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Does The Expression Of Ki-67, P16 And Cox-2 At Initial Diagnosis Of Breast Atypia Or Usual Ductal Hyperplasia Predict A Second Clinically Significant Event?, Judy A. Tjoe, Philippe Gascard, Jianxin Zhao, Gary F. Neitzel, Maharaj Singh, Brittany Last, James Marx, Thea Tlsty, Sanjay Kansra 2016 Surgical Breast Oncology, Aurora Health Care

Does The Expression Of Ki-67, P16 And Cox-2 At Initial Diagnosis Of Breast Atypia Or Usual Ductal Hyperplasia Predict A Second Clinically Significant Event?, Judy A. Tjoe, Philippe Gascard, Jianxin Zhao, Gary F. Neitzel, Maharaj Singh, Brittany Last, James Marx, Thea Tlsty, Sanjay Kansra

Maharaj Singh

Background: Women diagnosed with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) have a fivefold increased risk of developing breast cancer. Because ADH/ALH can be precursors or predictive markers of a subsequent clinically significant event (SCSE), i.e. atypia, in situ or invasive carcinoma, the clinical outcome for these patients ranges anywhere from remission to invasive malignancy. Currently we cannot predict which atypical breast lesion is likely to be associated with future cancer, resulting in aggressive management and, possibly, overtreatment. Kerlikowske et al. reported that a combination of three biomarkers (cell cycle regulator p16INK4a, proliferation antigen Ki-67 and ...


Inside Exploration, Reagan E. Long 2016 College Scholars Program

Inside Exploration, Reagan E. Long

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Redesigning Gfp Reporter System For Utilization In Clostridium Difficile, Laura E. Fitzgerald 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Redesigning Gfp Reporter System For Utilization In Clostridium Difficile, Laura E. Fitzgerald

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a gram-positive bacterium that comprises part of the healthy human gut microbiome. When it gains sufficient access to peptides, C. difficile flourishes and releases tissue-damaging toxins, which cause inflammation of the colon that can develop into a Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI).10 The Ivey Laboratory believes that the best tactic in preventing CDIs is stopping peptide ingestion, which theoretically could be accomplished by manipulating the oligopeptide permease (App) system.7 In order to verify that altering the App system would successfully impede peptide uptake, first the expression of the app Promoter Region (appProR) of ...


Porphyromonas Gingivalis Gingipains Induce A Pro-Inflammatory Extracellular Microenvironment : The Role Of Par-2 And Fibronectin., Jeffrey S. Marschall 2016 University of Louisville

Porphyromonas Gingivalis Gingipains Induce A Pro-Inflammatory Extracellular Microenvironment : The Role Of Par-2 And Fibronectin., Jeffrey S. Marschall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by severe tissue destruction of the gingiva and other tooth supporting structures; if left untreated, tooth loss and disintegration of the alveolar bone occurs. This chronic inflammatory state has been linked to other systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the major pathogenic microbe in periodontitis. The main virulence factors of P. gingivalis are the Arg-aa and Lys-aa gingipains, which are proteolytic enzymes implicated in a plethora of activities that allow P. gingivalis to subvert the human immune system in the oral ...


Abin1 In The Pathogenesis Of Glomerulonephritis And The Novel Polocyte-Neutrophil Proinflammatory Axis., Erik Anderson Korte 2016 University of Louisville

Abin1 In The Pathogenesis Of Glomerulonephritis And The Novel Polocyte-Neutrophil Proinflammatory Axis., Erik Anderson Korte

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glomerulonephritis (GN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide and is characterized by deposition of immune complex, inflammation, proteinuria and podocyte damage. Immunosuppressive therapy is effective in less than 50% of patients, indicating that immunological activity is not the only relevant cause of kidney injury. While methods have been described for neutrophil-mediated immune activation, specific glomerular mechanisms for recruitment of neutrophils and development of GN have not been determined. Here I present a pathogenic mechanism for the development of GN involving a novel podocyte-neutrophil axis and reveal the importance of glomerular NF-κB inhibition by the ubiquitin binding ...


Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function Following Myocardial Ischemia By Reducing Oxidative Stress, Yossi Issan, Ran Kornowski, Dan Aravot, Asher Shainberg, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Komal Sodhi, Nader G. Abraham, Edith Hochhauser 2016 Marshall University

Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function Following Myocardial Ischemia By Reducing Oxidative Stress, Yossi Issan, Ran Kornowski, Dan Aravot, Asher Shainberg, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Komal Sodhi, Nader G. Abraham, Edith Hochhauser

Nader G. Abraham

Background

Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation.

