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Musculoskeletal, Neural, and Ocular Physiology Commons

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149 full-text articles. Page 1 of 7.

Efficacy Of Electromyography And The Dead Bug Exercise, Taylor M. Scavo, Rachel C. Cooklin, Erika N. Faria, Madeline L. Johnson, Eric Sternlicht 2017 Chapman University

Efficacy Of Electromyography And The Dead Bug Exercise, Taylor M. Scavo, Rachel C. Cooklin, Erika N. Faria, Madeline L. Johnson, Eric Sternlicht

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The Dead Bug exercise is performed in physical therapy clinics to restore lumbar spine stability and core strength in patients with lower back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using electromyography (EMG) feedback to enhance proper mechanics during the Dead Bug exercise. Sixteen healthy, college age students volunteered as subjects for the study. Subjects performed the Dead Bug (Fig. 1a.) with and without visual EMG cues and were given instructions on how to execute the exercise. Data was recorded using a BTS FREEEMG Analyzer and signal processed and data analyzed using the BTS ...


Trunk And Respiratory Motor Control In Typically Developing Children And Its Implications In Children With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Goutam Singh 2017 University of Louisville

Trunk And Respiratory Motor Control In Typically Developing Children And Its Implications In Children With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Goutam Singh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Independent sitting is a major milestone and is also a prerequisite for optimal performance of activities of daily living (ADLs). Development of sitting posture control is a dynamic process involving control of degrees of freedom of head and trunk. Traditionally, trunk has been modeled as a single unit (segment). However, recent studies have suggested that it is made up multiple spinal units, controlled by a combination of trunk muscles. During typical development, posture control of trunk is different for different trunk segments. This motor development of trunk control is a complex process due to constant interaction between the nervous system ...


Impact Of Exercise Selection On Hamstring Muscle Activation, Matthew N. Bourne, Morgan Williams, David Opar, Aiman Al Najjar, Graham K. Kerr, Anthony J. Shield 2017 Australian Catholic University

Impact Of Exercise Selection On Hamstring Muscle Activation, Matthew N. Bourne, Morgan Williams, David Opar, Aiman Al Najjar, Graham K. Kerr, Anthony J. Shield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective To determine which strength training exercises selectively activate the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) muscle.

Methods We recruited 24 recreationally active men for this two-part observational study. Part 1: We explored the amplitudes and the ratios of lateral (BF) to medial hamstring (MH) normalised electromyography (nEMG) during the concentric and eccentric phases of 10 common strength training exercises. Part 2: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during two exercises which (1) most selectively and (2) least selectively activated the BF in part 1.

Results Eccentrically, the largest BF/MH nEMG ratio occurred ...


The Effect Of Acute Pain On Executive Function, Jenna M. Morogiello 2017 Georgia Southern University

The Effect Of Acute Pain On Executive Function, Jenna M. Morogiello

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Background: Executive functions are high-level cognitive processes that allow a person to successfully engage in an independent and self-fulfilling life. Previous literature indicates that acute pain can affect executive function, which may be due to a limited amount of shared neural resources of the brain.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if acute pain affects executive function in recreationally active individuals who sustain a musculoskeletal injury.

Methodology: Twenty-four participants who presented with acute pain due to a musculoskeletal injury underwent a neuropsychological battery within 72 hours of injury and within two weeks from the initial testing session ...


Predictive Value Of The Functional Movement Screen As It Relates To Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Daniel A. Herring, Kyle D. Cherry, Hannah L. Stedge 2016 Cedarville University

Predictive Value Of The Functional Movement Screen As It Relates To Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Daniel A. Herring, Kyle D. Cherry, Hannah L. Stedge

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries occur over 200,000 times annually in the United States alone (Brophy, et al. 2009). This injury strains the healthcare system and affects the players, teams, parents, and the organization they are a part of. There have been, however, clinically researched risk factors that predispose athletes to ACL injury (Gignac, et al. 2015; Laible, et al. 2014). As a result, there is a clinical need for an effective screening tool to identify those athletes at risk for ACL injury. The Functional Movement Screen has been shown to be an effective screening tool for detecting athletes ...


Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this collection of studies was to further develop the knowledge of shoulder motion in order to better understand joint function through direct measurement of 3D scapulohumeral joint kinematics using a technique of high accuracy. Markerless, bi-planar fluoroscopic radiostereometric analysis using a generic shoulder model was developed in this thesis, reducing the amount of radiation exposure to subjects. The studies compared kinematic data of the scapulohumeral joint in six degrees of freedom with a precise, in-vivo measuring technique. Data were collected on young and older healthy individuals, individuals with a torn supraspinatus and post-surgical intervention.

Although this generic ...


Angiogenic Therapy In A Fibrotic Murine Model Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Kelly M. Gutpell 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Angiogenic Therapy In A Fibrotic Murine Model Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Kelly M. Gutpell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating neuromuscular disorder that affects approximately 1 in 5000 males. Vascular-targeted therapy has been proposed as a treatment for DMD to reduce ischemia and enhance endogenous repair. Additionally, a more vascularized environment may enhance regenerative approaches currently under investigation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) are two of the most studied pro-angiogenic factors for this approach. To date, little is known regarding the effect of these pro-angiogenic factors on muscle function and whether they may exacerbate fibrosis in a relevant murine model of DMD. The first aim of this thesis was to ...


Musculoskeletal Disorders In The Nursing Profession: A Case Study, Kaitlin A. Kee-Dayton 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Musculoskeletal Disorders In The Nursing Profession: A Case Study, Kaitlin A. Kee-Dayton

Human Factors and Applied Psychology Student Conference

Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Nursing Profession: A Case Study

Kaitlin Kee-Dayton

Beth Blickensderfer, Ph.D.

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Daytona Beach, FL

This ergonomics assessment focused on a female Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) and her life inside and outside of her job. In particular, this case study assessed how working as a nurse may affect the human body in terms of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). The researcher first conducted an in-depth interview with the nurse about her workplace layout, typical daily work schedule, work habits, physical challenges, MSD injuries she has sustained, and the workplace environment/organizational culture. Next, the researcher conducted ...


Caffeine Enhances Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis In Rats, Claire Coleman, Rhiannon Shelton, Kathryn Clark, Colleen M. Novak, Lydia A. Heemstra 2016 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Caffeine Enhances Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis In Rats, Claire Coleman, Rhiannon Shelton, Kathryn Clark, Colleen M. Novak, Lydia A. Heemstra

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Caffeine and its derivatives have been used, alone and in combination with other phytochemicals, as weight-loss supplements. Caffeine impacts several physiological and behavioral aspects of energy balance. Here, we investigate the potential for caffeine to enhance non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) even when activity level is held constant. To do this, muscle thermogenesis and energy expenditure (EE) were measured in rats during treadmill walking regimens, with and without caffeine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Muscle heat dissipation was significantly increased by caffeine only at the end of the 25-min treadmill test. Activity-related EE, on the other hand, was significantly increased throughout ...


Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Cldn14 And Smoc1 Affecting Bone Mineral Density Influence Other Musculoskeletal Traits, Christopher Payette, Courtney Sprouse, Cara Goerlich, Heather A. Gordish-Dressman, Thomas Lynch, Heather Flynn, Leticia M. Ryan, Eric P. Hoffman, Monica J. Hubal, Paul D. Thompson, Theodore J. Angelopoulos, Paul M. Gordon, Niall M. Moyna, Linda S. Pescatello, Paul S. Visich, Robert F. Zoeller, Laura L. Tosi 2016 George Washington University

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Cldn14 And Smoc1 Affecting Bone Mineral Density Influence Other Musculoskeletal Traits, Christopher Payette, Courtney Sprouse, Cara Goerlich, Heather A. Gordish-Dressman, Thomas Lynch, Heather Flynn, Leticia M. Ryan, Eric P. Hoffman, Monica J. Hubal, Paul D. Thompson, Theodore J. Angelopoulos, Paul M. Gordon, Niall M. Moyna, Linda S. Pescatello, Paul S. Visich, Robert F. Zoeller, Laura L. Tosi

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified novel genes influencing bone mineral density (BMD). This three stage GWAS identified two novel loci: rs227425 in the SPARC-Related Modular Calcium Binding 1 gene (SMOC1) was significantly associated with BMD and rs170183 in the claudin 14 (CLDN14) gene was significantly associated with BMD in females.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to affect BMD are associated with other musculoskeletal traits.

Methods/Design :The Bone Health Cohort consists of 150 African-American participants enrolled at Children’s National Health System as part of ...


An Ultrasonographic Analysis Of The Structures Of The Subacromial Space, As They Relate To The Postures Of Upper String Musicians, Elliot V. Smithson 2016 Marshall University

An Ultrasonographic Analysis Of The Structures Of The Subacromial Space, As They Relate To The Postures Of Upper String Musicians, Elliot V. Smithson

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Background: The leading source of general population shoulder pain is subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) which can contribute to rotator cuff disease (RCD). 1 It has been reported that up to 12% of musicians end their musical career due to musculoskeletal injury.2 SAIS is a common source of shoulder pain in the bowing arm of upper string musicians.3 However, the mechanisms leading to shoulder pain in upper string musicians are not well known.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize aspects of the subacromial space anatomy while in standard playing positions of upper string musicians, specifically measurements ...


Il-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity Through A Ppar𝛿-Dependent-Ppar𝛼-Independent Mechanism In Skeletal Muscle Cells, Shantaé M. Thornton, James E. Krolopp, Marcia J. Abbott 2016 Chapman University

Il-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity Through A Ppar𝛿-Dependent-Ppar𝛼-Independent Mechanism In Skeletal Muscle Cells, Shantaé M. Thornton, James E. Krolopp, Marcia J. Abbott

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Molecular mediators of metabolic processes, to increase energy expenditure, have become a focus for therapies of obesity. The discovery of cytokines secreted from the skeletal muscle (SKM), termed “myokines,” has garnered attention due to their positive effects on metabolic processes. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has numerous positive metabolic effects and is linked to the PPAR family of mitochondrial regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the importance of PPAR𝛼 and/or PPAR𝛿 as targets of IL-15 signaling. C2C12 SKM cells were differentiated for 6 days and treated every other day with IL-15 (100 ng/mL), a PPAR𝛼 inhibitor (GW-6471 ...


Does Aerobic Exercise During Pregnancy Prevent Cesarean Sections?, Kait Lassen 2016 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Does Aerobic Exercise During Pregnancy Prevent Cesarean Sections?, Kait Lassen

PCOM Physician Assistant Studies Student Scholarship

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not aerobic exercise in pregnant women prevents cesarean sections (“C-sections”).

STUDY DESIGN: Review of two English articles and one English/Portuguese article, two of which were randomized control trials (RCTs) and one was a prospective study, all published after 2011.

DATA SOURCES: Two RCTs and one prospective study found via PubMed and Cochrane Database.

OUTCOMES MEASURED: The main clinical outcome in all studies measured the incidence of C-section as compared to vaginal delivery. The outcomes were measured by method of delivery which was categorized as either vaginally ...


Therapy Options For Winged Scapula Patients: A Literature Review, Samantha L. Normand 2016 University of Central Florida

Therapy Options For Winged Scapula Patients: A Literature Review, Samantha L. Normand

Honors in the Major Theses

Winged scapula is a condition characterized by lateral or medial protrusion of the scapula caused by nerve damage leading to muscular paralysis. The purpose of this systematic review of literature is to evaluate the current research literature related to the effectiveness of therapy options for winged scapula. Eleven peer reviewed English language research articles published from 1998 to present were included for evaluation. Study results revealed positive therapeutic outcomes for physical therapy and scapular bracing. Results also showed positive outcomes for the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture for the treatment of nerve related conditions similar to winged ...


Pelvic Floor Muscle Training In Management Of Postpartum Pelvic Floor Dysfunctions: A Literature Review, Rebecca S. Tanner 2016 University of Central Florida

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training In Management Of Postpartum Pelvic Floor Dysfunctions: A Literature Review, Rebecca S. Tanner

Honors in the Major Theses

Women can face a wide range of pelvic floor dysfunctions following pregnancy, ranging from urinary incontinence to pelvic pain. Unfortunately, these problems are not routinely checked for in postpartum check-ups and women do not always bring it to the physician’s attention. Strengthening of the pelvic floor muscles may be able to help women prevent these disorders and improve these women’s lifestyles.

