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Molecular Mechanisms Of Manganese Porphyrin Compounds In The Prevention Of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis, Shashank Shrishrimal 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Molecular Mechanisms Of Manganese Porphyrin Compounds In The Prevention Of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis, Shashank Shrishrimal

Theses & Dissertations

Radiation therapy is frequently used as a treatment strategy for prostate cancer patients, which leads to several side effects due to damage to health tissue around the tumor and the development of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP or T2E or BMX-010) and other similar manganese porphyrin compounds that scavenge superoxide molecules have been demonstrated to be effective radioprotectors and prevent the development of RIF. However, understanding of the radioprotective molecular pathway associated with these compounds remains limited. Recent RNA-sequencing data from our laboratory revealed that MnTE-2-PyP treatment may activate the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 ...


Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes 2020 University of South Dakota

Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes

Honors Thesis

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were originally identified as two-component systems ensuring the stable inheritance of plasmids in bacterial populations. Recently, they have been identified on bacterial chromosomes where their functions remain mostly undefined. The par locus of E. faecalis plasmid pAD1 (parpAD1) was the first TA system defined in a Gram-positive bacterium and a homolog encoded on the E. faecalis chromosome (parEF0409) was later described. Related loci numbering in the hundreds have been identified throughout Gram-positive bacteria based on homology to the toxin of the system, Fst, and similarities in genetic organization and regulation. Despite their similar sequences, over-expression ...


How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current 2020 St. John Fisher College

How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Cancer is a disease that humans have been struggling to combat for centuries. It originates from the accumulation of several mutations over the life of a cell that causes it to evade cell death and multiply rapidly. It can affect any tissue in the body and can spread to other parts of the body through metastasis. Cancer comes in numerous shapes and sizes with different levels of aggression, growth speeds, and health risks. Many treatments for cancer exist today, three of the most popular being surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, which can be used in combinations with other treatments to ...


Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease which affects about 5 to 8 million individuals in the world. Despite the high prevalence, there is currently no cure for IPF, and the cause of this disease is still unclear. Our laboratory and collaborators have shown that nudix hydrolase 21 (NUDT21, which is also known as cleavage factor 25, CFIm25) is a key regulator of alternative polyadenylation (APA). NUDT21 depletion causes 3’UTR shortening via APA leading to enhanced mRNA stability and protein translation. This NUDT21 reduction promotes tumor growth in glioblastoma by enhancing expression of oncogenes. Cancer and IPF ...


Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters 2020 East Tennessee State University

Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The nicotinamide riboside (NR) form of vitamin B3and the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are two of the most promising natural compounds yet identified for the treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. Forms of vitamin B3are precursors for the synthesis of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(H)) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(H)). In aged cells levels of NAD+decline, decreasing metabolism and decreasing activity of protective sirtuin protein deacetylases. In aged cells NR, but not more common forms of vitamin B3, boost NAD+levels. BHB is naturally produced by the body when individuals fast ...


How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi k. Kamepalli MD,FIDSA,CWSP 2020 Regional Infectious diseases and infusion ctr,Inc

How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi K. Kamepalli Md,Fidsa,Cwsp

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Genetic Relationships And Therapeutic Options For Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Hailie Shertzer 2020 Liberty University

Genetic Relationships And Therapeutic Options For Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Hailie Shertzer

Senior Honors Theses

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of cancer among children and can be lethal to the adult population. Though 80% of patients with ALL reach complete remission after treatment, about 20% of those diagnosed fail to remain cancer-free. Genetic rearrangements are the hallmark of relapsed ALL, but the mechanism by which these rearrangements occur is still unclear. Recent research suggests these mutations may be detectable during initial diagnosis. If researchers are able to accurately assess the probability of relapse during diagnosis by analyzing the genome of the leukemic cells, the likelihood of administering effective therapy would increase ...


Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

This is the first presentation in the new Shelter-in-Place lecture series. This first lecture is two-fold. First, it covers the basics of the COVID-19 virus including: how it spreads, possible origin, and other pertinent information. This portion of the presentation was followed by an overview of the international recruitment efforts in response to the virus, including: student perspectives, recruitment methods, and other important information.


