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Effect Of Lactoferrin To Increase Drug Permeability Of Primary Pulmonary Mycobacterial Granulomas, Thao Nguyen, Thao KT Nguyen 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Effect Of Lactoferrin To Increase Drug Permeability Of Primary Pulmonary Mycobacterial Granulomas, Thao Nguyen, Thao Kt Nguyen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Despite extensive research and worldwide eradication efforts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major infectious pathogen to the human population with about 10 million cases of infection per year globally. The host-pathogen interaction, pulmonary granuloma formation, and Mtb adaptions result in increased complexity of the disease. Granulomas are formed by active immune responses generated during Mtb infection, and serve to contain and limit bacterial dissemination. The major mycobacterial surface mycolic acid, trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), functions in multiple ways to enhance immune cell recruitment of sites of infection, to induce inflammation and granulomatous responses, and to initiate survival strategies for ...


Post-Acute Sequelae Of Covid-19 (Pasc): Association With Inflammation And Autoimmunity, Raghava S. Ambadapoodi, Fnu Deepti, Javaria Anwer MBBS, Rafael Fernandez-Botran 2021 University of Louisville

Post-Acute Sequelae Of Covid-19 (Pasc): Association With Inflammation And Autoimmunity, Raghava S. Ambadapoodi, Fnu Deepti, Javaria Anwer Mbbs, Rafael Fernandez-Botran

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

It has become increasingly evident that a high percentage of patients that recover from acute COVID-19 infection continue to suffer from a variety of persistent symptoms even months after viral clearance, the most common ones being fatigue, dyspnea, anosmia, dysgeusia, cognitive dysfunction, and psychological problems, including anxiety and depression. This syndrome, known as Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), can severely affect the life quality and represents an important health care concern. The exact causes for the symptoms observed in patients with PASC remain to be adequately characterized, but are likely to be associated with multiple factors, including residual disease and ...


Novel Scalable And Simplified System To Generate Microglia-Containing Cerebral Organoids From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Brittany Bodnar, Yongang Zhang, Jinbiao Liu, Yuan Lin, Peng Wang, Zhengyu Wei, Sami Saribas, Yuanjun Zhu, Fang Li, Xu Wang, Wenli Yang, Qingsheng Li, Wen-Zhe Ho, Wenhui Hu 2021 Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine

Novel Scalable And Simplified System To Generate Microglia-Containing Cerebral Organoids From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Brittany Bodnar, Yongang Zhang, Jinbiao Liu, Yuan Lin, Peng Wang, Zhengyu Wei, Sami Saribas, Yuanjun Zhu, Fang Li, Xu Wang, Wenli Yang, Qingsheng Li, Wen-Zhe Ho, Wenhui Hu

Virology Papers

Human cerebral organoid (CO) is a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system that recapitulates the developing human brain. While CO has proved an invaluable tool for studying neurological disorders in a more clinically relevant matter, there have still been several shortcomings including CO variability and reproducibility as well as lack of or underrepresentation of certain cell types typically found in the brain. As the technology to generate COs has continued to improve, more efficient and streamlined protocols have addressed some of these issues. Here we present a novel scalable and simplified system to generate microglia-containing CO (MCO). We characterize the cell ...


Synphilin-1 And Its Effects On Pathogenesis Of Parkinson’S Disease, Mirghani Mohamed 2021 University of Connecticut

Synphilin-1 And Its Effects On Pathogenesis Of Parkinson’S Disease, Mirghani Mohamed

Honors Scholar Theses

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative and movement disorder primarily caused by the degradation of dopaminergic neurons. Known markers of neurodegeneration in PD are Lewy Bodies, which are fibrillar aggregates that are found in the brains of PD patients. Lewy Bodies can accumulate from specific mutations in the SNCA gene that codes for alpha-synuclein, a protein enriched in presynaptic neurons. A mutated SNCA gene can cause conformational aggregates of alpha-synuclein to form toxic species mediating neuronal death. Research into alpha-synuclein has led to the discovery of a binding partner known as synphilin-1 that is also found in protein ...


Identification Of Effectors Of Synergistic Lethality In Candida Albicans-Staphylococcus Aureus Polymicrobial Intra-Abdominal Infection, Olivia Adele Todd 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Identification Of Effectors Of Synergistic Lethality In Candida Albicans-Staphylococcus Aureus Polymicrobial Intra-Abdominal Infection, Olivia Adele Todd

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, and Staphylococcus aureus, a ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, are among the most prevalent causes of nosocomial infections and cause severe morbidity and mortality. Moreover, they are frequently coisolated from central venous catheters and deep-seated infections, including intra-abdominal sepsis. Relatively little is known about the complex interactions and signaling events that occur between microbes and even less so how microbial “cross-talk” shapes human health and disease.

