21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, 2018 University of North Georgia
21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix
Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)
CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE UPREGULATION OF PGE₂ EXPRESSION IN THE BLADDER
Jessica Nix, Jane McHowat, Shannon Kispert
Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. Despite known risks, 42.1 million Americans continue to smoke, making research into tobacco-related pathologies relevant and necessary. We previously discovered that cigarette smoke exposure leads to tumor progression in the breast via platelet activating factor (PAF) and other phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) metabolic pathways. These results led us to examine the PLA2 metabolite, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). We observed the expression of PGE₂ in mouse bladder and human heart ...
Correcting Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency With A Small-Molecule Activator, 2018 Stanford University
Correcting Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency With A Small-Molecule Activator, Sunhee Hwang, Karen Mruk, Simin Rahighi, Andrew G. Raub, Che-Hong Chen, Lisa E. Dorn, Naoki Horikoshi, Soichi Wakatsuki, James K. Chen, Daria Mochly-Rosen
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, one of the most common human genetic enzymopathies, is caused by over 160 different point mutations and contributes to the severity of many acute and chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress, including hemolytic anemia and bilirubin-induced neurological damage particularly in newborns. As no medications are available to treat G6PD deficiency, here we seek to identify a small molecule that corrects it. Crystallographic study and mutagenesis analysis identify the structural and functional defect of one common mutant (Canton, R459L). Using high-throughput screening, we subsequently identify AG1, a small molecule that increases the activity of the wild-type, the ...
The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., 2018 The University of Western Ontario
The Epidemiology Of Infective Endocarditis Among People Who Inject Drugs In London, Ontario., Brian Hallam
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease that affects the valves of the heart. Injection drug use is currently a leading risk factor among patients with endocarditis. We conducted a prospective study using data from hospital chart records among patients with endocarditis in London, Ontario, which has a relatively high prevalence of people who inject drugs to assess the severity of the issue and the major risk factors of mortality pertaining to this population. This study had a sample size of 353 and included a review of the incidence of admissions of endocarditis, as well as a survival analysis, using both ...
Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can additionally hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. NAT1 expression varies inter-individually and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Additionally, multiple studies have shown the knockdown of NAT1, by both small molecule inhibition and siRNA methods, in breast cancer cells leads to decreased invasive ability and proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. Additionally, consequences ...
Evaluation Of Endothelial Cell Responses To Elevated Glucose, 2018 Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo
Evaluation Of Endothelial Cell Responses To Elevated Glucose, Gabriella Sugerman
Master's Theses and Project Reports
Developing a tissue-engineered Blood Vessel Mimic (BVM) to represent diabetic macrovascular disease could expedite design of new vascular devices specifically tailored to diabetic patients. In contribution toward this model, this thesis assessed Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) responses to high glucose conditions. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Cluster of Differentiation 36 (CD36) were selected to signify oxidative stress activity, a hallmark of diabetic macrovascular disease. Next, activity of potential reference genes B2M, HPRT1, and ACTB was assessed. All genes were found to exceed acceptable variability, so the E-ΔC T method of data analysis was selected. Next, cellular responses to high ...
Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, 2018 California State University, San Bernardino
Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy
Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations
Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...
Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center
Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, Michael Price
Theses & Dissertations
Alcohol abuse, which can impair clearance of pathogens and debris from the airway, is associated with an increase in complications and a higher mortality rate during the progression of pneumonia. With prolonged alcohol exposure, mucociliary clearance (MCC), which depends on the coordinated beating of cilia, is dysfunctional. Effective MCC relies on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF). PKA activation and stimulation of CBF are blunted with chronic exposure to alcohol. This phenomenon is known as alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction (AICD). Previous studies have shown that concomitant feeding of mice with alcohol and antioxidants prevents AICD, suggesting a ...
Factors Involved In Suppression Of Human Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes And Impact Of Checkpoint Blockades On The Effector Functions Of Vγ9vδ2 T-Lymphocytes, Minji Choi, Andrew Wiemer, Andrea Hubbard, Brian Aneskievich
University Scholar Projects
Chronic antigenic stimulation leads to T cell exhaustion, which drastically dampens T cell effector functions. Upon exhaustion, T cells progressively lose their proliferative capacity, cytokine production, and cytotoxic effector functions against tumors. T cell exhaustion involves programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), which is an inhibitory co-stimulation receptor. Limited scope of studies has been done regarding impact of PD-1 expression on the effector functions of γδ T cells. In this study, we investigated expression of PD-1 and its impact on effector functions of human γδ T cells. When γδ T cells were stimulated with phosphoantigens (HMBPP and POM2-C-HMBP) and analyzed ...
Determining The Effects Of Cancer Mutations On The Coactivator Function Of The P300 Core Domain In Human Cells, Katlyn Myers, Erin Shanle, Meagan St. John
In human cells, DNA is packed into chromosomes by wrapping around proteins called histones. Histone proteins contain chains of amino acids called histone tails and can be modified by acetylation. Acetylating histone proteins is important to the cell because it opens up the chromatin and allows for gene expression. Proteins can recognize and bind histone acetylation with a region called a bromodomain. p300 is a bromodomain-containing protein with histone acetyltransferase activity (HAT) which also aids with gene expression and is a coactivator protein of transcription. The bromodomain and HAT domain of this protein is considered the p300 core. Previous research ...
The Effect Of Cx43 On The Motility Of Prostate Cancer Cells, 2018 Kent State University
The Effect Of Cx43 On The Motility Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Suzanne Hales, Abdulaziz Aloliqi, Gail Fraizer
Undergraduate Research Symposium
Prostate cancer (PC) is a very common type of cancer in males and metastatic growth often leads to death. Connexins (Cx) are important to intercellular communication and may also play a role in metastasis. Cultured PC3 metastatic prostate cancer cells have high levels of Cx43 and readily migrate in Boyden chambers, a model for metastasis. We previously silenced Cx43 in PC3 cells and tested their migration in Boyden chamber assays. Silencing Cx34 reduced the motility of the migratory PC3 cells. Conversely, LNCaP prostate cancer cells are not migratory and express very little Cx43. We hypothesized that over-expressing Cx43 in LNCaP ...
Under The Needle: Understanding The Benefits And Misconceptions Of Vaccinations, 2018 Germanna Community College
Under The Needle: Understanding The Benefits And Misconceptions Of Vaccinations, Desmond Davis
By and large, medical and government institutions such as the CDC have been primarily responsible for educating the public on the necessities of vaccinations, and quelling fears regarding them. As the world becomes more connected, proponents of the anti-vaccination movement find common ground via social media platforms and other outlets from which to confirm preexisting notions that vaccines are detrimental to recipients. This places a burden on both the aforementioned institutions as well as the general public to deal with potential outbreaks before they either resurge from previously low infectivity rates, or before they reach epidemic proportions.
Autism And Vaccines: Exploring Misperceptions In Science, 2018 Germanna Community College
Autism And Vaccines: Exploring Misperceptions In Science, Arsenio Menendez
This paper will be exploring the supposed link between vaccines and autism which is a hot button topic as of late. Starting at the roots of where this myth began with the infamous and long since disproved initial paper penned by Andrew Wakefield. As of late with the ever-rising numbers of parents deciding to forego the vaccination of their children there is an increasing risk of herd immunity failing leading to old diseases that had been wiped out making a massive resurgence. Detailed in my research findings will be data driven explorations of psychology and human nature changing perception of ...
Molecular Mechanisms Of Cell Death: Recommendations Of The Nomenclature Committee On Cell Death 2018, 2018 Weill Cornell Medical College
Molecular Mechanisms Of Cell Death: Recommendations Of The Nomenclature Committee On Cell Death 2018, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Eric H. Baehrecke, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Guido Kroemer
Open Access Articles
Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell ...
The Role Of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Ifnβ And Prostaglandin E2 In Suppression Of Innate Immunity To Listeria Monocytogenes, Michelle G. Pitts
Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics
As a foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) encounters many barriers to invasion and dissemination in the host that may change the nature of host response. Lm has been most commonly studied using intravenous (i.v.) inoculation, however, a method that delivers a bolus of bacteria directly to the bloodstream. Thus, little is known about what systemic and local mediators are triggered during the natural course of infection and how these may impact susceptibility. Our laboratory used foodborne transmission of Lm in mice to assess whether the method of transmission and the specific organ microenvironment could affect infection-induced secretion of type ...
Saturation Mutagenesis Reveals Manifold Determinants Of Exon Definition., 2018 Columbia University; Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME
Saturation Mutagenesis Reveals Manifold Determinants Of Exon Definition., Shengdong Ke, Vincent Anquetil, Jorge Rojas Zamalloa, Alisha Maity, Anthony Yang, Mauricio A. Arias, Sergey Kalachikov, James J Russo, Jingyue Ju, Lawrence A. Chasin
To illuminate the extent and roles of exonic sequences in the splicing of human RNA transcripts, we conducted saturation mutagenesis of a 51-nt internal exon in a three-exon minigene. All possible single and tandem dinucleotide substitutions were surveyed. Using high-throughput genetics, 5560 minigene molecules were assayed for splicing in human HEK293 cells. Up to 70% of mutations produced substantial (greater than twofold) phenotypes of either increased or decreased splicing. Of all predicted secondary structural elements, only a single 15-nt stem-loop showed a strong correlation with splicing, acting negatively. The in vitro formation of exon-protein complexes between the mutant molecules and ...
Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wu, Jianqing Xu
Characterizing the transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses of multi-variant SIV infection may shed new light on the understanding of mucosal transmission.We intrarectally inoculated six Chinese rhesus macaques with a single high dose of SIVmac251 (3.1 × 104 TCID50) and obtained 985 full-length env sequences from multiple tissues at 6 and 10 days post-infection by single genome amplification (SGA). All 6 monkeys were infected with a range of 2 to 8 T/F viruses and the dominant variants from the inoculum were still dominant in different tissues from each monkey. Interestingly, our data showed that a cluster of ...
Role Of Mir-489 In Her2 Positive Breast Cancer, 2018 University of South Carolina
Role Of Mir-489 In Her2 Positive Breast Cancer, Yogin Patel
Theses and Dissertations
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 or ErBb2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in 20-30% of breast cancers and associated with poor prognosis and outcome. Dysregulation of several micro RNAs (miRs) plays a key role in breast cancer progression and metastasis. In this study, we screened and identified miRs dysregulated in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Molecular study demonstrated that miR-489 was specifically downregulated by the HER2-downstream signaling, especially the MAPK pathway. Restoration or overexpression of miR-489 in HER2-positive breast cancer cells significantly inhibited cell growth in vitro and decreased the tumorigenicity and tumor growth in xenograft mice. Mechanistically ...
Brain Is A Potential Sanctuary For Subtype C Hiv-1 Irrespective Of Art Treatment Outcome, 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Brain Is A Potential Sanctuary For Subtype C Hiv-1 Irrespective Of Art Treatment Outcome, For Yue Tso, Guobin Kang, Eun Hee Kwon, Peter Julius, Qingsheng Li, John T. West, Charles Wood
Subtype C HIV-1 is responsible for the largest proportion of people living with HIV-1 infection. However, there is limited information about the roles of the brain and its cell types as a potential sanctuary for this subtype and how the sanctuary may be affected by the administration of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). To address this issue, we collected postmortem brain tissues from ART treated HIV-1 infected Zambian individuals who experienced complete viral suppression and those who did not. Tissues from various brain compartments were collected from each individual as frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded brain specimens, for detection and quantification of ...
Contribution Of The Gp120 V3 Loop To Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer Stability In Primate Immunodeficiency Viruses, 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Contribution Of The Gp120 V3 Loop To Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer Stability In Primate Immunodeficiency Viruses, Dane Bowder, Haley Hollingsead, Kate Durst, Duoyi Hu, Wenzhong Wei, Joshua Wiggins, Halima Medjahed, Andrés Finzi, Joseph Sodroski, Shi-Hua Xiang
The V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein (Env) becomes exposed after CD4 binding and contacts the coreceptor to mediate viral entry. Prior to CD4 engagement, a hydrophobic patch located at the tip of the V3 loop stabilizes the non-covalent association of gp120 with the Env trimer of HIV-1 subtype B strains. Here, we show that this conserved hydrophobic patch (amino acid residues 307, 309 and 317) contributes to gp120-trimer association in HIV-1 subtype C, HIV-2 and SIV. Changes that reduced the hydrophobicity of these V3 residues resulted in increased gp120 shedding and ...
Sivcpz Closely Related To The Ancestral Hiv-1 Is Less Or Non-Pathogenic To Humans In A Hu-Blt Mouse Model, 2018 National Institute of Health
Sivcpz Closely Related To The Ancestral Hiv-1 Is Less Or Non-Pathogenic To Humans In A Hu-Blt Mouse Model, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Lance Daharsh, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li
The HIV-1 pandemic is a consequence of the cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild chimpanzees (SIVcpz) to humans. Our previous study demonstrated SIVcpz strains that are closely related to the ancestral viruses of HIV-1 groups M (SIVcpzMB897) and N (SIVcpzEK505) and two SIVcpz lineages that are not associated with any known HIV-1 infections in humans (SIVcpzMT145 and SIVcpzBF1167), all can readily infect and robustly replicate in the humanized-BLT mouse model of humans. However, the comparative pathogenicity of different SIVcpz strains remains unknown. Herein, we compared the pathogenicity of the above four SIVcpz strains with HIV-1 using humanized-BLT mice ...