Human Survival Motor Neuron Genes Generate A Vast Repertoire Of Circular Rnas, 2019 Iowa State University
Human Survival Motor Neuron Genes Generate A Vast Repertoire Of Circular Rnas, Eric W. Ottesen, Diou Luo, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh
Biomedical Sciences Publications
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) perform diverse functions, including the regulation of transcription, translation, peptide synthesis, macromolecular sequestration and trafficking. Inverted Alu repeats capable of forming RNA:RNA duplexes that bring splice sites together for backsplicing are known to facilitate circRNA generation. However, higher limits of circRNAs produced by a single Alu-rich gene are currently not predictable due to limitations of amplification and analyses. Here, using a tailored approach, we report a surprising diversity of exon-containing circRNAs generated by the Alu-rich Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) genes that code for SMN, an essential multifunctional protein in humans. We show that expression of the ...
Coordinating An Oncology Precision Medicine Clinic Within An Integrated Health System: Lessons Learned In Year One, 2019 Aurora Cancer Care, Aurora Research Institute, Aurora Health Care
Coordinating An Oncology Precision Medicine Clinic Within An Integrated Health System: Lessons Learned In Year One, Michael A. Thompson, Jennifer J. Godden, Deborah Wham, Antony Ruggeri, Michael P. Mullane, Amanda Wilson, Shamsuddin Virani, Scott M. Weissman, Brenda Ramczyk, Pamela Vanderwall, James L. Weese
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Precision medicine is a term describing strategies to promote health and prevent and treat disease based on an individual’s genetic, molecular, and lifestyle characteristics. Oncology precision medicine (OPM) is a cancer treatment approach targeting cancer-specific genetic and molecular alterations. Implementation of an OPM clinical program optimally involves the support and collaboration of multiple departments, including administration, medical oncology, pathology, interventional radiology, genetics, research, and informatics. In this review, we briefly introduce the published evidence regarding OPM’s potential effect on patient outcomes and discuss what we have learned over the first year of operating an OPM program within an ...
Human-Like Nsg Mouse Glycoproteins Sialylation Pattern Changes The Phenotype Of Human Lymphocytes And Sensitivity To Hiv-1 Infection, 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center
Human-Like Nsg Mouse Glycoproteins Sialylation Pattern Changes The Phenotype Of Human Lymphocytes And Sensitivity To Hiv-1 Infection, Raghubendra S. Dagur, Amanda Branch-Woods, Saumi Mathews, Poonam S. Joshi, Rolen M. Quadros, Donald W. Harms, Yan Cheng, Shana M. Miles, Samuel J. Pirruccello, Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Y. Poluektova
Journal Articles: Munroe-Meyer Institute
BACKGROUND: The use of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells is an accepted approach to study human-specific infectious diseases such as HIV-1 and to investigate multiple aspects of human immune system development. However, mouse and human are different in sialylation patterns of proteins due to evolutionary mutations of the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) gene that prevent formation of N-glycolylneuraminic acid from N-acetylneuraminic acid. How changes in the mouse glycoproteins' chemistry affect phenotype and function of transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells and mature human immune cells in the course of HIV-1 infection are not known.
RESULTS: We mutated mouse ...
Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy: Looking Back, Looking Forward, 2018 University of Iowa
Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy: Looking Back, Looking Forward, Ashley L. Cooney, Paul B. Mccray, Patrick L. Sinn
Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that encodes a cAMP-regulated anion channel. Although CF is a multi-organ system disease, most people with CF die of progressive lung disease that begins early in childhood and is characterized by chronic bacterial infection and inflammation. Nearly 90% of people with CF have at least one copy of the ΔF508 mutation, but there are hundreds of CFTR mutations that result in a range of disease severities. A CFTR gene replacement approach would be efficacious regardless of the disease-causing mutation. After ...
Chd3 Helicase Domain Mutations Cause A Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Macrocephaly And Impaired Speech And Language, 2018 Radboud University Medical Center
Chd3 Helicase Domain Mutations Cause A Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Macrocephaly And Impaired Speech And Language, Lot Snijders Blok, Inderneel Sahai, Philippe M. Campeau
Pediatric Publications and Presentations
Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates ...
