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Analysis Of Potentially Toxic Contaminants In Milk Powder, Magdalena Mititelu, Lucian Hîncu, Emma Adriana Ozon, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Ioana Paunica, Oana Denisa Bălălău 2021 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL LABORATORY AND FOOD HYGIENE, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

Analysis Of Potentially Toxic Contaminants In Milk Powder, Magdalena Mititelu, Lucian Hîncu, Emma Adriana Ozon, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Ioana Paunica, Oana Denisa Bălălău

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The aim of this study was to identify potentially toxic contaminants in milk powder. Powdered milk contains a range of toxic and non-toxic substances that are present in a wide variety, also having very different origins. A number of seven milk powder samples from different producers sold on the Romanian market were analyzed, the samples that were collected from the original packaging: P1, P 2, P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7. The concentration of the following elements was analyzed using the X-ray (XRF) fluorescence method: potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and aluminum (Al). The vast majority of ...


Gestational Diabetes: What About Your Exercise?, andreana henry 2021 Kennesaw State University

Gestational Diabetes: What About Your Exercise?, Andreana Henry

Symposium of Student Scholars

Previous research on exercise as a form of preventative care to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes has produced conflicting views. When and why exercise is the most beneficial during pregnancy has been widely debated, as well as which trimester exercise is the most effective to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes. It has been argued that if a woman has not previously incorporated exercise into her lifestyle, during pregnancy is not the ideal time to start. Conversely, light to moderate exercise is encouraged to decrease the chances of gestational diabetes, but which gestation period exercise will have the greatest ...


A Cancer Ubiquitome Landscape Identifies Metabolic Reprogramming As Target Of Parkin Tumor Suppression, Ekta Agarwal, Aaron R Goldman, Hsin-Yao Tang, Andrew V Kossenkov, Jagadish C Ghosh, Lucia Languino, Valentina Vaira, David W Speicher, Dario C Altieri 2021 The Wistar Institute

A Cancer Ubiquitome Landscape Identifies Metabolic Reprogramming As Target Of Parkin Tumor Suppression, Ekta Agarwal, Aaron R Goldman, Hsin-Yao Tang, Andrew V Kossenkov, Jagadish C Ghosh, Lucia Languino, Valentina Vaira, David W Speicher, Dario C Altieri

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Changes in metabolism that affect mitochondrial and glycolytic networks are hallmarks of cancer, but their impact in disease is still elusive. Using global proteomics and ubiquitome screens, we now show that Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase and key effector of mitophagy altered in Parkinson's disease, shuts off mitochondrial dynamics and inhibits the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway. This blocks tumor cell movements, creates metabolic and oxidative stress, and inhibits primary and metastatic tumor growth. Uniformly down-regulated in cancer patients, Parkin tumor suppression requires its E3 ligase function, is reversed by antioxidants, and is independent of mitophagy. These ...


Thermal Properties Of 18f-Fdg Uptake And Imaging In Positron Emission Tomography Scans Of Cancerous Cells, Carleigh R. Eagle 2021 University of North Florida

Thermal Properties Of 18f-Fdg Uptake And Imaging In Positron Emission Tomography Scans Of Cancerous Cells, Carleigh R. Eagle

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans can utilize a radioactive tracer, in this case 2-deoxy2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG), to visualize malignant tumors in cancer patients. The uptake was compared to glucose to understand the difference in thermal properties, which contribute to the ability to image the cancerous cells. The uptake of 18F-FDG by cancer cells and the imaging process of positron emission tomography were reviewed from a thermodynamic perspective. Gastrointestinal and neurological imaging techniques were reviewed to understand the role of PET imaging in different areas of the human body.


Modulation Of Glucose Homeostasis By Nucleotide P2y2 Receptor And Biological Sex, Hailee Anne Marino 2021 Missouri State University

Modulation Of Glucose Homeostasis By Nucleotide P2y2 Receptor And Biological Sex, Hailee Anne Marino

MSU Graduate Theses

Recent insights into the pathological role of Nucleotide P2Y2 receptor suggest P2Y2R involvement in high fat diet-induced obesity and potentiates insulin resistance. However, these recent insights do not demonstrate how P2Y2R modulates glucose homeostasis under physiological conditions. Further, it remains unknown how sex biological factors influence P2Y2R receptor signaling in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. The research objective for the present study is to elucidate the novel roles of P2Y2 in fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance (basal insulin sensitivity) under resting conditions in males and females. We expected that under physiological ...


