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Musculoskeletal, Neural, and Ocular Physiology Commons

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Stem Cell Derived Osteoprogenitors And Their Role In Bone Repair Using Morphogenic Activators, Angelina Miller, Sylvanna Islas, George Washington Brownridge III, Warren Hoeffler 2017 Dominican University of California

Stem Cell Derived Osteoprogenitors And Their Role In Bone Repair Using Morphogenic Activators, Angelina Miller, Sylvanna Islas, George Washington Brownridge Iii, Warren Hoeffler

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2017

Bone constantly cycles through a dynamic process of breakdown and remodeling. Osteoblasts are the specialized mesenchymal stem cells that have a major role in bone formation and the remodeling process whereas their counterpart osteoclasts, handle bone resorption. Embryonic stem cells can be partially differentiated into Progenitor cells, and we worked with #18, a candidate for being an osteoprogenitor that has the potential to respond to morphogenic activators. In the case of bone remodeling, TGF-β 2, BMP-2 and an abundance of CA++ have been shown to be potential activators of differentiation into osteoblasts. Eight different trials were conducted with the cells ...


Predictive Value Of The Functional Movement Screen As It Relates To Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Daniel A. Herring, Kyle D. Cherry, Hannah L. Stedge 2016 Cedarville University

Predictive Value Of The Functional Movement Screen As It Relates To Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Daniel A. Herring, Kyle D. Cherry, Hannah L. Stedge

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries occur over 200,000 times annually in the United States alone (Brophy, et al. 2009). This injury strains the healthcare system and affects the players, teams, parents, and the organization they are a part of. There have been, however, clinically researched risk factors that predispose athletes to ACL injury (Gignac, et al. 2015; Laible, et al. 2014). As a result, there is a clinical need for an effective screening tool to identify those athletes at risk for ACL injury. The Functional Movement Screen has been shown to be an effective screening tool for detecting athletes ...


Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this collection of studies was to further develop the knowledge of shoulder motion in order to better understand joint function through direct measurement of 3D scapulohumeral joint kinematics using a technique of high accuracy. Markerless, bi-planar fluoroscopic radiostereometric analysis using a generic shoulder model was developed in this thesis, reducing the amount of radiation exposure to subjects. The studies compared kinematic data of the scapulohumeral joint in six degrees of freedom with a precise, in-vivo measuring technique. Data were collected on young and older healthy individuals, individuals with a torn supraspinatus and post-surgical intervention.

Although this generic ...


Musculoskeletal Disorders In The Nursing Profession: A Case Study, Kaitlin A. Kee-Dayton 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Musculoskeletal Disorders In The Nursing Profession: A Case Study, Kaitlin A. Kee-Dayton

Human Factors and Applied Psychology Student Conference

Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Nursing Profession: A Case Study

Kaitlin Kee-Dayton

Beth Blickensderfer, Ph.D.

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Daytona Beach, FL

This ergonomics assessment focused on a female Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) and her life inside and outside of her job. In particular, this case study assessed how working as a nurse may affect the human body in terms of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). The researcher first conducted an in-depth interview with the nurse about her workplace layout, typical daily work schedule, work habits, physical challenges, MSD injuries she has sustained, and the workplace environment/organizational culture. Next, the researcher conducted ...


Caffeine Enhances Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis In Rats, Claire Coleman, Rhiannon Shelton, Kathryn Clark, Colleen M. Novak, Lydia A. Heemstra 2016 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Caffeine Enhances Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis In Rats, Claire Coleman, Rhiannon Shelton, Kathryn Clark, Colleen M. Novak, Lydia A. Heemstra

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Caffeine and its derivatives have been used, alone and in combination with other phytochemicals, as weight-loss supplements. Caffeine impacts several physiological and behavioral aspects of energy balance. Here, we investigate the potential for caffeine to enhance non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) even when activity level is held constant. To do this, muscle thermogenesis and energy expenditure (EE) were measured in rats during treadmill walking regimens, with and without caffeine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Muscle heat dissipation was significantly increased by caffeine only at the end of the 25-min treadmill test. Activity-related EE, on the other hand, was significantly increased throughout ...


Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Cldn14 And Smoc1 Affecting Bone Mineral Density Influence Other Musculoskeletal Traits, Christopher Payette, Courtney Sprouse, Cara Goerlich, Heather A. Gordish-Dressman, Thomas Lynch, Heather Flynn, Leticia M. Ryan, Eric P. Hoffman, Monica J. Hubal, Paul D. Thompson, Theodore J. Angelopoulos, Paul M. Gordon, Niall M. Moyna, Linda S. Pescatello, Paul S. Visich, Robert F. Zoeller, Laura L. Tosi 2016 George Washington University

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Cldn14 And Smoc1 Affecting Bone Mineral Density Influence Other Musculoskeletal Traits, Christopher Payette, Courtney Sprouse, Cara Goerlich, Heather A. Gordish-Dressman, Thomas Lynch, Heather Flynn, Leticia M. Ryan, Eric P. Hoffman, Monica J. Hubal, Paul D. Thompson, Theodore J. Angelopoulos, Paul M. Gordon, Niall M. Moyna, Linda S. Pescatello, Paul S. Visich, Robert F. Zoeller, Laura L. Tosi

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified novel genes influencing bone mineral density (BMD). This three stage GWAS identified two novel loci: rs227425 in the SPARC-Related Modular Calcium Binding 1 gene (SMOC1) was significantly associated with BMD and rs170183 in the claudin 14 (CLDN14) gene was significantly associated with BMD in females.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to affect BMD are associated with other musculoskeletal traits.

Methods/Design :The Bone Health Cohort consists of 150 African-American participants enrolled at Children’s National Health System as part of ...


An Ultrasonographic Analysis Of The Structures Of The Subacromial Space, As They Relate To The Postures Of Upper String Musicians, Elliot V. Smithson 2016 Marshall University

An Ultrasonographic Analysis Of The Structures Of The Subacromial Space, As They Relate To The Postures Of Upper String Musicians, Elliot V. Smithson

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Background: The leading source of general population shoulder pain is subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) which can contribute to rotator cuff disease (RCD). 1 It has been reported that up to 12% of musicians end their musical career due to musculoskeletal injury.2 SAIS is a common source of shoulder pain in the bowing arm of upper string musicians.3 However, the mechanisms leading to shoulder pain in upper string musicians are not well known.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize aspects of the subacromial space anatomy while in standard playing positions of upper string musicians, specifically measurements ...


Il-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity Through A Ppar𝛿-Dependent-Ppar𝛼-Independent Mechanism In Skeletal Muscle Cells, Shantaé M. Thornton, James E. Krolopp, Marcia J. Abbott 2016 Chapman University

Il-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity Through A Ppar𝛿-Dependent-Ppar𝛼-Independent Mechanism In Skeletal Muscle Cells, Shantaé M. Thornton, James E. Krolopp, Marcia J. Abbott

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Molecular mediators of metabolic processes, to increase energy expenditure, have become a focus for therapies of obesity. The discovery of cytokines secreted from the skeletal muscle (SKM), termed “myokines,” has garnered attention due to their positive effects on metabolic processes. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has numerous positive metabolic effects and is linked to the PPAR family of mitochondrial regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the importance of PPAR𝛼 and/or PPAR𝛿 as targets of IL-15 signaling. C2C12 SKM cells were differentiated for 6 days and treated every other day with IL-15 (100 ng/mL), a PPAR𝛼 inhibitor (GW-6471 ...


Therapy Options For Winged Scapula Patients: A Literature Review, Samantha L. Normand 2016 University of Central Florida

Therapy Options For Winged Scapula Patients: A Literature Review, Samantha L. Normand

Honors in the Major Theses

Winged scapula is a condition characterized by lateral or medial protrusion of the scapula caused by nerve damage leading to muscular paralysis. The purpose of this systematic review of literature is to evaluate the current research literature related to the effectiveness of therapy options for winged scapula. Eleven peer reviewed English language research articles published from 1998 to present were included for evaluation. Study results revealed positive therapeutic outcomes for physical therapy and scapular bracing. Results also showed positive outcomes for the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture for the treatment of nerve related conditions similar to winged ...


