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Anti-Inflammatory, Antipyretic, And Analgesic Potential Of Chitin And Chitosan Derived From Cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana) And Termites, Khushbakht Asad, Sumaira Shams, Eliana Ibáñez-Arancibia, Patricio R De Los Ríos-Escalante, Farhad Badshah, Farooq Ahmad, Muhammad Salman Khan, Asar Khan 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Anti-Inflammatory, Antipyretic, And Analgesic Potential Of Chitin And Chitosan Derived From Cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana) And Termites, Khushbakht Asad, Sumaira Shams, Eliana Ibáñez-Arancibia, Patricio R De Los Ríos-Escalante, Farhad Badshah, Farooq Ahmad, Muhammad Salman Khan, Asar Khan

Journal Articles

The chitin and chitosan biopolymers are extremely valuable because of their numerous industrial and pharmacological uses. Chitin and chitosan were extracted from the exoskeleton of Periplaneta americana (cockroaches) and termites using various acid and alkali techniques. The extraction process involves an initial demineralization step, during which integument dry powder was subjected to 500 mL (2.07 mol/L) of concentrated HCl at 100 degrees Celsius for 30 min, followed by meticulous rinsing with distilled water to restore the pH to its baseline. Deproteinization was conducted at 80 degrees Celsius using 500 mL (1 mol/L) of NaOH solution, which was repeated for 24 …


Development Of Solitary Keratoacanthoma From A Cutaneous Wart, Joshua M. Ninan, Veronica Salazar 2024 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine

Development Of Solitary Keratoacanthoma From A Cutaneous Wart, Joshua M. Ninan, Veronica Salazar

Research Symposium

Background: Common cutaneous warts, referred to in medicine as verrucae vulgaris, are proliferative lesions caused by human papillomavirus. These lesions are mostly benign and usually resolve without incident, except in the case of the patient mentioned in this report. Our patient developed a solitary keratoacanthoma, currently accepted as a clinical variant of squamous cell carcinoma, as a result of several risk factors and traumatic exposure. The current literature does not have an established association of HPV with solitary keratoacanthomas. This case report explores the presentation and pathogenesis of solitary keratoacanthomas within the setting of HPV.

Case Presentation: 48-year-old Caucasian female …


Epithelial And Mesenchymal Olfactory Stem Cells Gathered With Minimally-Invasive Micro-Brush, Tyler Petersen 2024 Wayne State University

Epithelial And Mesenchymal Olfactory Stem Cells Gathered With Minimally-Invasive Micro-Brush, Tyler Petersen

Medical Student Research Symposium

Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes devastating lifestyle and financial consequences for the patient. Treatment strategies emphasize neuroprotection, but not regeneration. In this regard, stem cells are an innovative field of study that has the potential to regenerate neural tissue, thereby increasing a person’s ability to regain function. The purpose of this project is two-fold: to attain olfactory stem cells located in the nasal canal in a minimally-invasive way and to gather neural cells from the epithelium and mesenchymal cells in the lamina propria. Cells were gathered with sterile nasal micro-brushes, stored, and grown in flasks. After cells reached confluency, they …


New Onset Positive Autoantibodies Following Covid-19 Infection, David Hernandez, Adnaan Sheikh, Shakira Laing, Mariana Adieb, Omar Siddiqui, Rohail Baig, Annabel Antonini, James Vienneau, Camden Burns 2024 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine

New Onset Positive Autoantibodies Following Covid-19 Infection, David Hernandez, Adnaan Sheikh, Shakira Laing, Mariana Adieb, Omar Siddiqui, Rohail Baig, Annabel Antonini, James Vienneau, Camden Burns

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. Since the original outbreak in December 2019, over 100 million people have been confirmed to have been infected by COVID-19 and over two million people have died. The presentation seen in patients may vary widely based on multiple factors. Fever has been reported in up to 99% of patients, while other common symptoms seen are dyspnea, fatigue, anosmia, and myalgia. Around 80% of COVID-19 patients present with a mild respiratory illness that can be managed at home, while around 15% need basic …


I-Prf : A Smart Cell Scaffold, Dr.LOCHINI SURIYA 2024 Roseman University of Health Sciences

I-Prf : A Smart Cell Scaffold, Dr.Lochini Suriya

Annual Research Symposium

In regenerative dentistry, platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been used as a supra-physiological concentration of autologous growth factors capable of encouraging tissue regeneration. Despite this, there have been concerns raised about the use of anticoagulants, which are known to impair wound healing. In this work, a liquid formulation of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) called injectable-PRF (I-PRF) was studied without the need of anti-coagulants .