Atypical Spindle Cell Lipomatous Tumor Under The Sesamoids In The Foot: A Case Report, Nilin M. Rao DPM, Hani H. Saeed DPM, MD, FACFAS, Dustin Kruse DPM, Bryan Raymond DPM, Paul A. Stone DPM, FACFAS 2020 HCA Healthcare

Atypical Spindle Cell Lipomatous Tumor Under The Sesamoids In The Foot: A Case Report, Nilin M. Rao Dpm, Hani H. Saeed Dpm, Md, Facfas, Dustin Kruse Dpm, Bryan Raymond Dpm, Paul A. Stone Dpm, Facfas

Podiatry

Atypical spindle cell lipomatous (ASCL) tumors have a distinct histological and clinical presentation, rarely presenting in the foot. With the sub-sesamoidal location of this neoplasm found in our case report being an unusual location for atypical spindle cell lipomatous tumors to present, the purpose of our case report was to present the clinical presentation, histology/pathology, method of resection and outcome of our patient on follow-up to provide a framework for other surgeons on how to approach these neoplasms in the future.


Nanocatalytic Activity Of Clean-Surfaced, Faceted Nanocrystalline Gold Enhances Remyelination In Animal Models Of Multiple Sclerosis., Andrew P. Robinson, Joanne Zhongyan Zhang, Haley E. Titus, Molly Karl, Mikhail Merzliakov, Adam R. Dorfman, Stephen Karlik, Michael G G. Stewart, Richard K. Watt, Benjin D. Facer, Jon D. Facer, Noah D. Christian, Karen S. Ho, Michael T. Hotchkin, Mark G. Mortenson, Robert H. Miller, Stephen D. Miller 2020 Northwestern University

Nanocatalytic Activity Of Clean-Surfaced, Faceted Nanocrystalline Gold Enhances Remyelination In Animal Models Of Multiple Sclerosis., Andrew P. Robinson, Joanne Zhongyan Zhang, Haley E. Titus, Molly Karl, Mikhail Merzliakov, Adam R. Dorfman, Stephen Karlik, Michael G G. Stewart, Richard K. Watt, Benjin D. Facer, Jon D. Facer, Noah D. Christian, Karen S. Ho, Michael T. Hotchkin, Mark G. Mortenson, Robert H. Miller, Stephen D. Miller

Student Papers & Posters

Development of pharmacotherapies that promote remyelination is a high priority for multiple sclerosis (MS), due to their potential for neuroprotection and restoration of function through repair of demyelinated lesions. A novel preparation of clean-surfaced, faceted gold nanocrystals demonstrated robust remyelinating activity in response to demyelinating agents in both chronic cuprizone and acute lysolecithin rodent animal models. Furthermore, oral delivery of gold nanocrystals improved motor functions of cuprizone-treated mice in both open field and kinematic gait studies. Gold nanocrystal treatment of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in culture resulted in oligodendrocyte maturation and expression of myelin differentiation markers. Additional in vitro data demonstrated ...


Expression Of Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase In Metastatic Uveal Melanoma, Mizue Terai, Eric R Londin, Ankit Rochani, Emma Link, Bao Lam, Gagan Kaushal, Alok Bhushan, Marlana Orloff, Takami Sato 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Expression Of Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase In Metastatic Uveal Melanoma, Mizue Terai, Eric R Londin, Ankit Rochani, Emma Link, Bao Lam, Gagan Kaushal, Alok Bhushan, Marlana Orloff, Takami Sato

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary eye malignancy in adults and up to 50% of patients subsequently develop systemic metastasis. Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) is highly resistant to immunotherapy. One of the mechanisms for resistance would be the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment. Here, we have investigated the role of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in UM. Both TDO and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyze tryptophan and produce kynurenine, which could cause inhibition of T cell immune responses. We first studied the expression of TDO on tumor tissue specimens obtained from UM hepatic metastasis. High expression of TDO protein was confirmed ...


Investigating The Potential And Pitfalls Of Ev-Encapsulated Micrornas As Circulating Biomarkers Of Breast Cancer, Brian M. Moloney, Katie E. Gilligan, Doireann P. Joyce, Clodagh P. O'Neill, Killian P. O'Brien, Sonja Khan, Claire L. Glynn, Ronan M. Waldron, Ciarán M. Maguire, Emma Holian, Erin Naughton, Mohamed Elhadi, Andrea B. Grealish, Carmel Malone, Emma McDermott, Peter Dockery, Thomas Ritter, Adriele Prina-Mello, Michael J. Kerin, Róisín M. Dwyer 2020 National University of Ireland, Galway

Investigating The Potential And Pitfalls Of Ev-Encapsulated Micrornas As Circulating Biomarkers Of Breast Cancer, Brian M. Moloney, Katie E. Gilligan, Doireann P. Joyce, Clodagh P. O'Neill, Killian P. O'Brien, Sonja Khan, Claire L. Glynn, Ronan M. Waldron, Ciarán M. Maguire, Emma Holian, Erin Naughton, Mohamed Elhadi, Andrea B. Grealish, Carmel Malone, Emma Mcdermott, Peter Dockery, Thomas Ritter, Adriele Prina-Mello, Michael J. Kerin, Róisín M. Dwyer

Forensic Science Publications

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) shuttle microRNA (miRNA) throughout the circulation and are believed to represent a fingerprint of the releasing cell. We isolated and characterized serum EVs of breast tumour-bearing animals, breast cancer (BC) patients, and healthy controls. EVs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), protein quantification, western blotting, and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Absolute quantitative (AQ)-PCR was employed to analyse EV-miR-451a expression. Isolated EVs had the appropriate morphology and size. Patient sera contained significantly more EVs than did healthy controls. In tumour-bearing animals, a correlation between serum EV number and tumour burden was observed. There was no significant ...


