Germ-Line Gene Editing And Congressional Reaction In Context: Learning From Almost 50 Years Of Congressional Reactions To Biomedical Breakthroughs, Russell A. Spivak, J.D., I. Glenn Cohen, J.D., Eli Y. Adashi, M.D., M.S.
Journal of Law and Health
On December 18, 2015, President Obama signed into law a policy rider forestalling the therapeutic modification of the human germ line. The rider, motivated by the science’s potential unethical ends, is only the most recent instance in which the legislature cut short the ongoing national conversation on the acceptability of a developing science. This essay offers historical perspective on what bills were proposed and passed surrounding four other then-developing scientific breakthroughs—Recombinant DNA, in vitro fertilization, Cloning, Stem Cells—to better analyze how Congress is, and should, regulate this exciting and promising science.
A State-Wide Initiative To Promote Genetic Testing In An Underserved Population, 2017 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
A State-Wide Initiative To Promote Genetic Testing In An Underserved Population, Meghan L. Underhill, Traci M. Blonquist, Karleen Habin, Debra Lundquist, Kristen Shannon, Kathryn Robinson, Mary-Lou Woodford, Jean Boucher
Open Access Articles
Genetic testing for cancer susceptibility has been widely studied and utilized clinically. Access to genetic services in research and practice is largely limited to well-insured, Caucasian individuals. In 2009, the Cancer Resource Foundation (CRF) implemented the Genetic Information for Treatment Surveillance and Support (GIFTSS) program to cover the out-of-pocket expenses associated with cancer genetic testing, targeting high-risk individuals with limited financial means and limited health insurance coverage. Here, we (i) describe the characteristics of participants in the Massachusetts (MA) GIFTSS program and (ii) evaluate mutations found in this diverse sample. A secondary retrospective data analysis was performed using de-identified demographic ...
Clinical Application Of A Cancer Genomic Profiling Assay To Guide Precision Medicine Decisions, Cheryl Eifert, Angeliki Pantazi, Ruobai Sun, Jia Xu, Pablo Cingolani, Joerg Heyer, Meaghan Russell, Maria Lvova, Jennifer Ring, Julie Y. Tse, Stephen Lyle, Alexei Protopopov
Open Access Articles
AIM: Develop and apply a comprehensive and accurate next-generation sequencing based assay to help clinicians to match oncology patients to therapies.
MATERIALS and METHODS: The performance of the CANCERPLEX(R) assay was assessed using DNA from well-characterized routine clinical formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens and cell lines.
RESULTS: The maximum sensitivity of the assay is 99.5% and its accuracy is virtually 100% for detecting somatic alterations with an allele fraction of as low as 10%. Clinically actionable variants were identified in 93% of patients (930 of 1000) who underwent testing.
CONCLUSION: The test's capacity to determine all of the ...
Easi-Crispr: A Robust Method For One-Step Generation Of Mice Carrying Conditional And Insertion Alleles Using Long Ssdna Donors And Crispr Ribonucleoproteins., 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center
Easi-Crispr: A Robust Method For One-Step Generation Of Mice Carrying Conditional And Insertion Alleles Using Long Ssdna Donors And Crispr Ribonucleoproteins., Rolen M Quadros, Hiromi Miura, Donald W Harms, Hisako Akatsuka, Takehito Sato, Tomomi Aida, Ronald Redder, Guy P Richardson, Yutaka Inagaki, Daisuke Sakai, Shannon M Buckley, Parthasarathy Seshacharyulu, Surinder K Batra, Mark A Behlke, Sarah A Zeiner, Ashley M Jacobi, Yayoi Izu, Wallace B Thoreson, Lisa D Urness, Suzanne L Mansour, Masato Ohtsuka, Channabasavaiah B Gurumurthy
Journal Articles: Munroe-Meyer Institute
BACKGROUND: Conditional knockout mice and transgenic mice expressing recombinases, reporters, and inducible transcriptional activators are key for many genetic studies and comprise over 90% of mouse models created. Conditional knockout mice are generated using labor-intensive methods of homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and are available for only ~25% of all mouse genes. Transgenic mice generated by random genomic insertion approaches pose problems of unreliable expression, and thus there is a need for targeted-insertion models. Although CRISPR-based strategies were reported to create conditional and targeted-insertion alleles via one-step delivery of targeting components directly to zygotes, these strategies are quite inefficient ...
