Inhibition Of Cholinergic Signaling Causes Apoptosis In Human Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma, 2017 Marshall University
Inhibition Of Cholinergic Signaling Causes Apoptosis In Human Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma, Jamie K. Lau, Kathleen C. Brown, Brent A. Thornhill, Clayton M. Crabtree, Aaron M. Dom, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Christopher A. Mcnees, Cody A. Stover, A. Betts Carpenter, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, Brandon S. Shiflett, Piyali Dasgupta
Kathleen C. Brown
Recent case-controlled clinical studies show that bronchioalveolar carcinomas (BAC) are correlated with smoking. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, accelerates cell proliferation through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In this study, we show that human BACs produce acetylcholine (ACh) and contain several cholinergic factors including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), choline transporter 1 (CHT1, SLC5A7), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT, SLC18A3), and nACh receptors (AChRs, CHRNAs). Nicotine increased the production of ACh in human BACs, and ACh acts as a growth factor for these cells. Nicotine-induced ACh production was mediated by α7-, α3β2-, and β3-nAChRs, ChAT and VAChT pathways. We observed that ...
Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity Against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer In Cell Culture And Nude Mice Models Via The E2f Pathway, Kathleen C. Brown, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, A. Betts Carpenter, Jamie K. Lau, Piyali Dasgupta
Kathleen C. Brown
Background: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and low survival rates. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli peppers, displays antiproliferative activity in prostate and epidermoid cancer in vitro. However, the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin has not been studied in human SCLCs. The present manuscript fills this void of knowledge and explores the anti-proliferative effect of capsaicin in SCLC in vitro and in vivo.
Methodology/Principal Findings: BrdU assays and PCNA ELISAs showed that capsaicin displays robust anti-proliferative activity in four human SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, capsaicin ...
Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi
Background: Little information on the prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-negative individuals is available from Asia.
Methods: In the present study, we report findings from a new survey of KSHV in 983 HIV-negative male migrants from Shanghai and their combination with previous similar surveys of 600 female migrants, 600 female sex-workers (FSW), 1336 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic male patients, 439 intravenous drug-users (IVDU), and 226 men having sex with men (MSM) from China. KSHV-specific antibodies against latent and lytic antigens were assessed using Sf9 and BC3 monoclonal immunofluorescence assay. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 ...
Diagnostic Effectiveness Of High-Sensitivity Troponins, 2017 James Madison University
Diagnostic Effectiveness Of High-Sensitivity Troponins, Sean R. Bodin, Jacqueline Ramirez
Physician Assistant Capstones
Background: Acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) are a leading cause of death in the United States. The key to increasing survivability is early recognition to expedite the proper treatment modalities. In conjunction with the clinical presentation and electrocardiograms, the use of cardiac biomarkers is exponentially important in not only recognizing a cardiac event but also determining the extent of injury. Advancement in laboratory technology has led to the development of high-sensitive troponin (hs-troponin) assays which can detect smaller cardiac troponin serum levels compared to conventional troponin assays. This implies that the use of hs-troponin assays is more effective in the early ...
Role Of Dendritic Cells In Pathology Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Neonates, 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Role Of Dendritic Cells In Pathology Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Neonates, Bishwas Shrestha
Theses and Dissertations (ETD)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of bronchiolitis in children. We have shown that neonatal mice respond to primary RSV infection with T helper type 2 (Th2) biased immune responses, which are enhanced following reinfection. Dendritic cells (DCs) including myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) play important roles in driving host responses to RSV infection. mDCs present antigens to help Th cells differentiate, and pDCs protect against viral infection through type I interferons (IFNs). Despite data demonstrating importance of mDCs and pDCs in protection against RSV, it has not been studied in an age appropriate ...
Natural Debts, Natural Dangers: An Ideology Of Nation-State And Subject In An Immunology Text, 2017 College of William and Mary
Natural Debts, Natural Dangers: An Ideology Of Nation-State And Subject In An Immunology Text, Quinn Monette
Undergraduate Honors Theses
In an inquiry into the systems of metaphor used in an immunology text, I argue that the conceptualization of science is ideological, non-neutral, and has important consequences in the formation of subjects.
Lysine Residues Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Affect The Replication And Transcription Activatormediated Lytic Replication Of Kaposi’S Sarcomaassociated Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8, 2017 Nankai University
Lysine Residues Of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Affect The Replication And Transcription Activatormediated Lytic Replication Of Kaposi’S Sarcomaassociated Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8, Tianzheng Zhang, Ying Wang, Li Zhang, Bin Liu, Jinhui Xie, Charles Wood, Jinzhong Wang
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection goes through latent and lytic phases, which are controlled by the viral replication and transcription activator (RTA). Upon KSHV infection, the host responds by suppressing RTA-activated lytic gene expression through interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7), a key regulator of host innate immune response. Lysine residues are potential sites for post-translational modification of IRF-7, and were suggested to be critical for its activity. In this study, we analysed the 15 lysine residues for their effects on IRF-7 function by site-directed mutagenesis. We found that some mutations affect the ability of IRF-7 to activate interferon (IFN ...
Therapeutic Application Of Carbon Monoxide In Acute Limb Compartment Syndrome, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Therapeutic Application Of Carbon Monoxide In Acute Limb Compartment Syndrome, Aurelia Bihari
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Acute limb compartment syndrome (CS), a devastating complication of musculoskeletal trauma, develops in response to elevation of the pressure within a closed osseofascial compartment, producing muscle- and limb-threatening ischemia. Full decompression of all involved compartments by fasciotomy is the current gold-standard therapy, but it must be performed within a surgical window of 6-8 hours, before tissue damage becomes permanent.
Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme metabolism, has been shown protective in ischemia. While inhalation of CO leads to elevation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), recent development of transitional metal carbonyls, CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs), particularly the water-soluble CORM-3, delivers CO in a ...
P33. Design And Evaluation Of An Escherichia Coli Biomarker For Indication Of Ph, 2017 Western University
P33. Design And Evaluation Of An Escherichia Coli Biomarker For Indication Of Ph, Kevin X. Zhou, Luana Langlois, Ashmita Singh, John Prince
Western Research Forum
Measuring pH is one of the most commonly used techniques in both the laboratory as well as the field due to its importance in a multitude of biochemical processes. Traditional methods of measuring pH may be highly developed in accuracy and precision but often involve disruption of the environment. Biological markers offer an alternative that allows for long-term pH monitoring. This innovative approach allows for vast applications such as in the manufacturing, food processing and research industries. Under moderate acidic conditions, the asr (acid shock RNA) gene is highly inducible and has been demonstrated to be crucial for growth at ...
Mt1-Mmp Mediates The Migratory And Tumourigenic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells Via Non-Proteolytic Mechanisms, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Mt1-Mmp Mediates The Migratory And Tumourigenic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells Via Non-Proteolytic Mechanisms, Mario Cepeda
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease that affects cell function via proteolytic and non-proteolytic mechanisms such as promoting degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or augmentation of cell migration and viability, respectively. MT1-MMP has been implicated in metastatic progression ostensibly due to its ability to degrade ECM components and to allow migration of cells through the basement membrane. Despite in vitro studies demonstrating this principle, this knowledge has not translated into the use of MMP inhibitors (MMPi) that inhibit substrate catalysis as effective cancer therapeutics, or been corroborated by evidence of in vivo ECM degradation mediated by ...
Reactivation Of Hiv-1 Proviruses In Immune-Compromised Mice Engrafted With Human Voa-Negative Cd4+ T Cells, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Reactivation Of Hiv-1 Proviruses In Immune-Compromised Mice Engrafted With Human Voa-Negative Cd4+ T Cells, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Wuxun Lu, Qingsheng Li
Background: HIV-1 infection remains incurable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) due to virus latency. To date, enhanced co-culture assays, including viral outgrowth assays (VOA), are commonly used to measure HIV-1 latent reservoirs and evaluate latency-reversing agents (LRAs). However, VOA can only reactivate a small fraction of intact proviruses.
Methods: To explore the utility of NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice as an in vivo model to reactivate HIV-1 proviruses from VOA-negative CD4+ T cells, resting CD4+ T cells from an HIV-1 latently infected individual were isolated and the human CD4+ T cells corresponding to VOA-positive and VOA-negative CD4+ T cells were engrafted ...
Tryptophan 375 Stabilizes The Outer-Domain Core Of Gp120 For Hiv Vaccine Immunogen Design, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Tryptophan 375 Stabilizes The Outer-Domain Core Of Gp120 For Hiv Vaccine Immunogen Design, Duoyi Hu, Dane Bowder, Wenzhong Wei, Jesse Thompson, Mark A. Wilson, Shi-Hua Xiang
The outer-domain core of gp120 may serve as a better HIV vaccine immunogen than the full-length gp120 because of its greater stability and immunogenicity. In our previous report, we introduced two disulfide bonds to the outer-domain core of gp120 to fix its conformation into a CD4-bound state, which resulted in a significant increase in its immunogenicity when compared to the wild-type outer-domain core. In this report, to further improve the immunogenicity of the outer-domain core based immunogen, we have introduced a Tryptophan residue at gp120 amino acid sequence position 375 (375S/W). Our data from immunized guinea pigs indeed shows ...
Distinct Transcriptome Profiles Of Gag-Specific Cd8+ T Cells Temporally Correlated With The Protection Elicited By Sivδnef Live Attenuated Vaccine, 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Distinct Transcriptome Profiles Of Gag-Specific Cd8+ T Cells Temporally Correlated With The Protection Elicited By Sivδnef Live Attenuated Vaccine, Wuxun Lu, Yanmin Wu, Fangrui Ma, R. Paul Johnson, Qingsheng Li
The live attenuated vaccine (LAV) SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) confers the best protection among all the vaccine modalities tested in rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 infection. This vaccine has a unique feature of time-dependent protection: macaques are not protected at 3±5 weeks post vaccination (WPV), whereas immune protection emerges between 15 and 20 WPV. Although the exact mechanisms of the time-dependent protection remain incompletely understood, studies suggested that both cellular and humoral immunities contribute to this time-dependent protection. To further elucidate the mechanisms of protection induced by SIVΔnef, we longitudinally compared the global gene expression profiles of SIV Gag-CM9+ CD8+ (Gag-specific ...
Visualizing Morphogenesis With The Processing Programming Language, 2017 Touro University California
Visualizing Morphogenesis With The Processing Programming Language, Avik Patel, Amar Bains, Richard Millet, Tamira Elul
College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research
We used Processing, a visual artists’ programming language developed at MIT Media Lab, to simulate cellular mechanisms of morphogenesis – the generation of form and shape in embryonic tissues. Based on observations of in vivo time-lapse image sequences, we created animations of neural cell motility responsible for elongating the spinal cord, and of optic axon branching dynamics that establish primary visual connectivity. These visual models underscore the significance of the computational decomposition of cellular dynamics underlying morphogenesis.
Preferential Lineage-Specific Differentiation Of Osteoblast-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Osteoprogenitors, 2017 Old Dominion University
Preferential Lineage-Specific Differentiation Of Osteoblast-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Osteoprogenitors, Casey L. Roberts, Silvia S. Chen, Angela C. Murchison, Rebecca A. Ogle, Michael P. Francis, Roy C. Ogle, Patrick C. Sachs
Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications
While induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great clinical promise, one hurdle that remains is the existence of a parental germ-layer memory in reprogrammed cells leading to preferential differentiation fates. While it is problematic for generating cells vastly different from the reprogrammed cells' origins, it could be advantageous for the reliable generation of germ-layer specific cell types for future therapeutic use. Here we use human osteoblast-derived iPSCs (hOB-iPSCs) to generate induced osteoprogenitors (iOPs). Osteoblasts were successfully reprogrammed and demonstrated by endogenous upregulation of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, TRA-1-81, TRA-16-1, SSEA3, and confirmatory hPSC Scorecard Algorithmic Assessment. The hOB-iPSCs formed embryoid bodies ...