The purpose of this thesis was to review and analyze different trials to determine if different pelvic floor dysfunctions (urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and pelvic girdle pain) can be treated using pelvic floor muscle training in the ...


The Neural Correlates Of Non-Spatial Working Memory In Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome), Wendy Kates, Beth Krauss, Nuria AbdulSabur, Dierdre Colgan, Kevin Antshel, Anne Marie Higgins, Robert Shprintzen 2015 Sacred Heart University

The Neural Correlates Of Non-Spatial Working Memory In Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome), Wendy Kates, Beth Krauss, Nuria Abdulsabur, Dierdre Colgan, Kevin Antshel, Anne Marie Higgins, Robert Shprintzen

Robert J. Shprintzen

Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with both learning disabilities and a consistent neuropsychological phenotype, including deficits in executive function, visuospatial perception, and working memory. Anatomic imaging studies have identified significant volumetric reductions in the parietal lobe of individuals with VCFS, but several studies have reported that the frontal lobe is relatively preserved. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of non-spatial working memory in 17 youths with VCFS, 10 of their unaffected siblings, and 10 community controls (with the same proportion of learning disabilities ...


Characterizing The Performance And Behaviors Of Runners Using Twitter, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu, Diane Strong, Bengisu Tulu, Peder Pedersen 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Characterizing The Performance And Behaviors Of Runners Using Twitter, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu, Diane Strong, Bengisu Tulu, Peder Pedersen

Emmanuel O. Agu

Running is a popular physical activity that improves physical and mental wellbeing. Unfortunately, up-to- date information about runners’ performance and psychological wellbeing is limited. Many questions remain unanswered, such as how far and how fast runners typically run, their preferred running times and frequencies, how long new runners persist before dropping out, and what factors cause runners to quit. Without hard data, establishing patterns of runner behavior and mitigating the challenges they face are difficult. Collecting data manually from large numbers of runners for research studies is costly and time consuming. Emerging Social Networking Services (SNS) and fitness tracking devices ...


A Context-Aware Activity Recommendation Smartphone Application To Mitigate Sedentary Lifestyles, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

A Context-Aware Activity Recommendation Smartphone Application To Mitigate Sedentary Lifestyles, Qian He, Emmanuel Agu

Emmanuel O. Agu

A sedentary lifestyle involves irregular or no physical activity. In this kind of lifestyle, people’s activities do not increase their energy expenditure substantially above resting levels. Long periods of sitting, lying, watching television, playing video games, and using the computer are typical examples. Energy expenditures at 1.0-1.5 Metabolic Equivalent Units (METs) are considered sedentary behaviors. A recent study of sedentary lifestyles found that the length of sedentary times is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In this study, we developed a smartphone application called “On11”, which continuously tracks and ...


Effects Of Varus Knee Alignment And Using Toe-Cages On Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics In Stationary Cycling, Guangping Shen 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Effects Of Varus Knee Alignment And Using Toe-Cages On Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics In Stationary Cycling, Guangping Shen

Masters Theses

Effects of varus knee alignment on the internal knee abduction moment (KAM) in walking has been widely studied. KAM has been shown to be closely associated with the development of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Despite the importance of the knee alignment, no studies have explored its effects on knee frontal plane biomechanics during stationary cycling. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varus knee alignment and using a toe-cage on the knee frontal plane biomechanics during stationary cycling. Eleven participants in each of the varus and neutral groups participated in the study. The participants performed in ...


Rhabdomyoma & Rhabdomyosarcoma, Naira Matevosyan 2015 Seton Hall Law School

Rhabdomyoma & Rhabdomyosarcoma, Naira Matevosyan

Naira Matevosyan, MD, PhD, JSM

Packed with differential-diagnostic guidance, this compact reference offers a practical and organized approach to evaluating a wide range and power specimens of striated and smooth muscles of head and neck, heart, diaphragm, urogenital tract, and extremities. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, risk classifications, and prognosis for different subtypes of neoplasia are followed by the briefs of court-visited prima facie suits for the negligent management of these tumors.


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