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Tranexamic Acid Preferentially Localizes In The Nuclei Of Endothelial Cells And Binds Proteins Involved In Gene Expression And Mitochondrial Metabolism, Igor Prudovsky, Doreen Kacer, Victoria Zucco, Keiran Wynne, Damien Carter, Monica Palmeri, Calvin Vary, Robert Kramer, Joseph Rappold 2020 Maine Medical Center

Tranexamic Acid Preferentially Localizes In The Nuclei Of Endothelial Cells And Binds Proteins Involved In Gene Expression And Mitochondrial Metabolism, Igor Prudovsky, Doreen Kacer, Victoria Zucco, Keiran Wynne, Damien Carter, Monica Palmeri, Calvin Vary, Robert Kramer, Joseph Rappold

Costas T. Lambrew Research Retreat 2020

Purpose Tranexamic acid (TXA), an anti-fibrinolytic inhibitor of plasmin, is widely used in hemorrhagic trauma patients. We have previously demonstrated that the effects of TXA transcend its inhibition of fibrinolysis by suppressing the release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPS), specifically mitochondrial DNA, and decreasing inflammation in a mouse burn model . Additionally, we have demonstrated that TXA increases mitochondrial respiration in human endothelial cells in vitro. Collectively, these results prompted us to hypothesize that TXA has other biologically important molecular targets besides plasmin. Herein we present the initial results of our studies addressing this hypothesis.

Methods To assess the intracellular ...


Implementation Of Crispr/Cas Editing Analysis Tool Ice To Detect Multiple Edited Alleles In Mice, Larisa Ryzhova, Anne Harrington, Samantha White, Lucy Liaw 2020 Maine Medical Center

Implementation Of Crispr/Cas Editing Analysis Tool Ice To Detect Multiple Edited Alleles In Mice, Larisa Ryzhova, Anne Harrington, Samantha White, Lucy Liaw

Costas T. Lambrew Research Retreat 2020

There is high demand for the development of experimental mouse models to study physiological processes and human diseases. CRISPR/Cas technology has offered a relatively efficient way to generate modifications in the mouse genome. However, this methodology often creates multiple, diverse genetic alterations, even when a strategy for a very specific targeted mutation is implemented. It is also rare that F0 mice will have single modified allele, and commonly, resultant mice are mosaic, containing multiple genomic modifications. In order to reduce the time and resources required to screen F0 mice and to detect somatic mosaicism, we implemented use of the ...


Genetic Relationships And Therapeutic Options For Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Hailie Shertzer 2020 Liberty University

Genetic Relationships And Therapeutic Options For Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Hailie Shertzer

Senior Honors Theses

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of cancer among children and can be lethal to the adult population. Though 80% of patients with ALL reach complete remission after treatment, about 20% of those diagnosed fail to remain cancer-free. Genetic rearrangements are the hallmark of relapsed ALL, but the mechanism by which these rearrangements occur is still unclear. Recent research suggests these mutations may be detectable during initial diagnosis. If researchers are able to accurately assess the probability of relapse during diagnosis by analyzing the genome of the leukemic cells, the likelihood of administering effective therapy would increase ...


Adverse Maternal Environment And Western Diet Impairs Cognitive Function And Alters Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Promoter Methylation In Male Mice., Xingrao Ke, Qi Fu, Jennifer Sterrett, Cecilia J. Hillard, Robert H. Lane, Amber Majnik 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Adverse Maternal Environment And Western Diet Impairs Cognitive Function And Alters Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Promoter Methylation In Male Mice., Xingrao Ke, Qi Fu, Jennifer Sterrett, Cecilia J. Hillard, Robert H. Lane, Amber Majnik

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Adverse maternal environment (AME) and high-fat diet in early childhood increase the risk of cognitive impairment and depression later in life. Cognitive impairment associates with hippocampal dysfunction. A key regulator of hippocampal function is the glucocorticoid receptor. Increased hippocampal GR expression associates with cognitive impairment and depression. Transcriptional control of GR relies in part upon the DNA methylation status at multiple alternative initiation sites that are tissue specific, with exon 1.7 being hippocampal specific. Increased exon 1.7 expression associates with upregulated hippocampal GR expression in early life stress animal models. However, the effects of AME combined with postweaning ...


