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A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Integration Of Complementary And Alternative Medicine Into The Healthcare System In The United States, Nikki Lu 2018 University of Washington – Tacoma

Integration Of Complementary And Alternative Medicine Into The Healthcare System In The United States, Nikki Lu

Global Honors Theses

Chronic diseases are a prevalent issue around the world and chronic diseases are hard to prevent due to various systemic factors in the healthcare system. This paper mainly focused on socioeconomic issues and highlighted a few systemic factors in the US healthcare system. These factors have created various health disparities, inequities among socially constructed groups, and financial expenditures in the US healthcare system. Socioeconomic factors significantly impact the health and healthcare among socially constructed groups. Additionally, in this paper there are current approaches in addressing these healthcare factors such as social determinants of health and precision medicine as well as ...


Genes Associated With Mandibular Prognathism In The Chinese Population, Jacqueline Payne, Marie Tolarova M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc. 2018 University of the Pacific Dugoni Dental School

Genes Associated With Mandibular Prognathism In The Chinese Population, Jacqueline Payne, Marie Tolarova M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc.

Excellence Day

Mandibular prognathism (MP) is the relationship of the mandible anteriorly positioned in relation to the cranial base. The prevalence of MP in Asians is estimated to be 15%, whereas American and European descent exhibit a 5% prevalence. Orthodontic treatment is lengthy and challenging, and severe cases require surgical intervention. However, when a treatment is planned well, the outcomes are predominantly successful. It has been known that genetics are involved in the etiology of prognathism and that greater genetic contribution corresponds to greater challenges to treatment. Thus, there is a desire to determine genes involved in the etiology of prognathism.


Banning Abortion In Cases Of Down Syndrome: Important Lessons For Advances In Genetic Diagnosis, Rebecca Reingold, Lawrence O. Gostin 2018 Georgetown University Law Center

Banning Abortion In Cases Of Down Syndrome: Important Lessons For Advances In Genetic Diagnosis, Rebecca Reingold, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In December 2017, Ohio passed into law legislation that prohibited physicians from performing abortions if the pregnant woman’s decision was influenced by her belief that the fetus has Down syndrome. Physicians who perform abortions in these cases would face fourth-degree felony charges and revocation of their medical license. No other state bans abortion specifically for Down syndrome, but several ban abortions in cases of genetic diseases. Lower courts have struck down most such laws, holding they violate the constitutional rights of women. In February 2018, a federal district court judge blocked enforcement of Ohio’s law pending a final ...


Insurance Coverage Policies For Pharmacogenomic And Multi-Gene Testing For Cancer, Christine Y. Lu, Stephanie Loomer, Rachel Ceccarelli, Kathleen M. Mazor, James Sabin, Ellen Wright Clayton, Geoffrey S. Ginsburg, Ann Chen Wu 2018 Harvard Medical School

Insurance Coverage Policies For Pharmacogenomic And Multi-Gene Testing For Cancer, Christine Y. Lu, Stephanie Loomer, Rachel Ceccarelli, Kathleen M. Mazor, James Sabin, Ellen Wright Clayton, Geoffrey S. Ginsburg, Ann Chen Wu

Open Access Articles

Insurance coverage policies are a major determinant of patient access to genomic tests. The objective of this study was to examine differences in coverage policies for guideline-recommended pharmacogenomic tests that inform cancer treatment. We analyzed coverage policies from eight Medicare contractors and 10 private payers for 23 biomarkers (e.g., HER2 and EGFR) and multi-gene tests. We extracted policy coverage and criteria, prior authorization requirements, and an evidence basis for coverage. We reviewed professional society guidelines and their recommendations for use of pharmacogenomic tests. Coverage for KRAS, EGFR, and BRAF tests were common across Medicare contractors and private payers, but ...


