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Musculoskeletal, Neural, and Ocular Physiology Commons

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Improving Translatability Of Spinal Cord Injury Research By Including Age As A Demographic Variable, Andrew N. Stewart, Linda A. T. Jones, John C. Gensel 2022 University of Kentucky

Improving Translatability Of Spinal Cord Injury Research By Including Age As A Demographic Variable, Andrew N. Stewart, Linda A. T. Jones, John C. Gensel

Department of Physical Therapy Faculty Papers

Pre-clinical and clinical spinal cord injury (SCI) studies differ in study design, particularly in the demographic characteristics of the chosen population. In clinical study design, criteria such as such as motor scores, neurological level, and severity of injury are often key determinants for participant inclusion. Further, demographic variables in clinical trials often include individuals from a wide age range and typically include both sexes, albeit historically most cases of SCI occur in males. In contrast, pre-clinical SCI models predominately utilize young adult rodents and typically use only females. While it is often not feasible to power SCI clinical trials to …


The Effects Of Cannabidiol On Aqueous Humor Outflow And Trabecular Meshwork Cell Signaling, Alyssa S. Aebersold, Zhao-Hui Song 2022 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Cannabidiol On Aqueous Humor Outflow And Trabecular Meshwork Cell Signaling, Alyssa S. Aebersold, Zhao-Hui Song

Faculty Scholarship

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is regulated primarily through aqueous humor production by ciliary body and drainage through uveoscleral and trabecular meshwork (TM) tissues. The goal of this study was to measure the effect of non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD) on aqueous humor outflow through TM and assess the effect of CBD on the TM cell signaling pathways that are important for regulating outflow. Perfused porcine eye anterior segment explants were used to investigate the effects of CBD on aqueous humor outflow. Cultured porcine TM cells were used to study the effects of CBD on TM cell contractility, myosin light chain (MLC) and myosin …


Optimizing Rna Isolation And Histology Protocols For Characterization Of Preclinical Models Of Tendon Disease, Deirdre Finnigan, Melika Meshkat, Ali Naeij, Dawn Bryce, Matthew W. Grol 2022 Western University

Optimizing Rna Isolation And Histology Protocols For Characterization Of Preclinical Models Of Tendon Disease, Deirdre Finnigan, Melika Meshkat, Ali Naeij, Dawn Bryce, Matthew W. Grol

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Tendons join muscle to bone and are essential for posture and movement. Tenocytes are the resident tendon cells. Isolating RNA from small animal models such as mice can be difficult, especially from tendon, as much of the time, they are extremely small samples. Downstream analysis such as qPCR and especially RNA sequencing require greater quantity and quality of RNA than is often achievable. RNA degradation is extremely rapid following tendon isolation, with RNA quality decreasing as time increases between the collection of tendons and RNA isolation. Even tendons whose RNA was isolated immediately following tendon isolation had imperfect quality. The …


Effects Of Exercise On Parkinson's Symptom Relief, Brooke Burnett 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Exercise On Parkinson's Symptom Relief, Brooke Burnett

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this review of twenty research articles, the effects of moderate exercise therapy on the symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease will be explored. Appropriate literature was located using the research question, “In older adults with a Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosis, how does moderate exercise influence the symptoms of this disease?” Twenty peer-reviewed research articles were examined for the impact of different forms of exercise on various symptoms associated with Parkinson’s. Nineteen of the articles reviewed provide substantial evidence in support of exercise therapy as a treatment option for people with Parkinson’s, and one of the articles found inconclusive evidence neither in support …


A Neurophysiological Investigation Of Listening Effort In Normal Hearing Adults Using Fnirs And Pupillometry, Jessica Defenderfer 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

A Neurophysiological Investigation Of Listening Effort In Normal Hearing Adults Using Fnirs And Pupillometry, Jessica Defenderfer