Investigating The Role Of Chaos In Minimizing Tumor Growth, Maxwell Geiger 2024 Roseman University of Health Sciences

Investigating The Role Of Chaos In Minimizing Tumor Growth, Maxwell Geiger

Annual Research Symposium

Chaos is a type of motion found in mathematical systems that is highly sensitive to initial conditions. While many biological systems described in literature have been analyzed for the presence of chaotic dynamics, there are still many that are yet to be discovered. The goal of this project is to reassess Itik and Banks’ discovery of chaotic behavior in their population dynamics model of cancer growth. Once chaotic behavior is confirmed, we want to investigate how chaos could possibly be controlled to minimize tumor growth and discover novel treatments for cancer patients.


Methamphetamine-Induced Dna Double-Stranded Breaks: The Impact Of The Dopamine Transporter And Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Dna Damage In Mouse Neuro 2a Cells, Lizette Couto 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Methamphetamine-Induced Dna Double-Stranded Breaks: The Impact Of The Dopamine Transporter And Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Dna Damage In Mouse Neuro 2a Cells, Lizette Couto

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Methamphetamine (METH) abuse remains a global health concern, with emerging evidence highlighting its genotoxic potential. In the central nervous system METH enters dopaminergic cells primarily through the dopamine transporter (DAT), which controls the dynamics of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by driving the reuptake of extracellular DA into the presynaptic neuronal cell. Additional effects of METH on the storage of DA in synaptic vesicles lead to the dysregulated cytosolic accumulation of DA. Previous studies have shown that after METH disrupts intracellular vesicular stores of DA, the excess DA in the cytosol is rapidly oxidized. This generates an abundance of reactive oxygen species …


Avaren-Fc, A Novel Immunotherapeutic, Recruits Nk Cells In B16f10 Melanoma Tumor Tissue, Sreevatsa Vemuri, Katarina Mayer, Nobuyuki Matoba 2024 University of Louisville

Avaren-Fc, A Novel Immunotherapeutic, Recruits Nk Cells In B16f10 Melanoma Tumor Tissue, Sreevatsa Vemuri, Katarina Mayer, Nobuyuki Matoba

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the US, with limited effective immunotherapeutic options available for patients. Avaren-Fc (AvFc) is a novel experimental immunotherapeutic agent with a unique “lectibody” property. It is capable of targeting cancer cells through the selective recognition of high mannose glycans, which are aberrantly overrepresented on the surface of malignant cells. AvFc can interact with circulating effector immune cells equipped with Fc receptors, such as natural killer (NK) cells to induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and kill cancer cells. Previous work has shown that AvFc effectively induces ADCC activity against B16F10 cancer cells in vitro …


Extended-Synaptotagmin-1 And -2 Control T Cell Signaling And Function, Nathalia Benavides, Claudio G. Giraudo 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Extended-Synaptotagmin-1 And -2 Control T Cell Signaling And Function, Nathalia Benavides, Claudio G. Giraudo

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Upon T-cell activation, the levels of the secondary messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) at the plasma membrane need to be controlled to ensure appropriate T-cell receptor signaling and T-cell functions. Extended-Synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are a family of inter-organelle lipid transport proteins that bridge the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. In this study, we identify a novel regulatory mechanism of DAG-mediated signaling for T-cell effector functions based on E-Syt proteins. We demonstrate that E-Syts downmodulate T-cell receptor signaling, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, degranulation, and cytokine production by reducing plasma membrane levels of DAG. Mechanistically, E-Syt2 predominantly modulates DAG levels at the plasma membrane in resting-state …


Sutterella And Its Metabolic Pathways Positively Correlate With Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Responses In Infant Rhesus Macaques, Danting Jiang, Ria Goswami, Maria Dennis, Holly Heimsath, Pamela A. Kozlowski, Amir Ardeshir, Koen K.A. Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Sallie R. Permar, Neeraj K. Surana 2023 Duke University School of Medicine

Sutterella And Its Metabolic Pathways Positively Correlate With Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Responses In Infant Rhesus Macaques, Danting Jiang, Ria Goswami, Maria Dennis, Holly Heimsath, Pamela A. Kozlowski, Amir Ardeshir, Koen K.A. Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Sallie R. Permar, Neeraj K. Surana

