Silencing Of The Pink1 Gene Expression By Conditional Rnai Does Not Induce Dopaminergic Neuron Death In Mice., 2018 Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University
Silencing Of The Pink1 Gene Expression By Conditional Rnai Does Not Induce Dopaminergic Neuron Death In Mice., Hongxia Zhou, Björn H Falkenburger, Jörg B Schulz, Kim Tieu, Zuoshang Xu, Xu Gang Xia
Transgenic RNAi, an alternative to the gene knockout approach, can induce hypomorphic phenotypes that resemble those of the gene knockout in mice. Conditional transgenic RNAi is an attractive choice of method for reverse genetics in vivo because it can achieve temporal and spatial silencing of targeted genes. Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used to drive the expression of RNAi transgenes in animals. Tested in transgenic mice, a Cre-loxP inducible U6 promoter drove the broad expression of an shRNA against the Pink1 gene whose loss-of-functional mutations cause one form of familial Parkinson's disease. The expression of the ...
Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., 2018 Thomas Jefferson University
Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper, James S Schwaber
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use changes the brain's inflammatory state. However, there is little work examining the progression of the cytokine response during alcohol withdrawal, a period of profound autonomic and emotional upset. This study examines the inflammatory response in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC), brain regions neuroanatomically associated with affective and cardiorespiratory regulation in an in vivo rat model of withdrawal following a single chronic exposure.
METHODS: For qRT-PCR studies, we measured the expression of TNF-α, NOS-2, Ccl2 (MCP-1), MHC II invariant chain CD74, and the TNF receptor Tnfrsf1a in CeA and ...
The Function Of Erbin, A Scaffold Protein, As A Tumor Suppressor In Colon Cancer, 2018 University of Kentucky
The Function Of Erbin, A Scaffold Protein, As A Tumor Suppressor In Colon Cancer, Payton D. Stevens
Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Erbin belongs to the LAP (leucine-rich repeat and PDZ domain) family of scaffolding proteins that play important roles in orchestrating cell signaling. Here, we show that Erbin functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer. Analysis of Erbin expression in patient specimens reveals that Erbin is downregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues. Functionally, knockdown of Erbin disrupts epithelial cell polarity and increases cell proliferation in 3D culture. In addition, silencing Erbin results in an increase in the amplitude and duration of signaling through Akt and RAS/RAF pathways. Moreover, Erbin-loss induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which coincides ...
The Meiosis-Specific Cdc20 Family-Member Ama1 Promotes Binding Of The Ssp2 Activator To The Smk1 Map Kinase., 2018 Thomas Jefferson University
The Meiosis-Specific Cdc20 Family-Member Ama1 Promotes Binding Of The Ssp2 Activator To The Smk1 Map Kinase., Gregory Omerza, Chong Wai Tio, Timothy Philips, Aviva Diamond, Aaron M. Neiman, Edward Winter
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers
Smk1 is a meiosis-specific MAP kinase (MAPK) in budding yeast that is required for spore formation. It is localized to prospore membranes (PSMs), the structures that engulf haploid cells during meiosis II (MII). Similar to canonically activated MAPKs, Smk1 is controlled by phosphorylation of its activation-loop threonine (T) and tyrosine (Y). However, activation loop phosphorylation occurs via a noncanonical two-step mechanism in which 1) the cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase Cak1 phosphorylaytes T207 during MI, and 2) Smk1 autophosphorylates Y209 as MII draws to a close. Autophosphorylation of Y209 and catalytic activity for substrates require Ssp2, a meiosis-specific protein that is ...
Mlk Book Read 2018 (Research Materials), 2018 College of the Holy Cross
Mlk Book Read 2018 (Research Materials), Holy Cross Libraries
Library Resources for Campus Events
A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to the MLK Winter Book Read, based on the best-seller “The Immortal LIfe of Henrietta Lacks” by Rebecca Skoot.