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Real-world conversations are often accompanied by some sort of interference that challenges the clarity of the speaker’s message, causing listeners to exert more effort to understand speech. Previous research has demonstrated that when listening to speech becomes difficult, various regions of the brain are recruited beyond those which engage during optimal listening conditions. However, the neural correlates that underly listening effort are not fully understood. Importantly, the pupillary response can be used to index listening effort, such that pupil size increases with increasing cognitive demand. I proposed that pupillometry can be used to characterize the cortical response, such that changes …


At-Home Aerobic Exercise Improves Functional Ability Of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis With Limited Exercise Options, Daniel Harris 2022 Wayne State University School of Medicine

At-Home Aerobic Exercise Improves Functional Ability Of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis With Limited Exercise Options, Daniel Harris

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A clinical decision report using

Neuberger GB, Aaronson LS, Gajewski B, et al. Predictors of exercise and effects of exercise on symptoms, function, aerobic fitness, and disease outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57(6):943-952. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.22903

and its application for a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.


Early Morphological Changes Of The Rectus Femoris Muscle And Deep Fascia In Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, Patrizia Sabatelli, Luciano Merlini, Alberto Di Martino, Vittoria Cenni, Cesare Faldini 2022 IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli,

Early Morphological Changes Of The Rectus Femoris Muscle And Deep Fascia In Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, Patrizia Sabatelli, Luciano Merlini, Alberto Di Martino, Vittoria Cenni, Cesare Faldini

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is a severe form of muscular dystrophy caused by the loss of function of collagen VI, a critical component of the muscle-tendon matrix. Magnetic resonance imaging of UCMD patients’ muscles shows a peculiar rim of abnormal signal at the periphery of each muscle, and a relative sparing of the internal part. The mechanism/s involved in the early fat substitution of muscle fiber at the periphery of muscles remain elusive. We studied a muscle biopsy of the rectus femoris/deep fascia (DF) of a 3-year-old UCMD patient, with a homozygous mutation in the COL6A2 gene. By immunohistochemical …


Automatic Posture Correction Utilizing Electrical Muscle Stimulation, Ravi Kiran Kattoju 2022 University of Central Florida

Automatic Posture Correction Utilizing Electrical Muscle Stimulation, Ravi Kiran Kattoju

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Habitually poor posture can lead to repetitive strain injuries that lower an individual's quality of life and productivity. Slouching over computer screens and smart phones, asymmetric weight distribution due to uneven leg loading, and improper loading posture are some of the common examples that lead to postural problems and health ramifications. To help cultivate good postural habits, researchers have proposed slouching, balance, and improper loading posture detection systems that alert users through traditional visual, auditory or vibro-tactile feedbacks when posture requires attention. However, such notifications are disruptive and can be easily ignored. We address these issues with a new physiological …


Metabolic Reprogramming Steers Stem Cell Evolution, Juyoung Park 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Metabolic Reprogramming Steers Stem Cell Evolution, Juyoung Park

Dental Theses

Remarkable plasticity of stem cells endows them with the ability to adapt quickly to ever-changing niches throughout a lifetime by reprogramming their metabolism and function. Upon sensing environmental challenges and following intrinsic genetic programs, rapidly proliferating progenitor cells during early postnatal development rewire their metabolic program to convert into quiescent somatic stem cells for lifelong tissue homeostasis. The molecular switch controlling this stem cell fate conversion is still obscure. Here we show that neonatal mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (nMSCs) exhibit robust stem cell activity with higher proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential than adult MSCs (aMSC). The functional robustness of nMSCs requires …


The Effect Of Cancer Cachexia Progression On The Feeding Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover, Brittany R. Franch 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

The Effect Of Cancer Cachexia Progression On The Feeding Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover, Brittany R. Franch

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Cancer cachexia is defined as the unintentional loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without fat loss that cannot be reversed by conventional nutritional support. Cachexia occurs in ~20% of cancer patients. More specifically, 50% of lung cancer patients, the most common cancer worldwide, develop cachexia. Cachexia occurs most often in lung and gastrointestinal cancers, whereas breast and prostate have the lowest rate of cachexia. Cancer-induced cachexia disrupts skeletal muscle protein turnover (decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation). Skeletal muscle’s capacity for protein synthesis is highly sensitive to local and systemic stimuli that are controlled by mTORC1 and AMPK …


