anti-apoptotic environment and the restoration of endothelial responses thus preventing hypertension.


Fructose Mediated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Is Attenuated By Ho-1-Sirt1 Module In Murine Hepatocytes And Mice Fed A High Fructose Diet, Komal Sodhi, Nitin Puri, Gaia Favero, Sarah Stevens, Charles Meadows, Nader G. Abraham, Rita Rezzani, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Edward Lebovics, Joseph I. Shapiro 2016 Marshall University

Fructose Mediated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Is Attenuated By Ho-1-Sirt1 Module In Murine Hepatocytes And Mice Fed A High Fructose Diet, Komal Sodhi, Nitin Puri, Gaia Favero, Sarah Stevens, Charles Meadows, Nader G. Abraham, Rita Rezzani, Hayden A. Ansinelli, Edward Lebovics, Joseph I. Shapiro

Komal Sodhi

Background

Oxidative stress underlies the etiopathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a potent endogenous antioxidant gene that plays a key role in decreasing oxidative stress. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) belongs to the family of NAD-dependent de-acyetylases and is modulated by cellular redox.

Hypothesis

We hypothesize that fructose-induced obesity creates an inflammatory and oxidative environment conducive to the development of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether HO-1 acts through SIRT1 to form a functional module within hepatocytes to attenuate steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cardiovascular dysfunction.

Methods ...


Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, PhD, Joseph I. Shapiro, MD 2016 Marshall University

Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, Phd, Joseph I. Shapiro, Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

The Na/K-ATPase has a signaling function which appears to be separate from its ion pumping function. This signaling function refers to the transduction of conformational changes in the Na/K-ATPase alpha1 subunit into activating Src’s tyrosine kinase activity, triggering a cascade which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulates other signaling pathways, and causes many physiological and pathophysiological effects. We have recently observed that ROS themselves as well as cardiotonic steroids can actually initiate the signal by directly inducing conformational changes in alpha1. It therefore appears that the Na/K-ATPase signal cascade can serve as a feed forward amplification ...


An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church 2016 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church

Masters Theses

A growing body of research suggests that dopaminergic cell death seen in Parkinson’s disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress, with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species, is the hallmark biochemical product of mitochondrial dysfunction. The ketogenic diet has been found to enhance mitochondrial energy production, protect against reactive oxygen species-generated cell death, and increase adenosine, a purine that modulates dopamine activity. The current study evaluates the effects of a long-term (5-month) ketogenic diet on behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical measures in PINK1-KO rats, a new animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Both wild-type and PINK1-KO animals fed a ...


A Sodium Salt Of The Dimer Of Boronoterephthalic Acid Anhydride, Scott Simmons, Albert Fratini, Vladimir Benin 2016 University of Dayton

A Sodium Salt Of The Dimer Of Boronoterephthalic Acid Anhydride, Scott Simmons, Albert Fratini, Vladimir Benin

Albert Fratini

The title compound, sodium bis­(6-carb­oxy-1-hy­droxy-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-1-yl)oxidanium, Na+·C16H15B2O13-, was prepared in two steps from 2-bromo-p-xylene. Its crystal structure was determined at 140 K and has triclinic (P) symmetry. The compound presents a unique structural motif, including two units of the cyclic anhydride of boronoterephthalic acid, joined by a protonated, and thereby trivalent, oxonium center. Association in the crystal is realized by complementary hydrogen bonding of the carboxyl groups, as well as by coordination of the sodium cations to the oxygen centers on the five-membered rings.


Cross-Sectional Associations Of Computed Tomography (Ct)-Derived Adipose Tissue Density And Adipokines: The Framingham Heart Study, Jane J. Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph Massaro, John F. Keaney Jr., Ramachandran S. Vasan, Caroline S. Fox 2016 National Heart Lung and Blood Institute

Cross-Sectional Associations Of Computed Tomography (Ct)-Derived Adipose Tissue Density And Adipokines: The Framingham Heart Study, Jane J. Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph Massaro, John F. Keaney Jr., Ramachandran S. Vasan, Caroline S. Fox

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Excess accumulation of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with adverse levels of adipokines and cardiovascular disease risk. Whether fat quality is associated with adipokines has not been firmly established. This study examined the association between abdominal SAT and VAT density, an indirect measure of fat quality, with a panel of metabolic regulatory biomarkers secreted by adipose tissue or the liver independently of absolute fat volumes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 1829 Framingham Heart Study participants (44.9% women). Abdominal SAT and VAT density was estimated indirectly by adipose tissue attenuation using computed tomography. Adipokines ...


Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans MD, Elias Salloum MD, Matthew K. Wingate MD, Thomas Melvin MD, Grant S. Buchanan MD, Franklin D. Shuler MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University

Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans Md, Elias Salloum Md, Matthew K. Wingate Md, Thomas Melvin Md, Grant S. Buchanan Md, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Vitamin D is known to play an essential role in calcium homeostasis; however, excessive amounts can have harmful effects. Calcium and vitamin D levels are known to be influenced by drug interactions and pathology ranging from of cancer to cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D supplementation has become widespread, and it is important for clinicians to understand the way that certain conditions and medications interact with vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to outline the benefits and adverse effects of vitamin D and how its levels are affected by certain pathologic and pharmacologic interactions.


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