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Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty 2018 Nazareth College of Rochester

Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty

#History: A Journal of Student Research

At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were ...


Samhd1 Phosphorylation Coordinates The Anti-Hiv-1 Response By Diverse Interferons And Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition., Matthew A Szaniawski, Adam M Spivak, James E Cox, Jonathan L Catrow, Timothy Hanley, Elizabeth S C P Williams, Michel J Tremblay, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles 2018 George Washington University

Samhd1 Phosphorylation Coordinates The Anti-Hiv-1 Response By Diverse Interferons And Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition., Matthew A Szaniawski, Adam M Spivak, James E Cox, Jonathan L Catrow, Timothy Hanley, Elizabeth S C P Williams, Michel J Tremblay, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Macrophages are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection despite abundant expression of antiviral proteins. Perhaps the most important antiviral protein is the restriction factor sterile alpha motif domain and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1). We investigated the role of SAMHD1 and its phospho-dependent regulation in the context of HIV-1 infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and the ability of various interferons (IFNs) and pharmacologic agents to modulate SAMHD1. Here we show that stimulation by type I, type II, and to a lesser degree, type III interferons share activation of SAMHD1 via dephosphorylation at threonine-592 as ...


Negative Regulators Of Colonic Peripheral Regulatory T Cell Development, Teresa Lei Ai 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Negative Regulators Of Colonic Peripheral Regulatory T Cell Development, Teresa Lei Ai

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Peripheral Treg cells (pTreg cells) maintain immune homeostasis at mucosal interfaces, where they can develop upon activation of naïve CD4+ T cells by bacteria antigen. However, the cellular and molecular requirements that govern their differentiation in inflamed and homeostatic contexts require further elucidation. To circumvent uncertainties in existing methods of distinguishing pTreg cells from thymic Treg cells (tTreg cells), we analyzed monoclonal cell populations of CT2 and CT6 transgenic (Tg) cells that develop into pTreg cells in response to different species of endogenously presented Helicobacter antigen. In our comprehensive assessment of multiple intestinal inflammatory models, including infections and physical injury ...


Allatostatin C Modulates Nociception And Immunity In Drosophila., Nathaniel D Bachtel, Gary A Hovsepian, Douglas F Nixon, Ioannis Eleftherianos 2018 George Washington University

Allatostatin C Modulates Nociception And Immunity In Drosophila., Nathaniel D Bachtel, Gary A Hovsepian, Douglas F Nixon, Ioannis Eleftherianos

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Bacterial induced inflammatory responses cause pain through direct activation of nociceptive neurons, and the ablation of these neurons leads to increased immune infiltration. In this study, we investigated nociceptive-immune interactions in Drosophila and the role these interactions play during pathogenic bacterial infection. After bacterial infection, we found robust upregulation of ligand-gated ion channels and allatostatin receptors involved in nociception, which potentially leads to hyperalgesia. We further found that Allatostatin-C Receptor 2 (AstC-R2) plays a crucial role in host survival during infection with the pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. Upon examination of immune signaling in AstC-R2 deficient mutants, we demonstrated that Allatostatin-C ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin 2018 Liberty University

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


The Small Rna Complement Of Adult Schistosoma Haematobium., Andreas J Stroehlein, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Ross S Hall, Aaron R Jex, Bonnie L Webster, David Rollinson, Paul J Brindley, Robin B Gasser 2018 George Washington University

The Small Rna Complement Of Adult Schistosoma Haematobium., Andreas J Stroehlein, Neil D Young, Pasi K Korhonen, Ross S Hall, Aaron R Jex, Bonnie L Webster, David Rollinson, Paul J Brindley, Robin B Gasser

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis-a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Studies of schistosome genomes have improved our understanding of the molecular biology of flatworms, but most of them have focused largely on protein-coding genes. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been explored in selected schistosome species and are suggested to play essential roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, and in modulating flatworm-host interactions. However, genome-wide small RNA data are currently lacking for key schistosomes including Schistosoma haematobium-the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis of humans.

METHODOLOGY: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other ...