The Impact Of High Intensity Interval Training On Neurogenesis And Angiogenesis In The Dentate Gyrus, Darrin Lenhart 2021 Seton Hall University

The Impact Of High Intensity Interval Training On Neurogenesis And Angiogenesis In The Dentate Gyrus, Darrin Lenhart

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

BACKGROUND: Exercise is associated with improved neuronal health and longevity, synaptic plasticity, cerebral blood volume, overall brain volume, and neurogenesis which collectively may have the power to forestall neurodegenerative disease.

PURPOSE: This study aims to explore the impact of high intensity interval training on individuals with mild cognitive impairment using a range of cognitive, physiological, and biomechanical measures. Specifically, this study seeks to assess the impact of high intensity interval training on neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the dentate gyrus of individuals with mild cognitive impairment versus healthy age-matched controls, as assessed by urinalysis of BDNF levels, performance on the Rey …


Multiple Sclerosis And Its Symptom Management Through Supplementation And Dietary Planning, Lindsey J. Davis 2021 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Multiple Sclerosis And Its Symptom Management Through Supplementation And Dietary Planning, Lindsey J. Davis

Selected Honors Theses

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, neuroinflammatory disorder that is characterized by the breakdown of myelinated axons in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems. It is a potentially debilitating autoimmune disease that affects almost 1 million people in the United States, and nearly 2.5 million people worldwide. The precise etiology of MS is still being researched, but much progress has been made towards understanding the molecular mechanisms and impactful ways to treat this disease. While there is still no cure, new treatment plans are constantly being orchestrated in effort to alleviate the burden that MS carries. Combination treatment plans have …


Local Renin-Angiotensin System Activation And Myofibroblast Formation In Graft Versus Host Disease–Associated Conjunctival Fibrosis, Kiumars Shamloo, Judy Weng, Christopher Ross, Jenni Lee, Saleh Alfuraih, Jennifer Totonchy, Ajay Sharma 2021 Chapman University

Local Renin-Angiotensin System Activation And Myofibroblast Formation In Graft Versus Host Disease–Associated Conjunctival Fibrosis, Kiumars Shamloo, Judy Weng, Christopher Ross, Jenni Lee, Saleh Alfuraih, Jennifer Totonchy, Ajay Sharma

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the role of myofibroblast transdifferentiation and the conjunctival renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)–associated conjunctival fibrosis.

Methods: A mouse model of major histocompatibility-matched allogeneic transplantation was used to induce GVHD, with male B10.D2 mice as donors and female BALB/c mice as recipients. Male BALB/c to female BALB/c syngeneic transplantation was used as control. Y chromosome staining in the spleen cells obtained from female recipient mice was used to confirm engraftment. The phenol red thread test and fluorescein staining were used to quantify tears and corneal keratopathy. …


Bridging The Gap Between Muscle And Bone: Examining Tendon Identity And Development, Amel Sassi 2021 Western University

Bridging The Gap Between Muscle And Bone: Examining Tendon Identity And Development, Amel Sassi

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Tendons are fibrous connective tissues that connect skeletal muscle to bone. Functioning primarily to facilitate locomotion, these tissues are rich with collagen and other minor collagens and proteoglycans. Nevertheless, with over 4000 tendons in the human body, the molecular pathways that define different tendons remain largely unknown. As such, the clear distinction between tendon identity, particularly at the genetic level has yet to be fully established. Similarly, molecular pathways involved in tendon developments remain to be fully elucidated. Despite the important role of tendons in motor coordination and posture, a number of areas in tendon development and identity have yet …


Dimensionality Reduction For Classification Of Object Weight From Electromyography, Elnaz Lashgari, Uri Maoz 2021 Chapman University