Somatic Mutation Detection In Leukemia-Derived Circulating Dna: Utility In Monitoring Clonal Dynamics And Disease Response In Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Sarah Hisham Abdelaziz Youssef 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Somatic Mutation Detection In Leukemia-Derived Circulating Dna: Utility In Monitoring Clonal Dynamics And Disease Response In Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Sarah Hisham Abdelaziz Youssef

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Despite the improved outcome associated with current treatment strategies ofpediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), relapse still represents a major challenge. Pediatric ALL demonstrates branched evolution in response to selective pressure exerted by therapy; relapse founder clones emerge from pre-leukemic clones or minor subclones present at diagnosis. It is hence crucial to develop biomarkers capable of tracking subclones throughout therapy. Current practices for monitoring disease response in leukemia rely on the analysis of BM biopsy sample at specific time points throughout therapy. Not only the invasiveness of the BM biopsy hinders the sequential sampling, but also, the currently implied techniques are ...


Optimization Of Braf V600 Assay As A 2-Step Real-Time Pcr Protocol, Mimi Phuong 2018 Dominican University of California

Optimization Of Braf V600 Assay As A 2-Step Real-Time Pcr Protocol, Mimi Phuong

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

The QClamp® BRAF Codon Specific Mutation Detection Kit is a real-time PCR assay for the detection of somatic mutations in codon 600 Valine at exon 15 in the BRAF gene which encodes the serine/threonine protein kinase, using purified DNA. The V600E mutation is the most common BRAF gene mutation found in human cancers. This mutation leads to production of a BRAF protein that is abnormally active, which disrupts regulation of cell growth and division. Mutations in this gene have been found in cancers, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, malignant melanoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, non-small-cell lung carcinoma, gastric cancer, and ...


Effect Of Trinucleotide Repeats In The Huntington's Gene On Intelligence, Jessica K. Lee, Amy Conrad, Eric Epping, Kathy Mathews, Vincent Magnotta, Jeffrey D. Dawson, Peg Nopoulos 2018 University of Iowa

Effect Of Trinucleotide Repeats In The Huntington's Gene On Intelligence, Jessica K. Lee, Amy Conrad, Eric Epping, Kathy Mathews, Vincent Magnotta, Jeffrey D. Dawson, Peg Nopoulos

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Huntington's Disease (HD) is caused by an abnormality in the HTT gene. This gene includes trinucleotide repeats ranging from 10 to 35, and when expanded beyond 39, causes HD. We previously reported that CAG repeats in the normal range had a direct and beneficial effect on brain development with higher repeats being associated with higher cognitive function. The current study now expands this line of inquiry to evaluate the effects of CAG repeat throughout the entire spectrum of repeats from 15 to 58.

METHODS: We evaluated brain function in children ages 6-18 years old. DNA samples were processed ...


Surfactant Deficiency Syndrome In An Infant With A C-Terminal Frame Shift In Abca3: A Case Report, Nour Akil, Anthony J. Fischer 2018 University of Iowa

Surfactant Deficiency Syndrome In An Infant With A C-Terminal Frame Shift In Abca3: A Case Report, Nour Akil, Anthony J. Fischer

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Deficiency in ATP binding cassette A3 (ABCA3) causes neonatal respiratory distress, hypoxemic respiratory failure, and interstitial lung disease. ABCA3 transports phospholipids into the lamellar bodies of type II alveolar cells, a critical step in alveolar surfactant production. We report a term infant with ABCA3 surfactant deficiency syndrome with the E292V (c.875A>T; p.Glu292Val) mutation in trans with a novel C-terminal frame shift mutation (c.4938delC; p.Met1647fs). This mutation removes the final 58 amino acids and substitutes 33 incorrect amino acids. The frame shift spares membrane spanning and nucleotide binding domains, but disrupts a highly conserved C-terminal domain ...


Dystrophic Calcifications Point The Way-Unusual And Early Diagnostic Clue Of Conradi-Hünermann-Happle Syndrome, Kenneth Yu, Alexander T. Reid, Stephanie J T Chen, Rajiv M. Patel, Steven M. Donn, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Lori Lowe 2018 University of Iowa

Dystrophic Calcifications Point The Way-Unusual And Early Diagnostic Clue Of Conradi-Hünermann-Happle Syndrome, Kenneth Yu, Alexander T. Reid, Stephanie J T Chen, Rajiv M. Patel, Steven M. Donn, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Lori Lowe

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

No abstract provided.


