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1413 full-text articles. Page 1 of 55.

Evaluating A Preoperative Protocol That Includes Magnetic Resonance Imaging For Lymph Node Metastasis In The Cholangiocarcinoma Screening And Care Program (Cascap) In Thailand., Metha Songthamwat, Nittaya Chamadol, Narong Khuntikeo, Jadsada Thinkhamrop, Supinda Koonmee, Nathaphop Chaichaya, Jeffrey Bethony, Bandit Thinkhamrop 2017 George Washington University

Evaluating A Preoperative Protocol That Includes Magnetic Resonance Imaging For Lymph Node Metastasis In The Cholangiocarcinoma Screening And Care Program (Cascap) In Thailand., Metha Songthamwat, Nittaya Chamadol, Narong Khuntikeo, Jadsada Thinkhamrop, Supinda Koonmee, Nathaphop Chaichaya, Jeffrey Bethony, Bandit Thinkhamrop

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Treatment planning especially liver resection in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) depends on the extension of tumor and lymph node metastasis which is included as a key criterion for operability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a rapid and powerful tool for the detection of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and in the current manuscript is assessed as a critical tool in the preoperative protocol for liver resection for treatment of CCA. However, the accuracy of MRI to detect LNM from CCA had yet to be comprehensively evaluated.

METHODS: The accuracy of MRI to detect LNM was assessed in a cohort of individuals with ...


Interventions To Reduce Neonatal Mortality From Neonatal Tetanus In Low And Middle Income Countries - A Systematic Review, Adeel Ahmed Khan, Aysha Zahidie, F. Rabbani 2017 Aga Khan University

Interventions To Reduce Neonatal Mortality From Neonatal Tetanus In Low And Middle Income Countries - A Systematic Review, Adeel Ahmed Khan, Aysha Zahidie, F. Rabbani

Fauziah Rabbani

Background In 1988, WHO estimated around 787,000 newborns deaths due to neonatal tetanus. Despite few success stories majority of the Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are still struggling to reduce neonatal mortality due to neonatal tetanus. We conducted a systematic review to understand the interventions that have had a substantial effect on reducing neonatal mortality rate due to neonatal tetanus in LMICs and come up with feasible recommendations for decreasing neonatal tetanus in the Pakistani setting. Methods We systemically reviewed the published literature (Pubmed and Pubget databases) to identify appropriate interventions for reducing tetanus related neonatal mortality. A ...


Anti-Herv-K (Hml-2) Capsid Antibody Responses In Hiv Elite Controllers., Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud 2017 George Washington University

Anti-Herv-K (Hml-2) Capsid Antibody Responses In Hiv Elite Controllers., Miguel De Mulder, Devi Sengupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. During HIV infection, HERV-K (HML-2) specific mRNA transcripts and viral proteins can be detected. In this study, we aimed to understand the antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag in the context of HIV-1 infection.

Results

We developed an ELISA assay using either recombinant protein or 164 redundant “15mer” HERV-K (HML-2) Gag peptides to test sera for antibody reactivity. We identified a total of eight potential HERV-K (HML-2) Gag immunogenic domains: two on ...


Differential Live Mycobacterium Tuberculosis- , M. Bovis Bcg-, Recombinant Esat6-, And Culture Filtrate Protein 10-Induced Immunity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Bushra Jamil, Mussarat Ashraf, Muniba Islam, Maqboola Dojki, Muhammad Irfan, Rabia Hussain 2017 Aga Khan University

Differential Live Mycobacterium Tuberculosis- , M. Bovis Bcg-, Recombinant Esat6-, And Culture Filtrate Protein 10-Induced Immunity In Tuberculosis, Zahra Hasan, Bushra Jamil, Mussarat Ashraf, Muniba Islam, Maqboola Dojki, Muhammad Irfan, Rabia Hussain

Bushra Jamil

The high prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis makes it imperative that immune responses to evaluate could be predictive of infection. We investigated live Mycobacterium- and recombinant antigen-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) compared with those of healthy controls from an area where TB is endemic (ECs). M. tuberculosis-, M. bovis BCG-, ESAT6-, and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10)-induced responses were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with pulmonary TB (n = 38) and ECs (n = 39). The levels of the cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and the chemokines CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL9 ...


