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Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


The Effects Of Moderate-Severe Plaque Psoriasis On Patient Well-Being And Prevention Of Flares, Glenn Devera 2020 Dominican University of California

The Effects Of Moderate-Severe Plaque Psoriasis On Patient Well-Being And Prevention Of Flares, Glenn Devera

Nursing | Senior Theses

Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that is indicated by red, patchy and scaly skin that can be painful when irritated. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk for a number of chronic diseases. Despite the expansion of treatments for moderate-to-severe psoriasis over the last decade, patients may still find that treatment strategies are not as successful, leaving them dissatisfied with their treatments. A relationship built upon trust between the nurse and the patient diagnosed with psoriasis may serve to help ensure optimal care. A comprehensive literature review was performed and found that best practices for patient management need to ...


Blocking Serine Protease (Tmprss2) By Bromhexine; Looking At Potential Treatment To Prevent Covid-19 Infection, Ramin Tolouian, Audrey C. Tolouian, Mohammadreza Ardalan 2020 Division of Nephrology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Blocking Serine Protease (Tmprss2) By Bromhexine; Looking At Potential Treatment To Prevent Covid-19 Infection, Ramin Tolouian, Audrey C. Tolouian, Mohammadreza Ardalan

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Not applicable. Manuscript is being submitted under Viewpoints category.


Microbial Experience Influences Tumor- Infiltrating T Lymphocytes, Hanna Groeber 2020 Grand Valley State University

Microbial Experience Influences Tumor- Infiltrating T Lymphocytes, Hanna Groeber

Masters Theses

Immune cells, including T cells, have been used for anti-cancer therapy with varying degrees of success. One potential reason for immunotherapy failures in clinical trials may be that typical specific pathogen free (SPF) mice do not accurately replicate human microbial experience, which has important influence on shaping the adaptive immune response. Recently, several previous studies have shown that the immune system of SPF mice more closely resembles newborn human immunity, whereas immune systems from mice exposed to diverse pathogens more closely reflect adult human immunity.

To study the impact of microbial experience on the immune response, we have adopted a ...


Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang

Virology Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent for infectious mononucleosis (IM) that is associated with MS pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanism by which EBV, specifically in IM, increases the risk for MS remains unknown. EBV immortalizes primary B lymphocytes in vitro and causes excessive B lymphocyte proliferation in IM in vivo. In asymptomatic carriers, EBV-infected B lymphocytes still proliferate to certain degrees, the process of which is tightly controlled by the host immune systems. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mimics key features of MS in humans and ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Heterogenous Virus-Like Particle (Vlp) Formulation To Achieve Hiv-1 Latency Reversal And Cure., Joshua P. Pankrac 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Development And Evaluation Of A Heterogenous Virus-Like Particle (Vlp) Formulation To Achieve Hiv-1 Latency Reversal And Cure., Joshua P. Pankrac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

HIV-1 is the etiological agent behind acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) – a chronic, life-threatening condition that compromises host immune function. After nearly four decades and despite ongoing global efforts, HIV-1 persists in nearly 38 million individuals worldwide. Of this population, only 60% have access to life-saving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), clearly emphasizing the need to realize a cure. Unfortunately, the establishment of replication-competent provirus in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes represents a significant barrier to HIV-1 curative research. The viral reservoir is highly stable and has a half-life of ~44 months. Therefore, it is unlikely that infection will naturally exhaust over ...


Comparative Molecular Transporter Properties Of Cyclic Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Arginine Residues Formed Through Disulfide Cyclization, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Dindyal Mandal, Saghar Mozaffari, Magdy Abdel-Hamied Zahran, Amany Mostafa Osman, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang 2020 Chapman University

Comparative Molecular Transporter Properties Of Cyclic Peptides Containing Tryptophan And Arginine Residues Formed Through Disulfide Cyclization, Eman H. M. Mohammed, Dindyal Mandal, Saghar Mozaffari, Magdy Abdel-Hamied Zahran, Amany Mostafa Osman, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We have previously reported cyclic cell-penetrating peptides [WR]5 and [WR]4 as molecular transporters. To optimize further the utility of our developed peptides for targeted therapy in cancer cells using the redox condition, we designed a new generation of peptides and evaluated their cytotoxicity as well as uptake behavior against different cancer cell lines. Thus, cyclic [C(WR)xC] and linear counterparts (C(WR)xC), where x = 4–5, were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide synthesis, purified, and characterized. The compounds did not show any significant cytotoxicity (at 25 µM) against ovarian (SK-OV-3), leukemia (CCRF-CEM), gastric ...


Platelets Fuel The Inflammasome Activation Of Innate Immune Cells, Verena Rolfes, Lucas Secchim Ribeiro, Eicke Latz, Moshe Arditi, Bernardo Simoes Franklin 2020 University of Bonn

Platelets Fuel The Inflammasome Activation Of Innate Immune Cells, Verena Rolfes, Lucas Secchim Ribeiro, Eicke Latz, Moshe Arditi, Bernardo Simoes Franklin

Open Access Articles

The inflammasomes control the bioactivity of pro-inflammatory cytokines of the interleukin (IL)-1 family. The inflammasome assembled by NLRP3 has been predominantly studied in homogeneous cell populations in vitro, neglecting the influence of cellular interactions that occur in vivo. Here, we show that platelets boost the inflammasome capacity of human macrophages and neutrophils and are critical for IL-1 production by monocytes. Platelets license NLRP3 transcription, thereby enhancing ASC oligomerization, caspase-1 activity, and IL-1beta secretion. Platelets influence IL-1beta production in vivo, and blood platelet counts correlate with plasmatic IL-1beta levels in malaria. Furthermore, we reveal an enriched platelet gene signature among ...


How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current 2020 St. John Fisher College

How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Cancer is a disease that humans have been struggling to combat for centuries. It originates from the accumulation of several mutations over the life of a cell that causes it to evade cell death and multiply rapidly. It can affect any tissue in the body and can spread to other parts of the body through metastasis. Cancer comes in numerous shapes and sizes with different levels of aggression, growth speeds, and health risks. Many treatments for cancer exist today, three of the most popular being surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, which can be used in combinations with other treatments to ...


Single Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Single Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The “browning” of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) through increased abundance of thermogenic beige/brite adipocytes is induced by cold exposure and many other perturbations in association with beneficial systemic metabolic effects. Adipose browning is reported to require activation of sympathetic nerve fibers (SNF), aided by alternately activated macrophages within iWAT. Here we demonstrate the first example of a non-cell autonomous pathway for iWAT browning that is fully independent of SNF activity. Thus, the strong induction of thermogenic adipocytes prompted by deletion of adipocyte fatty acid synthase (iAdFASNKO mice) was unaffected by denervation or the deletion of SNF modulator Neuregulin-4 ...


Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry LaRue 2020 Chapman University

Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The World Health Organization found that 37.9 million people were living with HIV by the end of 2018. HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system through viral replication and the destruction of CD4+ T-cells, which are white blood cells that detect infection and make antibodies. A cure for HIV has not yet been discovered. HIV-1 contains a Gag polyprotein which regulates the stages of viral replication. Previous studies suggest that the myristoyl group of a matrix protein peptide found on the Gag polyprotein, MA, forms a complex with a calcium-binding, multifunctional regulatory protein called Calmodulin (CaM). CaM ...


Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito 2020 Sunrise Health GME Consortium

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include encephalopathy, motor deficits, ataxia, and meningeal signs. In most cases, ADEM is preceded by either vaccination or viral illness. Here, we present a case with neither of the two predisposing elements.

Discussion: A 28-year-old Hispanic female presenting with substance use and suicidal ideation was placed on an involuntary psychiatric hold, started on olanzapine and scheduled for a psychiatric facility transfer. The following day, she was noted to have neurological deficits when ambulating. Computed tomography of the brain showed a right frontal ...


How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi k. Kamepalli MD,FIDSA,CWSP 2020 Regional Infectious diseases and infusion ctr,Inc

How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi K. Kamepalli Md,Fidsa,Cwsp

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston 2020 Liberty University

Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston

Senior Honors Theses

The use of vaccinations has drastically decreased mortality and morbidity rates related to infectious disease and has become an intrinsic part of modern health care. However, the fear of risks related to vaccines has been partially responsible for the decisions of many parents to delay or avoid vaccinating their children. The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine specifically is one of the most controversial vaccines in current culture due to reports of new onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, infertility, and even death following its administration. This review synthesizes information regarding the relevance and safety of the HPV vaccine, as well ...


Cryoem Structure Of Ctbp2 Confirms Tetrameric Architecture, Anne M. Jecrois, M. Michael Dcona, Xiaovan Deng, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay, Steven R. Grossman, Celia A. Schiffer, William E. Royer 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cryoem Structure Of Ctbp2 Confirms Tetrameric Architecture, Anne M. Jecrois, M. Michael Dcona, Xiaovan Deng, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay, Steven R. Grossman, Celia A. Schiffer, William E. Royer

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

C-terminal binding proteins 1 and 2 (CtBP1 and CtBP2) are transcriptional regulators that activate or repress many genes involved in cellular development, apoptosis and metastasis. CtBP proteins are activated under hypoxic conditions where NAD(H) levels tend to be higher. NADH-dependent activation of CtBP2 has direct implication in multiple types of cancers and poor patient prognosis. Previous studies have proposed dimeric CtBP as the relevant oligomeric state, however our studies with multi-angle light scattering have shown that the primary effect of NADH binding is to promote the assembly of two CtBP dimers into tetramers. Here, we present the cryoEM structures ...


