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Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition Commons

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Stabilization Of Interdomain Interactions In G Protein Α Subunits As A Determinant Of Gαi Subtype Signaling Specificity, Tyler J Lefevre, Wenyuan Wei, Elizaveta Mukhaleva, Sai Pranathi Meda Venkata, Naincy R Chandan, Saji Abraham, Yong Li, Carmen W Dessauer, Nagarajan Vaidehi, Alan V Smrcka 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Stabilization Of Interdomain Interactions In G Protein Α Subunits As A Determinant Of Gαi Subtype Signaling Specificity, Tyler J Lefevre, Wenyuan Wei, Elizaveta Mukhaleva, Sai Pranathi Meda Venkata, Naincy R Chandan, Saji Abraham, Yong Li, Carmen W Dessauer, Nagarajan Vaidehi, Alan V Smrcka

Journal Articles

Highly homologous members of the Gαi family, Gαi1-3, have distinct tissue distributions and physiological functions, yet their biochemical and functional properties are very similar. We recently identified PDZ-RhoGEF (PRG) as a novel Gαi1 effector that is poorly activated by Gαi2. In a proteomic proximity labeling screen we observed a strong preference for Gαi1 relative to Gαi2 with respect to engagement of a broad range of potential targets. We investigated the mechanistic basis for this selectivity using PRG as a representative target. Substitution of either the helical domain (HD) from Gαi1 into Gαi2 or substitution of a single amino acid, A230 …


Suspected Thiamine Deficiency Secondary To Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness: A Case Report, Abigail L. Meckley, Natalie LaGattuta, Elise Gonzalez, Chamonix Kinimaka, Jessica El-Bahri 2024 HCA Florida Orange Park Hospital

Suspected Thiamine Deficiency Secondary To Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness: A Case Report, Abigail L. Meckley, Natalie Lagattuta, Elise Gonzalez, Chamonix Kinimaka, Jessica El-Bahri

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction

Thiamine deficiency, also known as beriberi, is a nutritional disorder caused by a lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the diet. It can occur in 2 forms: dry beriberi, which affects the nervous system, and wet beriberi, which affects the cardiovascular system. Gastrointestinal beriberi is a subtype that affects the digestive system and can lead to multisystem involvement. In the United States (US), thiamine deficiency often arises from chronic malnutrition secondary to alcoholism, known as Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

Case Presentation

A 45-year-old female with no known past medical history or alcohol use disorder came to the emergency department …


Short-Term Effects Of Caffeine Supplementation On Cardiac Dynamics And Anaerobic Strength Output In Collegiate Male Athletes, Tyler Clum, Katelyn Messner, Alyssa Jagger, Caeden Gurganus, Kylie Miller, Rema Suniga 2024 Ohio Northern University

Short-Term Effects Of Caffeine Supplementation On Cardiac Dynamics And Anaerobic Strength Output In Collegiate Male Athletes, Tyler Clum, Katelyn Messner, Alyssa Jagger, Caeden Gurganus, Kylie Miller, Rema Suniga

ONU Student Research Colloquium

ABSTRACT. Caffeine, a widely consumed drug, has been shown to significantly increase heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (Geethavani et al., 2014), but had only insignificant changes in these cardiovascular measurements (Alhabeeb et al., 2022); while Matsumara and his colleagues (2023) reported that caffeine decreased 100-meter sprint times indicating that caffeine may improve anaerobic performance. The current study investigated the short-term effects of caffeine on heart rate (HR, beats per minute), blood pressure (mmHg), and 20-yard sprint performance time (seconds; Dashr Sprint Timing System). These parameters were measured in triplicate before and at 45-minutes after caffeine supplementation at a dose …


Evaluating The Effect Of Skipping Ticagrelor Doses And Need For Bolus Doses Upon Treatment Resumption Through Population Pk/Pd Simulation, Hiroyoshi Matsui, Le Thien Truc Pham, Eyob D. Adane 2024 Ohio Northern University

Evaluating The Effect Of Skipping Ticagrelor Doses And Need For Bolus Doses Upon Treatment Resumption Through Population Pk/Pd Simulation, Hiroyoshi Matsui, Le Thien Truc Pham, Eyob D. Adane

