Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,240 Full-Text Articles 3,880 Authors 167,496 Downloads 84 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Cell Biology

Faceted Search

1,240 full-text articles. Page 1 of 46.

Dna Aptamer-Drug Targeting Chemotherapy: Investigation Of Cell Cycle Inhibition Via S15 Aptamer – Norcantharidin Complex, Shannon Fehr 2020 Liberty University

Dna Aptamer-Drug Targeting Chemotherapy: Investigation Of Cell Cycle Inhibition Via S15 Aptamer – Norcantharidin Complex, Shannon Fehr

Senior Honors Theses

Lung Cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in both men and women in the United States (Bray et al., 2018). Cancer treatments are often non-specific and kill many dividing cells within a patient causing unwanted side effects. Norcantharidin (NCTD) is a synthetic FDA approved treatment for cancers including non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). NCTD suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting cells from exiting the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules with ligand directed self-annealing capabilities allowing selective binding to specific targets. This paper will discuss the hypothesized effects of using ...


Steered Molecular Dynamic Simulations Reveal Marfan Syndrome Mutations Disrupt Fibrillin-1 Cbegf Domain Mechanosensitive Balcium Binding, Stephen J. Haller, Adrian E. Roitberg, Andrew T. Dudley 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Steered Molecular Dynamic Simulations Reveal Marfan Syndrome Mutations Disrupt Fibrillin-1 Cbegf Domain Mechanosensitive Balcium Binding, Stephen J. Haller, Adrian E. Roitberg, Andrew T. Dudley

Journal Articles: Genetics, Cell Biology & Anatomy

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a highly variable genetic connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the calcium binding extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibrillin-1. Patients with the most severe form of MFS (neonatal MFS; nMFS) tend to have mutations that cluster in an internal region of fibrillin-1 called the neonatal region. This region is predominantly composed of eight calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like (cbEGF) domains, each of which binds one calcium ion and is stabilized by three highly conserved disulfide bonds. Crucially, calcium plays a fundamental role in stabilizing cbEGF domains. Perturbed calcium binding caused by cbEGF domain mutations is thus thought to ...


Exosomes Secreted Under Hypoxia Enhance Stemness In Ewing's Sarcoma Through Mir-210 Delivery, Matthew J. Kling, Nagendra K. Chaturvedi, Varun Kesherwani, Don W. Coulter, Timothy R. McGuire, J. Graham Sharp, Shantaram S. Joshi 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Exosomes Secreted Under Hypoxia Enhance Stemness In Ewing's Sarcoma Through Mir-210 Delivery, Matthew J. Kling, Nagendra K. Chaturvedi, Varun Kesherwani, Don W. Coulter, Timothy R. Mcguire, J. Graham Sharp, Shantaram S. Joshi

Journal Articles: Genetics, Cell Biology & Anatomy

Intercellular communication between tumor cells within the hypoxic microenvironment promote aggressiveness and poor patient prognoses for reasons that remain unclear. Here we show that hypoxic Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) cells release exosomes that promote sphere formation, a stem-like phenotype, in EWS cells by enhancing survival. Analysis of the hypoxic exosomal miRNA cargo identified a HIF-1α regulated miRNA, miR-210, as a potential mediator of sphere formation in cells exposed to hypoxic exosomes. Knockdown of HIF-1α in hypoxic EWS cells led to decreased exosomal miR-210 levels and reduced the capacity of hypoxic exosomes to form spheres. Inhibition of miR-210 in hypoxic spheres ...


On The Expanding Roles Of Trna Fragments In Modulating Cell Behavior, Rogan Magee, Isidore Rigoutsos 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

On The Expanding Roles Of Trna Fragments In Modulating Cell Behavior, Rogan Magee, Isidore Rigoutsos

Computational Medicine Center Faculty Papers

The fragments that derive from transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are an emerging category of regulatory RNAs. Known as tRFs, these fragments were reported for the first time only a decade ago, making them a relatively recent addition to the ever-expanding pantheon of non-coding RNAs. tRFs are short, 16-35 nucleotides (nts) in length, and produced through cleavage of mature and precursor tRNAs at various positions. Both cleavage positions and relative tRF abundance depend strongly on context, including the tissue type, tissue state, and disease, as well as the sex, population of origin, and race/ethnicity of an individual. These dependencies increase the ...


Educational Case: A Case Of Transfusion-Transmitted Babesiosis: Diagnostic Perspectives Across The Clinical Laboratory., Kaitlyn Dykes, Alexis R. Peedin 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Educational Case: A Case Of Transfusion-Transmitted Babesiosis: Diagnostic Perspectives Across The Clinical Laboratory., Kaitlyn Dykes, Alexis R. Peedin

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology.