Loss Of Function Of Lysosomal Acid Lipase (Lal) Profoundly Impacts Osteoblastogenesis And Increases Fracture Risk In Humans, Ron C. Helderman, Daniel G. Whitney, Madalina Duta-Mare, Alena Akhmetshina, Nemanja Vujic, Shobana Jayapalan, Jeffry S. Nyman, Biswapriya B. Misra, Clifford J. Rosen, Michael P. Czech, Dagmar Kratky, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy 2021 Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Loss Of Function Of Lysosomal Acid Lipase (Lal) Profoundly Impacts Osteoblastogenesis And Increases Fracture Risk In Humans, Ron C. Helderman, Daniel G. Whitney, Madalina Duta-Mare, Alena Akhmetshina, Nemanja Vujic, Shobana Jayapalan, Jeffry S. Nyman, Biswapriya B. Misra, Clifford J. Rosen, Michael P. Czech, Dagmar Kratky, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for cholesteryl ester (CE) and triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis in the lysosome. Clinically, an autosomal recessive LIPA mutation causes LAL deficiency (LALD), previously described as Wolman Disease or Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD). LAL-D is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver, small intestine, spleen, adrenal glands, and blood. Considering the importance of unesterified cholesterol and fatty acids in bone metabolism, we hypothesized that LAL is essential for bone formation, and ultimately, skeletal health. To investigate the role of LAL in skeletal homeostasis, we used LAL-deficient ((-/-)) mice, in vitro osteoblast cultures, and novel clinical ...


Comparative Untargeted Metabolome Analysis Of Ruminal Fluid And Feces Of Nelore Steers (Bos Indicus), Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Banny Silva Barbosa Correia, Caroline Ceribeli, Daniel Rodrigues Cardoso, Luiz Alberto Colnago, Stanislau Bogusz Junior, James Mark Reecy, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares, Alexandre Berndt, Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano 2021 Embrapa Southeast Livestock

Comparative Untargeted Metabolome Analysis Of Ruminal Fluid And Feces Of Nelore Steers (Bos Indicus), Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Banny Silva Barbosa Correia, Caroline Ceribeli, Daniel Rodrigues Cardoso, Luiz Alberto Colnago, Stanislau Bogusz Junior, James Mark Reecy, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Julio Cesar Pascale Palhares, Alexandre Berndt, Luciana Correia De Almeida Regitano

Animal Science Publications

We conducted a study to identify the fecal metabolite profile and its proximity to the ruminal metabolism of Nelore steers based on an untargeted metabolomic approach. Twenty-six Nelore were feedlot with same diet during 105 d. Feces and rumen fluid were collected before and at slaughter, respectively. The metabolomics analysis indicated 49 common polar metabolites in the rumen and feces. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate were the most abundant polar metabolites in both bio-samples. The rumen presented significantly higher concentrations of the polar compounds when compared to feces (P < 0.05); even though, fecal metabolites presented an accentuated representability of the ruminal fluid metabolites. All fatty acids present in the ruminal fluid were also observed in the feces, except for C20:2n6 and C20:4n6. The identified metabolites offer information on the main metabolic pathways (higher impact factor and P < 0.05), as synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies; the alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolisms, the glycine, serine; and threonine metabolism and the pyruvate metabolism. The findings reported herein on the close relationship between the ruminal fluid and feces metabolic profiles may offer new metabolic information, in addition to facilitating the sampling for metabolism investigation in animal production and health routines.


Effect Of The Lysosomotropic Agent Chloroquine On Mtorc1 Activation And Protein Synthesis In Human Skeletal Muscle, Michael S. Borack, Jared M. Dickinson, Christopher S. Fry, Paul T. Reidy, Melissa M. Markofski, Rachel R. Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen 2021 University of Texas Medical Branch

Effect Of The Lysosomotropic Agent Chloroquine On Mtorc1 Activation And Protein Synthesis In Human Skeletal Muscle, Michael S. Borack, Jared M. Dickinson, Christopher S. Fry, Paul T. Reidy, Melissa M. Markofski, Rachel R. Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen

Athletic Training and Clinical Nutrition Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Previous work in HEK-293 cells demonstrated the importance of amino acid-induced mTORC1 translocation to the lysosomal surface for stimulating mTORC1 kinase activity and protein synthesis. This study tested the conservation of this amino acid sensing mechanism in human skeletal muscle by treating subjects with chloroquine-a lysosomotropic agent that induces in vitro and in vivo lysosome dysfunction.

METHODS: mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) were determined in vivo in a randomized controlled trial of 14 subjects (10 M, 4 F; 26 ± 4 year) that ingested 10 g of essential amino acids (EAA) after receiving 750 mg of chloroquine (CHQ ...


Fucoxanthin: A Review Of Potential Benefits Relative To Human Health, MICHAEL WHITE 2021 James Madison University

Fucoxanthin: A Review Of Potential Benefits Relative To Human Health, Michael White

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid sourced and extracted mainly from dark orange and brown seaweeds found in the pacific ocean, such as the wakame algae. The allenic bonds and unique oxygen groups give fucoxanthin its unique structure and are thought to be part of the reason fucoxanthin has unique physiological functions. Fucoxanthin has potentially numerous effects on the physiology of human health, ranging from skin health to metabolic health, which have been demonstrated in animal model research. The goal of this review is to examine current literature to discuss fucoxanthin’s potential application as a nutraceutical, treatment for obesity, type 2 ...


Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel 2021 Missouri State University

Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel

MSU Graduate Theses

Pyruvate is produced in duplicate at the end of glycolysis in addition to ATP and NADH. Pyruvate is the metabolite of choice in most cells, whether obtained exogenously or endogenously. Recently we found that the addition of pyruvate’s conjugate base, sodium pyruvate, to cell culture media dampened the immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in cultured innate immune cells. Thus, I decided to investigate the mechanism and potential for treatment of IAV. In vitro using bone marrow derived macrophages that were infected with IAV we found that adding sodium pyruvate to the media decreased immune signaling pathways ...


Perivascular Adipose Tissue In Relation To Diet, Thermogenesis And Cardiovascular Health, Ginger Paquette, Caitlin Stieber, Ashely Soucy, Benjamin Tero, Lucy Liaw 2021 University of Southern Maine

Perivascular Adipose Tissue In Relation To Diet, Thermogenesis And Cardiovascular Health, Ginger Paquette, Caitlin Stieber, Ashely Soucy, Benjamin Tero, Lucy Liaw

Thinking Matters Symposium

Adipose tissue is a diverse and crucial component to vascular health due to its role in energy storage and heat production. The primary function of white adipose tissue (WAT) is energy storage while the function of mitochondria-rich brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which surrounds blood vessels, contains both WAT and BAT adipocytes. Dietary calorie restriction is associated with increased lifespan with decreased adiposity. Increased prevalence of WAT-like PVAT, due to high-fat diets and obesity, leads to increased metabolic disfunction and cardiovascular-disease. We used a calorie-restriction model in C57BL6/J mice to test the hypothesis ...


Categorization Of Orthologous Gene Clusters In 92 Ascomycota Genomes Reveals Functions Important For Phytopathogenicity, Daniel Peterson, Tang Li, Ana M. Calvo, Yanbin Yin 2021 Northern Illinois University

Categorization Of Orthologous Gene Clusters In 92 Ascomycota Genomes Reveals Functions Important For Phytopathogenicity, Daniel Peterson, Tang Li, Ana M. Calvo, Yanbin Yin

Food for Health Papers & Publications

Phytopathogenic Ascomycota are responsible for substantial economic losses each year, destroying valuable crops. The present study aims to provide new insights into phytopathogenicity in Ascomycota from a comparative genomic perspective. This has been achieved by categorizing orthologous gene groups (orthogroups) from 68 phytopathogenic and 24 non-phytopathogenic Ascomycota genomes into three classes: Core, (pathogen or non-pathogen) group-specific, and genome-specific accessory orthogroups. We found that (i) ~20% orthogroups are group-specific and accessory in the 92 Ascomycota genomes, (ii) phytopathogenicity is not phylogenetically determined, (iii) group-specific orthogroups have more enriched functional terms than accessory orthogroups and this trend is particularly evident in phytopathogenic ...


Linking The Brain And Bone Through Fat, Elisabeta Malinici, Anca Sirbu, Miruna Popa, Simona Fica 2021 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

Linking The Brain And Bone Through Fat, Elisabeta Malinici, Anca Sirbu, Miruna Popa, Simona Fica

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Over the past years, bone and adipose tissue have gained interest from researchers in the light of their secretory profiles, being able to produce active molecules, with the final effect of regulating energy homeostasis. Both adipocytes and osteoblasts originate in the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell and this common origin has been proposed as the core of the fat-bone relationship. The central nervous system might be the third player in this association, capable of integrating signals. Numerous adipose tissue secreted factors that influence energy homeostasis and bone have been described: leptin, adiponectin, lipocalin 2, and inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-6 ...


Alcohol Consumption And Cognitive Aging: Can It Be Beneficial?, Margarita Velikova, Bistra Galunska, Raya Dimitrova, Zlatislav Stoyanov 2021 MEDICAL UNIVERSITY PROF. DR. PARASKEV STOYANOV, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, VARNA, BULGARIA

Alcohol Consumption And Cognitive Aging: Can It Be Beneficial?, Margarita Velikova, Bistra Galunska, Raya Dimitrova, Zlatislav Stoyanov

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

We present a literature review which summarizes the data supporting one of the alternative perspectives on the effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive aging – the possible positive effect of low to moderate drinking. Some of the main theories about aging, the mechanisms of brain aging, and the pathogenesis of cognitive decline and dementia are briefly described. In this context, the putative mechanisms of the protective action of non-alcoholic components in alcoholic beverages or low doses of ethanol against oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, brain insulin resistance, and production of amyloid-β peptides are presented. The review article does not favor the ...


Corruption In Capsules: How It Is Legal For Companies To Put Harmful Ingredients In Vitamins And Dietary Supplements, Emily Leggiero 2021 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

Corruption In Capsules: How It Is Legal For Companies To Put Harmful Ingredients In Vitamins And Dietary Supplements, Emily Leggiero

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

The vitamin and supplement industry has increased exponentially in profits as well as potential products on the market since the turn of the century. However, these products are not regulated, nor do they undergo any premarket clinical research or testing. Public health is compromised by vitamins and supplements that are available for American consumption that is disproportionately unregulated to their chemically similar counterparts. This wicked problem is facilitated through the combination of historical legislative definitions that has since been distorted for corrupt administrative gain through the allotment of corporate expenditures. Company disbursements are made to the same policymakers that create ...


Virtualized Clinical Studies To Assess The Natural History And Impact Of Gut Microbiome Modulation In Non-Hospitalized Patients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Study With A Parallel Group Study Evaluating The Physiologic Effects Of Kb109 On Gut Microbiota Structure And Function: A Structured Summary Of A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Study [Preprint], John P. Haran, Jose C. Pinero, Yan Zheng, Norma Alonzo Palma, Mark Wingertzahn 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Virtualized Clinical Studies To Assess The Natural History And Impact Of Gut Microbiome Modulation In Non-Hospitalized Patients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Study With A Parallel Group Study Evaluating The Physiologic Effects Of Kb109 On Gut Microbiota Structure And Function: A Structured Summary Of A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Study [Preprint], John P. Haran, Jose C. Pinero, Yan Zheng, Norma Alonzo Palma, Mark Wingertzahn

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

These 2 parallel studies (K031 and K032) aim to evaluate the safety of KB109 in addition to supportive self-care (SSC) compared with SSC alone in outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). KB109 is a novel synthetic glycan that was formulated to modulate the gut microbiome composition and metabolic output in order to increase beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the gut. The K031 study is designed to evaluate the safety of KB109 and characterize its impact on the natural progression of COVID-19 in patients with mild to moderate disease. The K032 study is evaluating the effect ...


Nox4 Mediates Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Responses To Exercise, Kalyn S. Specht, Shashi Kant, Heather Learnard, Maura Campbell, Amada D. Caliz, Yongmei Pei, Michaella M. Reif, John F. Keaney Jr., Siobhan M. Craige 2021 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Nox4 Mediates Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Responses To Exercise, Kalyn S. Specht, Shashi Kant, Heather Learnard, Maura Campbell, Amada D. Caliz, Yongmei Pei, Michaella M. Reif, John F. Keaney Jr., Siobhan M. Craige

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

OBJECTIVE: The immediate signals that couple exercise to metabolic adaptations are incompletely understood. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays a significant role in metabolic and vascular adaptation during stress conditions. Our objective was to determine the role of Nox4 in exercise-induced skeletal muscle metabolism.