Using a murine model of polymicrobial intra-abdominal infection (IAI), we have previously shown that coinfection with C. albicans and S. aureus leads to synergistic lethality whereas monomicrobial infection is nonlethal ...


Genome Sequence Of A Virulent African Swine Fever Virus Isolated In 2020 From A Domestic Pig In Northern Vietnam, Quang Lam Truong, Thi Lan Nguyen, Thi Hoa Nguyen, Jishu Shi, Hiep Lai Xuan Vu, Thi Lan Huong Lai, Van Giap Nguyen 2021 Vietnam National University of Agriculture

Genome Sequence Of A Virulent African Swine Fever Virus Isolated In 2020 From A Domestic Pig In Northern Vietnam, Quang Lam Truong, Thi Lan Nguyen, Thi Hoa Nguyen, Jishu Shi, Hiep Lai Xuan Vu, Thi Lan Huong Lai, Van Giap Nguyen

Virology Papers

This study reports the genome sequence of an isolated African swine fever (ASF) virus (VNUA-ASFV-05L1/HaNam) obtained at the fourth passage on pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The virus was isolated during a typical acute ASF outbreak in pigs in a northern province of Vietnam in 2020.


Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell 2021 Bellarmine University

Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell

Undergraduate Theses

This study investigates the expression of Palladin, a phosphoprotein product of the PALLD gene, in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Palladin is an actin cross-linking protein and plays a role in cell adhesion and motility. Published reports have demonstrated that a down regulation of Palladin in colon cancer cells results in a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, causing the cells to lose their typical shape, become proliferative and migratory. This process is otherwise known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A similar EMT phenomenon is observed when the RPE is exposed to the vitreous humor in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In ...


Codon Bias Can Determine Sorting Of A Potassium Channel Protein, Anja J. Engel, Marina Kithil, Markus Langhans, Oliver Rauh, Matea Cartolano, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel 2021 Technische Universitat Darmstadt

Codon Bias Can Determine Sorting Of A Potassium Channel Protein, Anja J. Engel, Marina Kithil, Markus Langhans, Oliver Rauh, Matea Cartolano, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

Virology Papers

Due to the redundancy of the genetic code most amino acids are encoded by multiple synonymous codons. It has been proposed that a biased frequency of synonymous codons can affect the function of proteins by modulating distinct steps in transcription, translation and folding. Here, we use two similar prototype K+ channels as model systems to examine whether codon choice has an impact on protein sorting. By monitoring transient expression of GFP-tagged channels in mammalian cells, we find that one of the two channels is sorted in a codon and cell cycle-dependent manner either to mitochondria or the secretory pathway. The ...


Harnessing The Power Of Trained Immunity In The Setting Of Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Mechanism Of Immune Trafficking And Tumor Control., Anne Elena Geller 2021 University of Louisville

Harnessing The Power Of Trained Immunity In The Setting Of Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Mechanism Of Immune Trafficking And Tumor Control., Anne Elena Geller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite the success of immunotherapy in many types of cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has yet to benefit. Innate immune cells are critical to antitumor immunosurveillance and recent studies have revealed that these populations possess a form of memory, termed trained innate immunity, which occurs through transcriptomic, epigenetic, and metabolic reprograming. Though trained innate immunity has mostly been investigated in the context of infection, the induction of trained innate immunity could also protect against tumors, and specifically pancreatic tumors. Here, we demonstrate that yeast-derived particulate β-glucan, a known inducer of trained immunity, traffics to the pancreas following IP administration. This causes ...


Sex-Based Differences In Microbiota Composition And Metabolomic Profiles Associated With Altered Macrophage Function And Protection From Lupus In Bwf1 Mice., James William Harder 2021 University of Louisville

Sex-Based Differences In Microbiota Composition And Metabolomic Profiles Associated With Altered Macrophage Function And Protection From Lupus In Bwf1 Mice., James William Harder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex and an insidious disease that is still not completely understood, and has very few treatment options. Those that are available are ineffective and/or have serious side effects. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the susceptibility and resistance to SLE, and understanding the environmental factors underlying this disease could lead to more effective prevention and/or treatment strategies. Like most autoimmune diseases, SLE is much more prevalent in females than males. While there are numerous factors that contribute to this lupus susceptibility, there is increasing evidence that the microbiota can strongly influence ...