The Role Of Neural Precursor Cell Expressed Developmentally Down-Regulated Protein 9 In Enhanced Aggressiveness Of Hexavalent Chromium Transformed Bronchial Epithelial Cells, Peter Van Wie 2020 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Neural Precursor Cell Expressed Developmentally Down-Regulated Protein 9 In Enhanced Aggressiveness Of Hexavalent Chromium Transformed Bronchial Epithelial Cells, Peter Van Wie

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is classified as a confirmed human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research and Cancer (IARC) and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Chronic exposure to (Cr(VI)) causes malignant cell transformation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. These Cr(VI)-transformed cells exhibit a highly aggressive phenotype including increased migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. The Cas family protein neuronal precursor developmentally down regulated protein 9 (NEDD9/Cas-L/HEF1) was dramatically overexpressed in Cr(VI)-transformed cells compared to normal BEAS-2B cells. Knockdown of NEDD9 by its shRNA reduced migration and invasion in vitro measured ...


Interaction Of The Oncoprotein Transcription Factor Myc With Its Chromatin Cofactor Wdr5 Is Essential For Tumor Maintenance., Lance R. Thomas, Clare M. Adams, Jing Wang, April M. Weissmiller, Joy Creighton, Shelly L. Lorey, Qi Liu, Stephen W. Fesik, Christine M. Eischen, William P. Tansey 2019 Vanderbilt University

Interaction Of The Oncoprotein Transcription Factor Myc With Its Chromatin Cofactor Wdr5 Is Essential For Tumor Maintenance., Lance R. Thomas, Clare M. Adams, Jing Wang, April M. Weissmiller, Joy Creighton, Shelly L. Lorey, Qi Liu, Stephen W. Fesik, Christine M. Eischen, William P. Tansey

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

The oncoprotein transcription factor MYC is overexpressed in the majority of cancers. Key to its oncogenic activity is the ability of MYC to regulate gene expression patterns that drive and maintain the malignant state. MYC is also considered a validated anticancer target, but efforts to pharmacologically inhibit MYC have failed. The dependence of MYC on cofactors creates opportunities for therapeutic intervention, but for any cofactor this requires structural understanding of how the cofactor interacts with MYC, knowledge of the role it plays in MYC function, and demonstration that disrupting the cofactor interaction will cause existing cancers to regress. One cofactor ...


Alzheimer's And Amyloid Beta: Amyloidogenicity And Tauopathy Via Dyshomeostatic Interactions Of Amyloid Beta, Jordan Tillinghast 2019 Liberty University

Alzheimer's And Amyloid Beta: Amyloidogenicity And Tauopathy Via Dyshomeostatic Interactions Of Amyloid Beta, Jordan Tillinghast

Senior Honors Theses

This paper reviews functions of Amyloid-β (Aβ) in healthy individuals compared to the consequences of aberrant Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As extraneuronal Aβ accumulation and plaque formation are characteristics of AD, it is reasonable to infer a pivotal role for Aβ in AD pathogenesis. Establishing progress of the disease as well as the mechanism of neurodegeneration from AD have proven difficult (Selkoe, 1994). This thesis provides evidence suggesting the pathogenesis of AD is due to dysfunctional neuronal processes involving Aβ’s synaptic malfunction, abnormal interaction with tau, and disruption of neuronal homeostasis. Significant evidence demonstrates that AD symptoms ...


Identification And Molecular Analysis Of Dna In Exosomes, Jena Tavormina 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Identification And Molecular Analysis Of Dna In Exosomes, Jena Tavormina

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Exosomes are heterogeneous nanoparticles 50-150nm in diameter. Exosomes contain many functional cargo components, such as protein, DNA, and RNA. While protein and RNA exosome content has been extensively studied, very little work has been done to characterize exosomal DNA. Here, we demonstrate that exosomal DNA is heterogeneous and its packaging into exosomes is dependent on the cell of origin. Furthermore, through a rigorous assessment of various isolation methods, we identify Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) as the best method for the isolation of exosomal DNA for downstream applications. Additionally, we evaluate the methylation status of exosomal DNA and demonstrate that exosomal ...


