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Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose McGlauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel 2017 University of Iowa

Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose Mcglauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood.

Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo.

Methods and Results: Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter. This is associated with increased palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation ...


Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Environmental conditions imposed onto organisms during certain phases of their life cycles such as embryogenesis or puberty can not only impact the organisms’ own health, but also affect subsequent generations. The underlying mechanisms causing intergenerational phenotypes are not encoded in the genome, but the result of reversible epigenetic modifications. This work investigates in a mouse model the impact of paternal nicotine exposure on the next generation regarding addictive behavior modulation, metabolic changes, and molecular mechanisms. It provides evidence that male offspring from nicotine-exposed fathers (NIC offspring) is more resistant to lethal doses of nicotine. This phenotype is gender-specific and depends ...


Regulation Of Iron-Related Molecules In The Rat Hippocampus: Sex- And Age-Associated Differences, Srinivasarao Thulluri, Miaozong Wu, Eric R. Blough, Nandini D.P.K. Manne, Ashley B. Litchfield, Bin Wang 2017 Marshall University

Regulation Of Iron-Related Molecules In The Rat Hippocampus: Sex- And Age-Associated Differences, Srinivasarao Thulluri, Miaozong Wu, Eric R. Blough, Nandini D.P.K. Manne, Ashley B. Litchfield, Bin Wang

Nandini Manne

Iron accumulation, especially that of free oxidized ferrous iron, has been shown to induce tissue oxidative damage and contribute to brain aging and the development of neurodegenerative disease. Here we examine whether sex and advanced age affect the expression of iron-related molecules that participate in regulating free iron levels (heme oxygenase I (HOI), iron-regulatory protein I (IRPI), and ferritin heavy chain (FTH)) and whether changes in the expression of these molecules are associated with differences in the expression of alpha-synuclein (ASN) which is thought to be a critical regulator in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Using a well-established aging animal model ...


Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles 2017 Australian Catholic University

Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles

Theses

Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue comprising the largest protein reservoir of the human body with a rate of turnover of ~1-2% per day. Protein turnover is regulated by the coordination of intracellular systems regulating protein synthesis and breakdown that converge in a spatiotemporal manner on lysosomal organelles responsible for integrating a variety of contractile and nutritional stimuli. One such system, autophagy, which literally means to ‘self-eat,’ involves capturing of cellular material for deliver to, and disintegration by, the lysosome. The autophagic ‘cargo’ is subsequently recycled for use in synthetic reactions and thus maintenance of protein balance. As a dynamic ...


A National Perspective On Childhood Obesity Medical Education: Do Medical Students In Canada Perceive That They Are Prepared To Treat Children With Obesity?, Dr. Dalia Hasan 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A National Perspective On Childhood Obesity Medical Education: Do Medical Students In Canada Perceive That They Are Prepared To Treat Children With Obesity?, Dr. Dalia Hasan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purposes of this survey-based, mixed-methods study were to investigate medical students’ perceptions of: (1) the overall level of medical school training acquired in relation to childhood obesity treatment; (2) the medical school training acquired in relation to specific competencies associated with the treatment of children with obesity and their caregiver(s); and (3) additional training needed. Results showed that of the 507 students who provided complete data, approximately 60% (n = 303) disagreed or strongly disagreed that their medical training related to childhood obesity was adequate. With regard to specific competencies and additional training needed, quantitative and qualitative data revealed ...


Dynamics Of Maternal And Infant Vitamin E Tocopherols During Nicu Hospitalization, Jana K. Wells 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Dynamics Of Maternal And Infant Vitamin E Tocopherols During Nicu Hospitalization, Jana K. Wells

Theses & Dissertations

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this prospective cohort is to investigate serum levels of vitamin E tocopherol isoforms (specifically alpha and gamma) in mothers and infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in relation to infant feeding modality.

METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of 34 mothers and their infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Samples of maternal and cord blood were collected at the time of delivery, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered to the mother to measure maternal vitamin E tocopherol intake. After nutrition treatment of each feeding modality had been ...