Methods

In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage ...


Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function Following Myocardial Ischemia By Reducing Oxidative Stress, Yossi Issan, Ran Kornowski, Dan Aravot, Asher Shainberg, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Komal Sodhi, Nader G. Abraham, Edith Hochhauser 2016 Marshall University

Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function Following Myocardial Ischemia By Reducing Oxidative Stress, Yossi Issan, Ran Kornowski, Dan Aravot, Asher Shainberg, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Komal Sodhi, Nader G. Abraham, Edith Hochhauser

Komal Sodhi

Background

Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation.

Methods

In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage ...


Association Of Epstein-Barr Virus With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma And Current Status Of Development Of Cancer-Derived Cell Lines, Charles A. Gullo PhD, Wong Kein Low, Gerrard Teoh 2016 Marshall University

Association Of Epstein-Barr Virus With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma And Current Status Of Development Of Cancer-Derived Cell Lines, Charles A. Gullo Phd, Wong Kein Low, Gerrard Teoh

Charles Gullo

It is well known that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes directly to tumourigenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), primarily in the undifferentiated form of NPC (WHO type III; UNPC or UC), which is commonly found in South East Asia. Unfortunately, research in NPC has been severely hampered by the lack of authentic EBV-positive (EBV+) human NPC cell lines for study. Since 1975, there have been more than 20 reported NPC cell lines. However, many of these NPC-derived cell lines do not express EBV transcripts in long-term culture, and therefore that finding may dispute the fundamental theory of NPC carcinogenesis. In fact ...


Identification Of Potential Drug Targets In Cancer Signaling Pathways Using Stochastic Logical Models, Peican Zhu, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Jie Han 2016 Northwestern Polytechnical University

Identification Of Potential Drug Targets In Cancer Signaling Pathways Using Stochastic Logical Models, Peican Zhu, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Jie Han

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The investigation of vulnerable components in a signaling pathway can contribute to development of drug therapy addressing aberrations in that pathway. Here, an original signaling pathway is derived from the published literature on breast cancer models. New stochastic logical models are then developed to analyze the vulnerability of the components in multiple signalling sub-pathways involved in this signaling cascade. The computational results are consistent with the experimental results, where the selected proteins were silenced using specific siRNAs and the viability of the cells were analyzed 72 hours after silencing. The genes elF4E and NFkB are found to have nearly no ...


Does The Expression Of Ki-67, P16 And Cox-2 At Initial Diagnosis Of Breast Atypia Or Usual Ductal Hyperplasia Predict A Second Clinically Significant Event?, Judy Tjoe, Philippe Gascard, Jianxin Zhao, Gary Neitzel, Maharaj Singh, Brittany Last, James Marx, Thea Tlsty, Sanjay Kansra 2016 Surgical Breast Oncology, Aurora Health Care

Does The Expression Of Ki-67, P16 And Cox-2 At Initial Diagnosis Of Breast Atypia Or Usual Ductal Hyperplasia Predict A Second Clinically Significant Event?, Judy Tjoe, Philippe Gascard, Jianxin Zhao, Gary Neitzel, Maharaj Singh, Brittany Last, James Marx, Thea Tlsty, Sanjay Kansra

Judy Tjoe, MD

Background: Women diagnosed with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) have a fivefold increased risk of developing breast cancer. Because ADH/ALH can be precursors or predictive markers of a subsequent clinically significant event (SCSE), i.e. atypia, in situ or invasive carcinoma, the clinical outcome for these patients ranges anywhere from remission to invasive malignancy. Currently we cannot predict which atypical breast lesion is likely to be associated with future cancer, resulting in aggressive management and, possibly, overtreatment. Kerlikowske et al. reported that a combination of three biomarkers (cell cycle regulator p16INK4a, proliferation antigen Ki-67 and ...


The Role Of Tgfβ1 And Ep Receptors In The Differentiation Of Normal And Diseased Lung Fibroblasts, Madison A. Hexter 2016 University of Akron

The Role Of Tgfβ1 And Ep Receptors In The Differentiation Of Normal And Diseased Lung Fibroblasts, Madison A. Hexter

Honors Research Projects

Fibroblasts, and their differentiation into myofibroblasts, are important in the pathology of several lung diseases including asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The differentiation process is dependent on several factors, such as soluble factors like transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and mechanical signals such as matrix stiffness. Additionally, the soluble arachidonic acid metabolite Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) prevents TGFβ1 induced differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, but the molecular mechanism is not completely understood15. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a mechanosensitive ion channel, has previously been implicated in the differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts12,13. However, the ...