Immune Checkpoint Modulation Enhances Hiv-1 Antibody Induction., Todd Bradley, Masayuki Kuraoka, Chen-Hao Yeh, Ming Tian, Huan Chen, Derek W Cain, Xuejun Chen, Cheng Cheng, Ali H Ellebedy, Robert Parks, Maggie Barr, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Cindy M. Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Sampa Santra, Kevin Wiehe, Mark G. Lewis, Ane Ogbe, Persephone Borrow, David Montefiori, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Laurent Verkoczy, Kevin O. Saunders, Rafi Ahmed, John R. Mascola, Garnett Kelsoe, Frederick W. Alt, Barton F. Haynes 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Immune Checkpoint Modulation Enhances Hiv-1 Antibody Induction., Todd Bradley, Masayuki Kuraoka, Chen-Hao Yeh, Ming Tian, Huan Chen, Derek W Cain, Xuejun Chen, Cheng Cheng, Ali H Ellebedy, Robert Parks, Maggie Barr, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Cindy M. Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Sampa Santra, Kevin Wiehe, Mark G. Lewis, Ane Ogbe, Persephone Borrow, David Montefiori, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Laurent Verkoczy, Kevin O. Saunders, Rafi Ahmed, John R. Mascola, Garnett Kelsoe, Frederick W. Alt, Barton F. Haynes

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Eliciting protective titers of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development, but current vaccine strategies have yet to induce bnAbs in humans. Many bnAbs isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals are encoded by immunoglobulin gene rearrangments with infrequent naive B cell precursors and with unusual genetic features that may be subject to host regulatory control. Here, we administer antibodies targeting immune cell regulatory receptors CTLA-4, PD-1 or OX40 along with HIV envelope (Env) vaccines to rhesus macaques and bnAb immunoglobulin knock-in (KI) mice expressing diverse precursors of CD4 binding site HIV-1 bnAbs. CTLA-4 blockade augments HIV-1 Env ...


Understanding Medical Mistrust In Black Women At Risk Of Brca 1/2 Mutations, Arnethea L. Sutton, Jun He, Erin Tanner, Megan C. Edmonds, Alesha Henderson, Alejandra Hurtado de Mendoza, Vanessa B. Sheppard 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine

Understanding Medical Mistrust In Black Women At Risk Of Brca 1/2 Mutations, Arnethea L. Sutton, Jun He, Erin Tanner, Megan C. Edmonds, Alesha Henderson, Alejandra Hurtado De Mendoza, Vanessa B. Sheppard

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The benefits of genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) are well documented; however, Black women are less likely to use these services compared to White women. Mistrust of the medical system has been associated with Black women’s use of genetic counseling and testing (GCT). However, relatively little is known about the correlates of medical mistrust in Black women at increased risk of HBOC. In this study, we examined the prevalence and predictors of medical mistrust in 94 Black women at-risk of HBOC. Most women were married (48.7%) and had at least some ...


Frontotemporal Dementia Nonsense Mutation Of Progranulin Rescued By Aminoglycosides, Lisha Kuang, Kei Hashimoto, Eric J. Huang, Matthew S. Gentry, Haining Zhu 2020 University of Kentucky

Frontotemporal Dementia Nonsense Mutation Of Progranulin Rescued By Aminoglycosides, Lisha Kuang, Kei Hashimoto, Eric J. Huang, Matthew S. Gentry, Haining Zhu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an early onset dementia and is characterized by progressive atrophy of the frontal and/or temporal lobes. FTD is highly heritable with mutations in progranulin accounting for 5-26% of cases in different populations. Progranulin is involved in endocytosis, secretion and lysosomal processes, but its function under physiological and pathological conditions remains to be defined. Many FTD-causing nonsense progranulin mutations contain a premature termination codon (PTC), thus progranulin haploinsufficiency has been proposed as a major disease mechanism. Currently, there is no effective FTD treatment or therapy.

Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that possess a less known ...


Generation Of In-Frame Gene Deletion Mutants In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa And Testing For Virulence Attenuation In A Simple Mouse Model Of Infection, Meagan E. Valentine, Brandon D. Kirby, Hongwei D. Yu 2020 Marshall University

Generation Of In-Frame Gene Deletion Mutants In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa And Testing For Virulence Attenuation In A Simple Mouse Model Of Infection, Meagan E. Valentine, Brandon D. Kirby, Hongwei D. Yu

Biomedical Sciences

Microorganisms are genetically versatile and diverse and have become a major source of many commercial products and biopharmaceuticals. Though some of these products are naturally produced by the organisms, other products require genetic engineering of the organism to increase the yields of production. Avirulent strains of Escherichia coli have traditionally been the preferred bacterial species for producing biopharmaceuticals; however, some products are difficult for E. coli to produce. Thus, avirulent strains of other bacterial species could provide useful alternatives for production of some commercial products. Pseudomonas eruginosa is a common and well-studied Gram-negative bacterium that could provide a suitable alternative ...


