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Musculoskeletal, Neural, and Ocular Physiology Commons

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Giving Credence To The Experience Of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia In Adulthood: An Interprofessional Mixed-Methods Study, Melissa Hughes, Carolyn Macica, Catherine Meriano, Maya Doyle 2020 Quinnipiac University

Giving Credence To The Experience Of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia In Adulthood: An Interprofessional Mixed-Methods Study, Melissa Hughes, Carolyn Macica, Catherine Meriano, Maya Doyle

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare X-linked dominant metabolic bone disease, often diagnosed in childhood but causing increasing physical debilitation and pain in adulthood. Physical comorbidities of XLH in adulthood include pervasive and early-onset degenerative arthritis, mineralizing enthesophytes and osteophytes, osteomalacia and pseudofracture, dental abscesses, and hearing loss.

Methods: This mixed-methods analysis included physical findings, diagnostic imaging, occupational and physical therapy assessments, and semi-structured interviews by social work to understand the functional outcomes and lived experience of XLH in adulthood, through connections between qualitative data obtained by social work and occupational therapy with the quantitative findings from other disciplines ...


Perceived Effectiveness Of Stem Cell Injections In Adults With Joint Injuries, Delaney Marie Merrill 2020 University of South Carolina

Perceived Effectiveness Of Stem Cell Injections In Adults With Joint Injuries, Delaney Marie Merrill

Senior Theses

Introduction: Osteoarthritis plagues around 27 million Americans. Stem cell injections are a new method of treatment that could potentially cure this by regenerating cartilage in joints. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the perceived effectiveness of stem cells at regenerating cartilage in joints, specifically the knees, hips, and shoulders. Methods: Participants were recruited via social media, forums, and from healthcare clinics that offer stem cell treatments. They were asked to complete a survey focusing primarily on the treatment protocol and how the injured joint felt post-stem cell injection. Frequencies were calculated to describe problematic joints, treatment history ...


Role Of Atp1a1 In Skeletal Muscle Growth And Metabolism, Laura C. Kutz 2020 Marshall University

Role Of Atp1a1 In Skeletal Muscle Growth And Metabolism, Laura C. Kutz

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 30% of total body mass, and loss of muscle mass and dysfunctional muscle metabolism are implicated in multiple disease states, including type 2 diabetes, heart failure, and septic shock. As such, understanding the mechanisms of skeletal muscle growth and atrophy, including pharmaceutical targets that may prove safe and effective, is therefore an important goal of current research on skeletal muscle physiology. One potential target in skeletal muscle development and function that has not been fully explored is the Na/KATPase (NKA), especially the α1 isoform. This isoform has a unique signaling function that has previously been ...


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey ...


Artificial Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Joint Project, Michael Rosen, Bailei Hoyng 2020 The University of Akron

Artificial Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Joint Project, Michael Rosen, Bailei Hoyng

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This proposed project will be developing an artificial reverse shoulder arthroplasty joint that focuses on improvements to the Zimmer Biomet Comprehensive Reverse System by freating a unique feature, or features, to the humeral component that focuses on the prevention of dislocation by not limiting the range of motion of men from ages 45 to 65 years.

The development of the this project will utilize the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) medical device design process. This project will involve a total of four Biomedical Engineering students from the University of Akron. Two students, Michael and Bailei, are in the Honors college ...


Analyzing The Effects Of Opioids On Cortical Pore Networks In Rabbit Tibiae And Femora, Kassidy Wilson 2020 The University of Akron

Analyzing The Effects Of Opioids On Cortical Pore Networks In Rabbit Tibiae And Femora, Kassidy Wilson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The following project was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) (Protocol number #18-11-12 ARC). This study was completed as a subset of Dr. Andronowski's overarching lab project. Femora and tibiae were procured from New Zealand White rabbits to study the prolonged effects of opioid use in bone remodeling. This specific project analyzed the effects of opioids on the pore networks and the pore orientation.


An Analysis Of Abdominal Stability Following Hyperthermic Exercise In Euhydrated And Dehydrated Conditions, Carli Ceckanowicz 2019 University of Connecticut

An Analysis Of Abdominal Stability Following Hyperthermic Exercise In Euhydrated And Dehydrated Conditions, Carli Ceckanowicz

Honors Scholar Theses

Core stability is essential for maintaining safety and optimizing performance during exercise and sport. The purpose of this study is to analyze how heat and hydration status (euhydrated USG<1.025 or dehydrated USG>1.025) can impair trunk stability in males and females (in both follicular and luteal phases) using the Trunk Stability Test (TST). Participants complete three blocks of 30 minutes of hyperthermic (35±1.299 oC and 49.418±5.0329% relative humidity) treadmill exercise. Exercise intensity is equivalent to 15 minutes at either 11W/kg or 7W/kg and the following 15 minutes at either 7W/kg or 4W/kg ...