Elucidating The Regulon Of A Fur-Like Protein In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Map), Fernanda Miyagaki Shoyama, Taveesak Janetanakit, John P. Bannantine, Raul G. Barletta, Srinand Sreevatsan 2020 Michigan State University

Elucidating The Regulon Of A Fur-Like Protein In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Map), Fernanda Miyagaki Shoyama, Taveesak Janetanakit, John P. Bannantine, Raul G. Barletta, Srinand Sreevatsan

Virology Papers

Intracellular iron concentration is tightly regulated to maintain cell viability. Iron plays important roles in electron transport, nucleic acid synthesis, and oxidative stress. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific genomic island carries a putative metal transport operon that includes MAP3773c, which encodes a Fur-like protein. Although well characterized as a global regulator of iron homeostasis in multiple bacteria, the function of Fur (ferric uptake regulator) in MAP is unknown as this organism also carries IdeR (iron dependent regulator), a native iron regulatory protein specific to mycobacteria. Computational analysis using PRODORIC identified 23 different pathways involved in respiration, metabolism, and ...


Detecting Chromatin Interactions Along And Between Sister Chromatids With Sisterc, Marlies E. Oomen, Adam K. Hedger, Jonathan K. Watts, Job Dekker 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Detecting Chromatin Interactions Along And Between Sister Chromatids With Sisterc, Marlies E. Oomen, Adam K. Hedger, Jonathan K. Watts, Job Dekker

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Accurate chromosome segregation requires chromosome compaction with concordant disentanglement of the two sister chromatids. This process has been studied extensively by microscopy but has remained a challenge for genomic methods, such as Hi-C, because sister chromatids have identical DNA sequences. Here we describe SisterC, a chromosome conformation capture assay that can distinguish interactions between and within sister chromatids. The assay is based on BrdU incorporation during S-phase, which labels the newly replicated strands of the sister chromatids. This is followed by Hi-C, e.g. during different stages of mitosis, and the selective destruction of BrdU containing strands by UV/Hoechst ...


Jc Virus Infected Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells Produce Extracellular Vesicles That Infect Glial Cells Independently Of The Virus Attachment Receptor, Bethany A. O'Hara, Jenna Morris-Love, Gretchen V. Gee, Sheila A. Haley, Walter J. Atwood 2020 Brown University

Jc Virus Infected Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells Produce Extracellular Vesicles That Infect Glial Cells Independently Of The Virus Attachment Receptor, Bethany A. O'Hara, Jenna Morris-Love, Gretchen V. Gee, Sheila A. Haley, Walter J. Atwood

Open Access Articles

The human polyomavirus, JCPyV, is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunosuppressed and immunomodulated patients. Initial infection with JCPyV is common and the virus establishes a long-term persistent infection in the urogenital system of 50-70% of the human population worldwide. A major gap in the field is that we do not know how the virus traffics from the periphery to the brain to cause disease. Our recent discovery that human choroid plexus epithelial cells are fully susceptible to virus infection together with reports of JCPyV infection of choroid plexus in vivo has led us to hypothesize that ...


Characterization Of A Species E Adenovirus Vector As A Zika Virus Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, David N. Gordon, Theodore C. Pierson, Eric A. Weaver 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of A Species E Adenovirus Vector As A Zika Virus Vaccine, Brianna L. Bullard, Brigette N. Corder, David N. Gordon, Theodore C. Pierson, Eric A. Weaver

Virology Papers

The development of a safe and efficacious Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine remains a global health priority. In our previous work, we developed an Adenovirus vectored ZIKV vaccine using a low-seroprevalent human Adenovirus type 4 (Ad4-prM-E) and compared it to an Ad5 vector (Ad5-prM-E). We found that vaccination with Ad4-prM-E leads to the development of a strong anti-ZIKV T-cell response without eliciting significant anti-ZIKV antibodies, while vaccination with Ad5-prM-E leads to the development of both anti-ZIKV antibody and T-cell responses in C57BL/6 mice. However, both vectors conferred protection against ZIKV infection in a lethal challenge model. Here we continued to ...


Generation Of In-Frame Gene Deletion Mutants In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa And Testing For Virulence Attenuation In A Simple Mouse Model Of Infection, Meagan E. Valentine, Brandon D. Kirby, Hongwei D. Yu 2020 Marshall University

Generation Of In-Frame Gene Deletion Mutants In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa And Testing For Virulence Attenuation In A Simple Mouse Model Of Infection, Meagan E. Valentine, Brandon D. Kirby, Hongwei D. Yu

Biomedical Sciences

Microorganisms are genetically versatile and diverse and have become a major source of many commercial products and biopharmaceuticals. Though some of these products are naturally produced by the organisms, other products require genetic engineering of the organism to increase the yields of production. Avirulent strains of Escherichia coli have traditionally been the preferred bacterial species for producing biopharmaceuticals; however, some products are difficult for E. coli to produce. Thus, avirulent strains of other bacterial species could provide useful alternatives for production of some commercial products. Pseudomonas eruginosa is a common and well-studied Gram-negative bacterium that could provide a suitable alternative ...


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