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Experimental Evaluation Of The Importance Of Colonization History In Early-Life Gut Microbiota Assembly, Inés Martínez, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Hatem Kittana, Hua Ding, Robert J. Schmaltz, Payal Joglekar, Roberto Jiménez Cardona, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven W. Kembel, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Jens C. Walter 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Experimental Evaluation Of The Importance Of Colonization History In Early-Life Gut Microbiota Assembly, Inés Martínez, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Hatem Kittana, Hua Ding, Robert J. Schmaltz, Payal Joglekar, Roberto Jiménez Cardona, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven W. Kembel, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Jens C. Walter

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The factors that govern assembly of the gut microbiota are insufficiently understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that inter-individual microbiota variation can arise solely from differences in the order and timing by which the gut is colonized early in life. Experiments in which mice were inoculated in sequence either with two complex seed communities or a cocktail of four bacterial strains and a seed community revealed that colonization order influenced both the outcome of community assembly and the ecological success of individual colonizers. Historical contingency and priority effects also occurred in Rag1-/- mice, suggesting that the adaptive immune system …


Myocyte [Na+]I Dysregulation In Heart Failure And Diabetic Cardiomyopathy, Sanda Despa 2018 University of Kentucky

Myocyte [Na+]I Dysregulation In Heart Failure And Diabetic Cardiomyopathy, Sanda Despa

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

By controlling the function of various sarcolemmal and mitochondrial ion transporters, intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) regulates Ca2+ cycling, electrical activity, the matching of energy supply and demand, and oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes. Thus, maintenance of myocyte Na+ homeostasis is vital for preserving the electrical and contractile activity of the heart. [Na+]i is set by the balance between the passive Na+ entry through numerous pathways and the pumping of Na+ out of the cell by the Na+/K+-ATPase. This equilibrium is perturbed in heart failure, …


Considerations For Best Practices In Studies Of Fiber Or Other Dietary Components And The Intestinal Microbiome, David M. Klurfeld, Cindy D. Davis, Robert W. Karp, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Eugene B. Chang, Benoit Chassaing, George C. Fahey Jr, Bruce R. Hamaker, Hannah D. Holscher, Johanna W. Lampe, Andre Marette, Eric Martens, Stephen J. O'Keefe, Devin J. Rose, Maria Saarela, Barbara O. Schneeman, Joanne L. Slavin, Justin L. Sonnenburg, Kelly S. Swanson, Gary D. Wu, Christopher J. Lynch 2018 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Considerations For Best Practices In Studies Of Fiber Or Other Dietary Components And The Intestinal Microbiome, David M. Klurfeld, Cindy D. Davis, Robert W. Karp, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Eugene B. Chang, Benoit Chassaing, George C. Fahey Jr, Bruce R. Hamaker, Hannah D. Holscher, Johanna W. Lampe, Andre Marette, Eric Martens, Stephen J. O'Keefe, Devin J. Rose, Maria Saarela, Barbara O. Schneeman, Joanne L. Slavin, Justin L. Sonnenburg, Kelly S. Swanson, Gary D. Wu, Christopher J. Lynch

Food for Health Papers & Publications

Considerations for best practices in studies of fiber or other dietary components and the intestinal microbiome. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 315: E1087–E1097, 2018. First published August 21, 2018; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00058.2018.—A 2-day workshop organized by the National Institutes of Health and U.S. Department of Agriculture included 16 presentations focused on the role of diet in alterations of the gastrointestinal microbiome, primarily that of the colon. Although thousands of research projects have been funded by U.S. federal agencies to study the intestinal microbiome of humans and a variety of animal models, only a minority addresses dietary effects, and a small subset is …


Clean Up On Aisle 1: Food Environments In San Francisco’S Mission District, Diana Zamora 2018 The University of San Francisco

Clean Up On Aisle 1: Food Environments In San Francisco’S Mission District, Diana Zamora

