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The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The median survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients from diagnosis is a dismal 3 years. This condition is characterized by pulmonary fibroproliferation and excess production and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in obliteration of the original tissue architecture, loss of lung function and eventual death due to respiratory failure. The main hindrance to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis is the late detection of its progression and is often of unknown cause. Tobacco smoke represents the most important environmental factor linked to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, with over 60% of IPF patients current ...


The Nucleolar Protein Nucleophosmin Undergoes Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation With Arginine-Rich Nucleolar Proteins Through Weak, Multivalent Electrostatic Interactions, Jaclyn Alicia Cika 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

The Nucleolar Protein Nucleophosmin Undergoes Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation With Arginine-Rich Nucleolar Proteins Through Weak, Multivalent Electrostatic Interactions, Jaclyn Alicia Cika

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Nucleoli are nuclear membrane-less organelles that are the sites for ribosome biogenesis and serve as sensors of cellular stress. Weak, multivalent protein-protein interactions and interactions between disordered, low complexity domains (LCDs) and rRNA have been shown to promote liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in vitro, suggesting a basis for the liquid-like behavior of nucleoli. Nucleophosmin (NPM1), a multifunctional and highly abundant nucleolar protein, exhibits structural features associated with LLPS suggesting a role in nucleolar organization. Specifically, NPM1 forms a pentamer through its N-terminal oligomerization domain and can bind to rRNA through its C-terminal nucleic acid binding domain. Multiple acidic tracts throughout ...


Immune Monitoring In Recipients Of Combined Living Donor Kidney And Hematopoietic Stem/Facilitating Cell Transplants., Mark DeWayne Badder 2016 University of Louisville

Immune Monitoring In Recipients Of Combined Living Donor Kidney And Hematopoietic Stem/Facilitating Cell Transplants., Mark Dewayne Badder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Solid organ transplantation coupled with a hematopoietic stem cell transplant from the organ donor allows for the recipient to cease immunosuppressive therapy after transplant via a chimeric immune system. This beneficial effect of stem cell transplants is negatively affected by graft versus host disease (GVHD). Better understanding of the donor and recipient’s immune system is vital to mitigating graft versus host disease and induction of donor chimerism without GVHD. In this study, flow cytometry was used to characterize immune cells of the recipients’ before and up to eighteen months post transplantation. The recipients were categorized into their respective chimeric ...


Seniors Welcome! Avoiding The Trap Of Age Limits In Health Research, Arshad Jahangir 2016 Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani Center for Integrative Research on Cardiovascular Aging, Aurora Research Institute

Seniors Welcome! Avoiding The Trap Of Age Limits In Health Research, Arshad Jahangir

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

The guest editor introduces this specialty issue of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, which focuses on cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. The reality of an aging population has increased the need for better evidence-based medicine in older patients. However, randomized controlled trials frequently exclude such patients, especially those with comorbidities, from study. This practice ignores the fact that physiologic changes to the cardiovascular system caused by the aging process and aging-associated diseases create clinical dilemmas distinct from those in younger patients. Considering the rising costs of health care and growing incidence of cardiovascular disease, research efforts and resources ...


Does The Expression Of Ki-67, P16 And Cox-2 At Initial Diagnosis Of Breast Atypia Or Usual Ductal Hyperplasia Predict A Second Clinically Significant Event?, Judy A. Tjoe, Philippe Gascard, Jianxin Zhao, Gary F. Neitzel, Maharaj Singh, Brittany Last, James Marx, Thea Tlsty, Sanjay Kansra 2016 Surgical Breast Oncology, Aurora Health Care

Does The Expression Of Ki-67, P16 And Cox-2 At Initial Diagnosis Of Breast Atypia Or Usual Ductal Hyperplasia Predict A Second Clinically Significant Event?, Judy A. Tjoe, Philippe Gascard, Jianxin Zhao, Gary F. Neitzel, Maharaj Singh, Brittany Last, James Marx, Thea Tlsty, Sanjay Kansra

Maharaj Singh

Background: Women diagnosed with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) have a fivefold increased risk of developing breast cancer. Because ADH/ALH can be precursors or predictive markers of a subsequent clinically significant event (SCSE), i.e. atypia, in situ or invasive carcinoma, the clinical outcome for these patients ranges anywhere from remission to invasive malignancy. Currently we cannot predict which atypical breast lesion is likely to be associated with future cancer, resulting in aggressive management and, possibly, overtreatment. Kerlikowske et al. reported that a combination of three biomarkers (cell cycle regulator p16INK4a, proliferation antigen Ki-67 and ...