Rip Kinase 1-Dependent Endothelial Necroptosis Underlies Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Matija Zelic, Justine E. Roderick, Joanne A. O'Donnell, Jesse Lehman, Sung Eun Lim, Harish P. Janardhan, Chinmay M. Trivedi, Manolis Pasparakis, Michelle A. Kelliher 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rip Kinase 1-Dependent Endothelial Necroptosis Underlies Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Matija Zelic, Justine E. Roderick, Joanne A. O'Donnell, Jesse Lehman, Sung Eun Lim, Harish P. Janardhan, Chinmay M. Trivedi, Manolis Pasparakis, Michelle A. Kelliher

Open Access Articles

Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) has important kinase-dependent and kinase-independent scaffolding functions that activate or prevent apoptosis or necroptosis in a cell context-dependent manner. The kinase activity of RIPK1 mediates hypothermia and lethality in a mouse model of TNF-induced shock, reflecting the hyperinflammatory state of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), where the proinflammatory "cytokine storm" has long been viewed as detrimental. Here, we demonstrate that cytokine and chemokine levels did not predict survival and, importantly, that kinase-inactive Ripk1D138N/D138N hematopoietic cells afforded little protection from TNF- or TNF/zVAD-induced shock in reconstituted mice. Unexpectedly, RIPK1 kinase-inactive mice transplanted with ...


Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas 2018 Liberty University

Herpes Zoster Patient Education: A Coloring Book Approach, Sophia Charuhas

Senior Honors Theses

Shingles, the disease caused by the herpes zoster virus, is a widespread and widely misunderstood illness in the United States. It is preventable, but many at-risk patients do not know what measures they may take to prevent it. Clear communication from physician to patient is crucial for patient understanding of diseases. Many patient education materials on herpes zoster currently available are often unused. It is therefore beneficial to public health to disseminate new mediums of medical communication, and one way of accomplishing this is through adult coloring books. The pathophysiology of herpes zoster virus is here explored and the idea ...


Cd8+ T-Cell Responses In Vaccination: Reconsidering Targets And Function In The Context Of Chronic Antigen Stimulation, Gabriela L. Cosma, Laurence Eisenlohr 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Cd8+ T-Cell Responses In Vaccination: Reconsidering Targets And Function In The Context Of Chronic Antigen Stimulation, Gabriela L. Cosma, Laurence Eisenlohr

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Cytotoxic CD8 T cells play important roles in eliminating infected and transformed cells. Owing to their potential for therapeutic applications, significant efforts are dedicated toward developing CD8 T cell-based vaccines. Thus far, CD8 T-cell vaccination strategies have had limited success therapeutically in contrast to those targeting antibody-based immunity. However, if the current challenges and gaps in the understanding of T-cell biology are overcome, the full potential of rational CD8 T-cell vaccine design might be realized. Here, we review recent progress in this direction, focusing on target selection and maintenance of function in the settings of chronic infections and cancers.


Inhibition Of Tnf-Alpha Decreases Microglia Activation In Rats Neonatally Treated With Poly I:C, Heath W. Shelton, Russell W. Brown 2018 East Tennessee State University

Inhibition Of Tnf-Alpha Decreases Microglia Activation In Rats Neonatally Treated With Poly I:C, Heath W. Shelton, Russell W. Brown

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Introduction: Current medical treatment for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCHZ) primarily relies on the inhibition of the dopamine D2 receptor that has been shown to be supersensitive in these patients. Treatment occurs through the use of antipsychotic medication which leads to a number of debilitating dose-dependent side effects, such as weight gain, agranulocytosis, and seizures. Patients diagnosed with SCHZ have also been shown to have increased inflammation in their central nervous system (CNS), particularly within specific brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. This is in large part due to the interaction between a pro-inflammatory cytokine called ...


Limited Immune Surveillance In Lymphoid Tissue By Cytolytic Cd4+ T Cells During Health And Hiv Disease., Marcus Buggert, Son Nguyen, Laura M. McLane, Maria Steblyanko, Nadia Anikeeva, Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Perla M Del Rio Estrada, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Kajsa Noyan, Morgan A. Reuter, Korey Demers, Johan K. Sandberg, Michael A. Eller, Hendrik Streeck, Marianne Jansson, Piotr Nowak, Anders Sönnerborg, David H. Canaday, Ali Naji, E. John Wherry, Merlin L. Robb, Steven G Deeks, Gustavo Reyes-Teran, Yuri Sykulev, Annika C. Karlsson, Michael R. Betts 2018 University of Pennsylvania; Karolinska Institutet