Oriented Clonal Cell Dynamics Enables Accurate Growth And Shaping Of Vertebrate Cartilage., 2017 Karolinska Institute
Oriented Clonal Cell Dynamics Enables Accurate Growth And Shaping Of Vertebrate Cartilage., Marketa Kaucka, Tomas Zikmund, Marketa Tesarova, Daniel Gyllborg, Andreas Hellander, Josef Jaros, Jozef Kaiser, Julian Petersen, Bara Szarowska, Phillip T. Newton, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Lei Li, Hong Qian, Anne-Sofie Johansson, Yuji Mishina, Joshua D. Currie, Elly M. Tanaka, Alek Erickson, A T. Dudley, Hjalmar Brismar, Paul Southam, Enrico Coen, Min Chen, Lee S. Weinstein, Ales Hampl, Ernest Arenas, Andrei S. Chagin, Kaj Fried, Igor Adameyko
Journal Articles: Genetics, Cell Biology & Anatomy
Cartilaginous structures are at the core of embryo growth and shaping before the bone forms. Here we report a novel principle of vertebrate cartilage growth that is based on introducing transversally-oriented clones into pre-existing cartilage. This mechanism of growth uncouples the lateral expansion of curved cartilaginous sheets from the control of cartilage thickness, a process which might be the evolutionary mechanism underlying adaptations of facial shape. In rod-shaped cartilage structures (Meckel, ribs and skeletal elements in developing limbs), the transverse integration of clonal columns determines the well-defined diameter and resulting rod-like morphology. We were able to alter cartilage shape by ...
Personality Disorders And Epigenetics, 2017 Germanna Community College
Personality Disorders And Epigenetics, Julie Zaccagnino
Personality Disorders are characterized by chronic and pervasive maladaptive patterns which cause emotional distress to the individual, his/her relationships, and society. The purpose of analysis is to understand the causes of personality disorders. Genetic influence on personality is not a simple cause-and-effect. Several genes have been identified to be associated with personality traits but not cause personality traits. Personality disorders have been also associated with childhood trauma. Evidence in research has shown that childhood maltreatment is marked by DNA methylation of genes which promote glucocorticoid receptors in the synapses of the hippocampus and as well as serotonergic pathways. The ...
Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, 2017 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital
Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Jason T. Rodier, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Prashant R. Sinha, Nathan P. Hesemann, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Corneal scarring is due to aberrant activity of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway following traumatic, mechanical, infectious, or surgical injury. Altered TGFβ signaling cascade leads to downstream Smad (Suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic) protein-mediated signaling events that regulate expression of extracellular matrix and myogenic proteins. These events lead to transdifferentiation of keratocytes into myofibroblasts through fibroblasts and often results in permanent corneal scarring. Hence, therapeutic targets that reduce transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts may provide a clinically relevant approach to treat corneal fibrosis and improve long-term visual outcomes. Smad7 protein regulates the functional effects of TGFβ signaling ...
Class I-Restricted T-Cell Responses To A Polymorphic Peptide In A Gene Therapy Clinical Trial For Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency, 2017 University of Pennsylvania
Class I-Restricted T-Cell Responses To A Polymorphic Peptide In A Gene Therapy Clinical Trial For Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency, Roberto Calcedo, Suryanarayan Somanathan, Qiuyue Qin, Michael R. Betts, Andrew J. Rech, Robert H. Vonderheide, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte, James M. Wilson
Pediatric Publications and Presentations
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy is currently being pursued as a treatment for the monogenic disorder alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Results from phase I and II studies have shown relatively stable and dose-dependent increases in transgene-derived wild-type AAT after local intramuscular vector administration. In this report we describe the appearance of transgene-specific T-cell responses in two subjects that were part of the phase II trial. The patient with the more robust T-cell response, which was associated with a reduction in transgene expression, was characterized more thoroughly in this study. We learned that the AAT-specific T cells in this patient were ...
The Battle Against Malaria: A Teachable Moment, 2017 Schoolcraft College
The Battle Against Malaria: A Teachable Moment, Randy K. Schwartz
Journal of Humanistic Mathematics
Malaria has been humanity’s worst public health problem throughout recorded history. Mathematical methods are needed to understand which factors are relevant to the disease and to develop counter-measures against it. This article and the accompanying exercises provide examples of those methods for use in lower- or upper-level courses dealing with probability, statistics, or population modeling. These can be used to illustrate such concepts as correlation, causation, conditional probability, and independence. The article explains how the apparent link between sickle cell trait and resistance to malaria was first verified in Uganda using the chi-squared probability distribution. It goes on to ...