On The Verge Of Diagnosis: Detection, Reporting, And Investigation Of De Novo Variants In Novel Genes Identified By Clinical Sequencing., Isabelle Thiffault, Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Emily G. Farrow, Raymond Caylor, Neil A. Miller, Sarah E. Soden, Carol J. Saunders
Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers
The variable evidence supporting gene-disease associations contributes to the difficulty of accurate variant reporting in a clinical setting. An evidence-based scoring system for evaluating the clinical validity of gene-disease associations, proposed by ClinGen, considers experimental as well as genetic evidence. De novo variants are heavily weighted, given the overall rarity in the genome and their contribution to human disease, however they are reported as "genes of unknown significance" in our center when there is insufficient evidence for the gene-disease assertion. We report a collection of 21 de novo variants in genes of unknown clinical significance ascertained via clinical testing, of ...
Promoting Clinical Breast Evaluations In A Lower Middle–Income Country Setting: An Approach Toward Achieving A Sustainable Breast Health Program, 2018 Aga Khan Health Services, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Promoting Clinical Breast Evaluations In A Lower Middle–Income Country Setting: An Approach Toward Achieving A Sustainable Breast Health Program, Roziya Buribekova, Irina Shukurbekova, Surayo Ilnazarova, Nekruz Jamshevov, Guldarbogh Sadonshoeva, Saleem Sayani, Aliya Aminmuhammad, Farin Amersi, Sheemain Asaria, Mansoor Saleh, Zohray Talib
Medical College Documents
To promote a systems-based approach for the early detection and downstaging of breast cancer at presentation in the remote mountainous region of Gorno Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO), Tajikistan, by introducing breast cancer awareness into the community and training health care professionals in clinical breast evaluation (CBE).
Through a public-private partnership between the Ministry of Health, the Aga Khan Health Services, Tajikistan, and the Aga Khan Health Board, we organized breast cancer screening in the community and trained family medicine doctors (FMDs) and family medicine nurses (FMNs) in CBE. We identified and trained CBE master trainers, who, in turn ...
Distinct Neuropsychological Profile And Associated Neurochemical Changes In Individuals With Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, And Stroke-Like Episodes (Melas), 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Distinct Neuropsychological Profile And Associated Neurochemical Changes In Individuals With Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, And Stroke-Like Episodes (Melas), Emily B. Leaffer
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Background: Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like Episodes (MELAS) is a maternally inherited progressive multisystemic disorder. Occurrence of seizure and/or stroke-like episode, as well as classic biomarkers (i.e., cerebral lactic acidosis, depleted N-acetylaspartate (NAA)), have been linked to neuropsychological deficit and trigger the developmental cascade of neurodegeneration affecting posterior prior to anterior brain regions. While a pattern of global deterioration has been reported, systematic examination in a large MELAS cohort has not been conducted.
Objective: First, we examined verbal and visual memory function and its relationship to brain metabolites (lactate, NAA) in individuals with MELAS. Second, we hypothesized ...
Lafora Disease Masquerading As Hepatic Dysfunction, 2018 Allama Iqbal Medical College
Lafora Disease Masquerading As Hepatic Dysfunction, Faisal Inayat, Waqas Ullah, Hanan T. Lodhi, Zarak H. Khan, Ghulam Ilyas, Nouman Safdar Ali, Hafez Mohammad A. Abdullah
Abington Hospital Papers
Lafora disease is fatal intractable progressive myoclonic epilepsy. It is frequently characterized by epileptic seizures, difficulty walking, muscle spasms, and dementia in late childhood or adolescence. We chronicle here an unusual case of an asymptomatic young male soccer player who presented with elevated liver enzymes. Neurological examination was unremarkable. The diagnostic workup for hepatitis, infectious etiologies, autoimmune disorders, hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and other related diseases was inconclusive. He subsequently underwent an uneventful percutaneous liver biopsy. Based on the pathognomonic histopathological findings, Lafora disease was considered the likely etiology. The present study is a unique illustration of ...