Limited Immune Surveillance In Lymphoid Tissue By Cytolytic Cd4+ T Cells During Health And Hiv Disease., Marcus Buggert, Son Nguyen, Laura M. Mclane, Maria Steblyanko, Nadia Anikeeva, Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Perla M Del Rio Estrada, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Kajsa Noyan, Morgan A. Reuter, Korey Demers, Johan K. Sandberg, Michael A. Eller, Hendrik Streeck, Marianne Jansson, Piotr Nowak, Anders Sönnerborg, David H. Canaday, Ali Naji, E. John Wherry, Merlin L. Robb, Steven G Deeks, Gustavo Reyes-Teran, Yuri Sykulev, Annika C. Karlsson, Michael R. Betts

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

CD4+ T cells subsets have a wide range of important helper and regulatory functions in the immune system. Several studies have specifically suggested that circulating effector CD4+ T cells may play a direct role in control of HIV replication through cytolytic activity or autocrine β-chemokine production. However, it remains unclear whether effector CD4+ T cells expressing cytolytic molecules and β-chemokines are present within lymph nodes (LNs), a major site of HIV replication. Here, we report that expression of β-chemokines and cytolytic molecules are enriched within a CD4+ T cell population with high levels of the T-box transcription factors T-bet and ...


Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

We report here the first whole-genome sequences for 3 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (112N, 113N, and 114N) isolated in Africa. Samples of this opportunistic pathogen were collected from nasal swabs obtained from healthy carrier dogs in Botswana. The sequence information will facilitate spatial phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.


Improving Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Using Single Molecule Mrna Sequencing., Vincent Magrini, Xin Gao, Bruce A Rosa, Sean McGrath, Xu Zhang, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, John Martin, John Hawdon, Richard K Wilson, Makedonka Mitreva 2018 George Washington University

Improving Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Using Single Molecule Mrna Sequencing., Vincent Magrini, Xin Gao, Bruce A Rosa, Sean Mcgrath, Xu Zhang, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, John Martin, John Hawdon, Richard K Wilson, Makedonka Mitreva

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The advantages of Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology include long reads, low systematic bias, and high consensus read accuracy. Here we use these attributes to improve on the genome annotation of the parasitic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum using PacBio RNA-Seq.

RESULTS: We sequenced 192,888 circular consensus sequences (CCS) derived from cDNAs generated using the CloneTech SMARTer system. These SMARTer-SMRT libraries were normalized and size-selected providing a robust population of expressed structural genes for subsequent genome annotation. We demonstrate PacBio mRNA sequences based genome annotation improvement, compared to genome annotation using conventional sequencing-by-synthesis alone, by identifying 1609 (9 ...


Fatal Elizabethkingia Meningoseptica Cholangitis Following Biliary Stent Placement, Khalid Ahmed, Syeda Atia Qudsia, Abdul Rehman, Syed Hani Abidi 2018 Aga Khan University

Fatal Elizabethkingia Meningoseptica Cholangitis Following Biliary Stent Placement, Khalid Ahmed, Syeda Atia Qudsia, Abdul Rehman, Syed Hani Abidi

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Elizabethkingia (E.) meningosepticais a ubiquitous gram-negative bacillus belonging to the genus Chryseobacteriumand has been reported to cause nosocomial infections in both the immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. E. meningoseptica can colonize the biliary tree after endoscopic procedures; and cholangitis, caused by this organism, is associated with a favorable prognosis. Here, we report a fatal case of cholangitis secondary to E. meningoseptica that developed following biliary stent placement. This case suggests that E. meningoseptica can be a cause of potentially fatal biliary tract infections in patients who undergo biliary tract endoscopic procedures. Clinicians must not disregard this organism as a contaminant (or ...


Drug Repurposing For Schistosomiasis: Combinations Of Drugs Or Biomolecules., Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Fátima Gärtner, José M Correia da Costa, Nuno Vale 2018 George Washington University

Drug Repurposing For Schistosomiasis: Combinations Of Drugs Or Biomolecules., Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Fátima Gärtner, José M Correia Da Costa, Nuno Vale

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease. Control of schistosomiasis currently relies on a single drug, praziquantel, and despite its efficacy against the all schistosome species that parasitize humans, it displays some problematic drawbacks and alone is ineffective in counteracting adverse pathologies associated with infection. Moreover, due to the development of the potential emergence of PZQ-resistant strains, the search for additional or alternative antischistosomal drugs have become a public health priority. The current drug discovery for schistosomiasis has been slow and uninspiring. By contrast, repurposing of existing approved drugs may offer a safe, rapid and cost-effective alternative. Combined treatment with ...


Sertraline, Paroxetine, And Chlorpromazine Are Rapidly Acting Anthelmintic Drugs Capable Of Clinical Repurposing., Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, John M Hawdon, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Sertraline, Paroxetine, And Chlorpromazine Are Rapidly Acting Anthelmintic Drugs Capable Of Clinical Repurposing., Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, John M Hawdon, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults. These drugs act rapidly to inhibit C. elegans feeding within minutes of exposure. Sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine also decrease motility of adult Trichuris muris whipworms, prevent hatching ...


Determinants Of Postnatal Spleen Tissue Regeneration And Organogenesis, Jonathan K H Tan, Takeshi Watanabe 2018 Bond University

Determinants Of Postnatal Spleen Tissue Regeneration And Organogenesis, Jonathan K H Tan, Takeshi Watanabe

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

The spleen is an organ that filters the blood and is responsible for generating blood-borne immune responses. It is also an organ with a remarkable capacity to regenerate. Techniques for splenic auto-transplantation have emerged to take advantage of this characteristic and rebuild spleen tissue in individuals undergoing splenectomy. While this procedure has been performed for decades, the underlying mechanisms controlling spleen regeneration have remained elusive. Insights into secondary lymphoid organogenesis and the roles of stromal organiser cells and lymphotoxin signalling in lymph node development have helped reveal similar requirements for spleen regeneration. These factors are now considered in the regulation ...


Mait Cells Are Activated In Acute Dengue Virus Infection And After In Vitro Zika Virus Infection., Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Bianca A N Santos, Nathália Silveira Barsotti, Fabiana Siroma, Douglas F Nixon, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Mait Cells Are Activated In Acute Dengue Virus Infection And After In Vitro Zika Virus Infection., Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Bianca A N Santos, Nathália Silveira Barsotti, Fabiana Siroma, Douglas F Nixon, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are members of the Flaviviridae and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito bites. Both viruses are responsible for a growing number of infections in tropical and subtropical regions. DENV infection can cause lethargy with severe morbidity and dengue shock syndrome leading to death in some cases. ZIKV is now linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal malformations including microcephaly and developmental disorders (congenital Zika syndrome). The protective and pathogenic roles played by the immune response in these infections is unknown. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a population of innate T cells with potent anti-bacterial ...


Granulin Secreted By The Food-Borne Liver Fluke, Brandon Haugen, Shannon E Karinshak, Victoria H Mann, Anastas Popratiloff, Alex Loukas, Paul J Brindley, Michael J Smout 2018 George Washington University

Granulin Secreted By The Food-Borne Liver Fluke, Brandon Haugen, Shannon E Karinshak, Victoria H Mann, Anastas Popratiloff, Alex Loukas, Paul J Brindley, Michael J Smout

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne, zoonotic pathogen endemic to Thailand and adjacent countries in Southeast Asia. The adult developmental stage of the O. viverrini parasite excretes and secretes numerous proteins within the biliary tract including the gall bladder. Lesions caused by the feeding activities of the liver fluke represent wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing and re-injury during chronic infection, which can last for decades. Components of the excretory/secretory (ES) complement released by the worms capably drive proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells and are implicated in establishing the oncogenic milieu that leads to bile ...


Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission., Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wan, Jianqing Xu 2018 George Washington University

Identification Of Unequally Represented Founder Viruses Among Tissues In Very Early Siv Rectal Transmission., Jian Chen, Yanqin Ren, Lance Daharsh, Lu Liu, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Qiang Wei, Yanmin Wan, Jianqing Xu

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Characterizing the transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses of multi-variant SIV infection may shed new light on the understanding of mucosal transmission. We intrarectally inoculated six Chinese rhesus macaques with a single high dose of SIVmac251 (3.1 × 104 TCID50) and obtained 985 full-length env sequences from multiple tissues at 6 and 10 days post-infection by single genome amplification (SGA). All 6 monkeys were infected with a range of 2 to 8 T/F viruses and the dominant variants from the inoculum were still dominant in different tissues from each monkey. Interestingly, our data showed that a cluster of rare T ...


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