Identification Of A Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Protein Involved In Degrading The Host Cell Wall During Virus Infection, Irina V. Agarkova, Leslie C. Lane, David D. Dunigan, Cristian F. Quispe, Garry A. Duncan, Elad Milrot, Abraham Minsky, Ahmed Esmael, Jayadri S. Ghosh, James L. Van Etten 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Identification Of A Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Protein Involved In Degrading The Host Cell Wall During Virus Infection, Irina V. Agarkova, Leslie C. Lane, David D. Dunigan, Cristian F. Quispe, Garry A. Duncan, Elad Milrot, Abraham Minsky, Ahmed Esmael, Jayadri S. Ghosh, James L. Van Etten

Virology Papers

Chloroviruses are unusual among viruses infecting eukaryotic organisms in that they must, like bacteriophages, penetrate a rigid cell wall to initiate infection. Chlorovirus PBCV-1 infects its host, Chlorella variabilis NC64A by specifically binding to and degrading the cell wall of the host at the point of contact by a virus-packaged enzyme(s). However, PBCV-1 does not use any of the five previously characterized virus-encoded polysaccharide degrading enzymes to digest the Chlorella host cell wall during virus entry because none of the enzymes are packaged in the virion. A search for another PBCV-1-encoded and virion-associated protein identified protein A561L. The fourth ...


Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Are Distinct From The Cytosolic Extracellular Vesicles, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Richard Beuttler, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates III, Surya M. Nauli 2021 Chapman University

Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Are Distinct From The Cytosolic Extracellular Vesicles, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Richard Beuttler, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell‐derived membrane vesicles that are released into the extracellular space. EVs encapsulate key proteins and mediate intercellular signalling pathways. Recently, primary cilia have been shown to release EVs under fluid‐shear flow, but many proteins encapsulated in these vesicles have never been identified. Primary cilia are ubiquitous mechanosensory organelles that protrude from the apical surface of almost all human cells. Primary cilia also serve as compartments for signalling pathways, and their defects have been associated with a wide range of human genetic diseases called ciliopathies. To better understand the mechanism of ciliopathies, it is imperative ...


Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ 2021 Chapman University

Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Despite extensive efforts to repurpose approved drugs, discover new small molecules, and develop vaccines, COVID-19 pandemic is still claiming victims around the world. The current arsenal of antiviral compounds did not perform well in the past viral infections (e.g., SARS), which casts a shadow of doubt for use against the new SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines should offer the ultimate protection; however, there is limited information about the longevity of the generated immunity and the protection against possible mutations. This study uses Human Coronavirus 229E as a model coronavirus to test the hypothesis that effective delivery of virus-specific siRNAs to infected cells ...


Linking The Brain And Bone Through Fat, Elisabeta Malinici, Anca Sirbu, Miruna Popa, Simona Fica 2021 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

Linking The Brain And Bone Through Fat, Elisabeta Malinici, Anca Sirbu, Miruna Popa, Simona Fica

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Over the past years, bone and adipose tissue have gained interest from researchers in the light of their secretory profiles, being able to produce active molecules, with the final effect of regulating energy homeostasis. Both adipocytes and osteoblasts originate in the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell and this common origin has been proposed as the core of the fat-bone relationship. The central nervous system might be the third player in this association, capable of integrating signals. Numerous adipose tissue secreted factors that influence energy homeostasis and bone have been described: leptin, adiponectin, lipocalin 2, and inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-6 ...


Ketogenic Diet As A Preventative Measure Or Treatment Option For Osteoarthritistargeting Nfl Athletes As A High-Risk Group, Kelsi J. Smith 2021 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Ketogenic Diet As A Preventative Measure Or Treatment Option For Osteoarthritistargeting Nfl Athletes As A High-Risk Group, Kelsi J. Smith

Selected Honors Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent joint disease that results from the degradation of articular cartilage, leading to inflammation, pain, and eventual joint failure. At one time, it was thought that OA was only the result of the natural decline experienced in old age; however, various risk factors have now been identified that may contribute to an increased risk for developing OA. Risk factors may include joint loading, altered biomechanics, obesity, and joint injury, to which athletes are exposed at a high rate. NFL athletes are one group of athletes that have continued to show a high prevalence of arthritis in ...