ONU Student Research Colloquium

Ticagrelor (Brilinta (R)) is the first reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist. It is used, mostly in combination with aspirin, in patients with acute coronary syndromes to reduce thrombosis. The manufacturer of ticagrelor recommends discontinuing it at least 5 days before any surgery when possible. While the effect of dose interruptions on the risk of thrombosis is not directly studied, it is important to understand the impact of skipping doses on ticagrelor's PK/PD profile for clinical-decision making. The objectives of the current study were to simulate the impact of therapy interruption on the PK/PD of ticagrelor and examine the need …


Hif Expression In Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (Ccrcc) Tumors Of Adults With And Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea (Osa), Olivia Heppell, Carlos Guerra Londono, Nilesh Gupta 2024 Wayne State University

Hif Expression In Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (Ccrcc) Tumors Of Adults With And Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea (Osa), Olivia Heppell, Carlos Guerra Londono, Nilesh Gupta

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction: Upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) is an important pathological feature shared by clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, it is unclear whether OSA alters the pathogenesis of ccRCC via HIF expression.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of adults undergoing nephrectomy for ccRCC was identified electronically (IRB#16040-1). The diagnosis of OSA was established with preoperative STOP-BANG scores or polysomnography. A consecutive sample of 20 individuals with and 20 without OSA was selected. Clinical characteristics and pathology results were reviewed. Resected tumor sections were immunohistochemically stained for HIF-1& HIF-2 at antibody dilutions of 1:150. Intensity and …


Circulating Metabolic Profile In Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Data From The Ipf-Pro Registry, Ross Summer, Jamie Todd, Megan Neely, L. Jason Lobo, Andrew Namen, L. Kristin Newby, Shirin Shafazand, Sally Suliman, Christian Hesslinger, Sascha Keller, Thomas Leonard, Scott M Palmer, Olga Ilkayeva, Michael Muehlbauer, Christopher Newgard, Jesse Roman 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

Circulating Metabolic Profile In Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Data From The Ipf-Pro Registry, Ross Summer, Jamie Todd, Megan Neely, L. Jason Lobo, Andrew Namen, L. Kristin Newby, Shirin Shafazand, Sally Suliman, Christian Hesslinger, Sascha Keller, Thomas Leonard, Scott M Palmer, Olga Ilkayeva, Michael Muehlbauer, Christopher Newgard, Jesse Roman

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The circulating metabolome, reflecting underlying cellular processes and disease biology, has not been fully characterized in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We evaluated whether circulating levels of metabolites correlate with the presence of IPF, with the severity of IPF, or with the risk of clinically relevant outcomes among patients with IPF.

METHODS: We analyzed enrollment plasma samples from 300 patients with IPF in the IPF-PRO Registry and 100 individuals without known lung disease using a set of targeted metabolomics and clinical analyte modules. Linear regression was used to compare metabolite and clinical analyte levels between patients with IPF …


Course Portfolio For Biochemistry 1: Structure And Metabolism (Bioc431), Didier Mena 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Course Portfolio For Biochemistry 1: Structure And Metabolism (Bioc431), Didier Mena

UNL Faculty Course Portfolios

This benchmark portfolio encapsulates a comprehensive exploration aimed at enhancing the educational landscape of the BIOC431 course, a part of the general biochemistry course series (431 and 432). These courses are designed to offer a general introduction to the structure and function of cells in the body, along with their chemical reactions. Specifically, BIOC431 focuses on the structure, function, and metabolism of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and other major metabolic pathways. The three primary objectives addressed in this portfolio were the reevaluation of learning objectives, reassessment of assessment methods, and documentation of effective classroom strategies. Through background design, the learning objectives …


The Role Of Primary Care Providers In Maintaining Weight Loss By Preventing Behavioral Relapse, Hayden R. Blanchard 2024 Arcadia University

The Role Of Primary Care Providers In Maintaining Weight Loss By Preventing Behavioral Relapse, Hayden R. Blanchard

Capstone Showcase

Supporting patients in optimizing health by treating obesity remains a relevant goal for primary care providers. While weight loss is frequently achieved with behavioral modification, maintaining weight loss by avoiding behavioral relapse is much more difficult. Patient may lose weight by reducing overall energy intake, incorporating intensive behavior change programs, utilizing pharmacotherapy as needed and, in certain cases, undergoing bariatric surgery. With a focus on behavior change and maintenance, primary care providers can support patients by planning more frequent follow up appointments, at least every one to three months. In these visits, PCPs can: focus on reenforcing lifestyle change principles …


The Effect Of Estrogen And A Mitochondrial Uncoupling Prodrug On Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Dysfunction In Mice., Olivia J. Kalimon 2024 University of Kentucky

The Effect Of Estrogen And A Mitochondrial Uncoupling Prodrug On Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Dysfunction In Mice., Olivia J. Kalimon

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

A large percent of both clinical and pre-clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report better outcomes females after severe injury compared to males. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a well-characterized driver of secondary injury and an attractive neurotherapeutic target; though, there is limited research available on mitochondrial dysfunction in females. However, a few studies have shown total mitochondria from the cortex of females appear protected from TBI-induced bioenergetic dysfunction. These results were replicated in these studies so further characterization was performed. Additionally, protein expression of some oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes were elevated in the uninjured cortex of females relative to uninjured males, …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia 2023 Brigham Young University

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Folate Deficiency Modifies The Risk Of Cin3+ Associated With Dna Methylation Levels: A Nested Case–Control Study From The Ascus-Col Trial, María C. Agudelo, Samuel Agudelo, Attila Lorincz, Arianis Tatiana Ramírez, Kelly Melisa Castañeda, Isabel Garcés-Palacio, Arnold H. Zea, Chandrika Piyathilake, Gloria Ines Sanchez 2023 Universidad de Antioquia

Folate Deficiency Modifies The Risk Of Cin3+ Associated With Dna Methylation Levels: A Nested Case–Control Study From The Ascus-Col Trial, María C. Agudelo, Samuel Agudelo, Attila Lorincz, Arianis Tatiana Ramírez, Kelly Melisa Castañeda, Isabel Garcés-Palacio, Arnold H. Zea, Chandrika Piyathilake, Gloria Ines Sanchez

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Purpose: To our knowledge, there are very few studies evaluating if the levels of folate modify the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and higher (CIN2+ and CIN3+) associated with the levels of HPV genome methylation, two cofactors related to single carbon metabolism and independently associated with cervical cancer in previous studies. We conducted a case–control study nested in a three-arm randomized clinical pragmatic trial (ASCUS-COL trial) to evaluate the risk of CIN3+ associated with methylation levels according to serum folate concentrations. Methods: Cases (n = 155) were women with histologically confirmed CIN2+ (113 CIN2, 38 CIN3, and 4 …


Vitamin D Status Of Anabaptist Children In Southwestern Ontario, Canada, Janis A. Randall Simpson, Natalee Miller, Taylor Hartwig, Jane Leach, Melissa Purdy, Emily Roth, Victoria Mok Siue, Cynthia Soulliere, Jacqui Tam, Ann Watt 2023 University of Guelph

Vitamin D Status Of Anabaptist Children In Southwestern Ontario, Canada, Janis A. Randall Simpson, Natalee Miller, Taylor Hartwig, Jane Leach, Melissa Purdy, Emily Roth, Victoria Mok Siue, Cynthia Soulliere, Jacqui Tam, Ann Watt

Journal of Amish and Plain Anabaptist Studies

The objective was to determine vitamin D status of Old Order Anabaptist children in rural Southwestern, Ontario, Canada, given concerns of community healthcare professionals. Fifty-two children (2.5 months - 6.5 years) (56% female) were recruited. Finger prick blood spot (BSp) samples were analyzed for 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamins D2 & D3 (BSp25(OH)D). Three-day food records were evaluated using Dietary Reference Intakes and Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) (Bush, et al. 2007). Compared to national Canadian data: mean BSp25(OH)D concentrations (78±31 nmol/L) were similar; a slightly smaller proportion (0% vs 2%) were at risk of deficiency (<30 nmol/L) or had inadequate status (4% vs 7%) (<40 nmol/L); and 10% vs 1% had BSp25(OH)D higher than 125 nmol/L. BSp25(OH)D was significantly associated (r2=0.358; p=0.001) with total vitamin D intake. From food alone, vitamin D intake was 68±39 IU/day, lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 600 IU/day, and intakes were all below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU. Even including supplemental vitamin D, 87% were below the EAR (total intake=213±194 IU/day). No children had vitamin D intakes greater than the Upper Limit. Servings of milk and alternates were 1.6±0.8/day (CFG=2/day). Unfortified farm milk was consumed by 88% of children and 89% received a vitamin D supplement. Results were comparable to recent Canadian data suggesting that most children have adequate vitamin D status. Nevertheless, these findings support the need to encourage appropriate vitamin D intake (from food and supplements) to achieve the RDA for Old Order Anabaptist children in these communities. [Abstract by authors.]


Relation Of Salivary Alpha-Amylase (Saa) Concentration To Fatigue Biomarkers In Palm Oil Office Workers In Jambi Province: Preliminary Study, David Kusmawan, Willia Novita Eka Rini, Wahyu Indah Dewi Aurora 2023 Occupational Health and Safety, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Jambi, Muaro Jambi 36361, Jambi, Indonesia

Relation Of Salivary Alpha-Amylase (Saa) Concentration To Fatigue Biomarkers In Palm Oil Office Workers In Jambi Province: Preliminary Study, David Kusmawan, Willia Novita Eka Rini, Wahyu Indah Dewi Aurora

Makara Journal of Science

The salivary α-amylase (sAA) concentration has a potential role as a biological indicator of occupational fatigue. This study aimed to determine the levels of sAA and its influencing factors. This research used a cross-sectional design with a sample of 40 office staff respondents at PT. X (Persero). Mental workload (MWL), sleep quality, and occupational fatigue were measured using the NASA-Total Load Index (TLX), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Industrial Fatigue Research Committee, respectively. Meanwhile, the basic sAA levels was measured through the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method using the Bioenzy® Kit Assay. Descriptive analysis showed that the workers were mostly …


Effects Of Dimerization On The Deacylase Activities Of Human Sirt2., Jie Yang, Nathan I Nicely, Brian P Weiser 2023 Rowan University

Effects Of Dimerization On The Deacylase Activities Of Human Sirt2., Jie Yang, Nathan I Nicely, Brian P Weiser

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Human sirtuin isoform 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD+-dependent enzyme that functions as a lysine deacetylase and defatty-acylase. Here, we report that SIRT2 readily dimerizes in solution and in cells and that dimerization affects its ability to remove different acyl modifications from substrates. Dimerization of recombinant SIRT2 was revealed with analytical size exclusion chromatography and chemical cross-linking. Dimerized SIRT2 dissociates into monomers upon binding long fatty acylated substrates (decanoyl-, dodecanoyl-, and myristoyl-lysine). However, we did not observe dissociation of dimeric SIRT2 in the presence of acetyl-lysine. Analysis of X-ray crystal structures led us to discover a SIRT2 double mutant (Q142A/E340A) that …


A Literature Review On Thermogenesis As A Prospective Obesity Treatment, Kellyn Sheppard 2023 Liberty University

A Literature Review On Thermogenesis As A Prospective Obesity Treatment, Kellyn Sheppard

Senior Honors Theses

The disease of obesity has quickly escalated from an epidemic to a worldwide pandemic in the last few decades, and viable treatment methods are being investigated with urgency. One such treatment method is increased induction of the thermogenesis pathway that is active in brown adipose tissue. This pathway is typically activated in mammals when they are exposed to cold temperatures for extended periods of time but can also be induced exogenously. Thermogenesis is a metabolically inefficient process that occurs in the mitochondria of a cell, meaning it uses substrate energy without generating ATP. The inefficiency of this process allows excess …


Green Tea Supplementation: An Effective Lifestyle Modification For Cholesterol Management, Samuel J. Nemati 2023 University of Texas at Tyler

Green Tea Supplementation: An Effective Lifestyle Modification For Cholesterol Management, Samuel J. Nemati

MSN Capstone Projects

Hypercholesterolemia is an insidious disease and the leading factor to the deadliest killer in the United States – cardiovascular disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2023a). Over 85 million American adults suffer from elevated cholesterol, and treatment can prove challenging and may require multiple modalities outside just pharmaceutical intervention – such as dietary and other lifestyle changes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2023b; Goldman, 2023). Green tea – among the most common teas consumed worldwide – exerts a uniquely antihyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effect that suggests its consideration as a potentially-viable nonpharmacological option for hypercholesterolemia (Harvard Health Publishing, 2012; …