Designer Babies: A Paired Analysis Of The Technological Advances And Ethical Implications Of Genetic Selection, Alexandra Schmerge 2018 DePauw University

Designer Babies: A Paired Analysis Of The Technological Advances And Ethical Implications Of Genetic Selection, Alexandra Schmerge

Student research

No abstract provided.


Editing Out Five Serpina1 Paralogs To Create A Mouse Model Of Genetic Emphysema, Florie Borel, Huaming Sun, Marina Zieger, Andrew Cox, Brynn Cardozo, Weiying Li, Gabriella Oliveira, Airiel Davis, Alisha Gruntman, Terence R. Flotte, Michael H. Brodsky, Andrew M. Hoffman, Mai K. Elmallah, Christian Mueller 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Editing Out Five Serpina1 Paralogs To Create A Mouse Model Of Genetic Emphysema, Florie Borel, Huaming Sun, Marina Zieger, Andrew Cox, Brynn Cardozo, Weiying Li, Gabriella Oliveira, Airiel Davis, Alisha Gruntman, Terence R. Flotte, Michael H. Brodsky, Andrew M. Hoffman, Mai K. Elmallah, Christian Mueller

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects 10% of the worldwide population, and the leading genetic cause is alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Due to the complexity of the murine locus, which includes up to six Serpina1 paralogs, no genetic animal model of the disease has been successfully generated until now. Here we create a quintuple Serpina1a-e knockout using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. The phenotype recapitulates the human disease phenotype, i.e., absence of hepatic and circulating AAT translates functionally to a reduced capacity to inhibit neutrophil elastase. With age, Serpina1 null mice develop emphysema spontaneously, which can be induced in younger mice ...


Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

We report here the first whole-genome sequences for 3 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (112N, 113N, and 114N) isolated in Africa. Samples of this opportunistic pathogen were collected from nasal swabs obtained from healthy carrier dogs in Botswana. The sequence information will facilitate spatial phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.


Novel Candidate Genes Important For Asthma And Hypertension Comorbidity Revealed From Associative Gene Networks, Olga V. Saik, Pavel S. Demenkov, Timofey V. Ivanisenko, Elena Yu. Bragina, Maxim B. Freidin, Irina A. Goncharova, Victor E. Dosenko, Olga I. Zolotareva, Ralf Hofestaedt, Inna N. Lavrik, Evgeny I. Rogaev, Vladimir A. Ivanisenko 2018 Institute of Cytology and Genetics

Novel Candidate Genes Important For Asthma And Hypertension Comorbidity Revealed From Associative Gene Networks, Olga V. Saik, Pavel S. Demenkov, Timofey V. Ivanisenko, Elena Yu. Bragina, Maxim B. Freidin, Irina A. Goncharova, Victor E. Dosenko, Olga I. Zolotareva, Ralf Hofestaedt, Inna N. Lavrik, Evgeny I. Rogaev, Vladimir A. Ivanisenko

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and bronchial asthma are a major issue for people's health. As of 2014, approximately one billion adults, or ~ 22% of the world population, have had hypertension. As of 2011, 235-330 million people globally have been affected by asthma and approximately 250,000-345,000 people have died each year from the disease. The development of the effective treatment therapies against these diseases is complicated by their comorbidity features. This is often a major problem in diagnosis and their treatment. Hence, in this study the bioinformatical methodology for the analysis of the comorbidity of these two diseases have been ...


Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan 2018 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans’ Hospital

Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

PURPOSE. We tested the potential of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) combination gene therapy to treat preformed corneal fibrosis using established rabbit in vivo and human in vitro models.

METHODS. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were used. Corneal fibrosis was produced by alkali injury. Twenty-four hours after scar formation, cornea received topically either balanced salt solution (BSS; n ¼ 6), polyethylenimine-conjugated gold nanoparticle (PEI2-GNP)-naked plasmid (n ¼ 6) or PEI2-GNP plasmids expressing BMP7 and HGF genes (n ¼ 6). Donor human corneas were used to obtain primary human corneal fibroblasts and myofibroblasts for mechanistic ...