Pelvic Floor Muscle Training In Management Of Postpartum Pelvic Floor Dysfunctions: A Literature Review, Rebecca S. Tanner 2016 University of Central Florida

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training In Management Of Postpartum Pelvic Floor Dysfunctions: A Literature Review, Rebecca S. Tanner

Honors in the Major Theses

Women can face a wide range of pelvic floor dysfunctions following pregnancy, ranging from urinary incontinence to pelvic pain. Unfortunately, these problems are not routinely checked for in postpartum check-ups and women do not always bring it to the physician’s attention. Strengthening of the pelvic floor muscles may be able to help women prevent these disorders and improve these women’s lifestyles.

The purpose of this thesis was to review and analyze different trials to determine if different pelvic floor dysfunctions (urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and pelvic girdle pain) can be treated using pelvic floor muscle training in the ...


Does Aerobic Exercise During Pregnancy Prevent Cesarean Sections?, Kait Lassen 2016 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Does Aerobic Exercise During Pregnancy Prevent Cesarean Sections?, Kait Lassen

PCOM Physician Assistant Studies Student Scholarship

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not aerobic exercise in pregnant women prevents cesarean sections (“C-sections”).

STUDY DESIGN: Review of two English articles and one English/Portuguese article, two of which were randomized control trials (RCTs) and one was a prospective study, all published after 2011.

DATA SOURCES: Two RCTs and one prospective study found via PubMed and Cochrane Database.

OUTCOMES MEASURED: The main clinical outcome in all studies measured the incidence of C-section as compared to vaginal delivery. The outcomes were measured by method of delivery which was categorized as either vaginally ...


The Neural Correlates Of Non-Spatial Working Memory In Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome), Wendy Kates, Beth Krauss, Nuria AbdulSabur, Dierdre Colgan, Kevin Antshel, Anne Marie Higgins, Robert Shprintzen 2015 Sacred Heart University

The Neural Correlates Of Non-Spatial Working Memory In Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome), Wendy Kates, Beth Krauss, Nuria Abdulsabur, Dierdre Colgan, Kevin Antshel, Anne Marie Higgins, Robert Shprintzen

Robert J. Shprintzen

Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with both learning disabilities and a consistent neuropsychological phenotype, including deficits in executive function, visuospatial perception, and working memory. Anatomic imaging studies have identified significant volumetric reductions in the parietal lobe of individuals with VCFS, but several studies have reported that the frontal lobe is relatively preserved. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of non-spatial working memory in 17 youths with VCFS, 10 of their unaffected siblings, and 10 community controls (with the same proportion of learning disabilities ...


Characterizing The Performance And Behaviors Of Runners Using Twitter, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu, Diane Strong, Bengisu Tulu, Peder Pedersen 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Characterizing The Performance And Behaviors Of Runners Using Twitter, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu, Diane Strong, Bengisu Tulu, Peder Pedersen

Emmanuel O. Agu

Running is a popular physical activity that improves physical and mental wellbeing. Unfortunately, up-to- date information about runners’ performance and psychological wellbeing is limited. Many questions remain unanswered, such as how far and how fast runners typically run, their preferred running times and frequencies, how long new runners persist before dropping out, and what factors cause runners to quit. Without hard data, establishing patterns of runner behavior and mitigating the challenges they face are difficult. Collecting data manually from large numbers of runners for research studies is costly and time consuming. Emerging Social Networking Services (SNS) and fitness tracking devices ...


A Context-Aware Activity Recommendation Smartphone Application To Mitigate Sedentary Lifestyles, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

A Context-Aware Activity Recommendation Smartphone Application To Mitigate Sedentary Lifestyles, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu

Emmanuel O. Agu

A sedentary lifestyle involves irregular or no physical activity. In this kind of lifestyle, people’s activities do not increase their energy expenditure substantially above resting levels. Long periods of sitting, lying, watching television, playing video games, and using the computer are typical examples. Energy expenditures at 1.0-1.5 Metabolic Equivalent Units (METs) are considered sedentary behaviors. A recent study of sedentary lifestyles found that the length of sedentary times is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In this study, we developed a smartphone application called “On11”, which continuously tracks and ...