Master's Projects and Capstones

Introduction: Underserved communities suffer from poor dietary habits and experience higher rates of chronic conditions mainly due to factors affecting their nutrition and grocery shopping behaviors. Method: A nutritional needs assessment was conducted with participants of the Community Wellness Program, a community resource center, at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, to assess the perspectives of the participant’s nutrition and grocery shopping behaviors. Interviews were conducted with current members attending cooking demonstrations at the center (n=10). Results: 50% of the participants have struggled to purchase fresh, healthy foods in the past year. Half of the participants stated shopping for …


Neuroimaging Biomarkers Of Mtor Inhibition On Vascular And Metabolic Functions In Aging Brain And Alzheimer’S Disease, Jennifer Lee, Lucille M. Yanckello, David Ma, Jared D. Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Scott Thalman, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz, Fahmeed Hyder, Ai-Ling Lin 2018 University of Kentucky

Neuroimaging Biomarkers Of Mtor Inhibition On Vascular And Metabolic Functions In Aging Brain And Alzheimer’S Disease, Jennifer Lee, Lucille M. Yanckello, David Ma, Jared D. Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Scott Thalman, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz, Fahmeed Hyder, Ai-Ling Lin

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient sensor of eukaryotic cells. Inhibition of mechanistic mTOR signaling can increase life and health span in various species via interventions that include rapamycin and caloric restriction (CR). In the central nervous system, mTOR inhibition demonstrates neuroprotective patterns in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by preserving mitochondrial function and reducing amyloid beta retention. However, the effects of mTOR inhibition for in vivo brain physiology remain largely unknown. Here, we review recent findings of in vivo metabolic and vascular measures using non-invasive, multimodal neuroimaging methods in rodent models for brain aging and AD. …


Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick

Masters Theses

Obesity has reached an epidemic level in the United States. A number of epidemiological studies have established obesity as a critical risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (post-BC), whereas a reverse association holds prior to menopause. A significant scientific gap exists in understanding the mechanism(s) underpinning this epidemiological phenomenon, particularly the reverse association between obesity and premenopausal breast cancer (pre-BC). This study aimed to understand how folate metabolism and DNA methylation informs the association between obesity and pre-BC. Fifty normal breast tissue samples were collected from premenopausal women who underwent reduction mammoplasty. We developed and measured the breast tissue folate …


Alcohol Consumption Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis Via A Ccl5-Induced And Ampk-Pathway-Mediated Activation Of Autophagy, Haodong Zhao, Danlei Chen, Rui Cao, Shiqing Wang, Dandan Yu, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Siying Wang 2018 Anhui Medical University, China

Alcohol Consumption Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis Via A Ccl5-Induced And Ampk-Pathway-Mediated Activation Of Autophagy, Haodong Zhao, Danlei Chen, Rui Cao, Shiqing Wang, Dandan Yu, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Siying Wang

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

There is a definite relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We investigated effect of alcohol consumption on CRC patients’ progression and prognosis by utilizing epidemiological data and found patients with alcohol consumption increased risks of tumor-node-metastasis (TNM), organ metastasis and poorer prognosis. Because their tumor tissues displayed increased expression of C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), we hypothesized CCL5 might participate in cancer progression in such patients. Ethanol increased the secretion of CCL5 in two CRC cell lines, HT29 and DLD-1. Treatment with CCL5 directly increased migratory ability of these cells, whereas neutralization or knockdown of CCL5 can …


Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Dietary Habits And Lifestyle In School-Aged Children From Bucharest, Romania, Anca Pantea Stoian, Liliana F. Andronache, Razvan Hainarosie, Dan N. Paduraru, Cristinel D. Badiu, Andreea Arsene, Claudia Mehedintu, Georgiana Ditu, Silviu M. Pituru, Cristina Orlov, Mihaela Oros, Cornelia Nitipir 2018 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disease

Dietary Habits And Lifestyle In School-Aged Children From Bucharest, Romania, Anca Pantea Stoian, Liliana F. Andronache, Razvan Hainarosie, Dan N. Paduraru, Cristinel D. Badiu, Andreea Arsene, Claudia Mehedintu, Georgiana Ditu, Silviu M. Pituru, Cristina Orlov, Mihaela Oros, Cornelia Nitipir

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Background. This study evaluated the difference between boys and girls in terms of nutritional status, lifestyle, and dietary habits during school life.