Modulation Of Nitric Oxide Synthase I Transcription By Tau And Alpha-Synuclein And Its Relevance To Alzheimer's And Parkinson's Diseases, Taelor A. Weaver, Alexandra L. Deal 2016 James Madison University

Modulation Of Nitric Oxide Synthase I Transcription By Tau And Alpha-Synuclein And Its Relevance To Alzheimer's And Parkinson's Diseases, Taelor A. Weaver, Alexandra L. Deal

Senior Honors Projects

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) are both progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect millions of Americans and for which there are no cures. AD can significantly impair the ability to think, remember, communicate, and carry out daily activities, while PD can affect motor functions such as balance, coordination, and the ability to speak. Intracellular protein aggregation is a hallmark of both diseases, with AD being characterized by the build up of neurofibrillary tangles composed of misfolded tau protein and PD being characterized by Lewy bodies composed of alpha-synuclein. Both normal tau and alpha-synuclein can localize to the ...


Recapitulating Cross-Species Transmission Of Sivcpz To Humans Using Humanized-Blt Mice, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Fangrui Ma, Wuxun Lu, Wenjin Fan, Christine M. Fennessey, Brandon F. Keele, Qingsheng Li 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Recapitulating Cross-Species Transmission Of Sivcpz To Humans Using Humanized-Blt Mice, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Fangrui Ma, Wuxun Lu, Wenjin Fan, Christine M. Fennessey, Brandon F. Keele, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

The origins of HIV-1 have been widely accepted to be the consequence of simian immunodeficiency viruses from wild chimpanzees (SIVcpz) crossing over to humans. However, there has not been any in vivo study of SIVcpz infection of humans. Also, it remains largely unknown why only specific SIVcpz strains have achieved cross-species transmission and what transmission risk might exist for those SIVcpz strains that have not been found to infect humans. Closing this knowledge gap is essential for better understanding cross-species transmission and predicting the likelihood of additional cross-species transmissions of SIV into humans. Here we show hu-BLT mice are susceptible ...


Hypoxia Induces Phenotypic Plasticity And Therapy Resistance In Melanoma Via The Tyrosine Kinase Receptors Ror1 And Ror2, Michael O'Connell, Katie Marchbank, Marie Webster, Alexander Valiga, Amanpreet Kaur, Adina Vultur, Ling Li, Meenhard Herlyn, Jessie Villanueva, Qin Liu, Xiangfan Yin, Sandy Widura, Janelle Nelson, Nivia Ruiz, Tura C Camilli, Fred E Indig, Keith T Flaherty, Jennifer A Wargo, Dennie T Frederick, Zachary A Cooper, Suresh Nair, Ravi K Amaravadi, Lynn M Schuchter, Giorgos C Karakousis, Wei Xu, Xiaowei Xu, Ashani T Weeraratna 2015 The Wistar Institute

Hypoxia Induces Phenotypic Plasticity And Therapy Resistance In Melanoma Via The Tyrosine Kinase Receptors Ror1 And Ror2, Michael O'Connell, Katie Marchbank, Marie Webster, Alexander Valiga, Amanpreet Kaur, Adina Vultur, Ling Li, Meenhard Herlyn, Jessie Villanueva, Qin Liu, Xiangfan Yin, Sandy Widura, Janelle Nelson, Nivia Ruiz, Tura C Camilli, Fred E Indig, Keith T Flaherty, Jennifer A Wargo, Dennie T Frederick, Zachary A Cooper, Suresh Nair, Ravi K Amaravadi, Lynn M Schuchter, Giorgos C Karakousis, Wei Xu, Xiaowei Xu, Ashani T Weeraratna

Suresh G. Nair MD

An emerging concept in melanoma biology is that of dynamic, adaptive phenotype switching, where cells switch from a highly proliferative, poorly invasive phenotype to a highly invasive, less proliferative one. This switch may hold significant implications not just for metastasis, but also for therapy resistance. We demonstrate that phenotype switching and subsequent resistance can be guided by changes in expression of receptors involved in the noncanonical Wnt5A signaling pathway, ROR1 and ROR2. ROR1 and ROR2 are inversely expressed in melanomas and negatively regulate each other. Furthermore, hypoxia initiates a shift of ROR1-positive melanomas to a more invasive, ROR2-positive phenotype. Notably ...


Does The Expression Of Ki-67, P16 And Cox-2 At Initial Diagnosis Of Breast Atypia Or Usual Ductal Hyperplasia Predict A Second Clinically Significant Event?, Judy A. Tjoe, Philippe Gascard, Jianxin Zhao, Gary F. Neitzel, Maharaj Singh, Brittany Last, James Marx, Thea Tlsty, Sanjay Kansra 2015 Surgical Breast Oncology, Aurora Health Care

Does The Expression Of Ki-67, P16 And Cox-2 At Initial Diagnosis Of Breast Atypia Or Usual Ductal Hyperplasia Predict A Second Clinically Significant Event?, Judy A. Tjoe, Philippe Gascard, Jianxin Zhao, Gary F. Neitzel, Maharaj Singh, Brittany Last, James Marx, Thea Tlsty, Sanjay Kansra

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Women diagnosed with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) have a fivefold increased risk of developing breast cancer. Because ADH/ALH can be precursors or predictive markers of a subsequent clinically significant event (SCSE), i.e. atypia, in situ or invasive carcinoma, the clinical outcome for these patients ranges anywhere from remission to invasive malignancy. Currently we cannot predict which atypical breast lesion is likely to be associated with future cancer, resulting in aggressive management and, possibly, overtreatment. Kerlikowske et al. reported that a combination of three biomarkers (cell cycle regulator p16INK4a, proliferation antigen Ki-67 and ...


Identification Of Hydroxyxanthones As Na/K-Atpase Ligands, Zhongbing Zhang, Zhichuan Li, Jiang Tian, Wei Jiang, Yin Wang, Xiaojin Zhang, Zhuorong Li, Qidong You, Joseph Shapiro, Shuyi Si, Zijian Xie 2015 Marshall University

Identification Of Hydroxyxanthones As Na/K-Atpase Ligands, Zhongbing Zhang, Zhichuan Li, Jiang Tian, Wei Jiang, Yin Wang, Xiaojin Zhang, Zhuorong Li, Qidong You, Joseph Shapiro, Shuyi Si, Zijian Xie

Zijian Xie

We have screened a chemical library and identified several novel structures of Na/K-ATPase inhibitors. One group of these inhibitors belongs to polyphenolic xanthone derivatives. Functional characterization reveals the following properties of this group of inhibitors. First, like ouabain, they are potent inhibitors of the purified Na/K-ATPase. Second, their effects on the Na/K-ATPase depend on the number and position of phenolic groups. Methylation of these phenolic groups reduces the inhibitory effect. Third, further characterization of the most potent xanthone derivative, MB7 (3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone), reveals that it does not change either Na+ or ATP affinity of the ...


In Vitro Haematopoiesis Of A Novel Dendritic-Like Cell Present In Murine Spleen, Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill 2015 Bond University

In Vitro Haematopoiesis Of A Novel Dendritic-Like Cell Present In Murine Spleen, Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Jonathan Tan

Abstract: Dendritic cells (DC) are important antigen presenting cells (APC) which induce and control the adaptive immune response. In spleen alone, multiple DC subsets can be distinguished by cell surface marker phenotype. Most of these have been shown to develop from progenitors in bone marrow and to seed lymphoid and tissue sites during development. This study advances in vitro methodology for haematopoiesis of dendritic-like cells from progenitors in spleen. Since spleen progenitors undergo differentiation in vitro to produce these cells, the possibility exists that spleen represents a specific niche for differentiation of this subset. The fact that an equivalent cell ...


Marinobufagenin Stimulates Fibroblast Collagen Production And Causes Fibrosis In Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy, Jihad Elkareh, David Kennedy, Belvadi Yashaswi, Sandeep Vetteth, Amjad Shidyak, Eric Kim, Sleiman Smaili, Sankaridrug Periyasamy, Imad Hariri, Larisa Fedorova, Jiang Liu, Liang Wu, M. Kahaleh, Zijian Xie, Deepak Malhotra, Olga Fedorova, Vladimir Kashkin, Alexei Bagrov, Joseph Shapiro 2015 Marshall University

Marinobufagenin Stimulates Fibroblast Collagen Production And Causes Fibrosis In Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy, Jihad Elkareh, David Kennedy, Belvadi Yashaswi, Sandeep Vetteth, Amjad Shidyak, Eric Kim, Sleiman Smaili, Sankaridrug Periyasamy, Imad Hariri, Larisa Fedorova, Jiang Liu, Liang Wu, M. Kahaleh, Zijian Xie, Deepak Malhotra, Olga Fedorova, Vladimir Kashkin, Alexei Bagrov, Joseph Shapiro

Jiang Liu

We have observed recently that experimental renal failure in the rat is accompanied by increases in circulating concentrations of the cardiotonic steroid, marinobufagenin (MBG), and substantial cardiac fibrosis. We performed the following studies to examine whether MBG might directly stimulate cardiac fibroblast collagen production. In vivo studies were performed using the 5/6th nephrectomy model of experimental renal failure (PNx), MBG infusion (MBG), PNx after immunization against MBG, and concomitant PNx and adrenalectomy. Physiological measurements with a Millar catheter and immunohistochemistry were performed. In vitro studies were then pursued with cultured isolated cardiac fibroblasts. We observed that PNx and MBG ...


Marinobufagenin Stimulates Fibroblast Collagen Production And Causes Fibrosis In Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy, Jihad Elkareh, David Kennedy, Belvadi Yashaswi, Sandeep Vetteth, Amjad Shidyak, Eric Kim, Sleiman Smaili, Sankaridrug Periyasamy, Imad Hariri, Larisa Fedorova, Jiang Liu, Liang Wu, M. Kahaleh, Zijian Xie, Deepak Malhotra, Olga Fedorova, Vladimir Kashkin, Alexei Bagrov, Joseph Shapiro 2015 Marshall University

Marinobufagenin Stimulates Fibroblast Collagen Production And Causes Fibrosis In Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy, Jihad Elkareh, David Kennedy, Belvadi Yashaswi, Sandeep Vetteth, Amjad Shidyak, Eric Kim, Sleiman Smaili, Sankaridrug Periyasamy, Imad Hariri, Larisa Fedorova, Jiang Liu, Liang Wu, M. Kahaleh, Zijian Xie, Deepak Malhotra, Olga Fedorova, Vladimir Kashkin, Alexei Bagrov, Joseph Shapiro

Zijian Xie

We have observed recently that experimental renal failure in the rat is accompanied by increases in circulating concentrations of the cardiotonic steroid, marinobufagenin (MBG), and substantial cardiac fibrosis. We performed the following studies to examine whether MBG might directly stimulate cardiac fibroblast collagen production. In vivo studies were performed using the 5/6th nephrectomy model of experimental renal failure (PNx), MBG infusion (MBG), PNx after immunization against MBG, and concomitant PNx and adrenalectomy. Physiological measurements with a Millar catheter and immunohistochemistry were performed. In vitro studies were then pursued with cultured isolated cardiac fibroblasts. We observed that PNx and MBG ...


Spironolactone Attenuates Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy By Antagonizing Marinobufagenin, Jiang Tian, Amjad Shidyak, Sankaridrug Periyasamy, Steven Haller, Mohamed Taleb, Nasser El-Okdi, Jihad Elkareh, Shalini Gupta, Sabry Gohara, Olga Fedorova, Christopher Cooper, Zijian Xie, Deepak Malhorta, Alexei Bagrov, Joseph Shapiro 2015 Marshall University

Spironolactone Attenuates Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy By Antagonizing Marinobufagenin, Jiang Tian, Amjad Shidyak, Sankaridrug Periyasamy, Steven Haller, Mohamed Taleb, Nasser El-Okdi, Jihad Elkareh, Shalini Gupta, Sabry Gohara, Olga Fedorova, Christopher Cooper, Zijian Xie, Deepak Malhorta, Alexei Bagrov, Joseph Shapiro

Zijian Xie

Spironolactone has been noted to attenuate cardiac fibrosis. We have observed that the cardiotonic steroid marinobufagenin plays an important role in the diastolic dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis seen with experimental renal failure. We performed the following studies to determine whether and how spironolactone might ameliorate these changes. First, we studied rats subjected to partial nephrectomy or administration of exogenous marinobufagenin. We found that spironolactone (20 mg/kg per day) attenuated the diastolic dysfunction as assessed by ventricular pressure-volume loops and essentially eliminated cardiac fibrosis as assessed by trichrome staining and Western blot. Next, we examined the effects of spironolactone and ...


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