Effects Of Varus Knee Alignment And Using Toe-Cages On Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics In Stationary Cycling, Guangping Shen 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Effects Of Varus Knee Alignment And Using Toe-Cages On Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics In Stationary Cycling, Guangping Shen

Masters Theses

Effects of varus knee alignment on the internal knee abduction moment (KAM) in walking has been widely studied. KAM has been shown to be closely associated with the development of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Despite the importance of the knee alignment, no studies have explored its effects on knee frontal plane biomechanics during stationary cycling. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varus knee alignment and using a toe-cage on the knee frontal plane biomechanics during stationary cycling. Eleven participants in each of the varus and neutral groups participated in the study. The participants performed in ...


Rhabdomyoma & Rhabdomyosarcoma, Naira Matevosyan 2015 Seton Hall Law School

Rhabdomyoma & Rhabdomyosarcoma, Naira Matevosyan

Naira Matevosyan, MD, PhD, JSM

Packed with differential-diagnostic guidance, this compact reference offers a practical and organized approach to evaluating a wide range and power specimens of striated and smooth muscles of head and neck, heart, diaphragm, urogenital tract, and extremities. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, risk classifications, and prognosis for different subtypes of neoplasia are followed by the briefs of court-visited prima facie suits for the negligent management of these tumors.


Antibiotic-Like Actions Of Vitamin D, Franklin Shuler, Josh Hendrix, Adam Short, Sammy Hodroge 2015 Marshall University

Antibiotic-Like Actions Of Vitamin D, Franklin Shuler, Josh Hendrix, Adam Short, Sammy Hodroge

Franklin D. Shuler

Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone that has expanding importance for a healthy lifestyle and disease prevention. A multitude of studies have highlighted that vitamin D acts not only in bone and calcium homeostasis but is critically important for human immunity. The discovery that the storage form of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) can be locally converted to the active form (1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3) in immune cells, epithelial cells and numerous other non-renal tissues highlights the importance of maintaining sufficient stores. When responding to a specific external stimulus, like bacterial invasion, intracrine synthesis of active vitamin D has the ability to ...


An Overview Of Leber’S Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Matthew R. Dalton 2015 Liberty University

An Overview Of Leber’S Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Matthew R. Dalton

The Kabod

Typically affecting males ranging from 20 to 24 years of age, Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a disorder that is characterized by an acute loss of central vision. Although a heritable disease, LHON does not follow the patterns of classical Mendelian genetics. In fact, one of the most striking characteristics of LHON is that the disease is virtually always inherited maternally. Unlike most genetic disorders that result from a mutation in genomic DNA, LHON is caused by a mutation in the genetic information of mitochondria (mtDNA). Currently there is no treatment for LHON. Despite this, pharmaceutical interventions and ...


A Clinically Relevant Relevant Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Mouse Model, Chantel P. Arce 2015 The University of Western Ontario

A Clinically Relevant Relevant Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Mouse Model, Chantel P. Arce

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Osteoarthritis affects 13-20% of Canadians with the majority being under 65years of age. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is of great concern in young athletes following knee injury. Current research attempts at modeling the disease fall short. This study aimed to incorporate two important aspects of injury, the nature of the injury and the post-injury standard of care in humans, to a model of PTOA in mice. The study validated a non-invasive protocol to elicit an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury at varying loading speeds addressing the closed capsule nature of an ACL injury that occurs in humans. Secondly, we proposed a ...


Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve 2015 Purdue University

Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The field of regenerative medicine seeks to create replacement tissues and organs, both to repair deficiencies in biological function and to treat structural damage caused by injury. Scaffoldings mimicking extracellular matrix (ECM), the structure to which cells attach to form tissues, have been developed from synthetic polymers and also been prepared by decellularizing adult tissue. However, the structure of ECM undergoes significant remodeling during natural tissue repair, suggesting that ECM-replacement constructs that mirror developing tissues may promote better regeneration than those modeled on adult tissues. This work investigated the effectiveness of a method of viewing the extracellular matrix of developing ...


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