Inside Exploration, Reagan E. Long 2016 College Scholars Program

Inside Exploration, Reagan E. Long

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Redesigning Gfp Reporter System For Utilization In Clostridium Difficile, Laura E. Fitzgerald 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Redesigning Gfp Reporter System For Utilization In Clostridium Difficile, Laura E. Fitzgerald

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a gram-positive bacterium that comprises part of the healthy human gut microbiome. When it gains sufficient access to peptides, C. difficile flourishes and releases tissue-damaging toxins, which cause inflammation of the colon that can develop into a Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI).10 The Ivey Laboratory believes that the best tactic in preventing CDIs is stopping peptide ingestion, which theoretically could be accomplished by manipulating the oligopeptide permease (App) system.7 In order to verify that altering the App system would successfully impede peptide uptake, first the expression of the app Promoter Region (appProR) of ...


Porphyromonas Gingivalis Gingipains Induce A Pro-Inflammatory Extracellular Microenvironment : The Role Of Par-2 And Fibronectin., Jeffrey S. Marschall 2016 University of Louisville

Porphyromonas Gingivalis Gingipains Induce A Pro-Inflammatory Extracellular Microenvironment : The Role Of Par-2 And Fibronectin., Jeffrey S. Marschall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by severe tissue destruction of the gingiva and other tooth supporting structures; if left untreated, tooth loss and disintegration of the alveolar bone occurs. This chronic inflammatory state has been linked to other systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the major pathogenic microbe in periodontitis. The main virulence factors of P. gingivalis are the Arg-aa and Lys-aa gingipains, which are proteolytic enzymes implicated in a plethora of activities that allow P. gingivalis to subvert the human immune system in the oral ...


Abin1 In The Pathogenesis Of Glomerulonephritis And The Novel Polocyte-Neutrophil Proinflammatory Axis., Erik Anderson Korte 2016 University of Louisville

Abin1 In The Pathogenesis Of Glomerulonephritis And The Novel Polocyte-Neutrophil Proinflammatory Axis., Erik Anderson Korte

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glomerulonephritis (GN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide and is characterized by deposition of immune complex, inflammation, proteinuria and podocyte damage. Immunosuppressive therapy is effective in less than 50% of patients, indicating that immunological activity is not the only relevant cause of kidney injury. While methods have been described for neutrophil-mediated immune activation, specific glomerular mechanisms for recruitment of neutrophils and development of GN have not been determined. Here I present a pathogenic mechanism for the development of GN involving a novel podocyte-neutrophil axis and reveal the importance of glomerular NF-κB inhibition by the ubiquitin binding ...


Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function Following Myocardial Ischemia By Reducing Oxidative Stress, Yossi Issan, Ran Kornowski, Dan Aravot, Asher Shainberg, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Komal Sodhi, Nader G. Abraham, Edith Hochhauser 2016 Marshall University

Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function Following Myocardial Ischemia By Reducing Oxidative Stress, Yossi Issan, Ran Kornowski, Dan Aravot, Asher Shainberg, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Komal Sodhi, Nader G. Abraham, Edith Hochhauser

Nader G. Abraham

Background

Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation.

Methods

In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage ...


Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function Following Myocardial Ischemia By Reducing Oxidative Stress, Yossi Issan, Ran Kornowski, Dan Aravot, Asher Shainberg, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Komal Sodhi, Nader G. Abraham, Edith Hochhauser 2016 Marshall University

Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function Following Myocardial Ischemia By Reducing Oxidative Stress, Yossi Issan, Ran Kornowski, Dan Aravot, Asher Shainberg, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Komal Sodhi, Nader G. Abraham, Edith Hochhauser

Komal Sodhi

Background

Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation.

Methods

In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage ...


Association Of Epstein-Barr Virus With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma And Current Status Of Development Of Cancer-Derived Cell Lines, Charles A. Gullo PhD, Wong Kein Low, Gerrard Teoh 2016 Marshall University

Association Of Epstein-Barr Virus With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma And Current Status Of Development Of Cancer-Derived Cell Lines, Charles A. Gullo Phd, Wong Kein Low, Gerrard Teoh

Charles Gullo

It is well known that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes directly to tumourigenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), primarily in the undifferentiated form of NPC (WHO type III; UNPC or UC), which is commonly found in South East Asia. Unfortunately, research in NPC has been severely hampered by the lack of authentic EBV-positive (EBV+) human NPC cell lines for study. Since 1975, there have been more than 20 reported NPC cell lines. However, many of these NPC-derived cell lines do not express EBV transcripts in long-term culture, and therefore that finding may dispute the fundamental theory of NPC carcinogenesis. In fact ...