Review Of Karyotypic Data From Low Grade Glial Brain Tumors, Specifically Pilocytic Astrocytomas, And Correlation Of Genetic Aberrations With Tumor Recurrence., Linda D. Cooley, Scott C. Smith, Lisa Warren, Melissa Gener, Kevin Ginn, John Herriges
Abstract: Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor of childhood. Approximately 50% of pediatric CNS tumors are low grade gliomas (WHO grade I or II) and Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common accounting for 33% of all gliomas in children 0-14 years and ~18% of all childhood brain tumors. Prognosis with this slow-growing tumor is excellent; 10 year overall survival of ~95%. However, event free survival averages ~50%. Patient age and extent of tumor resection are key prognostic factors; tumor location and size impact resection and outcome. Histopathological features indicate PA is a benign tumor and rarely are ...
Prediction Of Preterm Birth With And Without Preeclampsia Using Mid-Pregnancy Immune And Growth-Related Molecular Factors And Maternal Characteristics, Laura L. Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Larry Rand, Bruce Bedell, Rebecca J. Baer, Scott P. Oltman, Mary E. Norton, Gary M. Shaw, David K. Stevenson, Jeffrey C. Murray, Kelli K. Ryckman
Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if mid-pregnancy immune and growth-related molecular factors predict preterm birth (PTB) with and without (±) preeclampsia.
STUDY DESIGN: Included were 400 women with singleton deliveries in California in 2009-2010 (200 PTB and 200 term) divided into training and testing samples at a 2:1 ratio. Sixty-three markers were tested in 15-20 serum samples using multiplex technology. Linear discriminate analysis was used to create a discriminate function. Model performance was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).
RESULTS: Twenty-five serum biomarkers along with maternal age80% of women with PTB ± preeclampsia with best performance in women with ...
Improving The Sensitivity Of Real-Time Pcr Detection Of Group B Streptococcus Using Consensus Sequence-Derived Oligonucleotides, Ameneh Khatami, Tara M. Randis, Anna Chamby, Thomas A. Hooven, Margaret Gegick, Evan Suzman, Brady A'Hearn-Thomas, Andrew P. Steenhoff, Adam J. Ratner
Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a perinatal pathogen and an emerging cause of disease in adults. Culture-independent GBS detection relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of conserved genes, including sip. We demonstrate suboptimal sensitivity of the existing sip PCR strategy and validate an improved method based on consensus sequences from >100 GBS genomes.
A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science
A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong
The International Student Science Fair 2018
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...
Extracellular Release Of Virulence Factor Major Surface Protease Via Exosomes In Leishmania Infantum Promastigotes, Skye Marshall, Patrick H. Kelly, Brajesh K. Singh, R Marshall Pope, Peter Kim, Bayan Zhanbolat, Mary E. Wilson, Chaoqun Yao
Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications
BACKGROUND: The Leishmania spp. protozoa are introduced into humans through a sand fly blood meal, depositing the infectious metacyclic promastigote form of the parasite into human skin. Parasites enter a variety of host cells, although a majority are found in macrophages where they replicate intracellularly during chronic leishmaniasis. Symptomatic leishmaniasis causes considerable human morbidity in endemic regions. The Leishmania spp. evade host microbicidal mechanisms partially through virulence-associated proteins such as the major surface protease (MSP or GP63), to inactivate immune factors in the host environment. MSP is a metalloprotease encoded by a tandem array of genes belonging to three msp ...
Congenital Heart Defects And Ciliopathies Associated With Renal Phenotypes, 2018 University of Pittsburgh
Congenital Heart Defects And Ciliopathies Associated With Renal Phenotypes, George C. Gabriel, Gregory J. Pazour, Cecilia W. Lo
Open Access Articles
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects, and recent studies indicate cilia-related mutations play a central role in the genetic etiology of CHD. As cilia are also known to have important roles in kidney development and disease, it is not surprising that renal anomalies were found to be enriched among CHD mutant mice recovered in a large-scale mouse forward genetic screen. Indeed 42% of mutations identified to cause both CHD and renal anomalies were cilia-related. Many of these cilia mutations comprise cilia transition zone or inversin compartment components, consistent with the known role of these ...