Gait Speed And Mood, Cognition, And Quality Of Life In Older Adults With Atrial Fibrillation, Francesca Marino, Darleen M. Lessard, Jane S. Saczynski, David D. McManus, Luke G. Silverman-Lloyd, Christopher M. Benson, Michael J. Blaha, Molly E. Waring 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gait Speed And Mood, Cognition, And Quality Of Life In Older Adults With Atrial Fibrillation, Francesca Marino, Darleen M. Lessard, Jane S. Saczynski, David D. Mcmanus, Luke G. Silverman-Lloyd, Christopher M. Benson, Michael J. Blaha, Molly E. Waring

Open Access Articles

Background: Low gait speed has been linked with impaired mood, cognition, and quality of life (QOL) in older adults. We examined whether low gait speed was associated with impaired mood, cognition, and QOL among older adults with atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods and Results: Participants (n=1185) had a diagnosis of AF, aged > /=65 years, CHA2DS2VASc > /=2 and had no contraindications to anticoagulation. Participants completed a 15-foot walk test, and low gait speed was categorized using cutoffs from the Fried Frailty Index. Participants self-reported measures of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire 9 > /=10), anxiety symptoms (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 > /=10), cognitive ...


Oligogenic Effects Of 16p11.2 Copy-Number Variation On Craniofacial Development, Yuqi Qiu, Curtis K. Deutsch, Jonathan Sebat 2019 University of California - San Diego

Oligogenic Effects Of 16p11.2 Copy-Number Variation On Craniofacial Development, Yuqi Qiu, Curtis K. Deutsch, Jonathan Sebat

Open Access Articles

A copy-number variant (CNV) of 16p11.2 encompassing 30 genes is associated with developmental and psychiatric disorders, head size, and body mass. The genetic mechanisms that underlie these associations are not understood. To determine the influence of 16p11.2 genes on development, we investigated the effects of CNV on craniofacial structure in humans and model organisms. We show that deletion and duplication of 16p11.2 have "mirror" effects on specific craniofacial features that are conserved between human and rodent models of the CNV. By testing dosage effects of individual genes on the shape of the mandible in zebrafish, we identify ...


The Gsk-3Β-Fbxl21 Axis Regulates Tcap Via Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasomal Pathway In The Cytoplasm, Jiah Yang 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

The Gsk-3Β-Fbxl21 Axis Regulates Tcap Via Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasomal Pathway In The Cytoplasm, Jiah Yang

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Protein turnover is one of the most essential mechanisms controlling circadian rhythms. F-Box and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein21 (FBXL21) is a circadian E3 ligase which shows oscillatory mRNA transcripts and protein levels. It was previously found to perform subcellular compartment-specific E3 ligase activities targeting the core clock proteins CRYPTOCHROME(CRY)1/2. Here we identified a new sarcomeric target substrate, Telethonin(TCAP), which also shows circadian oscillation in its mRNA transcript and protein expression and, importantly, interaction with FBXL21 in an anti-phasic manner. Via computational and pharmacological tests, we identified Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β(GSK-3β) as a regulator of FBXL21. Biochemical ...


Differential Role Of Pontomedullary Glutamatergic Neuronal Populations In Sleep-Wake Control, Evelyn T. M. Erickson, Loris L. Ferrari, Heinrich S. Gompf, Christelle Anaclet 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Differential Role Of Pontomedullary Glutamatergic Neuronal Populations In Sleep-Wake Control, Evelyn T. M. Erickson, Loris L. Ferrari, Heinrich S. Gompf, Christelle Anaclet

Neurobiology Publications

Parafacial zone (PZ) GABAergic neurons play a major role in slow-wave-sleep (SWS), also called non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The PZ also contains glutamatergic neurons expressing the vesicular transporter for glutamate, isoform 2 (Vglut2). We hypothesized that PZ Vglut2-expressing (PZ(Vglut2)) neurons are also involved in sleep control, playing a synergistic role with PZ GABAergic neurons. To test this hypothesis, we specifically activated PZ(Vglut2) neurons using the excitatory chemogenetic receptor hM3Dq. Anatomical inspection of the injection sites revealed hM3Dq transfection in PZ, parabrachial nucleus (PB), sublaterodorsal nucleus (SLD) or various combinations of these three brain areas. Consistent with the ...


Low Birth Weight And Post-Natal Diet Induced Alterations In Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Consumption And Fiber Type Composition, Megan Cedrone 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Low Birth Weight And Post-Natal Diet Induced Alterations In Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Consumption And Fiber Type Composition, Megan Cedrone

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Adverse in utero and postnatal conditions can increase susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS). Altered muscle respiration contributes to MS, but the effects of restricted oxygen and nutrients in utero on skeletal muscle mitochondria remain unknown. In this study guinea pig sows underwent uterine artery ablations mid-gestation, producing fetuses with low birth weight (LBW). Soleus muscle was collected near term or at four months of age, from LBW and control fetuses and offspring, where the offspring were fed either a Western Diet (WD) or a control diet (CD). Soleus muscles from LBW fetuses exhibit lower maximal respiration rates than normal birth ...


Altering Entry Angles In A Jump Landing Task Modifies Biomechanical Risk Factors Of Acl Injury, Shekoofe Saadat, Mitchell L. Stephenson, Jason C. Gillette 2019 Iowa State University

Altering Entry Angles In A Jump Landing Task Modifies Biomechanical Risk Factors Of Acl Injury, Shekoofe Saadat, Mitchell L. Stephenson, Jason C. Gillette

Kinesiology Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

This study investigated the effects of changing the entry-angle of a jump landing movement on ACL injury risk factors. Eight female recreational athletes performed 21 trials of a jump landing task. The direction of the first jump varied from -90° to 90° from the anterior axis in 30-degree increments. As the entry angle increased to the left, peak knee flexion and valgus angles as well as external valgus moments remained the same. In conditions where participants jumped more to their right, knee flexion angles were smaller and knee external valgus moments were greater. It can be concluded that kinematic analyses ...


Efficacy Of Shoes And Boots In Preventing Motorcycle-Related Ankle Inversion., Justin T. Wilder, Mitchell L. Stephenson, Jason C. Gillette 2019 Des Moines University

Efficacy Of Shoes And Boots In Preventing Motorcycle-Related Ankle Inversion., Justin T. Wilder, Mitchell L. Stephenson, Jason C. Gillette

Kinesiology Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

The current investigation explored the potential prophylactic effects of shoes, work boots, and motorcycle boots in reducing ankle inversion associated with ankle sprain. While the majority of previous research has investigated the effects of protective equipment in crashes, rates of lower extremity loading in emergency stop contexts are comparable to jump landings and may induce frontal plane loading that could lead to ankle injury. Fifteen adults wore athletic shoes, work boots, and motorcycle boots in a motorcycle drop task. Motorcycle boots significantly (p = 0.03) decreased peak ankle inversion angles by 3.6 degrees, but also increased (p < 0.01) vertical ground reaction forces by 0.21 bodyweights compared to the other shod conditions. Overall, it is suggested that motorcycle boots can potentially protect motorcycle riders from both crash-based and emergency-stop injuries.


Calcineurin Broadly Regulates The Initiation Of Skeletal Muscle-Specific Gene Expression By Binding Target Promoters And Facilitating The Interaction Of The Swi/Snf Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme, Hanna Witwicka, Jumpei Nogami, Sabriya A. Syed, Kazumitsu Maehara, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Anthony N. Imbalzano 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Calcineurin Broadly Regulates The Initiation Of Skeletal Muscle-Specific Gene Expression By Binding Target Promoters And Facilitating The Interaction Of The Swi/Snf Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme, Hanna Witwicka, Jumpei Nogami, Sabriya A. Syed, Kazumitsu Maehara, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Anthony N. Imbalzano

Open Access Articles

Calcineurin (Cn) is a calcium-activated serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is broadly implicated in diverse cellular processes, including the regulation of gene expression. During skeletal muscle differentiation, Cn activates the NFAT transcription factor but also promotes differentiation by counteracting the negative influences of protein kinase C beta (PKCbeta) via dephosphorylation and activation of BRG1, an enzymatic subunit of the mammalian SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme. Here we identified four major temporal patterns of Cn-dependent gene expression in differentiating myoblasts and determined that Cn is broadly required for the activation of the myogenic gene expression program. Mechanistically, Cn promotes gene ...


Modulation Of Inflammation Driven Wound Healing After Glaucoma Surgery, James J. Armstrong 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Modulation Of Inflammation Driven Wound Healing After Glaucoma Surgery, James J. Armstrong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dysregulated wound healing contributes to most currently unanswered ophthalmological morbidity. Opacification and structure altering contractures compromise the delicate ocular anatomy upon which ocular function and healthy vision are reliant. Glaucoma filtration surgery, corneal stromal injury, proliferative vitreoretinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are major contributors to ocular morbidity – all with myofibroblast transdifferentiation and pathognomonic scarring activity at their core.

This thesis aims to revaluate the means by which dysregulated ocular wound healing is combated with evidence describing a novel strategy to mitigate its effects. A translational approach was used. An initial retrospective analysis of over ten thousand glaucoma surgeries found that ...