Genome Analysis Of Clostridium Difficile Pcr Ribotype 014 Lineage In Australian Pigs And Humans Reveals A Diverse Genetic Repertoire And Signatures Of Long-Range Interspecies Transmission, 2017 Edith Cowan University
Genome Analysis Of Clostridium Difficile Pcr Ribotype 014 Lineage In Australian Pigs And Humans Reveals A Diverse Genetic Repertoire And Signatures Of Long-Range Interspecies Transmission, Daniel R. Knight, Michael M. Squire, Deirdre A. Collins, Thomas V. Riley
ECU Publications Post 2013
Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype (RT) 014 is well-established in both human and porcine populations in Australia, raising the possibility that C. difficile infection (CDI) may have a zoonotic or foodborne etiology. Here, whole genome sequencing and high-resolution core genome phylogenetics were performed on a contemporaneous collection of 40 Australian RT014 isolates of human and porcine origin. Phylogenies based on MLST (7 loci, STs 2, 13, and 49) and core orthologous genes (1260 loci) showed clustering of human and porcine strains indicative of very recent shared ancestry. Core genome single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis found 42% of human strains showed a ...
Meta Analysis Of Human Alzgene Database: Benefits And Limitations Of Using C. Elegans For The Study Of Alzheimer's Disease And Co-Morbid Conditions, Behrad Vahdati Nia, Christine Kang, Michelle G. Tran, Deborah Lee, Shin Murakami
College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research
Human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and linkage studies have identified 695 genes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the vast majority of which are associated with late-onset AD. Although orthologs of these AD genes have been studied in several model species, orthologs in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, remain incompletely identified, with orthologs to only 17 AD-related genes identified in the C. elegans database, WormBase. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive search for additional C. elegans orthologs of AD genes using well-established programs, including OrthoList, which utilizes four ontology prediction programs. We also validated 680 of the AD genes as a unique ...
Iss-N1 Makes The First Fda-Approved Drug For Spinal Muscular Atrophy, 2017 Iowa State University
Iss-N1 Makes The First Fda-Approved Drug For Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Eric W. Ottesen
Biomedical Sciences Publications
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the leading genetic diseases of children and infants. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations of Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy of SMN1, cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to predominant skipping of exon 7. While various regulatory elements that modulate SMN2 exon 7 splicing have been proposed, intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) has emerged as the most promising target thus far for antisense oligonucleotide-mediated splicing correction in SMA. Upon procuring exclusive license from the University of Massachussets Medical School in 2010, Ionis Pharmaceuticals (formerly ...
Microrna Profiling Of Multiple Sclerosis: From Brain To Blood, 2017 Bond University
Microrna Profiling Of Multiple Sclerosis: From Brain To Blood, Katherine Anne Sanders
microRNA (miRNA) are short, non-coding RNAs that can significantly affect gene expression. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system, much is understood about how the immune system promotes neurodegeneration in early stages of disease. However, studies on secondary progressive MS (SPMS) demonstrate that the continued role of the immune system in disease progression is not well characterised. As key regulators of gene expression, identifying changes of miRNA expression patterns in SPMS tissues will provide insight into disease mechanisms at this stage. Using next-generation sequencing, a comprehensive miRNA expression profile of CD4+ T-cells was attained, and ...
An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, 2017 University of Central Florida
An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, Adam J. Foley
Honors in the Major Theses
Polyamines, specifically putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are small cationic molecules found in all organisms. Cells can biosynthetically make these molecules, or alternatively, they can be transported from the extracellular environment. Malignant cells have been shown to require relatively high amounts of polyamines. There is a chemotherapeutic agent, DFMO, used to block the biosynthesis of polyamines. Many malignant cells can circumvent DFMO therapy by activating their transport system. A potential solution is to simultaneously block biosynthesis and transport of polyamines. However, little is known about the polyamine transport system in higher eukaryotes.
This thesis aims to add to the basic biological ...
Reliability Issues In Imaging Genetics, 2017 Oregon Health & Science University
Reliability Issues In Imaging Genetics, Annika Eriksson
No abstract provided.