Cks1 Expression In Melanocytic Nevi And Melanoma, 2017 Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz
Cks1 Expression In Melanocytic Nevi And Melanoma, Anna A. Brożyna, Andrew Aplin, Cynthia Cohen, Grant Carlson, Andrew Joseph Page, Michael Murphy, Andrzej T. Slominski, J. Andrew Carlson
Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers
Cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 1 (Cks1) regulates the degradation of p27, an important G1-S inhibitor, which is up regulated by MAPK pathway activation. In this study, we sought to determine whether Cks1 expression is increased in melanocytic tumors and correlates with outcome and/or other clinicopathologic prognostic markers. Cks1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 298 melanocytic lesions. The frequency and intensity of cytoplasmic and nuclear expression was scored as a labeling index and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Nuclear Cks1 protein was found in 63% of melanocytic nevi, 89% primary and 90% metastatic melanomas with mean labeling index of 7 ± 16 ...
A Simple And Accurate Rule-Based Modeling Framework For Simulation Of Autocrine/Paracrine Stimulation Of Glioblastoma Cell Motility And Proliferation By L1cam In 2-D Culture., 2017 University of Delaware
A Simple And Accurate Rule-Based Modeling Framework For Simulation Of Autocrine/Paracrine Stimulation Of Glioblastoma Cell Motility And Proliferation By L1cam In 2-D Culture., Justin Caccavale, David Fiumara, Michael Stapf, Liedeke Sweitzer, Hannah J. Anderson, Jonathan Gorky, Prasad Dhurjati, Deni S. Galileo
Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Faculty Papers
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer for which there is no known cure. Its malignancy is due to rapid cell division along with high motility and invasiveness of cells into the brain tissue. Simple 2-dimensional laboratory assays (e.g., a scratch assay) commonly are used to measure the effects of various experimental perturbations, such as treatment with chemical inhibitors. Several mathematical models have been developed to aid the understanding of the motile behavior and proliferation of GBM cells. However, many are mathematically complicated, look at multiple interdependent phenomena, and/or use modeling software not freely available to ...
Induction Of Immune Surveillance Of The Dysmorphogenic Lens., 2017 Thomas Jefferson University
Induction Of Immune Surveillance Of The Dysmorphogenic Lens., Caitlin M. Logan, Caitlin J. Bowen, A. Sue Menko
Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Faculty Papers
The lens has been considered to be an immune privileged site not susceptible to the immune processes normally associated with tissue injury and wound repair. However, as greater insight into the immune surveillance process is gained, we have reevaluated the concept of immune privilege. Our studies using an N-cadherin lens-specific conditional knockout mouse, N-cadΔlens, show that loss of this cell-cell junctional protein leads to lens degeneration, necrosis and fibrotic change, postnatally. The degeneration of this tissue induces an immune response resulting in immune cells populating the lens that contribute to the development of fibrosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the lens ...
Niche Cadherins Control The Quiescence-To-Activation Transition In Muscle Stem Cells., 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Niche Cadherins Control The Quiescence-To-Activation Transition In Muscle Stem Cells., Aviva J. Goel, Marysia-Kolbe Rieder, Hans-Henning Arnold, Glenn L. Radice, Robert S. Krauss
Department of Medicine Faculty Papers
Many adult stem cells display prolonged quiescence, promoted by cues from their niche. Upon tissue damage, a coordinated transition to the activated state is required because non-physiological breaks in quiescence often lead to stem cell depletion and impaired regeneration. Here, we identify cadherin-mediated adhesion and signaling between muscle stem cells (satellite cells [SCs]) and their myofiber niche as a mechanism that orchestrates the quiescence-to-activation transition. Conditional removal of N-cadherin and M-cadherin in mice leads to a break in SC quiescence, with long-term expansion of a regeneration-proficient SC pool. These SCs have an incomplete disruption of the myofiber-SC adhesive junction and ...
Ros Control Mitochondrial Motility Through P38 And The Motor Adaptor Miro/Trak., 2017 Thomas Jefferson University
Ros Control Mitochondrial Motility Through P38 And The Motor Adaptor Miro/Trak., Valentina Debattisti, Akos A. Gerencser, Masao Saotome, Sudipto Das, György Hajnóczky
Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Faculty Papers
Mitochondrial distribution and motility are recognized as central to many cellular functions, but their regulation by signaling mechanisms remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS), either derived from an extracellular source or intracellularly generated, control mitochondrial distribution and function by dose-dependently, specifically, and reversibly decreasing mitochondrial motility in both rat hippocampal primary cultured neurons and cell lines. ROS decrease motility independently of cytoplasmic [Ca2+], mitochondrial membrane potential, or permeability transition pore opening, known effectors of oxidative stress. However, multiple lines of genetic and pharmacological evidence support that a ROS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38α, is ...
Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, 2017 University of Alberta
Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Background: Neuroinflammation in the brain consequent to activation of microglia is viewed as an important component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is known to activate microglia and unleash an inflammatory cascade that eventually results in neuronal dysfunction and death. In this study, we sought to identify the presence of amylin receptors on human fetal and murine microglia and determine whether Aβ activation of the inflammasome complex and subsequent release of cytokines is mediated through these receptors.
Methods: The presence of dimeric components of the amylin receptor (calcitonin receptor and receptor activity modifying protein 3) were ...
Identification Of Stiffness-Induced Signalling Mechanisms In Cells From Patent And Fused Sutures Associated With Craniosynostosis., 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Identification Of Stiffness-Induced Signalling Mechanisms In Cells From Patent And Fused Sutures Associated With Craniosynostosis., Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez Vazquez, Andrew R. Cameron, Fergal J. O'Brien, Dylan J Murray
Craniosynostosis is a bone developmental disease where premature ossification of the cranial sutures occurs leading to fused sutures. While biomechanical forces have been implicated in craniosynostosis, evidence of the effect of microenvironmental stiffness changes in the osteogenic commitment of cells from the sutures is lacking. Our aim was to identify the differential genetic expression and osteogenic capability between cells from patent and fused sutures of children with craniosynostosis and whether these differences are driven by changes in the stiffness of the microenvironment. Cells from both sutures demonstrated enhanced mineralisation with increasing substrate stiffness showing that stiffness is a stimulus capable ...
Effect Of Extracellular Survivin And Lymphoma Exosomes On Natural Killer Cells, 2017 Loma Linda University
Effect Of Extracellular Survivin And Lymphoma Exosomes On Natural Killer Cells, Heather R. Ferguson Bennit
Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects
Tumors alter their microenvironment to promote survival using methods such as angiogenesis promotion, growth signals, and immune suppression. The immune system becomes unresponsive to transformed neoplastic cells through a variety of methods including T cell suppression, increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and reduced natural killer (NK) cell activity. NK cells have inherent killing capabilities and thus are among the first responders in recognizing and destroying abnormal cells. However, many types of cancers inhibit the surveillance and cytotoxic abilities of NK cells by releasing exosomes, vesicles that can modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME) and intercellular communication for the purpose of enhancing ...
Negative Regulation Of Urokinase Receptor Activity By A Gpi-Specific Phospholipase C In Breast Cancer Cells., 2017 The Netherlands Cancer Institute
Negative Regulation Of Urokinase Receptor Activity By A Gpi-Specific Phospholipase C In Breast Cancer Cells., Michiel Van Veen, Elisa Matas-Rico, Koen Van De Wetering, Daniela Leyton-Puig, Katarzyna M. Kedziora, Valentina De Lorenzi, Yvette Stijf-Bultsma, Bram Van Den Broek, Kees Jalink, Nicolai Sidenius, Anastassis Perrakis, Wouter H. Moolenaar
Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Faculty Papers
The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that promotes tissue remodeling, tumor cell adhesion, migration and invasion. uPAR mediates degradation of the extracellular matrix through protease recruitment and enhances cell adhesion, migration and signaling through vitronectin binding and interactions with integrins. Full-length uPAR is released from the cell surface, but the mechanism and significance of uPAR shedding remain obscure. Here we identify transmembrane glycerophosphodiesterase GDE3 as a GPI-specific phospholipase C that cleaves and releases uPAR with consequent loss of function, whereas its homologue GDE2 fails to attack uPAR. GDE3 overexpression depletes uPAR from distinct basolateral membrane domains ...
Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, 2017 University of Los Andes, Colombia
Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. Lacount
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Viral hemorrhagic fevers are severe illnesses caused by many different viruses. Lassa Virus is one of these important pathogens in Western Africa, causing hemorrhagic fever and eventually death without early medical treatment. There is no vaccine and there is little information on host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the interaction between viral proteins and host targets is useful to understand Lassa virus’s lifecycle and pathology, and to develop ways to prevent infection. In this project, we study the nucleoprotein of Lassa virus (NP), which has been reported to have anti-interferon (IFN) activity through elimination of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These features could ...
Metabolic Regulation Of Cellular Signaling, 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Metabolic Regulation Of Cellular Signaling, Rashid John Darbandi
Theses and Dissertations (ETD)
Using the biochemically tractable Xenopus oocyte model system, we have previously characterized a novel metabolic regulation of cell death. We found that glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) via the pentose phosphate pathway leads to increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels, a subsequent increase in cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A and activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). We recently identified coenzyme A (CoA), derived from the breakdown of acetyl-CoA, as the key metabolic signal that mediates a novel mechanism of calmodulindependent activation of CaMKII. CoA binds directly to the calmodulin (CaM) binding domain (CaMBD) of CaMKII resulting in its activation and downstream inhibitory ...
Ubqln1 : A Multi-Domain Protein With Multiple Functions., 2017 University of Louisville
Ubqln1 : A Multi-Domain Protein With Multiple Functions., Zimple Kurlawala
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
There are 5 Ubiquilin proteins (UBQLN1-4, UBQLN-L), which are evolutionarily conserved and structurally similar. UBQLN proteins have 3 functional domains: N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain (UBL), C-terminal ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA) and STI chaperone-like regions in the middle. Alterations in UBQLN1 gene have been detected in a variety of disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis and lung cancer. UBQLN1 has been largely studied in neurodegenerative disorders in the context of protein quality control. Several studies have hypothesized that the UBA domain of UBQLN1 binds to poly-ubiquitin chains of substrate and shuttles it to the proteasome via its UBL domain for degradation ...
Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity Against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer In Cell Culture And Nude Mice Models Via The E2f Pathway, Kathleen C. Brown, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, A. Betts Carpenter, Jamie K. Lau, Piyali Dasgupta
Kathleen C. Brown
Background: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and low survival rates. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli peppers, displays antiproliferative activity in prostate and epidermoid cancer in vitro. However, the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin has not been studied in human SCLCs. The present manuscript fills this void of knowledge and explores the anti-proliferative effect of capsaicin in SCLC in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings: BrdU assays and PCNA ELISAs showed that capsaicin displays robust anti-proliferative activity in four human SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, capsaicin ...
Impact Of The C-Mybe308g Mutation On Mouse Myelopoiesis And Dendritic Cell Development, 2017 Australian National University
Impact Of The C-Mybe308g Mutation On Mouse Myelopoiesis And Dendritic Cell Development, Peter Papathanasiou, Sawang Petvises, Ying-Ying Hey, Andrew C Perkins, Helen C O'Neill
Booreana mice carrying the c-Myb308G point mutation were analyzed to determine changes in early hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and among mature cells in the periphery. This point mutation led to increased numbers of early hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), with a subsequent reduction in the development of B cells, erythroid cells, and neutrophils, and increased numbers of myeloid cells and granulocytes. Myelopoiesis was further investigated by way of particular subsets affected. A specific question addressed whether booreana mice contained increased numbers of dendritic-like cells (L-DC subset) recently identified in the spleen, since L-DCs arise in vitro by direct ...
The Glia Response After Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Comparison Between Schwann Cells And Olfactory Ensheathing Cells And Their Uses For Neural Regenerative Therapies, 2017 Griffith University Queensland
The Glia Response After Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Comparison Between Schwann Cells And Olfactory Ensheathing Cells And Their Uses For Neural Regenerative Therapies, Matthew J Barton, James St John, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) exhibits a much larger capacity for regeneration than the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this difference is the difference in glial cell types between the two systems. PNS glia respond rapidly to nerve injury by clearing debris from the injury site, supplying essential growth factors and providing structural support; all of which enhances neuronal regeneration. Thus, transplantation of glial cells from the PNS is a very promising therapy for injuries to both the PNS and the CNS. There are two key types of PNS glia: olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which populate the olfactory ...