Development Of Jurkat Lymphocytes As A Model To Study The Role Of Zn2+ In T-Cell Immune Function, 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder
Development Of Jurkat Lymphocytes As A Model To Study The Role Of Zn2+ In T-Cell Immune Function, Hannah Mcmullen
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Zn2+ is an essential micronutrient, and the effect of Zn2+ deficiency is particularly evident in the diminished functioning of the immune system. There is growing evidence of Zn2+’s involvement in immune function and its potential as a signaling species. Although the current literature supports importance of Zn2+ in the function of all immune cell types, we chose to focus our study on T cells particularly because of their role in orchestrating continued adaptive immune response. FRET based Zn2+ sensors have been used to reliably visualize Zn2+ in adherent cell types. We sought to ...
Applications Of Multimedia Resources Developed As Part Of The Virtual Cell Animation Collection In Undergraduate Introductory Biology, 2017 University of South Carolina
Applications Of Multimedia Resources Developed As Part Of The Virtual Cell Animation Collection In Undergraduate Introductory Biology, Eric Edward Goff
Theses and Dissertations
Calls for reform in undergraduate STEM education have arisen from an increased need for well-trained biology graduates in the future scientific workforce. To address this need, many institutions have focused on a pedagogical restructuring of instructional practices to promote deeper conceptual understanding of core biological concepts. This study investigates the implementation of multimedia resources as a possible reliable supplement to undergraduate introductory biology and aims to provide empirical evidence on the instructional best practices of their use. As a central part of this study, we focus on one specific multimedia package, the Virtual Cell Animation Collection, due to its developmental ...
The Nucleolar Protein Nucleophosmin Undergoes Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation With Arginine-Rich Nucleolar Proteins Through Weak, Multivalent Electrostatic Interactions, 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center
The Nucleolar Protein Nucleophosmin Undergoes Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation With Arginine-Rich Nucleolar Proteins Through Weak, Multivalent Electrostatic Interactions, Jaclyn Alicia Cika
Theses and Dissertations (ETD)
Nucleoli are nuclear membrane-less organelles that are the sites for ribosome biogenesis and serve as sensors of cellular stress. Weak, multivalent protein-protein interactions and interactions between disordered, low complexity domains (LCDs) and rRNA have been shown to promote liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in vitro, suggesting a basis for the liquid-like behavior of nucleoli. Nucleophosmin (NPM1), a multifunctional and highly abundant nucleolar protein, exhibits structural features associated with LLPS suggesting a role in nucleolar organization. Specifically, NPM1 forms a pentamer through its N-terminal oligomerization domain and can bind to rRNA through its C-terminal nucleic acid binding domain. Multiple acidic tracts throughout ...
Immune Monitoring In Recipients Of Combined Living Donor Kidney And Hematopoietic Stem/Facilitating Cell Transplants., 2016 University of Louisville
Immune Monitoring In Recipients Of Combined Living Donor Kidney And Hematopoietic Stem/Facilitating Cell Transplants., Mark Dewayne Badder
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Solid organ transplantation coupled with a hematopoietic stem cell transplant from the organ donor allows for the recipient to cease immunosuppressive therapy after transplant via a chimeric immune system. This beneficial effect of stem cell transplants is negatively affected by graft versus host disease (GVHD). Better understanding of the donor and recipient’s immune system is vital to mitigating graft versus host disease and induction of donor chimerism without GVHD. In this study, flow cytometry was used to characterize immune cells of the recipients’ before and up to eighteen months post transplantation. The recipients were categorized into their respective chimeric ...
The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., 2016 University of Louisville
The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The median survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients from diagnosis is a dismal 3 years. This condition is characterized by pulmonary fibroproliferation and excess production and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in obliteration of the original tissue architecture, loss of lung function and eventual death due to respiratory failure. The main hindrance to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis is the late detection of its progression and is often of unknown cause. Tobacco smoke represents the most important environmental factor linked to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, with over 60% of IPF patients current ...