The Membrane-Associated Form Of Cyclin D1 Enhances Cellular Invasion, Ke Chen, Xuanmao Jiao, Anthony Ashton, Agnese Di Rocco, Timothy G Pestell, Yunguang Sun, Jun Zhao, Mathew C Casimiro, Zhiping Li, Michael P Lisanti, Peter McCue, Duanwen Shen, Samuel Achilefu, Hallgeir Rui, Richard G Pestell 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

The Membrane-Associated Form Of Cyclin D1 Enhances Cellular Invasion, Ke Chen, Xuanmao Jiao, Anthony Ashton, Agnese Di Rocco, Timothy G Pestell, Yunguang Sun, Jun Zhao, Mathew C Casimiro, Zhiping Li, Michael P Lisanti, Peter Mccue, Duanwen Shen, Samuel Achilefu, Hallgeir Rui, Richard G Pestell

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

The essential G1-cyclin, CCND1, is a collaborative nuclear oncogene that is frequently overexpressed in cancer. D-type cyclins bind and activate CDK4 and CDK6 thereby contributing to G1-S cell-cycle progression. In addition to the nucleus, herein cyclin D1 was also located in the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast with the nuclear-localized form of cyclin D1 (cyclin D1NL), the cytoplasmic membrane-localized form of cyclin D1 (cyclin D1MEM) induced transwell migration and the velocity of cellular migration. The cyclin D1MEM was sufficient to induce G1-S cell-cycle progression, cellular proliferation, and colony formation. The cyclin D1MEM was sufficient to induce phosphorylation of the serine threonine ...


Endogenous Cyclin D1 Promotes The Rate Of Onset And Magnitude Of Mitogenic Signaling Via Akt1 Ser473 Phosphorylation., Ke Chen, Xuanmao Jiao, Agnese Di Rocco, Duanwen Shen, Shaohua Xu, Adam Ertel, Zuoren Yu, Gabriele Di Sante, Min Wang, Zhiping Li, Timothy G Pestell, Mathew C Casimiro, Emmanuel Skordalakes, Samuel Achilefu, Richard G Pestell 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Endogenous Cyclin D1 Promotes The Rate Of Onset And Magnitude Of Mitogenic Signaling Via Akt1 Ser473 Phosphorylation., Ke Chen, Xuanmao Jiao, Agnese Di Rocco, Duanwen Shen, Shaohua Xu, Adam Ertel, Zuoren Yu, Gabriele Di Sante, Min Wang, Zhiping Li, Timothy G Pestell, Mathew C Casimiro, Emmanuel Skordalakes, Samuel Achilefu, Richard G Pestell

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Cyclin D1 encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates RB and functions as a collaborative nuclear oncogene. The serine threonine kinase Akt plays a pivotal role in the control of cellular metabolism, survival, and mitogenic signaling. Herein, Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of downstream substrates in the mammary gland is reduced by cyclin D1 genetic deletion and is induced by mammary-gland-targeted cyclin D1 overexpression. Cyclin D1 is associated with Akt1 and augments the rate of onset and maximal cellular Akt1 activity induced by mitogens. Cyclin D1 is identified in a cytoplasmic-membrane-associated pool, and cytoplasmic-membrane-localized cyclin D1-but not nuclear-localized cyclin D1-recapitulates Akt1 ...


Pharmacogenomics Cascade Testing (Phact): A Novel Approach For Preemptive Pharmacogenomics Testing To Optimize Medication Therapy, Don Roosan, Angela Hwang, Moom Roosan 2020 Western University of Health Sciences

Pharmacogenomics Cascade Testing (Phact): A Novel Approach For Preemptive Pharmacogenomics Testing To Optimize Medication Therapy, Don Roosan, Angela Hwang, Moom Roosan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The implementation of pharmacogenomics (PGx) has come a long way since the dawn of utilizing pharmacogenomic data in clinical patient care. However, the potential benefits of sharing PGx results have yet to be explored. In this paper, we explore the willingness of patients to share PGx results, as well as the inclusion of family medication history in identifying potential family members for pharmacogenomics cascade testing (PhaCT). The genetic similarities in families allow for identifying potential gene variants prior to official preemptive testing. Once a candidate patient is determined, PhaCT can be initiated. PhaCT recognizes that further cascade testing throughout a ...