Genetic Variations In A Cytochrome P450 Enzyme And The Effects On Clopidogrel Bioactivation And Metabolism, MaryAnne Ventura, Lauren Desko, Kimberly Gathers, Ashley Overy, David Kisor 2019 Ohio Northern University

Genetic Variations In A Cytochrome P450 Enzyme And The Effects On Clopidogrel Bioactivation And Metabolism, Maryanne Ventura, Lauren Desko, Kimberly Gathers, Ashley Overy, David Kisor

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Clopidogrel, the top prescribed antiplatelet medication for individuals who have experienced a myocardial infarction or cerebral vascular accident or who have peripheral arterial disease, is administered orally as a prodrug. It relies on hepatic metabolism through cytochrome P450 enzymes for conversion to its active form. Current research shows that allelic variation m the gene coding for CYP2C19 is the main factor contributing to the variability of response associated with clopidogrel treatment. Through the promotion of genetic testing for variability in the CYP2C19 gene and competently interpreting test results, pharmacists have the opportunity to use these findings to significantly impact clopidogrel ...


Pharmacogenomics: Your Medical Identity, Hilary Stewart, Lisa Berni, Tyler Bulcher, Joel Rittenhouse, Ryan W. Naseman, Jon E. Sprague 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pharmacogenomics: Your Medical Identity, Hilary Stewart, Lisa Berni, Tyler Bulcher, Joel Rittenhouse, Ryan W. Naseman, Jon E. Sprague

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Pharmacogenomics, the fusion of pharmacology and genomics, shows strong potential to solve many of today's dosing problems. lnter-patient dosing requirements, mainly due to genetic variability between patients, represent significant challenges for prescribers. Certain receptors, drug-targeted proteins, drug-transport mechanisms and drug-metabolizing enzymes are genetically established. Hence, any defect, absence or abnormality in the gene could alter how an affected individual will respond to a given drug. Due to advancements in technology, health care professionals who utilize pharmacogenomics may assess a patient's genetic profile and determine a predicted response to specific medications. This may result in potentially optimal dosing at ...


Identification And Molecular Analysis Of Dna In Exosomes, Jena Tavormina 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Identification And Molecular Analysis Of Dna In Exosomes, Jena Tavormina

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Exosomes are heterogeneous nanoparticles 50-150nm in diameter. Exosomes contain many functional cargo components, such as protein, DNA, and RNA. While protein and RNA exosome content has been extensively studied, very little work has been done to characterize exosomal DNA. Here, we demonstrate that exosomal DNA is heterogeneous and its packaging into exosomes is dependent on the cell of origin. Furthermore, through a rigorous assessment of various isolation methods, we identify Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) as the best method for the isolation of exosomal DNA for downstream applications. Additionally, we evaluate the methylation status of exosomal DNA and demonstrate that exosomal ...


#18 - Novel Genes Discovered In Normosmic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (Nhh), Hannah N. Smith 2019 Augusta University

#18 - Novel Genes Discovered In Normosmic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (Nhh), Hannah N. Smith

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference 2019 - Poster Presentation


Acute Diagnosis Of Wilson’S Disease In A Teenage Patient, Sarah Irvin, Ryan McCarthy 2019 West Virginia University School of Medicine

Acute Diagnosis Of Wilson’S Disease In A Teenage Patient, Sarah Irvin, Ryan Mccarthy

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Wilson’s Disease, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease, is caused by a mutation in the ATP7B enzyme gene. Without this enzyme, copper builds up in the brain, liver, and cornea causing a multitude of symptoms. It is important to consider Wilson’s disease because the prognosis is dependent on timely diagnosis. This is an interesting case of a 19-year-old male who presented with suicidal thoughts and rapid weight loss. After many months and an extensive work-up, Wilson’s Disease was diagnosed. Due to his rapid decline, he was transferred to a larger university healthcare center where he is currently ...


Genetic Predispositions To Opioid Addiction, Legislative Action And Implications To Pharmacy Practice, Adam N. Trimble, David N. Jones, Courtney L. Salvino, Michael M. Milks, David Kisor 2019 Ohio Northern University

Genetic Predispositions To Opioid Addiction, Legislative Action And Implications To Pharmacy Practice, Adam N. Trimble, David N. Jones, Courtney L. Salvino, Michael M. Milks, David Kisor

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Prescription pain-relievers can be powerfully effective agents in the treatment of moderate to severe pain; however, these drugs are also strongly associated with drug abuse and addiction. In the brain, opioid analgesics bind to various receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathways, which play a multifaceted interaction of role in reward. Several specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified as potential genetic factors that increase an individual's risk for addiction; however, confounding studies and lack of large trials prohibit definitive conclusions from being drawn. As a result of genetic testing, federal and state laws have been enacted to protect ...


Pharmacogenetics: Where Are We Now?, Brittany Dye, Megan Meyer, Vincent Wu, Michael D. Kaine 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pharmacogenetics: Where Are We Now?, Brittany Dye, Megan Meyer, Vincent Wu, Michael D. Kaine

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

No abstract provided.