Effect Of Obesity And Exercise On The Expression Of The Novel Myokines, Myonectin And Fibronectin Type Iii Domain Containing 5, Jonathan M. Peterson, Ryan Mart, Cherie E. Bond 2017 East Tennessee State University

Effect Of Obesity And Exercise On The Expression Of The Novel Myokines, Myonectin And Fibronectin Type Iii Domain Containing 5, Jonathan M. Peterson, Ryan Mart, Cherie E. Bond

Jonathan Peterson

Metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle is a major contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Endurance exercise training has long been established as an effective means to directly restore skeletal muscle glucose and lipid uptake and metabolism. However, in addition to the direct effects of skeletal muscle on glucose and lipids, there is renewed interest in the ability of skeletal muscle to coordinate metabolic activity of other tissues, such as adipose tissue and liver. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of endurance exercise on the expression level of two novel muscle-derived secreted factors, or myokines ...


Investigating The Mechanism Of Novel Anticancer Agent, As1411 : Does Metabolism To Guanine Play A Role?, Parker T Howard 2017 University of Louisville

Investigating The Mechanism Of Novel Anticancer Agent, As1411 : Does Metabolism To Guanine Play A Role?, Parker T Howard

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

AS1411 is an oligonucleotide that has shown promising results in lab experiments and clinical trials as an anti-cancer drug, Likewise, treatments with guanine based purine compounds (GBPCs) have demonstrated similar anti-proliferative effects in vitro. This activity is dependent on the HGPRT enzyme. Similarities in activity and physical structure has led us to believe that AS1411 and GBPCs operate by a similar mechanism. To test this, we compare the activity of both in the presence of HGPRT siRNAs and HGPRT deficient cells. While siRNA treatment was unable to alter the activity of GBPCs or AS1411 in our cell lines, HGPRT deficient ...


Effects Of Storage Time On Glycolysis In Donated Human Blood Units, Zhen Qi, John D. Roback, Eberhard O. Voit 2017 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Storage Time On Glycolysis In Donated Human Blood Units, Zhen Qi, John D. Roback, Eberhard O. Voit

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Donated blood is typically stored before transfusions. During storage, the metabolism of red blood cells changes, possibly causing storage lesions. The changes are storage time dependent and exhibit donor-specific variations. It is necessary to uncover and characterize the responsible molecular mechanisms accounting for such biochemical changes, qualitatively and quantitatively; Study Design and Methods: Based on the integration of metabolic time series data, kinetic models, and a stoichiometric model of the glycolytic pathway, a customized inference method was developed and used to quantify the dynamic changes in glycolytic fluxes during the storage of donated blood units. The method provides a ...


P33. Design And Evaluation Of An Escherichia Coli Biomarker For Indication Of Ph, Kevin X. Zhou, Luana Langlois, Ashmita Singh, John Prince 2017 Western University

P33. Design And Evaluation Of An Escherichia Coli Biomarker For Indication Of Ph, Kevin X. Zhou, Luana Langlois, Ashmita Singh, John Prince

Western Research Forum 2018 "Controversy: Challenging The Boundaries in Research"

Measuring pH is one of the most commonly used techniques in both the laboratory as well as the field due to its importance in a multitude of biochemical processes. Traditional methods of measuring pH may be highly developed in accuracy and precision but often involve disruption of the environment. Biological markers offer an alternative that allows for long-term pH monitoring. This innovative approach allows for vast applications such as in the manufacturing, food processing and research industries. Under moderate acidic conditions, the asr (acid shock RNA) gene is highly inducible and has been demonstrated to be crucial for growth at ...


The Host Microbiome Regulates And Maintains Human Health: A Primer And Perspective For Non-Microbiologists, Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A. Sela, Alexander J. Muller, James M. Mullin, Korin Albert, John P. Gilligan, Katherine DiGuilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George P. Prendergast 2017 Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania

The Host Microbiome Regulates And Maintains Human Health: A Primer And Perspective For Non-Microbiologists, Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A. Sela, Alexander J. Muller, James M. Mullin, Korin Albert, John P. Gilligan, Katherine Diguilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George P. Prendergast

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Humans consider themselves discrete autonomous organisms, but recent research is rapidly strengthening the appreciation that associated microorganisms make essential contributions to human health and well being. Each person is inhabited and also surrounded by his/her own signature microbial cloud. A low diversity of microorganisms is associated with a plethora of diseases, including allergy, diabetes, obesity, arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, an interaction of microorganisms with the host immune system is required for a healthy body. Exposure to microorganisms from the moment we are born and appropriate microbiome assembly during childhood are essential for establishing an ...