It's A Hard Nacht Life: Understanding How Nlrp12 Ticks, Abbigale Julia Brown 2019 Missouri State University

It's A Hard Nacht Life: Understanding How Nlrp12 Ticks, Abbigale Julia Brown

MSU Graduate Theses

The protein NOD- like receptor pyrin domain containing 12 (NLRP12) comes from a family of protein receptors with a wide range of functions including fertility as well as anti-inflammatory properties. The biological role of NLRP12 is poorly understood: research on the mechanisms behind its function and/or activation remains contradictory between different cell models. Current research suggests its involvement in a multi-protein complex named the inflammasome. The alternative hypothesis that has also been proposed is that NLRP12 is not a part of the inflammasome, rather it negatively regulates a transcription factor known as NF-��B down stream of Toll-like receptors ...


#3 - Inhibition Of The Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Reduces Oxidative Phosphorylation In Sgk1-Knockout Vsmc Upon Dietinduced Obesity, Bao Tran, Sharon Francis, Wei Zhong 2019 Georgia Gwinnett College

#3 - Inhibition Of The Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Reduces Oxidative Phosphorylation In Sgk1-Knockout Vsmc Upon Dietinduced Obesity, Bao Tran, Sharon Francis, Wei Zhong

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Obesity is linked to vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease which is a major underlying cause of heart attacks. While the mechanism is not fully known, altering mitochondrial respiration which occurs through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) may influence the development of vascular disease during obesity. Our previous data with diet-induced obese (DIO) mice demonstrated that serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1), which regulates cell metabolism, was up-regulated in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the aorta. Knocking out SGK1 in VSMCs (KOSGK1) was associated with higher OXPHOS and lower vascular disease relative to wildtype VSMCs (WTSGK1) during DIO ...


Characterization Of Wilms' Tumour 1 (Wt1) As A Biomarker For Fibrosis In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Patrick Murphy 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Characterization Of Wilms' Tumour 1 (Wt1) As A Biomarker For Fibrosis In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Patrick Murphy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited pediatric muscle dystrophy. It is characterized by muscle degeneration, resulting in fibrosis that is a significant impediment to both endogenous muscle repair and any potential regenerative strategy. At present, there are few therapies that specifically address fibrosis and microenvironment improvement, but one possibility rests in targeting the Wilms’ tumour 1 (Wt1) protein. Wt1 is a zinc finger transcription factor, recently shown to be expressed in fibrotic conditions such as Dupuytren’s disease and pulmonary fibrosis. This thesis examines the expression pattern of Wt1 in several mouse models of DMD, through both ...


Identification Of Monocyte-Like Precursors Of Granulocytes In Cancer As A Mechanism For Accumulation Of Pmn-Mdscs., Jérôme Mastio, Thomas Condamine, George Dominguez, Andrew V Kossenkov, Laxminarasimha Donthireddy, Filippo Veglia, Cindy Lin, Fang Wang, Shuyu Fu, Jie Zhou, Patrick Viatour, Sergio Lavilla-Alonso, Alexander T. Polo, Evgenii N. Tcyganov, Charles Mulligan, Brian Nam, Joseph Bennett, Gregory Masters, Michael Guarino, Amit Kumar, Yulia Nefedova, Robert H. Vonderheide, Lucia R. Languino, Scott I. Abrams, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich 2019 Wistar Institute

Identification Of Monocyte-Like Precursors Of Granulocytes In Cancer As A Mechanism For Accumulation Of Pmn-Mdscs., Jérôme Mastio, Thomas Condamine, George Dominguez, Andrew V Kossenkov, Laxminarasimha Donthireddy, Filippo Veglia, Cindy Lin, Fang Wang, Shuyu Fu, Jie Zhou, Patrick Viatour, Sergio Lavilla-Alonso, Alexander T. Polo, Evgenii N. Tcyganov, Charles Mulligan, Brian Nam, Joseph Bennett, Gregory Masters, Michael Guarino, Amit Kumar, Yulia Nefedova, Robert H. Vonderheide, Lucia R. Languino, Scott I. Abrams, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

We have identified a precursor that differentiates into granulocytes in vitro and in vivo yet belongs to the monocytic lineage. We have termed these cells monocyte-like precursors of granulocytes (MLPGs). Under steady state conditions, MLPGs were absent in the spleen and barely detectable in the bone marrow (BM). In contrast, these cells significantly expanded in tumor-bearing mice and differentiated to polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs). Selective depletion of monocytic cells had no effect on the number of granulocytes in naive mice but decreased the population of PMN-MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice by 50%. The expansion of MLPGs was found to be ...


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