Materials and Methods. A descriptive and observational study was conducted in 2016, in which 251 children, aged 7-17, from 3 elementary schools and a high school inBucharest,Romania, were evaluated. A questionnaire was used to assess food behavior, eating, and lifestyle habits.

Results. Boys had a significantly higher waist circumference (71.18±9) than girls (67.46±9.91) (p=0.004). Thus 27% of boys were overweight or obese compared with only 22% of the girls. Differences were also seen between the two groups in …


Protection Effect Of Exogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 On The Kidney Injury In Vascular Calcification Rats, Yu-Chen Shi, Wei-Wei Lu, Yue-Long Hou, Kun Fu, Feng Gan, Shu-Juan Cheng, Shao-Ping Wang, Yong-Fen Qi, Jing-Hua Liu 2018 Capital Medical University, China

Protection Effect Of Exogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 On The Kidney Injury In Vascular Calcification Rats, Yu-Chen Shi, Wei-Wei Lu, Yue-Long Hou, Kun Fu, Feng Gan, Shu-Juan Cheng, Shao-Ping Wang, Yong-Fen Qi, Jing-Hua Liu

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is closely related to the cardiovascular events in vascular calcification (VC). However, little has known about the characteristics of kidney injury caused by VC. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine factor, which takes part in various metabolic actions with the potential to alleviate metabolic disorder diseases. Even FGF21 has been regarded as a biomarker in CKD, the role of FGF21 in CKD remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we evaluate the FGF21 on the kidney injury in VC rats.

Methods: The male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: (1) control group, (2) …


Acute Pressor Response To Psychosocial Stress Is Dependent On Endothelium‐Derived Endothelin‐1, Brandon M. Fox, Bryan K. Becker, Analia S. Loria, Kelly A. Hyndman, Chunhua Jin, Hannah Clark, Robin Johns, Masashi Yanagisawa, David M. Pollock, Jennifer S. Pollock 2018 University of Alabama - Birmingham

Acute Pressor Response To Psychosocial Stress Is Dependent On Endothelium‐Derived Endothelin‐1, Brandon M. Fox, Bryan K. Becker, Analia S. Loria, Kelly A. Hyndman, Chunhua Jin, Hannah Clark, Robin Johns, Masashi Yanagisawa, David M. Pollock, Jennifer S. Pollock

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

Acute psychosocial stress provokes increases in circulating endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) levels in humans and animal models. However, key questions about the physiological function and cellular source of stress‐induced ET‐1 remain unanswered. We hypothesized that endothelium‐derived ET‐1 contributes to the acute pressor response to stress via activation of the endothelin A receptor.

Methods and Results

Adult male vascular endothelium‐specific ET‐1 knockout mice and control mice that were homozygous for the floxed allele were exposed to acute psychosocial stress in the form of cage switch stress (CSS), with blood pressure measured by telemetry. An acute pressor response was elicited by CSS in …


Binge Alcohol Exposure Causes Neurobehavioral Deficits And Gsk3Β Activation In The Hippocampus Of Adolescent Rats, Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke 2018 Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China

Binge Alcohol Exposure Causes Neurobehavioral Deficits And Gsk3Β Activation In The Hippocampus Of Adolescent Rats, Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Heavy alcohol exposure causes profound damage to the adolescent brain, particularly the hippocampus, which underlie some behavioral deficits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain inconclusive. The current study sought to determine whether binge alcohol exposure affects the hippocampus-related behaviors and key signaling proteins that may mediate alcohol neurotoxicity in adolescent rats. Alcohol exposure reduced the number of both NeuN-positive and doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampus. Alcohol also induced neurodegeneration which was confirmed by ultrastructural analysis by electronic microscopy and was accompanied with the activation of microglia. Binge alcohol exposure impaired spatial learning and memory which was evaluated by the Morris …


An Aged Canid With Behavioral Deficits Exhibits Blood And Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid Beta Oligomers, Clare Rusbridge, Francisco J. Salguero, Monique Antoinette David, Kiterie M. E. Faller, Jose T. Bras, Rita J. Guerreiro, Angela C. Richard-Londt, Duncan Grainger, Elizabeth Head, Sebastian G. P. Brandner, Brian Summers, John Hardy, Mourad Tayebi 2018 University of Surrey, UK

An Aged Canid With Behavioral Deficits Exhibits Blood And Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid Beta Oligomers, Clare Rusbridge, Francisco J. Salguero, Monique Antoinette David, Kiterie M. E. Faller, Jose T. Bras, Rita J. Guerreiro, Angela C. Richard-Londt, Duncan Grainger, Elizabeth Head, Sebastian G. P. Brandner, Brian Summers, John Hardy, Mourad Tayebi

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Many of the molecular and pathological features associated with human Alzheimer disease (AD) are mirrored in the naturally occurring age-associated neuropathology in the canine species. In aged dogs with declining learned behavior and memory the severity of cognitive dysfunction parallels the progressive build up and location of Aβ in the brain. The main aim of this work was to study the biological behavior of soluble oligomers isolated from an aged dog with cognitive dysfunction through investigating their interaction with a human cell line and synthetic Aβ peptides. We report that soluble oligomers were specifically detected in the dog's blood and …


Fk506-Binding Protein 12.6/1b, A Negative Regulator Of [Ca2+], Rescues Memory And Restores Genomic Regulation In The Hippocampus Of Aging Rats, John C. Gant, Eric M. Blalock, Kuey-Chu Chen, Inga Kadish, Olivier Thibault, Nada M. Porter, Philip W. Landfield 2018 University of Kentucky

Fk506-Binding Protein 12.6/1b, A Negative Regulator Of [Ca2+], Rescues Memory And Restores Genomic Regulation In The Hippocampus Of Aging Rats, John C. Gant, Eric M. Blalock, Kuey-Chu Chen, Inga Kadish, Olivier Thibault, Nada M. Porter, Philip W. Landfield

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Hippocampal overexpression of FK506-binding protein 12.6/1b (FKBP1b), a negative regulator of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release, reverses aging-induced memory impairment and neuronal Ca2+ dysregulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that FKBP1b also can protect downstream transcriptional networks from aging-induced dysregulation. We gave hippocampal microinjections of FKBP1b-expressing viral vector to male rats at either 13 months of age (long-term, LT) or 19 months of age (short-term, ST) and tested memory performance in the Morris water maze at 21 months of age. Aged rats treated ST or LT with FKBP1b substantially outperformed age-matched vector controls and performed similarly …


Significant Loss Of Blood Amino Acids And Free Carnitine In Newborns Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (Crrt), Uttam Garg, Marita Thompson, Bradley A. Warady, Vimal Chadha 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

Significant Loss Of Blood Amino Acids And Free Carnitine In Newborns Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (Crrt), Uttam Garg, Marita Thompson, Bradley A. Warady, Vimal Chadha

Posters

Background

•Newborns with acute kidney injury (AKI) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) often receive prolonged CRRT when the early initiation of peritoneal dialysis is either contraindicated or unable to be performed. •These patients often receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to meet their nutritional goals. •Little to no information exists on the loss of blood amino acids (AA) and carnitine during CRRT in these patients. •The objective of this study was to determine the amino acids and carnitine losses in newborns receiving prolonged CRRT and TPN. Material and Methods

•Three newborns who received prolonged (> 2 weeks) CRRT and TPN were …


Infant Feeding Practices In China And Ireland - Ireland Chinese Mother, Qianling Zhou, Katherine Younger, John Kearney 2018 Peking University, Beijing, China

Infant Feeding Practices In China And Ireland - Ireland Chinese Mother, Qianling Zhou, Katherine Younger, John Kearney

Articles

Introduction: Migration to another country may induce changes in infant feeding practices especially where such practices differ considerably between the two countries. This study was undertaken to compare the infant feeding practices between Chinese mothers who gave birth in Ireland (CMI) with immigrant Chinese mothers who gave birth in China (CMC), and to examine the factors that influence these practices. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administrated survey was conducted among a convenience sample of 322 Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Data were obtained from mailed questionnaires. Infant feeding practices between CMC and CMI were compared by Chi-square or independent sample t-test. Binary …


Blunted Serum 25(Oh)D Response To Vitamin D3 Supplementation In Children With Autism, Conor Kerley, Basil Elnazir, Peter Greally, David Coghlan 2018 Technological University Dublin

Blunted Serum 25(Oh)D Response To Vitamin D3 Supplementation In Children With Autism, Conor Kerley, Basil Elnazir, Peter Greally, David Coghlan

Articles

Introduction: Data suggest a potential role for vitamin D in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevention and treatment. It is likely that the serum response to vitamin D supplementation contributes to its effectiveness. Multiple factors affect serum vitamin D 25(OH)D response to supplementation.

Methods: We conducted post-hoc analysis of two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCT) of vitamin D3 supplementation, one RCT involving children with ASD and another involving children with asthma. Both trials were conducted in the same geographic location (Dublin, Ireland, 53°N), conducted over Winter season and utilized the same vitamin D3 dose (2000 IU/day).

Results: We …


Inactivation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And The Prevention Of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Ian James Martins 2018 Edith Cowan University

Inactivation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And The Prevention Of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Ian James Martins

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Biotherapeutics and nutritional therapy are essential for the treatment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and nutrient excess may induce ER stress associated with activation of the unfolded protein response and connected to cell death. The heat shock gene Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) is important to the heat shock response with amyloid beta aggregation associated with the induction of mitophagy and ER stress in neuron cells. Genomic medicine that activates nuclear Sirt 1 is essential for the prevention of mitochondrial apoptosis and ER stress. Inhibitors such as drugs, alcohol, excess caffeine and palmitic acid …


Hydroxyurea Differentially Modulates Activator And Repressors Of Γ-Globin Gene In Erythroblasts Of Responsive And Non-Responsive Patients With Sickle Cell Disease In Correlation With Index Of Hydroxyurea Responsiveness, Xingguo Zhu, Tianxiang Hu, Meng Hsuan Ho, Yongchao Wang, Miao Yu, Niren Patel, Wenhu Pi, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Hongyan Xu, Vadivel Ganapathy, Ferdane Kutlar, Abdullah Kutlar, Dorothy Tuan 2017 Augusta University

Hydroxyurea Differentially Modulates Activator And Repressors Of Γ-Globin Gene In Erythroblasts Of Responsive And Non-Responsive Patients With Sickle Cell Disease In Correlation With Index Of Hydroxyurea Responsiveness, Xingguo Zhu, Tianxiang Hu, Meng Hsuan Ho, Yongchao Wang, Miao Yu, Niren Patel, Wenhu Pi, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Hongyan Xu, Vadivel Ganapathy, Ferdane Kutlar, Abdullah Kutlar, Dorothy Tuan

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Hydroxyurea (HU), the first of two drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), produces anti-sickling effect by re-activating fetal γ-globin gene to enhance production of fetal hemoglobin. However, approximately 30% of the patients do not respond to HU therapy. The molecular basis of non-responsiveness to HU is not clearly understood. To address this question, we examined HU-induced changes in the RNA and protein levels of transcription factors NF-Y, GATA-1, -2, BCL11A, TR4, MYB and NF-E4 that assemble the γ-globin promoter complex and regulate transcription of γ-globin gene. In erythroblasts cultured …


Alcohol And Cancer Stem Cells, Mei Xu, Jia Luo 2017 University of Kentucky

Alcohol And Cancer Stem Cells, Mei Xu, Jia Luo

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, including cancer of the colon, rectum, female breast, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, liver, and esophagus. It appears that alcohol exposure not only promotes carcinogenesis but also enhances the progression and aggressiveness of existing cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol tumor promotion, however, remain unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of cancer cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacity, play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy resistance. The recent research evidence suggests that alcohol increases the CSC population in cancers, which may underlie alcohol-induced …


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