Multiple Myeloma Baseline Immunoglobulin G Level And Pneumococcal Vaccination Antibody Response, Michael A. Thompson, Martin K. Oaks, Maharaj Singh, Karen M. Michel, Michael P. Mullane, Husam S. Tarawneh, Angi Kraut, Kayla J. Hamm 2017 Aurora Research Institute / Aurora Cancer Care, Aurora Health Care

Multiple Myeloma Baseline Immunoglobulin G Level And Pneumococcal Vaccination Antibody Response, Michael A. Thompson, Martin K. Oaks, Maharaj Singh, Karen M. Michel, Michael P. Mullane, Husam S. Tarawneh, Angi Kraut, Kayla J. Hamm

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in multiple myeloma (MM), a cancer of the immune system. Vaccination clinical efficacy endpoints have not been demonstrated, and there are limited data on surrogate markers of efficacy. This pilot study evaluated sequential immunologic markers after standard pneumococcal vaccination (PV) in patients with MM and non-MM controls. Vaccination was standard for PV (PCV13 or PPV23), with laboratory testing at baseline and at 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after vaccination. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to pneumococcal antigens were detected by ELISA. Prevaccination total IgG levels and IgG subclass levels were also ...


Forgiveness: How It Manifests In Our Health, Well-Being, And Longevity, Kathi Norman 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Forgiveness: How It Manifests In Our Health, Well-Being, And Longevity, Kathi Norman

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Forgiveness is a character strength and process that, when practiced, is associated with improved psychological well-being, physical health outcomes, and longevity. Forgiveness can serve as a protective factor that buffers against poor health and psychological consequences. Common misconceptions about forgiveness can serve as barriers to the desire to cultivate this protective strength, as forgiveness is often conflated with permissiveness, and perceived as permission for a transgressor to engage in hurtful conduct. The benefits of forgiveness, however, are most significant for the individual who has been transgressed, rather than the transgressor. Failing to forgive, or unforgiveness, is the practice of engaging ...


Parasite Microbiome Project: Systematic Investigation Of Microbiome Dynamics Within And Across Parasite-Host Interactions., Nolwenn M Dheilly, Daniel Bolnick, Seth Bordenstein, Paul J Brindley, Cédric Figuères, Edward C Holmes, Joaquín Martínez Martínez, Anna J Phillips, Robert Poulin, Karyna Rosario 2017 George Washington University

Parasite Microbiome Project: Systematic Investigation Of Microbiome Dynamics Within And Across Parasite-Host Interactions., Nolwenn M Dheilly, Daniel Bolnick, Seth Bordenstein, Paul J Brindley, Cédric Figuères, Edward C Holmes, Joaquín Martínez Martínez, Anna J Phillips, Robert Poulin, Karyna Rosario

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Understanding how microbiomes affect host resistance, parasite virulence, and parasite-associated diseases requires a collaborative effort between parasitologists, microbial ecologists, virologists, and immunologists. We hereby propose the Parasite Microbiome Project to bring together researchers with complementary expertise and to study the role of microbes in host-parasite interactions. Data from the Parasite Microbiome Project will help identify the mechanisms driving microbiome variation in parasites and infected hosts and how that variation is associated with the ecology and evolution of parasites and their disease outcomes. This is a call to arms to prevent fragmented research endeavors, encourage best practices in experimental approaches, and ...


Helminth Infection-Induced Malignancy., Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas 2017 George Washington University

Helminth Infection-Induced Malignancy., Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Infectious diseases cause more than 20% of cancers in the developing world [1]. About a dozen pathogens including Epstein-Barr virus and human T cell lymphocytotropic virus 1 are among the well-known examples. In addition, infection with several trematodes, which are eukaryotes, can cause malignancy. The International Agency for Research on Cancer categorizes infection with the fish-borne trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium as Group 1 biological carcinogens [2]. In addition to parasitism directly damaging development, health, and prosperity of infected populations, infection with these helminths leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (bile duct cancer) and squamous ...


Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat MD, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah PhD 2017 Marshall University

Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat Md, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah Phd

Darshana Shah

Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.


Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat MD, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah PhD 2017 Marshall University

Isolated Candida Infection Of The Lung, Yousef Shweihat Md, James Perry, Darshana T. Shah Phd

Yousef R. Shweihat

Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.