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Introduction: It is becoming clearer that the microbiota helps drive responses to vaccines; however, little is known about the underlying mechanism. In this study, we aimed to identify microbial features that are associated with vaccine immunogenicity in infant rhesus macaques. Methods: We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequencing data of 215 fecal samples collected at multiple timepoints from 64 nursery-reared infant macaques that received various HIV vaccine regimens. PERMANOVA tests were performed to determine factors affecting composition of the gut microbiota throughout the first eight months of life in these monkeys. We used DESeq2 to identify differentially abundant bacterial taxa, PICRUSt2 …


A Literature Review On Thermogenesis As A Prospective Obesity Treatment, Kellyn Sheppard 2023 Liberty University

A Literature Review On Thermogenesis As A Prospective Obesity Treatment, Kellyn Sheppard

Senior Honors Theses

The disease of obesity has quickly escalated from an epidemic to a worldwide pandemic in the last few decades, and viable treatment methods are being investigated with urgency. One such treatment method is increased induction of the thermogenesis pathway that is active in brown adipose tissue. This pathway is typically activated in mammals when they are exposed to cold temperatures for extended periods of time but can also be induced exogenously. Thermogenesis is a metabolically inefficient process that occurs in the mitochondria of a cell, meaning it uses substrate energy without generating ATP. The inefficiency of this process allows excess …


Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (Tils) Are A Prognosis Biomarker In Colombian Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Carlos A. Huertas-Caro, Mayra A. Ramírez, Laura Rey-Vargas, Lina María Bejarano-Rivera, Diego Felipe Ballen, Marcela Nuñez, Juan Carlos Mejía, Luz Fernanda Sua-Villegas, Alicia Cock-Rada, Jovanny Zabaleta, Laura Fejerman, María Carolina Sanabria-Salas, Silvia J. Serrano-Gomez 2023 Instituto Nacional de Cancerología

Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (Tils) Are A Prognosis Biomarker In Colombian Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Carlos A. Huertas-Caro, Mayra A. Ramírez, Laura Rey-Vargas, Lina María Bejarano-Rivera, Diego Felipe Ballen, Marcela Nuñez, Juan Carlos Mejía, Luz Fernanda Sua-Villegas, Alicia Cock-Rada, Jovanny Zabaleta, Laura Fejerman, María Carolina Sanabria-Salas, Silvia J. Serrano-Gomez

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly immunogenic and high levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been associated with a better prognosis and higher probability to achieve pathological complete response. Here, we explore the potential role of stromal TILs level and composition as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in TNBC. 195 Tumor biospecimens from patients diagnosed with TNBC were included. Stromal TILs (sTILs), positive CD4/CD8 cells were evaluated. Differences in clinic-pathological characteristics according to immune infiltration were assessed. The predictive and prognostic value of immune infiltration was analyzed by multivariate models. Higher immune infiltration was observed in patients with …


Hematological Biomarkers Of Troponin, Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio, And Monocyte-Tolymphocyte Ratio Serve As Effective Predictive Indicators Of High-Risk Mortality In Acute, Bryan Gervais de Liyis, Angela Faustine Ciaves, Marwa Humaira Intizam, Pierre Joshua Jusuf, I Made Junior Rina Artha 2023 Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

Hematological Biomarkers Of Troponin, Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio, And Monocyte-Tolymphocyte Ratio Serve As Effective Predictive Indicators Of High-Risk Mortality In Acute, Bryan Gervais De Liyis, Angela Faustine Ciaves, Marwa Humaira Intizam, Pierre Joshua Jusuf, I Made Junior Rina Artha

BioMedicine

Background: Assessing high-risk mortality in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, encompassing ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI), and Unstable Angina Pectoris (UAP), is crucial. However, the prognostic significance of hematological parameters in predicting high-risk mortality in ACS patients remains uncertain despite advancements in ACS research. Aim: The aim was to investigate prognostic significance of hematological parameters troponin, Creatine Kinase-MB (CKMB), Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (MLR), Basophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (BLR), and Eosinophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (ELR) levels in predicting high-risk mortality in ACS patients. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, data from medical records of 115 patients with …