Amh/Mis As A Contraceptive That Protects The Ovarian Reserve During Chemotherapy, Motohiro Kano, Amanda E. Sosulski, LiHua Zhang, Hatice D. Saatcioglu, Dan Wang, Nicholas Nagykery, Mary E. Sabatini, Guangping Gao, Patricia K. Donahoe, David Pepin 2017 Massachusetts General Hospital

Amh/Mis As A Contraceptive That Protects The Ovarian Reserve During Chemotherapy, Motohiro Kano, Amanda E. Sosulski, Lihua Zhang, Hatice D. Saatcioglu, Dan Wang, Nicholas Nagykery, Mary E. Sabatini, Guangping Gao, Patricia K. Donahoe, David Pepin

Open Access Articles

The ovarian reserve represents the stock of quiescent primordial follicles in the ovary which is gradually depleted during a woman's reproductive lifespan, resulting in menopause. Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) (or anti-Mullerian hormone/AMH), which is produced by granulosa cells of growing follicles, has been proposed as a negative regulator of primordial follicle activation. Here we show that long-term parenteral administration of superphysiological doses of MIS, using either an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) gene therapy vector or recombinant protein, resulted in a complete arrest of folliculogenesis in mice. The ovaries of MIS-treated mice were smaller than those in controls ...


Amphetamine-Like Compounds In Pre-Workout Supplements, Andy Hsien Wei Koh 2017 Bond University

Amphetamine-Like Compounds In Pre-Workout Supplements, Andy Hsien Wei Koh

Theses

Pre-workout supplements (PWS), like most nutritional supplements, are classified by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia as complementary medicines and are therefore subject to much less stringent regulation compared to pharmaceuticals. Complementary medicines (also known as 'traditional' or 'alternative' medicines) include vitamin, mineral, herbal, aromatherapy and homoeopathic products. The overall goal of this thesis was to determine the amounts of stimulants in PWS, both the biogenic amines derived from Citrus aurantium (CA) extracts as well as caffeine and its dimethylxanthine (DMX) derivatives. Research questions have been put forward relating to the components within PWS and whether they comply with ...


Neonatal Supplemental Oxygen Exposure Promotes The Development Of Metabolic Disease In Adult Rats, Madison E. Sturgeon, Michael Hoover, Rachel Leuhrs, Shilpa Vellookunnel, Shreya Chandrasekar, Austin Murphy, Melissa L. Bates 2017 University of Iowa

Neonatal Supplemental Oxygen Exposure Promotes The Development Of Metabolic Disease In Adult Rats, Madison E. Sturgeon, Michael Hoover, Rachel Leuhrs, Shilpa Vellookunnel, Shreya Chandrasekar, Austin Murphy, Melissa L. Bates

University of Iowa Honors Theses

Neonatal Supplemental Oxygen Exposure Promotes the Development of Metabolic

Disease in Adult Rats

Madison Sturgeon, Michael Hoover, Rachel Luehrs, Shilpa Vellookunnel, Shreya

Chandrasekar, Austin Murphy, and Melissa L. Bates

Department of Human Physiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA

Premature infants frequently require supplemental oxygen to sustain life, but little is known

about how supplemental oxygen administered during the critical developmental window after

birth increases the risk of age-related disease, including obesity and diabetes. We

hypothesized that neonatal rats exposed to supplemental oxygen (OXY) would have

impaired glucose tolerance and that they would develop a diabetes phenotype earlier than

controls ...


Nutr 356: Nutrition Education In The Community—A Peer Review Of Teaching Project Benchmark Portfolio, Virginia Chaidez 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nutr 356: Nutrition Education In The Community—A Peer Review Of Teaching Project Benchmark Portfolio, Virginia Chaidez

UNL Faculty Course Portfolios

This course portfolio summarizes a thoughtful documentation of a peer review process of teaching for an undergraduate course in community nutrition. The portfolio provides my description of the course and course goals utilizing the 'Backwards Design' approach; a reflection of teaching methods and activities used to enhance learning and reach course goals; an analysis of teaching activities at the end of the semester and planned changes for teaching this course moving forward.