Dimensionality Reduction For Classification Of Object Weight From Electromyography, Elnaz Lashgari, Uri Maoz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Electromyography (EMG) is a simple, non-invasive, and cost-effective technology for measuring muscle activity. However, multi-muscle EMG is also a noisy, complex, and high-dimensional signal. It has nevertheless been widely used in a host of human-machine-interface applications (electrical wheelchairs, virtual computer mice, prosthesis, robotic fingers, etc.) and, in particular, to measure the reach-and-grasp motions of the human hand. Here, we developed an automated pipeline to predict object weight in a reach-grasp-lift task from an open dataset, relying only on EMG data. In doing so, we shifted the focus from manual feature-engineering to automated feature-extraction by using pre-processed EMG signals and thus …


Roles And Regulation Of Satellite Cells In Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Sydney Vlasman 2021 Portland State University

Roles And Regulation Of Satellite Cells In Skeletal Muscle Regeneration, Sydney Vlasman

University Honors Theses

Skeletal muscle has an innate ability to self-regenerate in response to certain stimuli. In the case of trauma, muscle resident stem cells are required to meet the regenerative needs of the tissue. These resident stem cells, called satellite cells (SCs), are crucial in the regenerative process following injury; understanding the major factors which regulate satellite cell activity can provide valuable insight for regenerative medicine. The ability to implement and properly activate satellite cells has immense potential in the treatment of conditions including trauma, degenerative disorders, and age-related sarcopenia. This review will discuss the current understanding of satellite cell-mediated regeneration and …


Differential Effect Of Proinflammatory Cytokines On Corneal And Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Mucins And Glycocalyx, Kiumars Shamloo, Priya Mistry, Ashley Barbarino, Christopher Ross, Vishal Jhanji 2021 Chapman University

Differential Effect Of Proinflammatory Cytokines On Corneal And Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Mucins And Glycocalyx, Kiumars Shamloo, Priya Mistry, Ashley Barbarino, Christopher Ross, Vishal Jhanji

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: Ocular surface mucins and glycocalyx are critical for providing ocular hydration as well lubrication and repelling pathogens or allergens. Elevated levels of tear proinflammatory cytokines in dry eye may have detrimental effect on mucins and glycocalyx. The present study tested the effect of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ on membrane-tethered mucins expression, glycocalyx, and viability of ocular surface epithelial cells.

Methods: Stratified cultures of human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells were exposed to different concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ for 24 hours. The mucins gene and protein expressions were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction …


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the …


Sarcopenia Screening By Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Rdns) In The United States (U.S.), Madison Marcom 2021 East Tennessee State University

Sarcopenia Screening By Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Rdns) In The United States (U.S.), Madison Marcom

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sarcopenia is a disease of muscle wasting primarily seen in older adults. Although this term was first coined over three decades ago, there is a lack of consensus on a definition, screening criteria, and treatment protocol for sarcopenia. The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) in the United States (U.S.) screen for sarcopenia. Study participants were recruited through a randomized email list and included RDNs throughout the U.S. Respondents completed a survey questioning knowledge of sarcopenia, screening tools and company protocols in place, and the need and desire for sarcopenia education. Data revealed …


The Effect Of Chronic Alcohol Consumption On Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage In Young Men, Emma Hamilton, Grant Hilliard 2021 University of Mississippi

The Effect Of Chronic Alcohol Consumption On Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage In Young Men, Emma Hamilton, Grant Hilliard

Honors Theses

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on exercise-induced muscle damage of the knee extensors in young men. METHODS: Twenty-one males (age 21.9 ± 1.1 yr; weight 183.4 ± 27.6 lbs; height 174.0 ± 13.1 cm) performed 100 maximal eccentric contractions at 30°/sec of the knee extensors using their non-dominant leg. The isometric and isokinetic muscle strengths (60°/sec and 180°/sec) were measured pre-exercise and immediately, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 120 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured pre-exercise and 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and …


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