Lactic Acid Bacterial Surface Display Of Scytovirin Inhibitors For Anti-Ebolavirus Infection, Joshua Wiggins, Ngan Nguyen, Wenzhong Wei, Leah Liu Wang, Haley Hollingsead Olson, Shi-Hua Xiang 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Lactic Acid Bacterial Surface Display Of Scytovirin Inhibitors For Anti-Ebolavirus Infection, Joshua Wiggins, Ngan Nguyen, Wenzhong Wei, Leah Liu Wang, Haley Hollingsead Olson, Shi-Hua Xiang

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Scytovirin (SVN) is a lectin from cyanobacteria which has a strong inhibitory activity against Ebola virus infection. We engineered scytovirin as the inhibitor for surface display of lactic acid bacteria to block Ebola virus infection. Two different bacterial strains (Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis) were successfully engineered for scytovirin expression on the bacterial surface. These bacteria were found to be effective at neutralizing pseudotyped Ebolavirus in a cell-based assay. This approach can be utilized for prophylactic prevention, as well as for treatment. Since lactic acid bacteria can colonize the human body, a long-term efficacy could be achieved. Furthermore, …


The Implications Of Ferroptosis In Antibiotic Resistance, Marysol Hohl 2023 Liberty University

The Implications Of Ferroptosis In Antibiotic Resistance, Marysol Hohl

Senior Honors Theses

Bacterial infections in the United States are becoming increasingly resistant to existing antibiotic treatments. Due to projected increases in resistance and the recent decrease in novel antibacterials, experts have determined that the United States is in the “post-antibiotic era.” The scientific community has failed to resolve resistance despite the continual discovery of new antibiotic compounds. In the past decade, a novel form of cell death called ferroptosis has been implicated in antibiotic treatment by employing the use of nanotechnology. This literature review will describe the problem of bacterial resistance and demonstrate how current research is pioneering a new age of …


Dynamics Of Serum-Neutralizing Antibody Responses In Vaccinees Through Multiple Doses Of The Bnt162b2 Vaccine, Jared Sheehan, Caleb M. Ardizzone, Mayank Khanna, Amber J. Trauth, Michael E. Hagensee, Alistair J. Ramsay 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Dynamics Of Serum-Neutralizing Antibody Responses In Vaccinees Through Multiple Doses Of The Bnt162b2 Vaccine, Jared Sheehan, Caleb M. Ardizzone, Mayank Khanna, Amber J. Trauth, Michael E. Hagensee, Alistair J. Ramsay

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines are administered as effective prophylactic measures for reducing virus transmission rates and disease severity. To enhance the durability of post-vaccination immunity and combat SARS-CoV-2 variants, boosters have been administered to two-dose vaccinees. However, long-term humoral responses following booster vaccination are not well characterized. A 16-member cohort of healthy SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants were enrolled in this study during a three-dose BNT162b2 vaccine series. Serum samples were collected from vaccinees over 420 days and screened for antigen (Ag)-specific antibody titers, IgG subclass distribution, and neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses. Vaccine boosting restored peak Ag-specific titers with sustained α-RBD IgG and …


Comparative Analysis Of Swine Antibody Responses Following Vaccination With Live-Attenuated And Killed African Swine Fever Virus Vaccines, Hung Q. Luong, Huong T. L. Lai, Lam Q. Truong, The N. Nguyen, Hanh D. Vu, Hoa T. Nguyen, Lan T. Nguyen, Trang H. Pham, David Scott McVey, Hiep Vu 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparative Analysis Of Swine Antibody Responses Following Vaccination With Live-Attenuated And Killed African Swine Fever Virus Vaccines, Hung Q. Luong, Huong T. L. Lai, Lam Q. Truong, The N. Nguyen, Hanh D. Vu, Hoa T. Nguyen, Lan T. Nguyen, Trang H. Pham, David Scott Mcvey, Hiep Vu

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is circulating in many swine-producing countries, causing significant economic losses. It is observed that pigs experimentally vaccinated with a live-attenuated virus (LAV) but not a killed virus (KV) vaccine develop solid homologous protective immunity. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze antibody profiles between pigs vaccinated with an LAV vaccine and those vaccinated with a KV vaccine to identify potential markers of vaccineinduced protection. Thirty ASFV seronegative pigs were divided into three groups: Group 1 received a single dose of an experimental LAV, Group 2 received two doses of an experimental KV vaccine, …