Identification Of Potential Drug Targets In Cancer Signaling Pathways Using Stochastic Logical Models, Peican Zhu, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Jie Han 2016 Northwestern Polytechnical University

Identification Of Potential Drug Targets In Cancer Signaling Pathways Using Stochastic Logical Models, Peican Zhu, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Jie Han

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The investigation of vulnerable components in a signaling pathway can contribute to development of drug therapy addressing aberrations in that pathway. Here, an original signaling pathway is derived from the published literature on breast cancer models. New stochastic logical models are then developed to analyze the vulnerability of the components in multiple signalling sub-pathways involved in this signaling cascade. The computational results are consistent with the experimental results, where the selected proteins were silenced using specific siRNAs and the viability of the cells were analyzed 72 hours after silencing. The genes elF4E and NFkB are found to have nearly no ...


Does The Expression Of Ki-67, P16 And Cox-2 At Initial Diagnosis Of Breast Atypia Or Usual Ductal Hyperplasia Predict A Second Clinically Significant Event?, Judy Tjoe, Philippe Gascard, Jianxin Zhao, Gary Neitzel, Maharaj Singh, Brittany Last, James Marx, Thea Tlsty, Sanjay Kansra 2016 Surgical Breast Oncology, Aurora Health Care

Does The Expression Of Ki-67, P16 And Cox-2 At Initial Diagnosis Of Breast Atypia Or Usual Ductal Hyperplasia Predict A Second Clinically Significant Event?, Judy Tjoe, Philippe Gascard, Jianxin Zhao, Gary Neitzel, Maharaj Singh, Brittany Last, James Marx, Thea Tlsty, Sanjay Kansra

Judy Tjoe, MD

Background: Women diagnosed with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) have a fivefold increased risk of developing breast cancer. Because ADH/ALH can be precursors or predictive markers of a subsequent clinically significant event (SCSE), i.e. atypia, in situ or invasive carcinoma, the clinical outcome for these patients ranges anywhere from remission to invasive malignancy. Currently we cannot predict which atypical breast lesion is likely to be associated with future cancer, resulting in aggressive management and, possibly, overtreatment. Kerlikowske et al. reported that a combination of three biomarkers (cell cycle regulator p16INK4a, proliferation antigen Ki-67 and ...


Recapitulating Cross-Species Transmission Of Sivcpz To Humans Using Humanized-Blt Mice, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Fangrui Ma, Wuxun Lu, Wenjin Fan, Christine M. Fennessey, Brandon F. Keele, Qingsheng Li 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Recapitulating Cross-Species Transmission Of Sivcpz To Humans Using Humanized-Blt Mice, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Fangrui Ma, Wuxun Lu, Wenjin Fan, Christine M. Fennessey, Brandon F. Keele, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

The origins of HIV-1 have been widely accepted to be the consequence of simian immunodeficiency viruses from wild chimpanzees (SIVcpz) crossing over to humans. However, there has not been any in vivo study of SIVcpz infection of humans. Also, it remains largely unknown why only specific SIVcpz strains have achieved cross-species transmission and what transmission risk might exist for those SIVcpz strains that have not been found to infect humans. Closing this knowledge gap is essential for better understanding cross-species transmission and predicting the likelihood of additional cross-species transmissions of SIV into humans. Here we show hu-BLT mice are susceptible ...


Lineage-Specific Differences In The Gp120 Inner Domain Layer 3 Of Human And Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses, Shilei Ding, Halima Medjahed, Jérémie Prévost, Mathieu Coutu, Shi-Hua Xiang, Andrés Finzi 2016 Centre de Recherche du CHUM

Lineage-Specific Differences In The Gp120 Inner Domain Layer 3 Of Human And Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses, Shilei Ding, Halima Medjahed, Jérémie Prévost, Mathieu Coutu, Shi-Hua Xiang, Andrés Finzi

Virology Papers

Binding of HIV-1 and SIV gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein to CD4 triggers conformational changes in gp120 that promote its interaction with one of the chemokine receptors, usually CCR5, ultimately leading to gp41-mediated virus-cell membrane fusion and entry. We previously described that topological Layers (Layer 1, Layer 2 and Layer 3) in the gp120 inner domain contribute to gp120-trimer association in the unliganded state but also help secure CD4 binding. Relative to Layer 1 of HIV-1 gp120, the SIVmac239 gp120 Layer 1 plays a more prominent role in maintaining gp120-trimer association but is minimally involved in promoting CD4 binding, which could ...