Chemical Modulation Of Cancer Cells To Enhance Tumor Immunity, Florisela Herrejon Chavez 2017 Portland State University

Chemical Modulation Of Cancer Cells To Enhance Tumor Immunity, Florisela Herrejon Chavez

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Breakthroughs in immunotherapy have led to cancer therapeutics that activate the immune system by blocking inhibitory mechanisms. This class of therapeutics has resulted in longer survival rates for cancer patients, some living over 10 years after being diagnosed as terminally ill. However, only a small fraction of patients who receive immunotherapy drugs respond favorably.Recent studies suggest that certain anticancer agents (both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs) stimulate immune recognition of cancers. Identification of such immunomodulatory anticancer agents would make ideal partners for current immunotherapy treatments, thus increasing the proportion of the treated patients who benefit from immunotherapy. This study ...


Subsets Of Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated With Risk Of Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis Viverrini-Associated Advanced Periductal Fibrosis And Cholangiocarcinoma., Arpa Surapaitoon, Sutas Suttiprapa, Eimorn Mairiang, Narong Khuntikeo, Chawalit Pairojkul, Jeffrey Bethony, Paul J Brindley, Banchob Sripa 2017 George Washington University

Subsets Of Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated With Risk Of Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis Viverrini-Associated Advanced Periductal Fibrosis And Cholangiocarcinoma., Arpa Surapaitoon, Sutas Suttiprapa, Eimorn Mairiang, Narong Khuntikeo, Chawalit Pairojkul, Jeffrey Bethony, Paul J Brindley, Banchob Sripa

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Opisthorchis viverrini infection induces chronic inflammation, and a minor proportion of infected individuals develop advanced periductal fibrosis (APF) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Inflammatory cytokines and/or their gene polymorphisms may link to these biliary pathologies. We therefore investigated associations among cytokine gene polymorphisms and cytokine production in 510 Thai cases infected with O. viverrini who presented with APF+ or APF−, as established by abdominal ultrasonography as well as in patients diagnosed with CCA. Levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined in culture supernatants after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with O. viverrini excretory-secretory (ES) products. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β ...


The Effect Of Group 1 Cd1-Restricted T Cells On Atherosclerosis, Shon Thomas, Sreya Bagchi 2017 Northwestern University

The Effect Of Group 1 Cd1-Restricted T Cells On Atherosclerosis, Shon Thomas, Sreya Bagchi

Undergraduate Research and Arts Exposition

Approximately 1 in 3 deaths in the US is caused by cardiovascular diseases, among them atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis occurs through excessive cholesterol deposition (hyperlipidemia) along the inner layer of the artery called the intima, resulting in plaque formation that blocks arterial blood flow and could lead to heart attacks and strokes. It has recently been recognized that inflammation plays an important role in plaque formation. Specifically, T cell activation can affect the progression of atherosclerosis through interaction with antigen presenting cells (APCs) in a hyperlipidemic environment. APCs ingest foreign objects and present digested remnants on antigen presenting molecules at the cell ...


Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi 2017 Fudan University

Seroprevalence Of Antibodies Against Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Among Hiv-Negative People In China, Tiejun Zhang, Zhenqiu Liu, Jun Wang, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Gary M. Clifford, Na He, Silvia Franceschi

Virology Papers

Background: Little information on the prevalence of Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-negative individuals is available from Asia.

Methods: In the present study, we report findings from a new survey of KSHV in 983 HIV-negative male migrants from Shanghai and their combination with previous similar surveys of 600 female migrants, 600 female sex-workers (FSW), 1336 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic male patients, 439 intravenous drug-users (IVDU), and 226 men having sex with men (MSM) from China. KSHV-specific antibodies against latent and lytic antigens were assessed using Sf9 and BC3 monoclonal immunofluorescence assay. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 ...


The 11s Proteasomal Activator Regγ Impacts Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Aggregation And Motor Neuron Viability Through Distinct Mechanisms., Jill M. Yersak, Heather L. Montie, Erica S. Chevalier-Larsen, Yuhong Liu, Lan Huang, Martin Rechsteiner, Diane E. Merry 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

The 11s Proteasomal Activator Regγ Impacts Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Aggregation And Motor Neuron Viability Through Distinct Mechanisms., Jill M. Yersak, Heather L. Montie, Erica S. Chevalier-Larsen, Yuhong Liu, Lan Huang, Martin Rechsteiner, Diane E. Merry

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is caused by expression of a polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded androgen receptor (AR). The inefficient nuclear proteasomal degradation of the mutant AR results in the formation of nuclear inclusions containing amino-terminal fragments of the mutant AR. PA28γ (also referred to as REGγ) is a nuclear 11S-proteasomal activator with limited proteasome activation capabilities compared to its cytoplasmic 11S (PA28α, PA28β) counterparts. To clarify the role of REGγ in polyQ-expanded AR metabolism, we carried out genetic and biochemical studies in cell models of SBMA. Overexpression of REGγ in a PC12 cell model of SBMA increased polyQ-expanded AR ...