Perceptual Variations In Thermoregulation During Exercise In A Hot Environment, William C. Alger 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Perceptual Variations In Thermoregulation During Exercise In A Hot Environment, William C. Alger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Professionals are seeking to find ways to prevent exertional heat illness (EHI) in populations working in hot environments as well as populations that are physically active. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate individuals’ ability to accurately perceive core temperature ranges associated with homeothermic and EHI temperatures during exercise. Ten physically active males exercised on a treadmill at a self-selected rate until core temperature reached 39°C. Participants rated perceived core and skin temperature on 100 mm scales each time core temperature increased 0.25˚ C (37.5-39.0˚ C), along with thermal comfort and sweating sensation ...


Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, MD, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, MD, Franklin D. Shuler, MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, Md, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, Md, Franklin D. Shuler, Md, Phd

Franklin D. Shuler

Vitamin K is known to play an essential role in the coagulation cascade; however, a growing body of research has found that a subtype of this vitamin, vitamin K2 (menaquinone) may have a beneficial effect in osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. This purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature regarding menaquinone and its role in human health. This review discusses the physiology of menaquinone, its clinical benefits in cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, and how it may interact with certain medications. The authors conclude that menaquinone supplementation has been shown to improve carboxylation of ...


In Silico Investigation Into The Interactions Between Murine 5-Ht3 Receptor And The Principle Active Compounds Of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale)., Anna E. Lohning, Wolfgang Marx, Liz Isenring 2016 Bond University

In Silico Investigation Into The Interactions Between Murine 5-Ht3 Receptor And The Principle Active Compounds Of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale)., Anna E. Lohning, Wolfgang Marx, Liz Isenring

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

Gingerols and shogaols are the primary non-volatile actives within ginger (Zingiber officinale). These compounds have demonstrated in vitro to exert 5-HT3 receptor antagonism which could benefit chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The site and mechanism of action by which these compounds interact with the 5-HT3 receptor is not fully understood although research indicates they may bind to a currently unidentified allosteric binding site. Using in silico techniques, such as molecular docking and GRID analysis, we have characterized the recently available murine 5-HT3 receptor by identifying sites of strong interaction with particular functional groups at both the orthogonal (serotonin) site and ...


Development And Validation Of Sunlight Exposure Measurement Questionnaire (Sem-Q) For Use In Adult Population Residing In Pakistan, Quratulain Humayun, Romaina Iqbal, Iqbal Azam, Aysha Habib Khan, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Naila Baig Ansari 2016 Aga Khan University

Development And Validation Of Sunlight Exposure Measurement Questionnaire (Sem-Q) For Use In Adult Population Residing In Pakistan, Quratulain Humayun, Romaina Iqbal, Iqbal Azam, Aysha Habib Khan, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Naila Baig Ansari

Aysha Habib Khan

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a major public health problem worldwide. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D and its measurement using dosimeters is expensive and difficult for use in population-based studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires to assess sunlight exposure in healthy individuals residing in Karachi, Pakistan.

Methods: Two questionnaires with seven important items for sunlight exposure assessment were developed. Fifty four healthy adults were enrolled based on their reported sunlight exposure (high = 17, moderate = 18, low = 19) from Aga Khan University, Karachi. Over four days, study participants ...


Analyzing Mutations Of Spt7 Protein That Disrupt Interaction With Sf3b Subunits, Arryn T. Harris, Peyton J. Spreacker, Rachel Stegeman, Vikki M. Weake, Edwin C. Acosta 2016 Purdue University

Analyzing Mutations Of Spt7 Protein That Disrupt Interaction With Sf3b Subunits, Arryn T. Harris, Peyton J. Spreacker, Rachel Stegeman, Vikki M. Weake, Edwin C. Acosta

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Proper transcription, the process of converting DNA to RNA, is crucial for the health and viability of an organism. This process is regulated by many proteins, such as co-transcriptional activators; one being the protein complex known as Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase, or SAGA. While much is known about the roles of SAGA in cell processes, how SAGA’s subunits promote functionality is still unknown. The focus of this study is to analyze the purpose of SAGA’s SF3B subunits. These subunits are also found in the spliceosome, the compound responsible for generating mature RNA. SAGA has no known functions relating to this process ...


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