Apoe And Alzheimer’S Disease: Neuroimaging Of Metabolic And Cerebrovascular Dysfunction, 2018 University of Kentucky
Apoe And Alzheimer’S Disease: Neuroimaging Of Metabolic And Cerebrovascular Dysfunction, Jason A. Brandon, Brandon C. Farmer, Holden C. Williams, Lance A. Johnson
Physiology Faculty Publications
Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), and is associated with impairments in cerebral metabolism and cerebrovascular function. A substantial body of literature now points to E4 as a driver of multiple impairments seen in AD, including blunted brain insulin signaling, mismanagement of brain cholesterol and fatty acids, reductions in blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and decreased cerebral glucose uptake. Various neuroimaging techniques, in particular positron emission topography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been instrumental in characterizing these metabolic and vascular deficits associated with this important AD risk factor ...
Integration Of Complementary And Alternative Medicine Into The Healthcare System In The United States, 2018 University of Washington – Tacoma
Integration Of Complementary And Alternative Medicine Into The Healthcare System In The United States, Nikki Lu
Global Honors Theses
Chronic diseases are a prevalent issue around the world and chronic diseases are hard to prevent due to various systemic factors in the healthcare system. This paper mainly focused on socioeconomic issues and highlighted a few systemic factors in the US healthcare system. These factors have created various health disparities, inequities among socially constructed groups, and financial expenditures in the US healthcare system. Socioeconomic factors significantly impact the health and healthcare among socially constructed groups. Additionally, in this paper there are current approaches in addressing these healthcare factors such as social determinants of health and precision medicine as well as ...
Genes Associated With Mandibular Prognathism In The Chinese Population, 2018 University of the Pacific Dugoni Dental School
Genes Associated With Mandibular Prognathism In The Chinese Population, Jacqueline Payne, Marie Tolarova M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc.
Mandibular prognathism (MP) is the relationship of the mandible anteriorly positioned in relation to the cranial base. The prevalence of MP in Asians is estimated to be 15%, whereas American and European descent exhibit a 5% prevalence. Orthodontic treatment is lengthy and challenging, and severe cases require surgical intervention. However, when a treatment is planned well, the outcomes are predominantly successful. It has been known that genetics are involved in the etiology of prognathism and that greater genetic contribution corresponds to greater challenges to treatment. Thus, there is a desire to determine genes involved in the etiology of prognathism.
Banning Abortion In Cases Of Down Syndrome: Important Lessons For Advances In Genetic Diagnosis, 2018 Georgetown University Law Center
Banning Abortion In Cases Of Down Syndrome: Important Lessons For Advances In Genetic Diagnosis, Rebecca Reingold, Lawrence O. Gostin
Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works
In December 2017, Ohio passed into law legislation that prohibited physicians from performing abortions if the pregnant woman’s decision was influenced by her belief that the fetus has Down syndrome. Physicians who perform abortions in these cases would face fourth-degree felony charges and revocation of their medical license. No other state bans abortion specifically for Down syndrome, but several ban abortions in cases of genetic diseases. Lower courts have struck down most such laws, holding they violate the constitutional rights of women. In February 2018, a federal district court judge blocked enforcement of Ohio’s law pending a final ...
Insurance Coverage Policies For Pharmacogenomic And Multi-Gene Testing For Cancer, 2018 Harvard Medical School
Insurance Coverage Policies For Pharmacogenomic And Multi-Gene Testing For Cancer, Christine Y. Lu, Stephanie Loomer, Rachel Ceccarelli, Kathleen M. Mazor, James Sabin, Ellen Wright Clayton, Geoffrey S. Ginsburg, Ann Chen Wu
Open Access Articles
Insurance coverage policies are a major determinant of patient access to genomic tests. The objective of this study was to examine differences in coverage policies for guideline-recommended pharmacogenomic tests that inform cancer treatment. We analyzed coverage policies from eight Medicare contractors and 10 private payers for 23 biomarkers (e.g., HER2 and EGFR) and multi-gene tests. We extracted policy coverage and criteria, prior authorization requirements, and an evidence basis for coverage. We reviewed professional society guidelines and their recommendations for use of pharmacogenomic tests. Coverage for KRAS, EGFR, and BRAF tests were common across Medicare contractors and private payers, but ...