Lipoprotein(A) Plasma Levels, Bone Mineral Density And Risk Of Hip Fracture: A Post Hoc Analysis Of The Women's Health Initiative, Usa, Bernhard Haring, Carolyn J. Crandall, Laura Carbone, Simin Liu, Wenjun Li, Karen C. Johnson, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Aladdin H. Shadyab, Margery L. Gass, Victor Kamensky, Jane A. Cauley, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller 2019 University of Würzburg

Lipoprotein(A) Plasma Levels, Bone Mineral Density And Risk Of Hip Fracture: A Post Hoc Analysis Of The Women's Health Initiative, Usa, Bernhard Haring, Carolyn J. Crandall, Laura Carbone, Simin Liu, Wenjun Li, Karen C. Johnson, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Aladdin H. Shadyab, Margery L. Gass, Victor Kamensky, Jane A. Cauley, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller

Wenjun Li

OBJECTIVES: Elevated Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its roles in bone metabolism and fracture risk are unclear. We therefore investigated whether plasma Lp(a) levels were associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and incident hip fractures in a large cohort of postmenopausal women.

DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), USA.

SETTING: 40 clinical centres in the USA.

PARTICIPANTS: The current analytical cohort consisted of 9698 white, postmenopausal women enrolled in the WHI, a national prospective study investigating determinants of chronic diseases including heart disease, breast ...


The Trend Of Osteoporosis And Osteoporotic Fragility Fractures In Inpatients: Results From A National Database., Rashmi Dhital, Theresa Lynn, Niranjan Tachamo, Dilli Ram Poudel 2019 Reading Hospital-Tower Health

The Trend Of Osteoporosis And Osteoporotic Fragility Fractures In Inpatients: Results From A National Database., Rashmi Dhital, Theresa Lynn, Niranjan Tachamo, Dilli Ram Poudel

Reading Hospital Internal Medicine Residency

Osteoporosis is associated with an increased risk of pathologic fractures; however, most patients do not receive diagnosis and adequate treatment. The aim of our study was to compare the yearly trends of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fragility fractures in the USA (US) inpatients. We used National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample database to identify adults ≥18 years with diagnoses of osteoporosis and pathologic fractures and excluded pathologic fractures due to other etiologies. We then studied the annual trends, in terms of annual percentage change (APC), of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Among overall hospitalizations, osteoporosis was noted to have an increasing trend from 2000 ...


System Dynamics To Investigate Opioid Use And Chiropractic Care For Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain, Marion McGregor, Alexandra Nielsen, Chadwick Chung, Mark Fillery, Wayne Wakeland, Silvano Mior 2019 Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College

System Dynamics To Investigate Opioid Use And Chiropractic Care For Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain, Marion Mcgregor, Alexandra Nielsen, Chadwick Chung, Mark Fillery, Wayne Wakeland, Silvano Mior

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to create a system dynamics (SD) model, including published data and required assumptions, as a tool for future research identifying the role of chiropractic care in the management of chronic, nonmalignant pain in a Canadian population. Methods: We present an illustrative case description of how we evaluated the feasibility of conducting a large-scale clinical trial to assess the impact of chiropractic care in mitigating excessive opioid use in Canada. We applied SD modeling using current evidence and key assumptions where such evidence was lacking. Modeling outcomes were highlighted to determine which potential factors ...


Mtf1, A Classic Metal Sensing Transcription Factor, Promotes Myogenesis In Response To Copper, Cristina Tavera-Montañez, Sarah J. Hainer, Daniella Cangussu, Shellaina J. V. Gordon, Yao Xiao, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Juan G. Navea, Thomas G. Fazzio, Teresita Padilla-Benavides 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mtf1, A Classic Metal Sensing Transcription Factor, Promotes Myogenesis In Response To Copper, Cristina Tavera-Montañez, Sarah J. Hainer, Daniella Cangussu, Shellaina J. V. Gordon, Yao Xiao, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Juan G. Navea, Thomas G. Fazzio, Teresita Padilla-Benavides

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

MTF1 is a conserved metal-binding transcription factor in eukaryotes that binds to conserved DNA sequence motifs, termed metal response elements (MREs). MTF1 responds to metal excess and deprivation, protects cells from oxidative and hypoxic stresses, and is required for embryonic development in vertebrates. We used multiple strategies to identify an unappreciated role for MTF1 and copper (Cu) in cell differentiation. Upon initiation of myogenesis from primary myoblasts, MTF1 expression increased, as did nuclear localization. Mtf1 knockdown impaired differentiation, while addition of non-toxic concentrations of Cu+ enhanced MTF1 expression and promoted myogenesis. Cu+ bound stoichiometrically to a C-terminus tetra-cysteine of MTF1 ...


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