Investigating The Effects Of Subchronic Dietary Zinc Supplementation On Diet-Induced Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Steatotic Liver Disease., Oluwanifemi Esther Bolatimi 2023 University of Louisville

Investigating The Effects Of Subchronic Dietary Zinc Supplementation On Diet-Induced Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Steatotic Liver Disease., Oluwanifemi Esther Bolatimi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Zinc deficiency is associated with metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD). Previous studies show zinc supplementation improves steatosis, but its therapeutic effects in established MASLD remain unclear. We developed a model to characterize the effects of zinc supplementation on high-fat diet (HFD) induced MASLD and hypothesized established MASLD would be attenuated. Mice were fed control diet or HFD for 12 weeks and then grouped into normal or zinc-supplemented diets for 8 additional weeks. At euthanasia, plasma and liver tissues were collected for phenotypic analysis. Twelve weeks of HFD altered glucose clearance and body composition. Eight weeks of subsequent zinc supplementation …


Ethanol Dysregulates Sirt1-Mediated Lipogenic Signaling Pathways Through Α4*-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors In Hepatocytes., Caitlin Christina Wilkerson 2023 University of Louisville

Ethanol Dysregulates Sirt1-Mediated Lipogenic Signaling Pathways Through Α4*-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors In Hepatocytes., Caitlin Christina Wilkerson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) is a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from steatosis to severe hepatic cirrhosis, none of which have any FDA approved therapies. Downregulation of hepatic Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) activity by ethanol has been shown to lead to an upregulation of the pro-lipogenic gene targets under its jurisdiction, resulting in increased lipogenesis and triglyceride accumulation. It was hypothesized that ethanol acts on α4*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4*-nAChRs) in hepatocytes to decrease Sirt1 expression, which ultimately dysregulates lipid metabolic homeostasis. Ethanol’s effects were investigated in cultured AML12 hepatocytes and in WT primary mouse hepatocytes acutely exposed to ethanol. Consistent with …


Investigation Of Heterocyclic Amines And N-Acetyltransferase 2 Genetic Polymorphism In The Dysregulation Of Hepatic Energy Homeostasis: A Gene-Environment Approach., Kennedy M Walls 2023 University of Louisville

Investigation Of Heterocyclic Amines And N-Acetyltransferase 2 Genetic Polymorphism In The Dysregulation Of Hepatic Energy Homeostasis: A Gene-Environment Approach., Kennedy M Walls

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagens generated when cooking meat for prolonged periods of time or until well-done. Recent epidemiological studies reported significant associations between dietary HCA exposure and insulin resistance and type II diabetes. However, no previous studies have examined if HCAs, independent of meat consumption, contributes to pathogenesis of insulin resistance or metabolic disease. It is well known that HCAs require hepatic bioactivation by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). NAT2 expresses a well-defined genetic polymorphism in humans that, depending on the combination of NAT2 alleles, correlate to rapid, intermediate, or slow acetylator phenotypes that exhibit differential …


Chronic Stressors, Obesity Pathogenesis, And The Moderating Effect Of Internalized Weight Stigma; A Quantitative, Illinois Study, Karyn Byrne 2023 National Louis University

Chronic Stressors, Obesity Pathogenesis, And The Moderating Effect Of Internalized Weight Stigma; A Quantitative, Illinois Study, Karyn Byrne

Dissertations

The obesity epidemic is a ‘wicked’ problem with a complex web of determinants and outcomes. While generally higher for minoritized populations, prevalence rates manifest in surprising, nonlinear patterns. There is no consensus regarding treatment protocols or mitigation efforts, except that current efforts remain largely ineffective. Much research evidence that a profusion of determinants of health support obesity pathogenesis through various physiological processes and mechanisms, including the allostatic load, mitochondria functioning, the gut microbiome, and epigenetics. Intervening to support markers of the allostatic load (immunity, inflammation, and metabolic health) may provide a more effective treatment outcomes than traditional approaches, which tend …


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