Antidepressant Dosing In Major Depression: A Pharmacogenomic Approach, Morgan Homan, Haval Norman, Victoria Cho, Yousif Rojeab 2019 Ohio Northern University

Antidepressant Dosing In Major Depression: A Pharmacogenomic Approach, Morgan Homan, Haval Norman, Victoria Cho, Yousif Rojeab

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most predominant mental disorder in the United States, with serious and costly health risks if not successfully managed. Pharmacotherapy is a standard option for MDD treatment, but patients often require extensive therapy adjustments to find a suitable regimen. Pharmacogenomics may enable greater precision in antidepressant therapy. Genotypic variations in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 metabolic enzymes are reliable predictors of serum drug concentration, but the complex dose-response relationship of antidepressants prevents such variations from predicting therapy success. Additionally, ABCBl has been examined for its role in P-glycoprotein efflux of antidepressants in the brain, yet it is ...


The Effect Of Cyp3a5 Polymorphism On Kidney Transplant Recipients Given Tacrolimus, Samia Alam, Sunitha Johns, Haval Norman, Brian Heilbronner, Yousif Rojeab 2019 Ohio Northern University

The Effect Of Cyp3a5 Polymorphism On Kidney Transplant Recipients Given Tacrolimus, Samia Alam, Sunitha Johns, Haval Norman, Brian Heilbronner, Yousif Rojeab

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant agent indicated for organ transplants, is commonly administered to reduce the risk of renal graft rejection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to its narrow therapeutic index and high inter-patient variability, studies have suggested that CYP3A5-based dosing provides specialized regimens which may significantly improve the chances of achieving therapeutic concentrations. According to the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) recommendations, extensive (CYP3A5*1/*1) and intermediate metabolizers (CYP3A5*1/*3) require a higher initial dose while poor metabolizers (CYP3A5*3/*3) require a lower initial dose in order to achieve ...


Programmed Death Pathway Inhibition: Emerging Therapeutic Options For Treatment Of Advanced Or Refractory Cancers, Katherine Elsass, Morgan Homan, Jana Randolph, Brendan Rasor, David Kinder 2019 Ohio Northern University

Programmed Death Pathway Inhibition: Emerging Therapeutic Options For Treatment Of Advanced Or Refractory Cancers, Katherine Elsass, Morgan Homan, Jana Randolph, Brendan Rasor, David Kinder

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway has a significant role in the promotion of immune tolerance. The PD-1 receptor ligands are normally expressed on various inactive immune cells. When cancer cells express these ligands, they are able to interact with active T and B lymphocytes to induce this tolerance. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab are two recently approved agents that act to disrupt this binding and facilitate an immune response against cancer cells. Numerous trials, including KEYNOTE-002 and CheckMate 063, have demonstrated the superior safety and efficacy of these drugs in patients with advanced or refractory cancers. Initially approved for the treatment of ...


Pharmacogenetics: Cyps, Nat2 And 5-Htt Related To Antidepressants, Molly Kulp, Armond Cosiano, Kevin Krivanek, Amanda Lanker, Taylor Roberson, David F. Kisor 2019 Ohio Northern University

Pharmacogenetics: Cyps, Nat2 And 5-Htt Related To Antidepressants, Molly Kulp, Armond Cosiano, Kevin Krivanek, Amanda Lanker, Taylor Roberson, David F. Kisor

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Pharmacogenetics (PGt), the study of a gene's influence on patient response to a drug, shows strong potential for explaining issues with efficacy related to antidepressant medications. Each year, antidepressants are one of the most commonly prescribed medications due to the millions of Americans affected by depression. Importantly, it is recognized that there is wide interpatient variability in drug response to antidepressants caused by genetic mutations, which can alter the pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of various drugs used to treat depression. Proteins that are mainly involved in how patients respond to medications include receptors, drug-targeted proteins, drug transport ...


Phenoconversion: Drug-Drug-Gene Interactions, Molly Kulp, Emily Limberg, Brooke Marlowe, Taylor Roberson, David F. Kisor 2019 Ohio Northern University

Phenoconversion: Drug-Drug-Gene Interactions, Molly Kulp, Emily Limberg, Brooke Marlowe, Taylor Roberson, David F. Kisor

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Based on the extensive, poor, intermediate and ultrarapid phenotypes of patients, inferences may be made relative to drug metabolism, ultimately leading to changes in therapeutic drug choice or dosing. Phenoconversion is a phenomenon that occurs when an individual's drug metabolizing capacity is altered due to the combination of a drug-drug interaction and a drug-gene interaction. Phenoconversion can affect pharmacokinetics as well as pharmacodynamics. Some examples of phenoconversions include amiodarone-warfarin, duloxetine-codeine, rifampin-clopidogrel, and rifampinwarfarin. Pharmacists must consider phenoconversion in cases of multi-drug therapy.


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