METHODS: Mice were subjected to acute exercise to assess their immediate responses. mRNA and protein expression responses to Nox4 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were measured by qPCR and immunoblotting. Functional metabolic flux was measured via ex vivo fatty acid and glucose oxidation assays using (14)C-labeled palmitate and ...


Maternal Exposure To High-Fat Diet During Pregnancy And Lactation Predisposes Normal Weight Offspring Mice To Develop Hepatic Inflammation And Insulin Resistance, Suchaorn Saengnipanthkul, Hye Lim Noh, Randall H. Friedline, Sujin Suk, Stephanie Choi, Nicholas K. Acosta, Duy A. Tran, Xiaodi Hu, Kunikazu Inashima, Allison M. Kim, Ki Won Lee, Jason K. Kim 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Maternal Exposure To High-Fat Diet During Pregnancy And Lactation Predisposes Normal Weight Offspring Mice To Develop Hepatic Inflammation And Insulin Resistance, Suchaorn Saengnipanthkul, Hye Lim Noh, Randall H. Friedline, Sujin Suk, Stephanie Choi, Nicholas K. Acosta, Duy A. Tran, Xiaodi Hu, Kunikazu Inashima, Allison M. Kim, Ki Won Lee, Jason K. Kim

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Increasing evidence shows a potential link between the perinatal nutrient environment and metabolic outcome in offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) during the perinatal period on hepatic metabolism and inflammation in male offspring mice at weaning and in early adulthood. Female C57BL/6 J mice were fed HFD or normal chow (NC) for 4 weeks before mating and during pregnancy and lactation. The male offspring mice were weaned onto an NC diet, and metabolic and molecular experiments were performed in early adulthood. At postnatal day 21, male offspring mice from HFD-fed dams ...


Characterization Of Two Zygnema Strains (Zygnema Circumcarinatum Sag 698-1a And Sag 698-1b) And A Rapid Method To Estimate Nuclear Genome Size Of Zygnematophycean Green Algae, Xuehuan Feng, Andreas Holzinger, Charlotte Permann, Dirk Anderson, Yanbin Yin 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Two Zygnema Strains (Zygnema Circumcarinatum Sag 698-1a And Sag 698-1b) And A Rapid Method To Estimate Nuclear Genome Size Of Zygnematophycean Green Algae, Xuehuan Feng, Andreas Holzinger, Charlotte Permann, Dirk Anderson, Yanbin Yin

Food for Health Papers & Publications

Zygnematophyceae green algae (ZGA) have been shown to be the closest relatives of land plants. Three nuclear genomes (Spirogloea muscicola, Mesotaenium endlicherianum, and Penium margaritaceum) of ZGA have been recently published, and more genomes are underway. Here we analyzed two Zygnema circumcarinatum strains SAG 698-1a (mating +) and SAG 698-1b (mating −) and found distinct cell sizes and other morphological differences. The molecular identities of the two strains were further investigated by sequencing their 18S rRNA, psaA and rbcL genes. These marker genes of SAG 698-1a were surprisingly much more similar to Z. cylindricum (SAG 698-2) than to SAG 698-1b. Phylogenies of ...


Characterization Of Two Zygnema Strains (Zygnema Circumcarinatum Sag 698-1a And Sag 698-1b) And A Rapid Method To Estimate Nuclear Genome Size Of Zygnematophycean Green Algae, Xuehuan Feng, Andreas Holzinger, Charlotte Permann, Dirk Anderson, Yanbin Yin 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Two Zygnema Strains (Zygnema Circumcarinatum Sag 698-1a And Sag 698-1b) And A Rapid Method To Estimate Nuclear Genome Size Of Zygnematophycean Green Algae, Xuehuan Feng, Andreas Holzinger, Charlotte Permann, Dirk Anderson, Yanbin Yin

Food for Health Papers & Publications

Zygnematophyceae green algae (ZGA) have been shown to be the closest relatives of land plants. Three nuclear genomes (Spirogloea muscicola, Mesotaenium endlicherianum, and Penium margaritaceum) of ZGA have been recently published, and more genomes are underway. Here we analyzed two Zygnema circumcarinatum strains SAG 698-1a (mating +) and SAG 698-1b (mating −) and found distinct cell sizes and other morphological differences. The molecular identities of the two strains were further investigated by sequencing their 18S rRNA, psaA and rbcL genes. These marker genes of SAG 698-1a were surprisingly much more similar to Z. cylindricum (SAG 698-2) than to SAG 698-1b. Phylogenies of ...


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