Presence Of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (Adcc) Against Sars-Cov-2 In Covid-19 Plasma, For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Lisa K. Poppe, Phoebe B. Pena, Sara R. Privatt, Sydney J. Bennett, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Michael Belshan, Jacob A. Siedlik, Morgan A. Raine, Juan B. Ochoa, Julia Garcia-Diaz, Bobby Nossaman, Lyndsey Buckner, W Mark Roberts, Matthew J. Dean, Augusto C. Ochoa, John T. West, Charles Wood 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Presence Of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (Adcc) Against Sars-Cov-2 In Covid-19 Plasma, For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Lisa K. Poppe, Phoebe B. Pena, Sara R. Privatt, Sydney J. Bennett, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Michael Belshan, Jacob A. Siedlik, Morgan A. Raine, Juan B. Ochoa, Julia Garcia-Diaz, Bobby Nossaman, Lyndsey Buckner, W Mark Roberts, Matthew J. Dean, Augusto C. Ochoa, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Background Neutralizing-antibody (nAb) is the major focus of most ongoing COVID-19 vaccine trials. However, nAb response against SARS-CoV-2, when present, decays rapidly. Given the myriad roles of antibodies in immune responses, it is possible that antibodies could also mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 via effector mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which we sought to explore here. Methods Plasma of 3 uninfected controls and 20 subjects exposed to, or recovering from, SARS CoV-2 infection were collected from U.S. and sub-Saharan Africa. Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies in the plasma samples. SARS-CoV-2 ...


Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak 2021 Indian Institute of Technology Indore

Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Indian Institute Of Technology Indore, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak

Virology Papers

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious diseases and affecting human health globally. Currently, no licensed vaccines or antivirals are available to combat ZIKV, although several vaccine candidates are in the pipeline. In recent years, the presence of non-canonical G-quadruplex (GQ) secondary structures in viral genomes has ignited significant attention as potential targets for antiviral strategy. In this study, we identified several novel conserved potential GQ structures by analyzing published ZIKV genome sequences using an in-house algorithm. Biophysical and biochemical analysis of the RNA sequences containing these potential GQ sequences suggested the existence of ...


Wjmsc-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicle Enhance T Cell Suppression Through Pd-L1, Meizhang Li, Rupal Soder, Sunil Abhyankar, Haitham Abdelhakim, Mitchell W. Braun, Camille V. Trinidad, Harsh B. Pathak, Ziyan Pessetto, Clayton Deighan, Siddhartha Ganguly, Buddhadeb Dawn, Joseph McGuirk, Neil Dunavin, Andrew K. Godwin 2021 University of Kansas Medical Center

Wjmsc-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicle Enhance T Cell Suppression Through Pd-L1, Meizhang Li, Rupal Soder, Sunil Abhyankar, Haitham Abdelhakim, Mitchell W. Braun, Camille V. Trinidad, Harsh B. Pathak, Ziyan Pessetto, Clayton Deighan, Siddhartha Ganguly, Buddhadeb Dawn, Joseph Mcguirk, Neil Dunavin, Andrew K. Godwin

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Extracellular Vesicles published by Wiley Periodicals, LLC on behalf of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles Both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their corresponding small extracellular vesicles (sEVs, commonly referred to as exosomes) share similar immunomodulatory properties that are potentially beneficial for the treatment of acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD). We report that clinical grade Wharton's Jelly-derived MSCs (WJMSCs) secrete sEVs enriched in programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), an essential ligand for an inhibitory immune checkpoint. A rapid increase in circulating sEV-associated PD-L1 was observed in patients with aGvHD and was directly associated with ...


High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars-Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood 2021 Nebraska Center for Virology

High Prevalence Of Pre-Existing Serological Cross-Reactivity Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (Sars-Cov-2) In Sub-Saharan Africa, For Yue Tso, Salum J. Lidenge, Phoebe B. Peña, Ashley A. Clegg, John R. Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Owen Ngalamika, Peter Julius, John T. West, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Objective: Significant morbidity and mortality have occurred in the USA, Europe, and Asia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), whereas the numbers of infections and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have remained comparatively low. It has been hypothesized that exposure of the population in SSA to other coronaviruses prior to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in some degree of cross-protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies in pre-pandemic plasma samples collected from SSA and the USA.

Method: Pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma samples from SSA and the USA were collected and tested by ...


Radiation Induces Metabolic Dysregulation In Pulmonary Fibroblasts, Josly Pierre-Louis, Margaret A. T. Freeberg, Jane K. Rebman, Thomas H. Thatcher, Patricia J. Sime 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Radiation Induces Metabolic Dysregulation In Pulmonary Fibroblasts, Josly Pierre-Louis, Margaret A. T. Freeberg, Jane K. Rebman, Thomas H. Thatcher, Patricia J. Sime

Graduate Research Posters

Rationale: Exposure of the lung to ionizing radiation, such as during radiotherapy, can result in pulmonary fibrosis (PF), which has few treatment options. PF is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins that form scar tissue, resulting in dyspnea, disruption of gas exchange, and even death. We and others have shown that metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF lung tissue, and lung fibroblasts treated with TGF-β, exhibit increased aerobic glycolysis with increased expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and excess production of lactate, leading to reduced extracellular pH that activates latent TGF-β. Here, we ...


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