In Vivo Treatment With Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Reduces Ccr5 Expression On Vaccine-Induced Activated Cd4+ T-Cells, Massimiliano Bissa, Veronica Galli, Luca Schifanella, Monica Vaccari, Mohammad Arif Rahman, Giacomo Gorini, Nicolò Binello, Sarkis Sarkis, Anna Gutowska, Isabela Silva de Castro, Melvin N. Doster, Ramona Moles, Guido Ferrari, Xiaoying Shen, Georgia D. Tomaras, David C. Montefiori, Kombo F. N’guessan, Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Pamela A. Kozlowski, David J. Venzon, Hyoyoung Choo-Wosoba, Matthew W. Breed, Joshua Kramer, Genoveffa Franchini 2023 National Cancer Institute (NCI)

In Vivo Treatment With Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Reduces Ccr5 Expression On Vaccine-Induced Activated Cd4+ T-Cells, Massimiliano Bissa, Veronica Galli, Luca Schifanella, Monica Vaccari, Mohammad Arif Rahman, Giacomo Gorini, Nicolò Binello, Sarkis Sarkis, Anna Gutowska, Isabela Silva De Castro, Melvin N. Doster, Ramona Moles, Guido Ferrari, Xiaoying Shen, Georgia D. Tomaras, David C. Montefiori, Kombo F. N’Guessan, Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Pamela A. Kozlowski, David J. Venzon, Hyoyoung Choo-Wosoba, Matthew W. Breed, Joshua Kramer, Genoveffa Franchini

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

At the heart of the DNA/ALVAC/gp120/alum vaccine’s efficacy in the absence of neutralizing antibodies is a delicate balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses that effectively decreases the risk of SIVmac251 acquisition in macaques. Vaccine efficacy is linked to antibodies recognizing the V2 helical conformation, DC-10 tolerogenic dendritic cells eliciting the clearance of apoptotic cells via efferocytosis, and CCR5 downregulation on vaccine-induced gut homing CD4+ cells. RAS activation is also linked to vaccine efficacy, which prompted the testing of IGF-1, a potent inducer of RAS activation with vaccination. We found that IGF-1 changed the hierarchy of V1/V2 epitope recognition and …


Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques With Aids Co-Develop Cardiovascular Pathology And Encephalitis, Kevin S. White, Joshua A. Walker, John Wang, Patrick Autissier, Andrew D. Miller, Nadia N. Abuelezan, Rachel Burrack, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim, Kenneth C. Williams 2023 Boston College

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques With Aids Co-Develop Cardiovascular Pathology And Encephalitis, Kevin S. White, Joshua A. Walker, John Wang, Patrick Autissier, Andrew D. Miller, Nadia N. Abuelezan, Rachel Burrack, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim, Kenneth C. Williams

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Despite effective antiretroviral therapy, HIV co-morbidities remain where central nervous system (CNS) neurocognitive disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-pathology that are linked with myeloid activation are most prevalent. Comorbidities such as neurocogntive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remain prevalent among people living with HIV. We sought to investigate if cardiac pathology (inflammation, fibrosis, cardiomyocyte damage) and CNS pathology (encephalitis) develop together during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and if their co-development is linked with monocyte/ macrophage activation. We used a cohort of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with rapid AIDS and demonstrated that SIV encephalitis (SIVE) and CVD pathology occur together more frequently …


Co-Infection And Co-Localization Of Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus And Epstein-Barr Virus In Hiv-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Case Report, Peter Julius, Guobin Guobin, Stepfanie Siyumbwa, Jane Musumali, For Yue Tso, Owen Ngalamika, Trevor Kaile, Fred Maate, Phyllis Moonga, John T. West, Peter Angeletti, Charles Wood 2023 University of Zambia

Co-Infection And Co-Localization Of Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus And Epstein-Barr Virus In Hiv-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Case Report, Peter Julius, Guobin Guobin, Stepfanie Siyumbwa, Jane Musumali, For Yue Tso, Owen Ngalamika, Trevor Kaile, Fred Maate, Phyllis Moonga, John T. West, Peter Angeletti, Charles Wood

Nebraska Center for Virology: Faculty Publications

Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a multifocal vascular neoplasm frequently observed in HIVpositive individuals, primarily affects the skin, mucous membranes, visceral organs, and lymph nodes. KS is associated primarily with Kaposi sarcomaassociated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. In this case report, we present a rare occurrence of co-infection and co-localization of KSHV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in KS arising from the conjunctiva, which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridization (EBER-ISH) were utilized to demonstrate the presence of KSHV and EBV infection in the ocular KS lesion. Nearly all KSHV-positive …


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