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Differential Strain-Dependent Ovarian And Metabolic Responses In A Mouse Model Of Pcos, April K. Binder, Danielle L. Peecher, Amanda J. Qvigstad, Silvia D. Gutierrez, Jennifer Magaña, David B. Banks, Kenneth S. Korach 2023 Central Washington University

Differential Strain-Dependent Ovarian And Metabolic Responses In A Mouse Model Of Pcos, April K. Binder, Danielle L. Peecher, Amanda J. Qvigstad, Silvia D. Gutierrez, Jennifer Magaña, David B. Banks, Kenneth S. Korach

Biology Faculty Scholarship

Several mouse models have been developed to study polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a leading cause of infertility in women. Treatment of mice with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 90-days causes ovarian and metabolic phenotypes similar to women with PCOS. We used this 90-day DHT treatment paradigm to investigate the variable incidence and heterogeneity in two inbred mouse strains, NOD/ShiLtJ and 129S1/SvlmJ. NOD mice naturally develop type 1 diabetes, and recent meta-analysis found increased androgen excess and PCOS in women with type 1 diabetes. 129S1 mice are commonly used in genetic manipulations. Both NOD and 129S1 DHT treated mice had early vaginal opening, …


Determinism V. Free Will & Genetic Evidence Of Addiction In Plea Bargaining And Sentence Mitigation: Conversion Of Incarceration To Probation And Rehabilitation Based On Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (Gars) Test, Kenneth Blum, Paul Mullen, Richard Green 2022 St. Mary's University

Determinism V. Free Will & Genetic Evidence Of Addiction In Plea Bargaining And Sentence Mitigation: Conversion Of Incarceration To Probation And Rehabilitation Based On Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (Gars) Test, Kenneth Blum, Paul Mullen, Richard Green

St. Mary's Law Journal

In this Article, Dr. Kenneth Blum and his team present the case of a presently abstinent, thirty-five year old alcoholic (“AG”) who has several convictions for DWI. AG has undergone and continues to be engaged in out-patient substance abuse treatment. He entered treatment before adjudication and was mandated by the court to continue treatment to assist in maintaining sobriety. Treatment included the administration of the Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (“GARS”) Test.

AG was facing a probable five-year sentence for his fifth DWI conviction in Bexar County, Texas. However, because AG’s genetic risk results indicated a genetically induced dopamine dysfunction, hypodopaminergia, …


Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville 2022 University of South Alabama

Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville

Theses and Dissertations

High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are malignant, highly metabolically active brain tumors. HGGs are associated with poor patient outcome, attributed to resistance to current therapies, with a survival rate between 12 to 15 months. Gliomas are highly complex tumors, making targeted therapy difficult, highlighting the need for novel approaches and new treatment options. In addition, a large percentage of HGGs are comprised of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that further contribute to therapeutic resistance. Notable characteristics of GSCs are a heightened DNA damage response (DDR) and elevated replication stress that could provide opportunities for therapeutic targeting. A notable feature of many glioma tumors …


A Cloning-Free Recyclable System For Crispr-Cas9 Mediated Mutant And Reversion Construction In Candida Albicans Clinical Isolates, Amanda K. Vogel 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

A Cloning-Free Recyclable System For Crispr-Cas9 Mediated Mutant And Reversion Construction In Candida Albicans Clinical Isolates, Amanda K. Vogel

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Candida albicans is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen and one of the most prevalent causes of fungal diseases worldwide. The reference isolate SC5314 is one of the most widely used strains for both experimental and genetic studies, but it is becoming increasingly evident that genetic diversity in clinical isolates plays an important role in antifungal resistance, virulence, and pathogenicity. These recent discoveries highlight the need for genetic tools that are capable of investigating genes in multiple strain backgrounds. Here we build on the SAT1-flipper method and combine it with CRISPR-Cas9 technology to achieve cloning-free homozygous deletion in a single transformation …


Should Health Systems Share Genetic Findings With At-Risk Relatives When The Proband Is Deceased? Interviews With Individuals Diagnosed With Lynch Syndrome, Jessica Ezzell Hunter, Jennifer L. Schneider, Alison J. Firemark, James V. Davis, Sara Gille, Pamala A. Pawloski, Su-Ying Liang, Victoria Schlieder, Alanna Kulchak Rahm 2022 RTI International

Should Health Systems Share Genetic Findings With At-Risk Relatives When The Proband Is Deceased? Interviews With Individuals Diagnosed With Lynch Syndrome, Jessica Ezzell Hunter, Jennifer L. Schneider, Alison J. Firemark, James V. Davis, Sara Gille, Pamala A. Pawloski, Su-Ying Liang, Victoria Schlieder, Alanna Kulchak Rahm

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Genetic information has health implications for patients and their biological relatives. Death of a patient before sharing a genetic diagnosis with at-risk relatives is a missed opportunity to provide important information that could guide interventions to minimize cancer-related morbidity and mortality in relatives.

Methods: We performed semi-structured interviews with individuals diagnosed with Lynch syndrome at 1 of 4 health systems to explore their perspectives on whether health systems should share genetic risk information with relatives following a patient’s death. An inductive, open-coding approach was used to analyze audio-recorded content, with software-generated code reports undergoing iterative comparative analysis by a …


In-Depth Analysis Of Next-Generation Sequencing (Ngs) And Bioinformatics Results In Pediatric Adgrv1 Compound Heterozygotes, Sloane Clay, Adele Evans, Chindo Hicks, David Otohinoyi 2022 LSU Health Sciences Center- New Orleans

In-Depth Analysis Of Next-Generation Sequencing (Ngs) And Bioinformatics Results In Pediatric Adgrv1 Compound Heterozygotes, Sloane Clay, Adele Evans, Chindo Hicks, David Otohinoyi

Medical Research Day

Genetic diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) using NGS proves challenging when encountering multigenic, multiallelic variants of uncertain significance (VUS). These VUS make it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance regarding progressive disorders such as Type II Usher syndrome (SNHL at birth and retinitis pigmentosa in the second decade of life). With genetic testing companies are identifying, reporting, and reclassifying VUS at a rapid pace; there is a need for in depth-analysis and interpretation. For example, VUS in ADGRV1, a gene implicated in Type II Usher Syndrome, may be inherited in a compound heterozygous manner and misinterpreted as benign, when in …


The Fecal Position: Tracking Progressive Dna Repeat Expansion Via Stool Dna Extraction, Margaret Conrad, Hayley Ulloa, Ed Grabczyk 2022 LSU Health Sciences Center- New Orleans

The Fecal Position: Tracking Progressive Dna Repeat Expansion Via Stool Dna Extraction, Margaret Conrad, Hayley Ulloa, Ed Grabczyk

Medical Research Day

Friedreich Ataxia is a progressive DNA repeat expansion disease. Examining DNA repeat expansion in mouse models require sacrificing the mouse and taking samples of organs. The obvious non-lethal targets, such as ears, tails, and blood do not have levels of repeat expansion comparable to internal organs. However, recent publications suggest that stool may be a suitable non-lethal candidate for tracking repeat expansion over time. Stool DNA may allow researchers to monitor the effect of interventions aimed at slowing DNA repeat expansion over time without harming the mouse. A commercial kit was first used to extract DNA from feces without success. …


Development Of Genetic Strategies To Treat Vision Loss In Usher Syndrome Type 1c (Ush1c), Dongjoon (Jason) Kim, Inga Kristaponyte, Bhagwat Alapure, Katelyn Robillard, Wadih Zein, Robert Koenekoop, Maria Reinoso, Jennifer J. Lentz 2022 LSU Health Sciences Center- New Orleans

Development Of Genetic Strategies To Treat Vision Loss In Usher Syndrome Type 1c (Ush1c), Dongjoon (Jason) Kim, Inga Kristaponyte, Bhagwat Alapure, Katelyn Robillard, Wadih Zein, Robert Koenekoop, Maria Reinoso, Jennifer J. Lentz

Medical Research Day

Background: Usher Syndrome (Usher) is the most common genetic cause of deaf-blindness, characterized by the loss of hearing, vestibular function, and vision. Three clinical types (USH1- 3) and 10 genes are associated with the disease. USH1 is the most severe with congenital severeprofound sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular areflexia, and childhood onset of retinitis pigmentosa. Mutations in the USH1C gene account for 6-15% USH1, however USH1C c.216G>A (216A) accounts for nearly all USH1 cases in the Acadian populations in U.S. and Canada. The 216A splicing mutation results in a truncated harmonin protein, and photoreceptor and cochlear hair cell dysfunction. …


Mismatch In Mice And Men, Ryan Schroeder, Hayley Ulloa, Alan Williams, Ed Grabczyk 2022 LSU Health Sciences Center- New Orleans

Mismatch In Mice And Men, Ryan Schroeder, Hayley Ulloa, Alan Williams, Ed Grabczyk

Medical Research Day

Friedreich ataxia is a progressive degenerative neuromuscular disease that is caused by the expansion of a repetitive region of DNA, composed of three nucleotide repeats (GAA•TTC). Expansion of the DNA occurs throughout the lifespan of the patient and has been linked to the activity of specific DNA mismatch repair proteins. Disease onset occurs when the expansion increases in size beyond a certain threshold, silencing the gene and causing progressive ataxia, diabetes mellitus, and cardiomyopathy. These symptoms are linked to an increased repeat number observed within the heart, pancreas, and brain relative to other tissues within an individual. Friedreich ataxia is …


Association Of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Rs1801133 Genetic Variants With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetic Nephropathy, Aysegul Bayramoglu, Gokhan Bayramoglu, Halil Ibrahım Guler, Nezaket Coban, Mustafa Çagatay Korkmaz 2022 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kutahya Health Sciences University, Kutahya 43100, Turkey

Association Of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Rs1801133 Genetic Variants With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetic Nephropathy, Aysegul Bayramoglu, Gokhan Bayramoglu, Halil Ibrahım Guler, Nezaket Coban, Mustafa Çagatay Korkmaz

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease with a genetic predisposition. Methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR) gene is one of the candidate genes associated with T2DM and diabetic nephropathy (DN). This research was carried out to determine the frequency of the C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the MTHFR gene and examine the role of rs1801133 polymorphism in T2DM and DN development.

Methods: DNA was obtained from peripheral blood samples (273 samples) using a DNA isolation kit. MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and electrophoresis. PCR products were cut by …


The Genetic Contribution To Solving The Cocktail-Party Problem, Samuel R. Mathias, Emma Knowles, Josephine Mollon, Amanda Rodrigue, Mary K. Woolsey, Rene L. Olvera, Juan M. Peralta, Satish Kumar, Harald H. H. Goring, Ravi Duggirala, Joanne E. Curran, John Blangero, David C. Glahn 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

The Genetic Contribution To Solving The Cocktail-Party Problem, Samuel R. Mathias, Emma Knowles, Josephine Mollon, Amanda Rodrigue, Mary K. Woolsey, Rene L. Olvera, Juan M. Peralta, Satish Kumar, Harald H. H. Goring, Ravi Duggirala, Joanne E. Curran, John Blangero, David C. Glahn

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Communicating in everyday situations requires solving the cocktail-party problem, or segregating the acoustic mixture into its constituent sounds and attending to those of most interest. Humans show dramatic variation in this ability, leading some to experience real-world problems irrespective of whether they meet criteria for clinical hearing loss. Here, we estimated the genetic contribution to cocktail-party listening by measuring speech-reception thresholds (SRTs) in 425 people from large families and ranging in age from 18 to 91 years. Roughly half the variance of SRTs was explained by genes (h 2 = 0.567). The genetic correlation between SRTs and hearing thresholds …


Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib 2022 Western University

Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Translation, or the production of protein from an mRNA blueprint, is among the most fundamental processes to life as we know it. tRNAs are essential to accurate translation, as they decode the codons of mRNA and recruit corresponding amino acids. Variant tRNAs with anticodon mutations can decrease translational fidelity by recruiting the incorrect amino acid, an aberrant process known as mistranslation. When proteins are produced with incorrect amino acid sequences, they may misfold. The heat shock response functions to alleviate cellular stress caused by misfolded proteins, either by refolding or targeting misfolded proteins for degradation. Hsf1 acts as a transcriptional …


Prenatal Care Providers’ Experience With Pre-Test Counselling For Nipt In Ontario: Counselling Challenges And Support Required, Leichelle A. Little 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Prenatal Care Providers’ Experience With Pre-Test Counselling For Nipt In Ontario: Counselling Challenges And Support Required, Leichelle A. Little

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a prenatal test that has experienced unprecedented commercial development and transformed prenatal care. The Ontario Ministry of Health presently funds NIPT as a first-tier prenatal screening option for high-risk singleton pregnancies and all twin pregnancies. Individuals who do not qualify for public funding or would like to screen for additional conditions can pay for NIPT privately, starting at approximately $495-$550 (CA) for baseline panels. Prenatal care providers such as family physicians, maternal-fetal-medicine specialists, obstetrician-gynaecologists, residents, midwives and registered nurses have an increasingly important role in offering NIPT in Ontario. Although these healthcare professionals do not …


Genetics And Genomics Education Among Physician Assistants, Wesley Patterson 2022 Clemson University

Genetics And Genomics Education Among Physician Assistants, Wesley Patterson

All Dissertations

This dissertation comprises five chapters to describe genetics and genomics education among physician assistant/associate (PA) students and practicing PAs. Chapter I introduces the gap in supply and demand of genetic services, the need for non-genetics healthcare providers to fill the gap, and the PA profession as a solution.

Chapter II is a rapid literature review that summarizes the available literature regarding genetics and genomics education for PAs. A paucity of literature exists to describe the current state of PA genetics-genomics education. The few studies retrieved describe content being taught in PA programs, the number of genetics-genomics contact hours PA students …


Structural Basis For The Simultaneous Recognition Of Nemo And Acceptor Ubiquitin By The Hoip Nzf1 Domain, Simin Rahighi, Mamta Iyer, Hamid Oveisi, Sammy Nasser, Vincent Duong 2022 Chapman University

Structural Basis For The Simultaneous Recognition Of Nemo And Acceptor Ubiquitin By The Hoip Nzf1 Domain, Simin Rahighi, Mamta Iyer, Hamid Oveisi, Sammy Nasser, Vincent Duong

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ubiquitination of NEMO by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is essential for activating the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. While the NZF1 domain of the HOIP subunit of LUBAC recognizes the NEMO substrate, it is unclear how it cooperates with the catalytic domains in the ubiquitination process. Here, we report a crystal structure of NEMO in complex with HOIP NZF1 and linear diubiquitin chains, in which the two proteins bind to distinct sites on NEMO. Moreover, the NZF1 domain simultaneously interacts with NEMO and Ile44 surface of a proximal ubiquitin from a linear diubiquitin chain, where the C-term tail …


Palmitoylation As A Regulator Of Maguk Proteins Postsynaptic Localization, Santiago Balderas, Rozena Shirvani-Arani, Xiaoqian Fang, Yonghong Zhang 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Palmitoylation As A Regulator Of Maguk Proteins Postsynaptic Localization, Santiago Balderas, Rozena Shirvani-Arani, Xiaoqian Fang, Yonghong Zhang

MEDI 8127 Scholarly Activities Pre-Clerkship

Synaptic plasticity is the ability of the brain to make changes and the changes occur at synapses. To achieve the complicated functions, a good number of proteins are present at synapse and are called synaptic proteins. To stabilize these proteins at synapses, proteins are modified through posttranslational modifications (PTMs). The most studied PTMs include phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, palmitoylation, etc. Palmitoylation is a type of lipid modification and has received more attention recently for its contribution to protein trafficking, localization, and interaction in various synaptic plasticity. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family includes PSD-95, PSD-93 (also known as chapsyn-110), SAP102, …


Identification Of Healthspan-Promoting Genes In Caenorhabditis Elegans Based On A Human Gwas Study, Nadine Saul, Ineke Dhondt, Mikko Kuokkanen, Markus Perola, Clara Verschuuren, Brecht Wouters, Henrik von Chrzanowski, Winnok H. De Vos, Liesbet Temmerman, Walter Luyten 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Identification Of Healthspan-Promoting Genes In Caenorhabditis Elegans Based On A Human Gwas Study, Nadine Saul, Ineke Dhondt, Mikko Kuokkanen, Markus Perola, Clara Verschuuren, Brecht Wouters, Henrik Von Chrzanowski, Winnok H. De Vos, Liesbet Temmerman, Walter Luyten

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

To find drivers of healthy ageing, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in healthy and unhealthy older individuals. Healthy individuals were defined as free from cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart failure, major adverse cardiovascular event, diabetes, dementia, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, rheumatism, Crohn’s disease, malabsorption or kidney disease. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with unknown function associated with ten human genes were identified as candidate healthspan markers. Thirteen homologous or closely related genes were selected in the model organism C. elegans for evaluating healthspan after targeted RNAi-mediated knockdown using pathogen resistance, muscle integrity, chemotaxis index and the …


Channelopathy Of Small- And Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels, Young-Woo Nam, Myles Downey, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Meng Cui, Miao Zhang 2022 Chapman University

Channelopathy Of Small- And Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels, Young-Woo Nam, Myles Downey, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Meng Cui, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2.x/KCa3.1 also called SK/IK) channels are gated exclusively by intracellular Ca2+. The Ca2+ binding protein calmodulin confers sub-micromolar Ca2+ sensitivity to the channel-calmodulin complex. The calmodulin C-lobe is constitutively associated with the proximal C-terminus of the channel. Interactions between calmodulin N-lobe and the channel S4-S5 linker are Ca2+-dependent, which subsequently trigger conformational changes in the channel pore and open the gate. KCNN genes encode four subtypes, including KCNN1 for KCa2.1 (SK1), KCNN2 for KCa2.2 (SK2), KCNN3 for K …


Genomic Features Underlie The Co-Option Of Sva Transposons As Cis-Regulatory Elements In Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Samantha M Barnada, Andrew Isopi, Daniela Tejada-Martinez, Clément Goubert, Sruti Patoori, Luca Pagliaroli, Mason Tracewell, Marco Trizzino 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Genomic Features Underlie The Co-Option Of Sva Transposons As Cis-Regulatory Elements In Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Samantha M Barnada, Andrew Isopi, Daniela Tejada-Martinez, Clément Goubert, Sruti Patoori, Luca Pagliaroli, Mason Tracewell, Marco Trizzino

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Domestication of transposable elements (TEs) into functional cis-regulatory elements is a widespread phenomenon. However, the mechanisms behind why some TEs are co-opted as functional enhancers while others are not are underappreciated. SINE-VNTR-Alus (SVAs) are the youngest group of transposons in the human genome, where ~3,700 copies are annotated, nearly half of which are human-specific. Many studies indicate that SVAs are among the most frequently co-opted TEs in human gene regulation, but the mechanisms underlying such processes have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Here, we leveraged CRISPR-interference (CRISPRi), computational and functional genomics to elucidate the genomic features that underlie SVA domestication …


Epigenetic Mechanisms Influencing Therapeutic Response In Breast Cancer., Amaia Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Eneda Toska 2022 CIC bioGUNE

Epigenetic Mechanisms Influencing Therapeutic Response In Breast Cancer., Amaia Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Eneda Toska

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

The majority of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER)+ and agents targeting the ER signaling pathway have markedly increased survival for women with breast cancer for decades. However, therapeutic resistance eventually emerges, especially in the metastatic setting. In the past decade disrupted epigenetic regulatory processes have emerged as major contributors to carcinogenesis in many cancer types. Aberrations in chromatin modifiers and transcription factors have also been recognized as mediators of breast cancer development and therapeutic outcome, and new epigenetic-based therapies in combination with targeted therapies have been proposed. Here we will discuss recent progress in our understanding of the chromatin-based …


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