Cyclic Peptide-Gadolinium Nanoparticles For Enhanced Intracellular Delivery, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Shang Eun Park, Shirin Rad, Luiza Baloyan, Dindyal Mandal, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Ryley Hall, Sandeep Lohan, Khalid Zoghebi, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari 2020 Marshall B. Ketchum University

Cyclic Peptide-Gadolinium Nanoparticles For Enhanced Intracellular Delivery, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Shang Eun Park, Shirin Rad, Luiza Baloyan, Dindyal Mandal, Muhammad Imran Sajid, Ryley Hall, Sandeep Lohan, Khalid Zoghebi, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A cyclic peptide containing one cysteine and five alternating tryptophan and arginine amino acids [(WR)5C] was synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase methodology. The ability of the synthesized cyclic peptide to produce gadolinium nanoparticles through an in situ one-pot mixing of an aqueous solution of GdCl3 with [(WR)5C] peptide solution was evaluated. Transmission electron microscopy showed the formed peptide-Gd nanoparticles in star-shape morphology with a size of ~250 nm. Flow cytometry investigation showed that the cellular uptake of a cell-impermeable fluorescence-labeled phosphopeptide (F′-GpYEEI, where F′ = fluorescein) was approximately six times higher in the presence of ...


Phosphorylation Of Cyclophilin D At Serine 191 Regulates Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening And Cell Death After Ischemia-Reperfusion, Stephen Hurst, Fabrice Gonnot, Maya Dia, Claire Crola Da Silva, Ludovic Gomez, Shey-Shing Sheu 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Phosphorylation Of Cyclophilin D At Serine 191 Regulates Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening And Cell Death After Ischemia-Reperfusion, Stephen Hurst, Fabrice Gonnot, Maya Dia, Claire Crola Da Silva, Ludovic Gomez, Shey-Shing Sheu

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury. Although the pore structure is still unresolved, the mechanism through which cyclophilin D (CypD) regulates mPTP opening is the subject of intensive studies. While post-translational modifications of CypD have been shown to modulate pore opening, specific phosphorylation sites of CypD have not yet been identified. We hypothesized here that phosphorylation of CypD on a serine residue controls mPTP opening and subsequent cell death at reperfusion. We combined in silico analysis with in vitro and genetic manipulations to determine potential CypD ...


Comparative Molecular Transporter Properties Of Cyclic Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Arginine Residues Formed Through Disulfide Cyclization, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Dindyal Mandal, Saghar Mozaffari, Magdy Abdel-Hamied Zahran, Amany Mostafa Osman, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang 2020 Chapman University

Comparative Molecular Transporter Properties Of Cyclic Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Arginine Residues Formed Through Disulfide Cyclization, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Dindyal Mandal, Saghar Mozaffari, Magdy Abdel-Hamied Zahran, Amany Mostafa Osman, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We have previously reported cyclic cell-penetrating peptides [WR]5 and [WR]4 as molecular transporters. To optimize further the utility of our developed peptides for targeted therapy in cancer cells using the redox condition, we designed a new generation of peptides and evaluated their cytotoxicity as well as uptake behavior against different cancer cell lines. Thus, cyclic [C(WR)xC] and linear counterparts (C(WR)xC), where x = 4–5, were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide synthesis, purified, and characterized. The compounds did not show any significant cytotoxicity (at 25 µM) against ovarian (SK-OV-3), leukemia (CCRF-CEM), gastric ...


The Anti-Proliferative Effects Of Methotrexate And Novel Ucp1162 On Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines, Jacqueline Klepinger, Charles Giardina, Didem Ozcan 2020 University of Connecticut, Storrs

The Anti-Proliferative Effects Of Methotrexate And Novel Ucp1162 On Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines, Jacqueline Klepinger, Charles Giardina, Didem Ozcan

Honors Scholar Theses

Cancer cells proliferate at rapid rates due to the aberrant activity of proteins involved in regulating the cell cycle. This characteristic allows mutated cancer cells to spread and metastasize, causing lesions to form throughout the body. Two treatment conditions, one classical antifolate methotrexate (MTX) and non-classical, novel antifolate UCP1162, were tested on a panel of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines to determine if UCP1162 has higher anti-proliferative activity. High dose MTX is used as a first line chemotherapy in common childhood malignancies such as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). Methotrexate is excluded from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatments based on ...


Diurnal Patterns Of Gene Expression In The Dorsal Vagal Complex And The Central Nucleus Of The Amygdala - Non-Rhythm-Generating Brain Regions, Mary M Staehle, Sean O'Sullivan, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Kate F Kernan, Gregory E Gonye, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, James S. Schwaber 2020 Rowan University

Diurnal Patterns Of Gene Expression In The Dorsal Vagal Complex And The Central Nucleus Of The Amygdala - Non-Rhythm-Generating Brain Regions, Mary M Staehle, Sean O'Sullivan, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Kate F Kernan, Gregory E Gonye, Babatunde A Ogunnaike, James S. Schwaber

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Genes that establish the circadian clock have differential expression with respect to solar time in central and peripheral tissues. Here, we find circadian-time-induced differential expression in a large number of genes not associated with circadian rhythms in two brain regions lacking overt circadian function: the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). These regions primarily engage in autonomic, homeostatic, and emotional regulation. However, we find striking diurnal shifts in gene expression in these regions of male Sprague Dawley rats with no obvious patterns that could be attributed to function or region. These findings have implications ...


Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes 2020 University of South Dakota

Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes

Honors Thesis

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were originally identified as two-component systems ensuring the stable inheritance of plasmids in bacterial populations. Recently, they have been identified on bacterial chromosomes where their functions remain mostly undefined. The par locus of E. faecalis plasmid pAD1 (parpAD1) was the first TA system defined in a Gram-positive bacterium and a homolog encoded on the E. faecalis chromosome (parEF0409) was later described. Related loci numbering in the hundreds have been identified throughout Gram-positive bacteria based on homology to the toxin of the system, Fst, and similarities in genetic organization and regulation. Despite their similar sequences, over-expression ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Manganese Porphyrin Compounds In The Prevention Of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis, Shashank Shrishrimal 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Molecular Mechanisms Of Manganese Porphyrin Compounds In The Prevention Of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis, Shashank Shrishrimal

Theses & Dissertations

Radiation therapy is frequently used as a treatment strategy for prostate cancer patients, which leads to several side effects due to damage to health tissue around the tumor and the development of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP or T2E or BMX-010) and other similar manganese porphyrin compounds that scavenge superoxide molecules have been demonstrated to be effective radioprotectors and prevent the development of RIF. However, understanding of the radioprotective molecular pathway associated with these compounds remains limited. Recent RNA-sequencing data from our laboratory revealed that MnTE-2-PyP treatment may activate the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 ...


How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current 2020 St. John Fisher College

How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Cancer is a disease that humans have been struggling to combat for centuries. It originates from the accumulation of several mutations over the life of a cell that causes it to evade cell death and multiply rapidly. It can affect any tissue in the body and can spread to other parts of the body through metastasis. Cancer comes in numerous shapes and sizes with different levels of aggression, growth speeds, and health risks. Many treatments for cancer exist today, three of the most popular being surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, which can be used in combinations with other treatments to ...


Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease which affects about 5 to 8 million individuals in the world. Despite the high prevalence, there is currently no cure for IPF, and the cause of this disease is still unclear. Our laboratory and collaborators have shown that nudix hydrolase 21 (NUDT21, which is also known as cleavage factor 25, CFIm25) is a key regulator of alternative polyadenylation (APA). NUDT21 depletion causes 3’UTR shortening via APA leading to enhanced mRNA stability and protein translation. This NUDT21 reduction promotes tumor growth in glioblastoma by enhancing expression of oncogenes. Cancer and IPF ...


Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Functionally Interacts With The Igf-I System In Bladder Cancer, Simone Buraschi, Alaide Morcavallo, Thomas Neill, Manuela Stefanello, Chiara Palladino, Shi-Qiong Xu, Antonino Belfiore, Renato V. Iozzo, Andrea Morrione 2020 Cancer Cell Biology and Signaling Program, Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University

Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Functionally Interacts With The Igf-I System In Bladder Cancer, Simone Buraschi, Alaide Morcavallo, Thomas Neill, Manuela Stefanello, Chiara Palladino, Shi-Qiong Xu, Antonino Belfiore, Renato V. Iozzo, Andrea Morrione

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Cloning, Protein Expression, And Characterization Of Interleukin 1 Alpha, Musaab Habeeb Ali Al Ameer 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cloning, Protein Expression, And Characterization Of Interleukin 1 Alpha, Musaab Habeeb Ali Al Ameer

Theses and Dissertations

Recombinant DNA technology and the ability to produce recombinant proteins have significantly changed the world of pharmaceutical market. Recombinant DNA technology using E. coli cells has successfully produced many therapeutic proteins. In this study, the designed tag Ark-RUBY-tag facilitates rapid, and reproducible purification of recombinant proteins expressed as inclusion bodies in E. coli cells. Purification of Ark-RUBY-fused recombinant protein(s) can be obtained by using imidazole fractions. Target protein can be easily removed from the Ark-RUBY-tag by enzymatic cleavage. Ark-RUBY-fused recombinant proteins can be quantitatively detected using polyclonal antibodies. Ark-RUBY-tag can be used to purify small peptides. By using Ark-RUBY-tag ...


Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters 2020 East Tennessee State University

Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The nicotinamide riboside (NR) form of vitamin B3and the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are two of the most promising natural compounds yet identified for the treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. Forms of vitamin B3are precursors for the synthesis of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(H)) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(H)). In aged cells levels of NAD+decline, decreasing metabolism and decreasing activity of protective sirtuin protein deacetylases. In aged cells NR, but not more common forms of vitamin B3, boost NAD+levels. BHB is naturally produced by the body when individuals fast ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress