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Blimp-1–Mediated Cd4 T Cell Exhaustion Causes Cd8 T Cell Dysfunction During Chronic Toxoplasmosis, Sujin Hwang, Dustin A. Cobb, Rajarshi Bhadra, Ben Youngblood, Imtiaz A. Khan 2016 George Washington University

Blimp-1–Mediated Cd4 T Cell Exhaustion Causes Cd8 T Cell Dysfunction During Chronic Toxoplasmosis, Sujin Hwang, Dustin A. Cobb, Rajarshi Bhadra, Ben Youngblood, Imtiaz A. Khan

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

CD8, but not CD4, T cells are considered critical for control of chronic toxoplasmosis. Although CD8 exhaustion has been previously reported inToxoplasma encephalitis (TE)–susceptible model, our current work demonstrates that CD4 not only become exhausted during chronic toxoplasmosis but this dysfunction is more pronounced than CD8 T cells. Exhausted CD4 population expressed elevated levels of multiple inhibitory receptors concomitant with the reduced functionality and up-regulation of Blimp-1, a transcription factor. Our data demonstrates for the first time that Blimp-1 is a critical regulator for CD4 T cell exhaustion especially in the CD4 central memory cell subset. Using a ...


Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis

Master's Theses

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...


The Immunomodulatory Role Of Adjuvants In Vaccines Formulated With The Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 And Ov-Ral-2 Against Onchocerca Volvulus In Mice., Jessica A. Hess Ligas, Bin Zhan, April R. Torigian, John B. Patton, Nikolai Petrovsky, Tingting Zhan, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, Thomas R. Klei, Sara Lustigman, David Abraham 2016 Thomas Jefferson University

The Immunomodulatory Role Of Adjuvants In Vaccines Formulated With The Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 And Ov-Ral-2 Against Onchocerca Volvulus In Mice., Jessica A. Hess Ligas, Bin Zhan, April R. Torigian, John B. Patton, Nikolai Petrovsky, Tingting Zhan, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, Thomas R. Klei, Sara Lustigman, David Abraham

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: In some regions in Africa, elimination of onchocerciasis may be possible with mass drug administration, although there is concern based on several factors that onchocerciasis cannot be eliminated solely through this approach. A vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus would provide a critical tool for the ultimate elimination of this infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that immunization of mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, when formulated with alum, induced protective immunity. It was hypothesized that the levels of protective immunity induced with the two recombinant antigens formulated with alum would be improved by formulation with other adjuvants known to enhance different types ...


Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease And Infection With Opisthorchis Felineus., Irina V. Saltykova, Vjacheslav A Petrov, Maria D Logacheva, Polina G Ivanova, Nikolay V Merzlikin, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Paul J. Brindley 2016 George Washington University

Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease And Infection With Opisthorchis Felineus., Irina V. Saltykova, Vjacheslav A Petrov, Maria D Logacheva, Polina G Ivanova, Nikolay V Merzlikin, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Paul J. Brindley

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system. This study investigated the influence of infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus on the biliary microbiome of residents of the Tomsk region of western Siberia.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples of bile were provided by 56 study participants, half of who were infected with O. felineus, and all of who were diagnosed with gallstone disease. The microbiota of the bile was investigated using high throughput, Illumina-based sequencing targeting the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. About 2,797, discrete phylotypes of prokaryotes were detected. At the level of phylum ...


Needle In The Haystack: Combining Intravital Imaging And Mathematical Modeling To Understand How Vaccine-Induced T Cells Find Malaria-Infected Cells In Murine Livers, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Ian Cockburn, Reka Kelemen 2016 University of Tennessee

Needle In The Haystack: Combining Intravital Imaging And Mathematical Modeling To Understand How Vaccine-Induced T Cells Find Malaria-Infected Cells In Murine Livers, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Ian Cockburn, Reka Kelemen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Gdf-6 Blocking Antibodies As Anti-Melanoma Therapeutics, Ejemel Monir, Danielle Wisheart, Alec Gramann, Arvind Venkatesan, Mark S. Klempner, Craig J. Ceol, Yang Wang 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of Gdf-6 Blocking Antibodies As Anti-Melanoma Therapeutics, Ejemel Monir, Danielle Wisheart, Alec Gramann, Arvind Venkatesan, Mark S. Klempner, Craig J. Ceol, Yang Wang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Through comparative oncogenomic studies and functional analyses, we have identified the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) factor GDF6 as a new melanoma oncogene. The secreted, carboxy-terminal portion of GDF6 is the active form that binds to cell-surface receptors to initiate BMP signaling. Targeted antibodies directed against secreted proteins are a proven therapeutic modality in several diseases.

To develop therapeutic antibodies against the active form of GDF6, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Due to the high similarity of human and mouse GDF6 proteins, the C-terminal GDF6 protein was expressed as bacterial recombinant protein with fusion tags to enhance immunogenicity. The ...


Iron Regulation Of Macrophage Responses To Uropathogenic E. Coli, Nana Kwame Owusu-Boaitey 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Iron Regulation Of Macrophage Responses To Uropathogenic E. Coli, Nana Kwame Owusu-Boaitey

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are the principal cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs), one of the most common infections globally. Given the rising incidence of antibiotic resistance among UPEC strains, there is an increasing need to better understand the host response to UPEC and to develop ways to harness the bladder innate immune response that clears infection. In response to infection, the host attempts to limit the ability of UPEC to access iron, a metal critical to UPEC survival. Innate immune cells known as macrophages are known to regulate iron homeostasis through the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, though it remains ...


Role Of Atg16l1 In Uropathogenic E. Coli Pathogenesis, Jane Symington 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Role Of Atg16l1 In Uropathogenic E. Coli Pathogenesis, Jane Symington

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases and are primarily caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Given the greater incidence of antibiotic resistance among UPEC isolates, it is vital to determine factors and pathways important for an effective host response to UPEC in order to improve therapeutic options for combating UTIs. Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway that plays important roles in pathogen control and modulation of innate immunity. One essential autophagy protein, ATG16L1, has been further implicated in controlling inflammation due to a common variant of ATG16L1 being associated with increased risk of Crohns disease ...


Omcp Mediated Cowpox Virulence And Its Dependence On The Immune Receptors Nkg2d And Fcrl5., Michel Muzi Sun 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Omcp Mediated Cowpox Virulence And Its Dependence On The Immune Receptors Nkg2d And Fcrl5., Michel Muzi Sun

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Viruses with large DNA genomes, such as cowpox virus, encode many open-reading frames involved in the modulation of the host immune system, facilitating escape from immune detection or downregulation of specific aspects of the host immune response. Investigation of virally-encoded immunoevasins has been instrumental in understanding host-pathogen interactions. Here, we focus on the cowpox virus immunoevasin Orthopoxvirus MHC Class I-like Protein (OMCP) and demonstrate for the first time that OMCP facilitates cowpox virus virulence in vivo. We have previously documented that OMCP binds the activating receptor NKG2D on NK cells as well as the orphan receptor FCRL5 on innate B ...


The Resolution Phase Of Nk Cell Proliferation And Ifn Production Following Viral Infection Are Highly Regulated Processes., Leslie Abigail Fogel 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

The Resolution Phase Of Nk Cell Proliferation And Ifn Production Following Viral Infection Are Highly Regulated Processes., Leslie Abigail Fogel

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In response to MCMV infection, NK cells undergo three distinct phases of proliferation: the non-specific phase mediated by pro-proliferative cytokines; the specific phase mediated by recognition of an MCMV-encoded protein by an NK cell activating receptor, Ly49H; and the resolution phase, whose mechanism is unknown. MCMV infection of RAG mice, which lack all adaptive immune cells, results in prolonged proliferation of NK cells despite similar viral titers compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, there are different kinetics for Ly49H+ and Ly49H- NK cells. We have identified several additional markers that may distinguish NK cells that have been specifically activated through their ...


Genetic Predisposition And M1 Macrophage Polarization Created By Elastin-Derived Peptides Drive Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation, Matthew A. Dale 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Genetic Predisposition And M1 Macrophage Polarization Created By Elastin-Derived Peptides Drive Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation, Matthew A. Dale

Theses & Dissertations

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dynamic vascular disease characterized by inflammatory cell invasion and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Evidence has demonstrated a profound influence of genetic background on AAA formation. The work presented herein discusses two studies: the first demonstrates how genetic components can enhance the susceptibility to AAA formation and the second demonstrates how ECM degradation enhances AAA progression by influencing inflammatory cell phenotypes. An understanding of the pathways involved in AAA pathogenesis can help not only to identify potential patients at risk of AAA development, a heritable disease in which the incriminating component has yet to be ...


A Conserved Dna Repeat Promotes Selection Of A Diverse Repertoire Of Trypanosoma Brucei Surface Antigens From The Genomic Archive., Galadriel Hovel-Miner, Monica R. Mugnier, Benjamin Goldwater, George A. M. Cross, F. Nina Papavasiliou 2016 George Washington University

A Conserved Dna Repeat Promotes Selection Of A Diverse Repertoire Of Trypanosoma Brucei Surface Antigens From The Genomic Archive., Galadriel Hovel-Miner, Monica R. Mugnier, Benjamin Goldwater, George A. M. Cross, F. Nina Papavasiliou

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

African trypanosomes are mammalian pathogens that must regularly change their protein coat to survive in the host bloodstream. Chronic trypanosome infections are potentiated by their ability to access a deep genomic repertoire of Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) genes and switch from the expression of one VSG to another. Switching VSG expression is largely based in DNA recombination events that result in chromosome translocations between an acceptor site, which houses the actively transcribed VSG, and a donor gene, drawn from an archive of more than 2,000 silent VSGs. One element implicated in these duplicative gene conversion events is a DNA ...


Impact Of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (Egcg), A Broad-Spectrum Anti-Inflammatory, In Controlling Intestinal Factors Contributing To Inflammatory Bowel Disease., Gerald Wayne Dryden, Jr. 2016 University of Louisville

Impact Of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (Egcg), A Broad-Spectrum Anti-Inflammatory, In Controlling Intestinal Factors Contributing To Inflammatory Bowel Disease., Gerald Wayne Dryden, Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), as a potential treatment for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a common disorder that causes a great deal of suffering. Our understanding of the etiologies, pathogenic mechanisms, and treatment targets continues to evolve. Many new therapeutic targets are making their way through the pharmaceutical pipelines. However, not all patients benefit from these therapies. EGCG has long been studied as an anti-cancer agent. Most of our understanding of this compound comes from the oncologic literature. As the pathways of oncology and inflammation converge, new lessons can be taken from the ...


Porphyromonas Gingivalis Gingipains Induce A Pro-Inflammatory Extracellular Microenvironment : The Role Of Par-2 And Fibronectin., Jeffrey S. Marschall 2016 University of Louisville

Porphyromonas Gingivalis Gingipains Induce A Pro-Inflammatory Extracellular Microenvironment : The Role Of Par-2 And Fibronectin., Jeffrey S. Marschall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by severe tissue destruction of the gingiva and other tooth supporting structures; if left untreated, tooth loss and disintegration of the alveolar bone occurs. This chronic inflammatory state has been linked to other systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the major pathogenic microbe in periodontitis. The main virulence factors of P. gingivalis are the Arg-aa and Lys-aa gingipains, which are proteolytic enzymes implicated in a plethora of activities that allow P. gingivalis to subvert the human immune system in the oral ...


Use Of Ultraviolet Light Irradiated Multiple Myeloma Cells As Immunogens To Generate Tumor Specific Cytolytic T Lymphocytes, Charles A. Gullo PhD, William Y.K. Hwang, Chye K. Poh, Melvin Au, Geraline Cow, Gerrard Teoh 2016 Marshall University

Use Of Ultraviolet Light Irradiated Multiple Myeloma Cells As Immunogens To Generate Tumor Specific Cytolytic T Lymphocytes, Charles A. Gullo Phd, William Y.K. Hwang, Chye K. Poh, Melvin Au, Geraline Cow, Gerrard Teoh

Charles Gullo

Background:

As the eradication of tumor cells in vivo is most efficiently performed by cytolytic Tlymphocytes (CTL), various methods for priming tumor-reactive lymphocytes have been developed. In this study, a method of priming CTLs with ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated tumor cells, which results in termination of tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, as well as upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSP) expression is described.

Methods:

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were primed weekly with UV-irradiated or mitomycin-treated RPMI 8226 multiple myeloma cells. Following three rounds of stimulation over 21 days, the lymphocytes from the mixed culture conditions were analyzed for anti-MM cell reactivity ...


Decoupling Of Normal Cd40/Interleukin-4 Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Switch Signal Leads To Genomic Instability In Sgh-Mm5 And Rpmi 8226 Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines, William Y.K Hwang, Charles A. Gullo PhD, Jie Shen, Chee Kok Poh, S. C. Tham, G. Cow, M. Au, E. W. E. Chan, G. Teoh 2016 Duke University

Decoupling Of Normal Cd40/Interleukin-4 Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Switch Signal Leads To Genomic Instability In Sgh-Mm5 And Rpmi 8226 Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines, William Y.K Hwang, Charles A. Gullo Phd, Jie Shen, Chee Kok Poh, S. C. Tham, G. Cow, M. Au, E. W. E. Chan, G. Teoh

Charles Gullo

The processes mediating genomic instability and clonal evolution are obscure in multiple myeloma (MM). Acquisition of new chromosomal translocations into the switch region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene (chromosome 14q32) in MM, often heralds transformation to more aggressive disease. Since the combined effects of CD40 plus interleukin-4 (IL-4) mediate IgH isotype class switch recombination (CSR), and this process involves DNA double strand break repair (DSBR), we hypothesized that CD40 and/or IL-4 activation of MM cells could induce abnormal DNA DSBR and lead to genomic instability and clonal evolution. In this study, we show that MM cell lines ...


Association Of Epstein-Barr Virus With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma And Current Status Of Development Of Cancer-Derived Cell Lines, Charles A. Gullo PhD, Wong Kein Low, Gerrard Teoh 2016 Marshall University

Association Of Epstein-Barr Virus With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma And Current Status Of Development Of Cancer-Derived Cell Lines, Charles A. Gullo Phd, Wong Kein Low, Gerrard Teoh

Charles Gullo

It is well known that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes directly to tumourigenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), primarily in the undifferentiated form of NPC (WHO type III; UNPC or UC), which is commonly found in South East Asia. Unfortunately, research in NPC has been severely hampered by the lack of authentic EBV-positive (EBV+) human NPC cell lines for study. Since 1975, there have been more than 20 reported NPC cell lines. However, many of these NPC-derived cell lines do not express EBV transcripts in long-term culture, and therefore that finding may dispute the fundamental theory of NPC carcinogenesis. In fact ...


Vaccination Of Gerbils With Bm-103 And Bm-Ral-2 Concurrently Or As A Fusion Protein Confers Consistent And Improved Protection Against Brugia Malayi Infection., Sridhar Arumugam, Junfei Wei, Zhuyun Liu, David Abraham, Aaron Bell, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Bin Zhan, Sara Lustigman, Thomas R Klei 2016 Department of Pathobiological Sciences, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University

Vaccination Of Gerbils With Bm-103 And Bm-Ral-2 Concurrently Or As A Fusion Protein Confers Consistent And Improved Protection Against Brugia Malayi Infection., Sridhar Arumugam, Junfei Wei, Zhuyun Liu, David Abraham, Aaron Bell, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Bin Zhan, Sara Lustigman, Thomas R Klei

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The Brugia malayi Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 proteins are orthologous to Onchocerca volvulus Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, and which were selected as the best candidates for the development of an O. volvulus vaccine. The B. malayi gerbil model was used to confirm the efficacy of these Ov vaccine candidates on adult worms and to determine whether their combination is more efficacious.

METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Vaccine efficacy of recombinant Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 administered individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein were tested in gerbils using alum as adjuvant. Vaccination with Bm-103 resulted in worm reductions of 39%, 34% and 22% on ...


A Subset Of Latency-Reversing Agents Expose Hiv-Infected Resting Cd4+ T-Cells To Recognition By Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes., R. Brad Jones, Stefanie Mueller, Rachel O'Connor, Katherine Rimpel, Derek D Sloan, Allison S. Thomas, Sara Karandish, Szu-Han Huang, +13 more 2016 George Washington University

A Subset Of Latency-Reversing Agents Expose Hiv-Infected Resting Cd4+ T-Cells To Recognition By Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes., R. Brad Jones, Stefanie Mueller, Rachel O'Connor, Katherine Rimpel, Derek D Sloan, Allison S. Thomas, Sara Karandish, Szu-Han Huang, +13 More

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Resting CD4+ T-cells harboring inducible HIV proviruses are a critical reservoir in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated subjects. These cells express little to no viral protein, and thus neither die by viral cytopathic effects, nor are efficiently cleared by immune effectors. Elimination of this reservoir is theoretically possible by combining latency-reversing agents (LRAs) with immune effectors, such as CD8+ T-cells. However, the relative efficacy of different LRAs in sensitizing latently-infected cells for recognition by HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells has not been determined. To address this, we developed an assay that utilizes HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell clones as biosensors for HIV antigen expression. By ...


Dissecting The Novel Roles Of Trim56 In Antiviral Innate Immunity, Baoming Liu 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Dissecting The Novel Roles Of Trim56 In Antiviral Innate Immunity, Baoming Liu

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins have emerged as a new class of host antiviral restriction factors, with several demonstrating roles in regulating innate antiviral responses. Of >70 known TRIMs, TRIM56 inhibits replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus, a ruminant pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae, but has no appreciable effect on VSV, a rhabdovirus. We have also shown that TRIM56 forms a complex with the Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) adaptor, TRIF, via its C-terminal residues 621-750, and augments TLR3-mediated interferon (IFN) induction and establishment of an antiviral state. Yet, TRIM56’s antiviral spectrum and the precise underlying mechanisms by which TRIM56 executes ...


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