Studying Vascular Morphologies In The Aged Human Brain Using Large Autopsy Datasets, Eseosa T. Ighodaro 2018 University of Kentucky

Studying Vascular Morphologies In The Aged Human Brain Using Large Autopsy Datasets, Eseosa T. Ighodaro

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of dementia in elderly individuals, especially Black/African Americans. Within my dissertation, we focused on two vascular morphologies that affect small vessels: brain arteriolosclerosis (B-ASC) and multi-vascular profiles (MVPs). B-ASC is characterized by degenerative thickening of the wall of brain arterioles. The risk factors, cognitive sequelae, and co-pathologies of B-ASC are not fully understood. To address this, we used multimodal data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, and brain-banked tissue samples from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center (UK-ADC) brain repository. We analyzed two age at ...


Biosocial Criminology Versus The Constitution, Karen E. Balter 2018 Regis University

Biosocial Criminology Versus The Constitution, Karen E. Balter

All Regis University Theses

The continually emerging field of biosocial criminology provides a basis for productively merging biology with sociological reasonings for criminal behavior. Mainstream research in criminology focuses on environmental factors as the sole reason individuals exhibit antisocial behavior patterns and may ultimately commit crimes. Criminological research has travelled in this direction for decades. The current climate within this community subscribes heavily to the notion that biology has very little to do with why people behave the way they do, and if it did, government control would be the norm. The nature of biocriminology opens a door through which constitutional issues may enter ...


Parental Experience With Whole Exome Sequencing Reanalysis And Its Impact On The Diagnostic Odyssey, Nicole D. Lucas 2018 University of South Carolina

Parental Experience With Whole Exome Sequencing Reanalysis And Its Impact On The Diagnostic Odyssey, Nicole D. Lucas

Theses and Dissertations

Advances in genomic technology and an increase in the number of gene-disease associations have helped reduce the number of individuals living without a diagnosis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) analyzes the entire human exome in an attempt to determine if there is a molecular etiology for individuals who remain undiagnosed after other clinical or molecular investigations. Still, WES leaves most individuals undiagnosed, resulting in feelings of disappointment and uncertainty. Individuals who remain undiagnosed after WES can subsequently undergo WES reanalysis later due to improvements in bioinformatics, software updates, and an increase in known genedisease associations. This is the first study, to ...


Assessing The Barriers To Cardiac Care In Carriers Of Duchenne And Becker Muscular Dystrophy, Lauren Renae Eekhoff 2018 University of South Carolina

Assessing The Barriers To Cardiac Care In Carriers Of Duchenne And Becker Muscular Dystrophy, Lauren Renae Eekhoff

Theses and Dissertations

Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) are X-linked conditions due to mutations within the dystrophin gene that cause progressive muscle weakness, respiratory insufficiency, and cardiomyopathy in affected males. Approximately twothirds of women who have a son with DBMD are carriers of the condition. Carriers typically do not manifest muscular symptoms but are at risk for cardiac abnormalities such as dilated cardiomyopathies. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that carriers of DBMD receive a complete cardiac evaluation by a cardiologist that includes an echocardiogram and electrocardiogram (EKG) with reevaluation every five years. According to a recent study33, as many as ...


Is Current Fragile X Syndrome Counseling Enough? Expanding The Clinical Phenotype Of Fragile X In Premutation And Intermediate Allele Carriers, Zahra Saadat Girnary 2018 University of South Carolina

Is Current Fragile X Syndrome Counseling Enough? Expanding The Clinical Phenotype Of Fragile X In Premutation And Intermediate Allele Carriers, Zahra Saadat Girnary

Theses and Dissertations

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a triplet repeat expansion on the FMR1 gene. Individuals with >200 repeats have FXS, while individuals between 45-54 and 55- 200 repeats have the FMR1 intermediate allele and premutation, respectively. FXS is characterized by autism and intellectual disability while the premutation is associated with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). However, recent research shows that the premutation may be associated with psychiatric manifestations. Currently, there are no established clinical features associated with the intermediate allele. This study sought to 1) study knowledge regarding FXTAS, FXPOI, as ...


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