Analysis Of The Local And Systemic Cytokine Response Profiles In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Relationship With Disease Severity And Outcomes., Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Paula Peyrani, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez 2017 University of Louisville

Analysis Of The Local And Systemic Cytokine Response Profiles In Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Relationship With Disease Severity And Outcomes., Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Robert R. Kelley, Paula Peyrani, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

The goals of this study were to investigate the relationship of systemic and local cytokine responses with time to clinical stability (TCS) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to develop a model to integrate multiple cytokine data into “cytokine response profiles” based on local vs. systemic and pro- vs. anti-inflammatory cytokine patterns in order to better understand their relationships with measures of CAP severity and outcomes. Forty hospitalized patients enrolled through the Community Acquired Pneumonia Inflammatory Study Group (CAPISG) were analyzed. Based on the ranked distribution of the levels of eight different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8 ...


Whole Genome Analysis Of A Schistosomiasis-Transmitting Freshwater Snail., Coen M Adema, LaDeana W Hillier, Catherine S Jones, Eric S Loker, Matty Knight, Patrick Minx, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Whole Genome Analysis Of A Schistosomiasis-Transmitting Freshwater Snail., Coen M Adema, Ladeana W Hillier, Catherine S Jones, Eric S Loker, Matty Knight, Patrick Minx, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Biomphalaria snails are instrumental in transmission of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. With the World Health Organization's goal to eliminate schistosomiasis as a global health problem by 2025, there is now renewed emphasis on snail control. Here, we characterize the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, a lophotrochozoan protostome, and provide timely and important information on snail biology. We describe aspects of phero-perception, stress responses, immune function and regulation of gene expression that support the persistence of B. glabrata in the field and may define this species as a suitable snail host for S. mansoni. We identify several potential targets ...


Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls T Cell Fate Through Metabolic Programming, Michael Buck 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls T Cell Fate Through Metabolic Programming, Michael Buck

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Activated effector T (TE) cells augment anabolic pathways of metabolism, such as aerobic glycolysis, while memory T (TM) cells engage catabolic pathways, like fatty acid oxidation (FAO). However, signals that drive these differences remain unclear. Mitochondria are metabolic organelles that actively transform their ultrastructure. Therefore, we questioned whether mitochondrial dynamics controls T cell metabolism. We show that TE cells have punctate mitochondria, while TM cells maintain fused networks. The fusion protein Opa1 is required for TM, but not TE cells after infection, and enforcing fusion in TE cells imposes TM cell characteristics and enhances antitumor function. Our data suggest that ...


Epigenetic Activation Of The Mouse T Cell Receptor Beta Recombination Center, Jiangyang Zhao 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Epigenetic Activation Of The Mouse T Cell Receptor Beta Recombination Center, Jiangyang Zhao

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lymphocytes are the work horses of adaptive immunity. Compared to the B lymphocyte lineage, early stage progenitors of T lymphocytes maintain considerable potential for differentiation into other hematopoietic lineages. T lineage commitment requires the continuous coordination of transcription factors (TFs) by Notch1 signaling after multi-potent progenitors (MPPs) migrate to thymus. One of the first hall marks of T lineage commitment is expression of the T cell receptor β (TCRβ), which is encoded by the Tcrb locus following its assembly by V(D)J recombination, a somatic shuffling of the genome that joins one V, one D, and one J gene ...


The Role Of Histidine Rich Protein Ii In Cerebral Malaria, Priya Pal 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

The Role Of Histidine Rich Protein Ii In Cerebral Malaria, Priya Pal

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human malaria is caused by five species of Plasmodium. Of these, P. falciparum is the deadliest and is the only species that causes cerebral malaria (CM). CM is a disease of the vascular endothelium characterized by parasite sequestration, increased inflammatory cytokine production, vascular leakage and leukocyte infiltration. A distinguishing feature of P. falciparum infection is the parasite’s production and secretion of histidine-rich protein II (HRPII). HRPII accumulates to high concentrations (up to 100 µg/ml) in serum, which correlates with disease severity. Due to high serum levels of this protein, HRPII has classically been considered a biomarker for P ...


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