Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biological Phenomena, Cell Phenomena, and Immunity Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

423 Full-Text Articles 1,272 Authors 51,051 Downloads 61 Institutions

All Articles in Biological Phenomena, Cell Phenomena, and Immunity

Faceted Search

423 full-text articles. Page 1 of 17.

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...


Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, Michael Price 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Alcohol Drives Oxidation-Dependent Desensitization Of Airway Cilia Motility Responsiveness, Michael Price

Theses & Dissertations

Alcohol abuse, which can impair clearance of pathogens and debris from the airway, is associated with an increase in complications and a higher mortality rate during the progression of pneumonia. With prolonged alcohol exposure, mucociliary clearance (MCC), which depends on the coordinated beating of cilia, is dysfunctional. Effective MCC relies on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF). PKA activation and stimulation of CBF are blunted with chronic exposure to alcohol. This phenomenon is known as alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction (AICD). Previous studies have shown that concomitant feeding of mice with alcohol and antioxidants prevents AICD, suggesting a ...


Determining The Effects Of Cancer Mutations On The Coactivator Function Of The P300 Core Domain In Human Cells, Katlyn Myers, Erin Shanle, Meagan St. John 2018 Longwood University

Determining The Effects Of Cancer Mutations On The Coactivator Function Of The P300 Core Domain In Human Cells, Katlyn Myers, Erin Shanle, Meagan St. John

Selected Publications

In human cells, DNA is packed into chromosomes by wrapping around proteins called histones. Histone proteins contain chains of amino acids called histone tails and can be modified by acetylation. Acetylating histone proteins is important to the cell because it opens up the chromatin and allows for gene expression. Proteins can recognize and bind histone acetylation with a region called a bromodomain. p300 is a bromodomain-containing protein with histone acetyltransferase activity (HAT) which also aids with gene expression and is a coactivator protein of transcription. The bromodomain and HAT domain of this protein is considered the p300 core. Previous research ...


Under The Needle: Understanding The Benefits And Misconceptions Of Vaccinations, Desmond Davis 2018 Germanna Community College

Under The Needle: Understanding The Benefits And Misconceptions Of Vaccinations, Desmond Davis

Student Writing

By and large, medical and government institutions such as the CDC have been primarily responsible for educating the public on the necessities of vaccinations, and quelling fears regarding them. As the world becomes more connected, proponents of the anti-vaccination movement find common ground via social media platforms and other outlets from which to confirm preexisting notions that vaccines are detrimental to recipients. This places a burden on both the aforementioned institutions as well as the general public to deal with potential outbreaks before they either resurge from previously low infectivity rates, or before they reach epidemic proportions.


Autism And Vaccines: Exploring Misperceptions In Science, Arsenio Menendez 2018 Germanna Community College

Autism And Vaccines: Exploring Misperceptions In Science, Arsenio Menendez

Student Writing

This paper will be exploring the supposed link between vaccines and autism which is a hot button topic as of late. Starting at the roots of where this myth began with the infamous and long since disproved initial paper penned by Andrew Wakefield. As of late with the ever-rising numbers of parents deciding to forego the vaccination of their children there is an increasing risk of herd immunity failing leading to old diseases that had been wiped out making a massive resurgence. Detailed in my research findings will be data driven explorations of psychology and human nature changing perception of ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Cell Death: Recommendations Of The Nomenclature Committee On Cell Death 2018, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Eric H. Baehrecke, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Guido Kroemer 2018 Weill Cornell Medical College

Molecular Mechanisms Of Cell Death: Recommendations Of The Nomenclature Committee On Cell Death 2018, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Eric H. Baehrecke, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Guido Kroemer

Open Access Articles

Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell ...


The Role Of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Ifnβ And Prostaglandin E2 In Suppression Of Innate Immunity To Listeria Monocytogenes, Michelle G. Pitts 2018 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Ifnβ And Prostaglandin E2 In Suppression Of Innate Immunity To Listeria Monocytogenes, Michelle G. Pitts

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

As a foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) encounters many barriers to invasion and dissemination in the host that may change the nature of host response. Lm has been most commonly studied using intravenous (i.v.) inoculation, however, a method that delivers a bolus of bacteria directly to the bloodstream. Thus, little is known about what systemic and local mediators are triggered during the natural course of infection and how these may impact susceptibility. Our laboratory used foodborne transmission of Lm in mice to assess whether the method of transmission and the specific organ microenvironment could affect infection-induced secretion of type ...