Genomic Landscape Of Colorectal Cancer In Japan: Clinical Implications Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Precision Medicine, 2016 Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
Genomic Landscape Of Colorectal Cancer In Japan: Clinical Implications Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Precision Medicine, Masayuki Nagahashi, Toshifumi Wakai, Stephen R. Lyle
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive genomic sequencing (CGS) has the potential to revolutionize precision medicine for cancer patients across the globe. However, to date large-scale genomic sequencing of cancer patients has been limited to Western populations. In order to understand possible ethnic and geographic differences and to explore the broader application of CGS to other populations, we sequenced a panel of 415 important cancer genes to characterize clinically actionable genomic driver events in 201 Japanese patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: Using next-generation sequencing methods, we examined all exons of 415 known cancer genes in Japanese CRC patients (n = 201) and evaluated for ...
Environmental Signaling Through The Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (Torc1) And The Regulation Of Epigenetic Mechanisms, 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Environmental Signaling Through The Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (Torc1) And The Regulation Of Epigenetic Mechanisms, Jason J. Workman
Theses and Dissertations (ETD)
The gene expression profile of a eukaryotic cell is responsive to a variety of extracellular stimuli, including nutrient availability, which allows cells to toggle between anabolism and catabolism based on the favorability of their environment. Much of this information is relayed through signaling complexes, such as the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1), to downstream chromatin modifying enzymes. These enzymes impact the gene regulatory process through altered histone post-translation modifications, changes in chromatin structure, and docking of chromatin regulatory complexes. Yet, despite preliminary studies suggesting that TORC1 affects epigenetic mechanisms, including histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac), almost nothing is ...
The Emerging Genetics Workforce: A Study Of Physician Geneticists' Professional Lives, 2016 University of Kentucky
The Emerging Genetics Workforce: A Study Of Physician Geneticists' Professional Lives, Heather Gosnell
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to explore the current practice and geographic location trends of physicians certified in clinical genetics, clinical biochemical genetics, and medical biochemical genetics during the 2011, 2013, and 2015 certification cycles.
METHODS: Physicians’ personal data was collected from public internet domains including the American Board of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ABMGG) provider database, the CMS National Plan and Provider Enumeration System, publically available professional-biographies, and university affiliations. The search results were cross-referenced for the greatest accuracy. Geographic location data was plotted onto maps.
RESULTS: Approximately 27% (n=69) physicians board-certified in genetics are currently ...
Ataluren Stimulates Ribosomal Selection Of Near-Cognate Trnas To Promote Nonsense Suppression, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Ataluren Stimulates Ribosomal Selection Of Near-Cognate Trnas To Promote Nonsense Suppression, Bijoyita Roy, Westley J. Friesen, Yuki Tomizawa, John D. Leszyk, Jin Zhuo, Briana Johnson, Jumana Dakka, Christopher R. Trotta, Xiaojiao Xue, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Kim M. Keeling, James A. Mobley, Steven M. Rowe, David M. Bedwell, Ellen M. Welch, Allan Jacobson
Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations
A premature termination codon (PTC) in the ORF of an mRNA generally leads to production of a truncated polypeptide, accelerated degradation of the mRNA, and depression of overall mRNA expression. Accordingly, nonsense mutations cause some of the most severe forms of inherited disorders. The small-molecule drug ataluren promotes therapeutic nonsense suppression and has been thought to mediate the insertion of near-cognate tRNAs at PTCs. However, direct evidence for this activity has been lacking. Here, we expressed multiple nonsense mutation reporters in human cells and yeast and identified the amino acids inserted when a PTC occupies the ribosomal A site in ...
Regulation Of Polycystin-1 Function By Calmodulin Binding, 2016 University of California, Santa Barbara
Regulation Of Polycystin-1 Function By Calmodulin Binding, Nicholas Doerr, Yidi Wang, Kevin R. Kipp, Guangyi Liu, Jesse J. Benza, Vladimir Pletnev, Tengis S. Pavlov, Alexander Staruschenko, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Maki Takahashi, Surya M. Nauli, Thomas Weimbs
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease that leads to progressive renal cyst growth and loss of renal function, and is caused by mutations in the genes encoding polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively. The PC1/PC2 complex localizes to primary cilia and can act as a flow-dependent calcium channel in addition to numerous other signaling functions. The exact functions of the polycystins, their regulation and the purpose of the PC1/PC2 channel are still poorly understood. PC1 is an integral membrane protein with a large extracytoplasmic N-terminal domain and a short, ~200 amino acid C-terminal ...