Genetic Barrier To Direct Acting Antivirals In Hcv Sequences Deposited In The European Databank, Dimas Alexandre Kliemann, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Ana Beatriz Gorini da Veiga, André Luiz Machado, John West 2016 Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre

Genetic Barrier To Direct Acting Antivirals In Hcv Sequences Deposited In The European Databank, Dimas Alexandre Kliemann, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Ana Beatriz Gorini Da Veiga, André Luiz Machado, John West

Virology Papers

Background & Aims: Development of resistance results from mutations in the viral genome, and the presence of selective drug pressure leads to the emergence of a resistant virus population. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of genetic variability on the genetic barrier to drug resistance to DAAs.

Methods: The genetic barrier was quantified based on the number and type of nucleotide mutations required to impart resistance, considering full-length HCV NS3, NS5A and NS5B regions segregated by genotype into subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b and 3a. This study analyzed 789 NS3 sequences, 708 sequences and 536 NS5B sequences deposited in the European Hepatitis C Virus Database, in the following resistance-associated positions: NS3: F43/I/L/ S/V, Q80K/R, R155K/G, A156G/S/T and D168A/C/E/G/H/N/T/V/Y; NS5A: L/M28A/T/V, Q30E/H/R, L31F/I/M/V, H58D or P58S and Y93C/F/H/N/S; NS5B: S282P/R/T, C316H/N/Y, S368T, Y448C/H, S556G/R, D559R.

Results: Variants that require only one transversion in NS3 were found in 4 positions and include F43S, R80K, R155K/G and A156T. The genetic barrier to resistance shows subtypic differences at position 155 of the NS3 gene where a single transition is necessary in subtype 1a. In the NS5A gene, 5 positions where only one nucleotide change can confer resistance were found, such as L31M ...


High Glucose Induces Reactivation Of Latent Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus, Fengchun Ye, Yan Zeng, Jingfeng Sha, Tiffany Jones, Kurt Kuhne, Charles Wood, Shou-Jiang Gao 2016 Case Western Reserve University

High Glucose Induces Reactivation Of Latent Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus, Fengchun Ye, Yan Zeng, Jingfeng Sha, Tiffany Jones, Kurt Kuhne, Charles Wood, Shou-Jiang Gao

Virology Papers

High prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is seen in diabetic patients. It is unknown if the physiological condition of diabetes contributes to KS development. We found elevated levels of viral lytic gene expression when Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infected cells were cultured in high glucose medium. To demonstrate the association between high glucose and KSHV replication, we xeno29

grafted telomerase-immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells that are infected with KSHV (TIVE-KSHV) into hyperglycemic and normal nude mice. The injected cells expressed significantly higher levels of KSHV lytic genes in hyperglycemic mice than in normal mice. We further demonstrated ...


Giant Chloroviruses: Five Easy Questions, James L. Van Etten, David Dunigan 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Giant Chloroviruses: Five Easy Questions, James L. Van Etten, David Dunigan

Virology Papers

Chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, dsDNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain unicellular, chlorella-like green algae [1,2]. They exist in freshwater throughout the world with titers as high as thousands of plaque-forming units (PFU) per ml of indigenous water although titers are typically 1–100 PFU/ml. Titers fluctuate during the year with the highest titers typically occurring in the spring and late fall. Known chlorovirus hosts, which are normally symbionts and are often referred to as zoochlorellae, are associated with either the protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Fig 1A), the coelenterate Hydra viridis, or the heliozoan Acanthocystis turfacea. Zoochlorellae are resistant to ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of Highly Virulent Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Variants That Recently Emerged In The United States, Aspen M. Workman, Timothy P.L. Smith, Fernando A. Osorio, Hiep L.X. Vu 2016 USDA, ARS, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Complete Genome Sequence Of Highly Virulent Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Variants That Recently Emerged In The United States, Aspen M. Workman, Timothy P.L. Smith, Fernando A. Osorio, Hiep L.X. Vu

Virology Papers

A recent outbreak of particularly virulent disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus has occurred in swine herds across the United States. We report here the complete genome sequence of eight viral isolates from four Nebraska herds experiencing an outbreak of severe disease in 2016.


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