Cellular Senescence Is Induced By The Environmental Neurotoxin Paraquat And Contributes To Neuropathology Linked To Parkinson’S Disease, Shankar J. Chinta, Georgia Woods, Marco Demaria, Anand Rane, Ying Zou, Amanda McQuade, David T. Madden 2018 Touro University California

Cellular Senescence Is Induced By The Environmental Neurotoxin Paraquat And Contributes To Neuropathology Linked To Parkinson’S Disease, Shankar J. Chinta, Georgia Woods, Marco Demaria, Anand Rane, Ying Zou, Amanda Mcquade, David T. Madden

College of Pharmacy (TUC) Publications and Research

Exposure to the herbicide paraquat (PQ) is associated with an increased risk of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Therapies based on PQ’s presumed mechanisms of action have not, however, yielded effective disease therapies. Cellular senescence is an anticancer mechanism that arrests proliferation of replication-competent cells and results in a pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) capable of damaging neighboring tissues. Here, we demonstrate that senescent cell markers are preferentially present within astrocytes in PD brain tissues. Additionally, PQ was found to induce astrocytic senescence and an SASP in vitro and in vivo, and senescent cell depletion in the latter protects ...


Sivcpz Closely Related To The Ancestral Hiv-1 Is Less Or Non-Pathogenic To Humans In A Hu-Blt Mouse Model, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Lance Daharsh, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li 2018 National Institute of Health

Sivcpz Closely Related To The Ancestral Hiv-1 Is Less Or Non-Pathogenic To Humans In A Hu-Blt Mouse Model, Zhe Yuan, Guobin Kang, Lance Daharsh, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li

Virology Papers

The HIV-1 pandemic is a consequence of the cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild chimpanzees (SIVcpz) to humans. Our previous study demonstrated SIVcpz strains that are closely related to the ancestral viruses of HIV-1 groups M (SIVcpzMB897) and N (SIVcpzEK505) and two SIVcpz lineages that are not associated with any known HIV-1 infections in humans (SIVcpzMT145 and SIVcpzBF1167), all can readily infect and robustly replicate in the humanized-BLT mouse model of humans. However, the comparative pathogenicity of different SIVcpz strains remains unknown. Herein, we compared the pathogenicity of the above four SIVcpz strains with HIV-1 using humanized-BLT mice ...


Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wu, Jianqing Xu 2018 Fudan University

Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wu, Jianqing Xu

Virology Papers

Characterizing the transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses of multi-variant SIV infection may shed new light on the understanding of mucosal transmission.We intrarectally inoculated six Chinese rhesus macaques with a single high dose of SIVmac251 (3.1 × 104 TCID50) and obtained 985 full-length env sequences from multiple tissues at 6 and 10 days post-infection by single genome amplification (SGA). All 6 monkeys were infected with a range of 2 to 8 T/F viruses and the dominant variants from the inoculum were still dominant in different tissues from each monkey. Interestingly, our data showed that a cluster of ...


A Simple And Accurate Rule-Based Modeling Framework For Simulation Of Autocrine/Paracrine Stimulation Of Glioblastoma Cell Motility And Proliferation By L1cam In 2-D Culture., Justin Caccavale, David Fiumara, Michael Stapf, Liedeke Sweitzer, Hannah J. Anderson, Jonathan Gorky, Prasad Dhurjati, Deni S. Galileo 2017 University of Delaware

A Simple And Accurate Rule-Based Modeling Framework For Simulation Of Autocrine/Paracrine Stimulation Of Glioblastoma Cell Motility And Proliferation By L1cam In 2-D Culture., Justin Caccavale, David Fiumara, Michael Stapf, Liedeke Sweitzer, Hannah J. Anderson, Jonathan Gorky, Prasad Dhurjati, Deni S. Galileo

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer for which there is no known cure. Its malignancy is due to rapid cell division along with high motility and invasiveness of cells into the brain tissue. Simple 2-dimensional laboratory assays (e.g., a scratch assay) commonly are used to measure the effects of various experimental perturbations, such as treatment with chemical inhibitors. Several mathematical models have been developed to aid the understanding of the motile behavior and proliferation of GBM cells. However, many are mathematically complicated, look at multiple interdependent phenomena, and/or use modeling software not freely available to ...


Identification Of Stiffness-Induced Signalling Mechanisms In Cells From Patent And Fused Sutures Associated With Craniosynostosis., Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez Vazquez, Andrew R. Cameron, Fergal J. O'Brien, Dylan J Murray 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Identification Of Stiffness-Induced Signalling Mechanisms In Cells From Patent And Fused Sutures Associated With Craniosynostosis., Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez Vazquez, Andrew R. Cameron, Fergal J. O'Brien, Dylan J Murray

Anatomy Articles

Craniosynostosis is a bone developmental disease where premature ossification of the cranial sutures occurs leading to fused sutures. While biomechanical forces have been implicated in craniosynostosis, evidence of the effect of microenvironmental stiffness changes in the osteogenic commitment of cells from the sutures is lacking. Our aim was to identify the differential genetic expression and osteogenic capability between cells from patent and fused sutures of children with craniosynostosis and whether these differences are driven by changes in the stiffness of the microenvironment. Cells from both sutures demonstrated enhanced mineralisation with increasing substrate stiffness showing that stiffness is a stimulus capable ...


Effect Of Extracellular Survivin And Lymphoma Exosomes On Natural Killer Cells, Heather R. Ferguson Bennit 2017 Loma Linda University

Effect Of Extracellular Survivin And Lymphoma Exosomes On Natural Killer Cells, Heather R. Ferguson Bennit

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Tumors alter their microenvironment to promote survival using methods such as angiogenesis promotion, growth signals, and immune suppression. The immune system becomes unresponsive to transformed neoplastic cells through a variety of methods including T cell suppression, increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and reduced natural killer (NK) cell activity. NK cells have inherent killing capabilities and thus are among the first responders in recognizing and destroying abnormal cells. However, many types of cancers inhibit the surveillance and cytotoxic abilities of NK cells by releasing exosomes, vesicles that can modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME) and intercellular communication for the purpose of enhancing ...


Ubqln1 : A Multi-Domain Protein With Multiple Functions., Zimple Kurlawala 2017 University of Louisville

Ubqln1 : A Multi-Domain Protein With Multiple Functions., Zimple Kurlawala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There are 5 Ubiquilin proteins (UBQLN1-4, UBQLN-L), which are evolutionarily conserved and structurally similar. UBQLN proteins have 3 functional domains: N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain (UBL), C-terminal ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA) and STI chaperone-like regions in the middle. Alterations in UBQLN1 gene have been detected in a variety of disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis and lung cancer. UBQLN1 has been largely studied in neurodegenerative disorders in the context of protein quality control. Several studies have hypothesized that the UBA domain of UBQLN1 binds to poly-ubiquitin chains of substrate and shuttles it to the proteasome via its UBL domain for degradation ...


Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity Against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer In Cell Culture And Nude Mice Models Via The E2f Pathway, Kathleen C. Brown, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, A. Betts Carpenter, Jamie K. Lau, Piyali Dasgupta 2017 Marshall University

Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity Against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer In Cell Culture And Nude Mice Models Via The E2f Pathway, Kathleen C. Brown, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, A. Betts Carpenter, Jamie K. Lau, Piyali Dasgupta

Kathleen C. Brown

Background: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and low survival rates. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli peppers, displays antiproliferative activity in prostate and epidermoid cancer in vitro. However, the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin has not been studied in human SCLCs. The present manuscript fills this void of knowledge and explores the anti-proliferative effect of capsaicin in SCLC in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings: BrdU assays and PCNA ELISAs showed that capsaicin displays robust anti-proliferative activity in four human SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, capsaicin ...


Inhibition Of Cholinergic Signaling Causes Apoptosis In Human Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma, Jamie K. Lau, Kathleen C. Brown, Brent A. Thornhill, Clayton M. Crabtree, Aaron M. Dom, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Christopher A. McNees, Cody A. Stover, A. Betts Carpenter, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, Brandon S. Shiflett, Piyali Dasgupta 2017 Marshall University

Inhibition Of Cholinergic Signaling Causes Apoptosis In Human Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma, Jamie K. Lau, Kathleen C. Brown, Brent A. Thornhill, Clayton M. Crabtree, Aaron M. Dom, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Christopher A. Mcnees, Cody A. Stover, A. Betts Carpenter, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, Brandon S. Shiflett, Piyali Dasgupta

Kathleen C. Brown

Recent case-controlled clinical studies show that bronchioalveolar carcinomas (BAC) are correlated with smoking. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, accelerates cell proliferation through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In this study, we show that human BACs produce acetylcholine (ACh) and contain several cholinergic factors including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), choline transporter 1 (CHT1, SLC5A7), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT, SLC18A3), and nACh receptors (AChRs, CHRNAs). Nicotine increased the production of ACh in human BACs, and ACh acts as a growth factor for these cells. Nicotine-induced ACh production was mediated by α7-, α3β2-, and β3-nAChRs, ChAT and VAChT pathways. We observed that ...


The Role Of Tgf-Β In Ctb-Insulin Regulated Human Dendritic Cell Tolerance, Grace Edosewe Esebanmen 2017 Loma Linda University

The Role Of Tgf-Β In Ctb-Insulin Regulated Human Dendritic Cell Tolerance, Grace Edosewe Esebanmen

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Cholera toxin B subunit fusion to autoantigen vaccines such as proinsulin (CTB-INS) down regulates dendritic cell (DC) activation and induces the synthesis of DC immunosuppressive cytokines. Recent studies of CTB-INS induction of immune tolerance in human DCs indicate that increased IDO1 biosynthesis may play an important role in CTB-INS vaccine inhibition of DC activation. Previous studies suggest transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) may play a role in the stimulation of IDO1 biosynthesis for induction of immunological tolerance in murine DCs. To elucidate the mechanisms by which CTB-INS may stimulate IDO1 biosynthesis and mediate tolerance in human DCs, we investigated the ...


Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi 2017 Fudan University

Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi

Virology Papers

Background: Little information on the prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-negative individuals is available from Asia.

Methods: In the present study, we report findings from a new survey of KSHV in 983 HIV-negative male migrants from Shanghai and their combination with previous similar surveys of 600 female migrants, 600 female sex-workers (FSW), 1336 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic male patients, 439 intravenous drug-users (IVDU), and 226 men having sex with men (MSM) from China. KSHV-specific antibodies against latent and lytic antigens were assessed using Sf9 and BC3 monoclonal immunofluorescence assay. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 ...


Diagnostic Effectiveness Of High-Sensitivity Troponins, Sean R. Bodin, Jacqueline Ramirez 2017 James Madison University

Diagnostic Effectiveness Of High-Sensitivity Troponins, Sean R. Bodin, Jacqueline Ramirez

Physician Assistant Capstones

Background: Acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) are a leading cause of death in the United States. The key to increasing survivability is early recognition to expedite the proper treatment modalities. In conjunction with the clinical presentation and electrocardiograms, the use of cardiac biomarkers is exponentially important in not only recognizing a cardiac event but also determining the extent of injury. Advancement in laboratory technology has led to the development of high-sensitive troponin (hs-troponin) assays which can detect smaller cardiac troponin serum levels compared to conventional troponin assays. This implies that the use of hs-troponin assays is more effective in the early ...


Role Of Dendritic Cells In Pathology Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Neonates, Bishwas Shrestha 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Role Of Dendritic Cells In Pathology Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Neonates, Bishwas Shrestha

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of bronchiolitis in children. We have shown that neonatal mice respond to primary RSV infection with T helper type 2 (Th2) biased immune responses, which are enhanced following reinfection. Dendritic cells (DCs) including myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) play important roles in driving host responses to RSV infection. mDCs present antigens to help Th cells differentiate, and pDCs protect against viral infection through type I interferons (IFNs). Despite data demonstrating importance of mDCs and pDCs in protection against RSV, it has not been studied in an age appropriate ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress