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Medical Immunology Commons

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All Articles in Medical Immunology

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1,348 full-text articles. Page 1 of 50.

Quantitative Clinical And Autoimmune Assessments In Stiff Person Syndrome: Evidence For A Progressive Disorder., Goran Rakocevic, Harry Alexopoulos, Marinos C. Dalakas 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Quantitative Clinical And Autoimmune Assessments In Stiff Person Syndrome: Evidence For A Progressive Disorder., Goran Rakocevic, Harry Alexopoulos, Marinos C. Dalakas

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) is an under-diagnosed disorder that affects mobility and the quality of life of affected patients. The aim of the study is to describe the natural history of SPS, the extent of accumulated disability and the associated clinical and immunological features in patients followed for up to 8 years in a single center.

METHODS: Our collective cohort included 57 SPS patients. Additionally, 32 of these patients were examined every 6 months for a two-year period in a longitudinal study protocol, to assess disease progression using quantitative measures of stiffness and heightened sensitivity.

RESULTS: The most frequent ...


Intratumoral Sting Activation Sensitizes Poorly Immunogenic Cancers To Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy, Casey Ager 2018 The University of Texas MD ANderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Intratumoral Sting Activation Sensitizes Poorly Immunogenic Cancers To Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy, Casey Ager

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Unprecedented durable tumor regression can be achieved in patients with checkpoint blockade immunotherapy, yet these responses are rare and are not observed in all tumor types. Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are two common lethal cancers that remain refractory to checkpoint blockade, requiring development of new therapeutic approaches to promote responsivity in patients with these diseases. Both CRPC and PDAC are characterized by an immunosuppressive tumor milieu rich in cells of the myeloid lineage, which regulate T cell activity in many ways independent of the coinhibitory receptor axis. We investigated whether activation of acute inflammatory signaling ...


Development Of Onchocerca Volvulus In Humanized Nsg Mice And Detection Of Parasite Biomarkers In Urine And Serum., John B. Patton, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Mark L. Eberhard, Jessica A. Hess Ligas, April R. Torigian, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B. Nutman, David Abraham 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Development Of Onchocerca Volvulus In Humanized Nsg Mice And Detection Of Parasite Biomarkers In Urine And Serum., John B. Patton, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Mark L. Eberhard, Jessica A. Hess Ligas, April R. Torigian, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B. Nutman, David Abraham

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The study of Onchocerca volvulus has been limited by its host range, with only humans and non-human primates shown to be susceptible to the full life cycle infection. Small animal models that support the development of adult parasites have not been identified.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that highly immunodeficient NSG mice would support the survival and maturation of O. volvulus and alteration of the host microenvironment through the addition of various human cells and tissues would further enhance the level of parasite maturation. NSG mice were humanized with: (1) umbilical cord derived CD34+ stem cells, (2) fetal derived ...


A Virus-Encoded Type I Interferon Decoy Receptor Enables Evasion Of Host Immunity Through Cell-Surface Binding., Bruno Hernáez, Juan Manuel Alonso-Lobo, Imma Montanuy, Cornelius Fischer, Sascha Sauer, Luis J. Sigal, Noemí Sevilla, Antonio Alcamí 2018 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

A Virus-Encoded Type I Interferon Decoy Receptor Enables Evasion Of Host Immunity Through Cell-Surface Binding., Bruno Hernáez, Juan Manuel Alonso-Lobo, Imma Montanuy, Cornelius Fischer, Sascha Sauer, Luis J. Sigal, Noemí Sevilla, Antonio Alcamí

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Soluble cytokine decoy receptors are potent immune modulatory reagents with therapeutic applications. Some virus-encoded secreted cytokine receptors interact with glycosaminoglycans expressed at the cell surface, but the biological significance of this activity in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we show the type I interferon binding protein (IFNα/βBP) encoded by vaccinia and ectromelia viruses requires of this cell binding activity to confer full virulence to these viruses and to retain immunomodulatory activity. Expression of a variant form of the IFNα/βBP that inhibits IFN activity, but does not interact with cell surface glycosaminoglycans, results in highly attenuated viruses with a ...


Distinct Role Of Il-27 In Immature And Lps-Induced Mature Dendritic Cell-Mediated Development Of Cd4, Fang Zhou, Guang-Xian Zhang, A. M. Rostami 2018 Thomas Jefferson University; CAS Lamvac Biotech Co., Ltd.

Distinct Role Of Il-27 In Immature And Lps-Induced Mature Dendritic Cell-Mediated Development Of Cd4, Fang Zhou, Guang-Xian Zhang, A. M. Rostami

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Interleukin-27 (IL-27) plays an important role in regulation of anti-inflammatory responses and autoimmunity; however, the molecular mechanisms of IL-27 in modulation of immune tolerance and autoimmunity have not been fully elucidated. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in regulating immune responses mediated by innate and adaptive immune systems, but regulatory mechanisms of DCs in CD4+ T cell-mediated immune responses have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that IL-27 treated mature DCs induced by LPS inhibit immune tolerance mediated by LPS-stimulated DCs. IL-27 treatment facilitates development of the CD4+ CD127+3G11+ regulatory T cell subset in vitro and in ...


Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater 2018 University of Louisville

Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Immunotherapy strategies are very promising treatments for cancer patients. Specifically, Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy focusing on the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway shows long-lasting positive results in many cancer patients. Unfortunately, not all the patients can benefit from this highly effective treatment. Hence, there is a great need for predictive biomarkers. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining has been used as a way of predicting patient response, yet shows many problems. For example, IHC utilizes an invasive biopsy and sample fixing, which creates an incomplete and delayed picture of the patient’s biochemistry and the tumor microenvironment, consequently ignoring metastases.

The purpose of this study ...


31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar 2018 Augusta University

31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Abstract

Breast cancer is the leading malignancy and leading cause of cancer-related death in women globally. The greatest barrier to a treatment is the incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying molecular regulators whose function is cellular adaptation to estrogen. One such enzyme, ATAD3A, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme, has been brought under this lab’s scrutiny. The role of ATAD3A in breast cancer progression is largely unknown but it has been shown to be a crucial mediator in promoting cell cycle progression. The two objectives of this project were: to determine whether the ATAd3A is an Estrogen Receptor-α target (ERα) and to ...


21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix 2018 University of North Georgia

21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE UPREGULATION OF PGE₂ EXPRESSION IN THE BLADDER

Jessica Nix, Jane McHowat, Shannon Kispert

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. Despite known risks, 42.1 million Americans continue to smoke, making research into tobacco-related pathologies relevant and necessary. We previously discovered that cigarette smoke exposure leads to tumor progression in the breast via platelet activating factor (PAF) and other phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) metabolic pathways. These results led us to examine the PLA2 metabolite, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). We observed the expression of PGE₂ in mouse bladder and human heart ...


Role Of The Fractalkine Receptor In Cns Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing A Mouse Model Expressing The Human Cx3cr1, Sandra M. Cardona, Sangwon V. Kim, Kaira A. Church, Vanessa O. Torres, Ian A. Cleary, Andrew S. Mendiola, Stephen P. Saville, Stephanie S. Watowich, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Alejandro Soto-Ospina, Pedronel Araque, Richard M. Ransohoff, Astrid E. Cardona 2018 The University of Texas at San Antonio

Role Of The Fractalkine Receptor In Cns Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing A Mouse Model Expressing The Human Cx3cr1, Sandra M. Cardona, Sangwon V. Kim, Kaira A. Church, Vanessa O. Torres, Ian A. Cleary, Andrew S. Mendiola, Stephen P. Saville, Stephanie S. Watowich, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Alejandro Soto-Ospina, Pedronel Araque, Richard M. Ransohoff, Astrid E. Cardona

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults. Immune mediated destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes is considered the primary pathology of MS, but progressive axonal loss is the major cause of neurological disability. In an effort to understand microglia function during CNS inflammation, our laboratory focuses on the fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling as a regulator of microglia neurotoxicity in various models of neurodegeneration. Fractalkine (FKN) is a transmembrane chemokine expressed in the CNS by neurons and signals through its unique receptor CX3CR1 present in microglia ...


Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay 2018 Selected Works

Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay

David Turay, MD

Touted among the major achievements in the diagnosis and management of Prostate cancer (PCa) in the past few decades has been, the dramatic decline of men with advanced/metastatic PCa at diagnosis coupled with a significant improvement ( >90%) in the five and ten year survival rates of the disease. Non-palpable PCa (potentially clinically treatable disease) now accounts for 70-80% of all newly diagnosed cases of PCa. Preceding these changes by about a decade was the introduction of Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) into clinical practice; first as biomarker for monitoring response to therapy and subsequently as a complementary screening tool. It ...


Polymicrobial Sepsis Influences Nk-Cell-Mediated Immunity By Diminishing Nk-Cell-Intrinsic Receptor-Mediated Effector Responses To Viral Ligands Or Infections., Isaac J. Jensen, Christina S. Winborn, Micaela G. Fosdick, Peng Shao, Mikaela M. Tremblay, Qiang Shan, Sandeep Kumar Tripathy, Christopher M. Snyder, Hai-Hui Xue, Thomas S. Griffith, Jon C. Houtman, Vladimir P. Badovinac 2018 University of Iowa

Polymicrobial Sepsis Influences Nk-Cell-Mediated Immunity By Diminishing Nk-Cell-Intrinsic Receptor-Mediated Effector Responses To Viral Ligands Or Infections., Isaac J. Jensen, Christina S. Winborn, Micaela G. Fosdick, Peng Shao, Mikaela M. Tremblay, Qiang Shan, Sandeep Kumar Tripathy, Christopher M. Snyder, Hai-Hui Xue, Thomas S. Griffith, Jon C. Houtman, Vladimir P. Badovinac

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

The sepsis-induced cytokine storm leads to severe lymphopenia and reduced effector capacity of remaining/surviving cells. This results in a prolonged state of immunoparalysis, that contributes to enhanced morbidity/mortality of sepsis survivors upon secondary infection. The impact of sepsis on several lymphoid subsets has been characterized, yet its impact on NK-cells remains underappreciated-despite their critical role in controlling infection(s). Here, we observed numerical loss of NK-cells in multiple tissues after cecal-ligation-and-puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. To elucidate the sepsis-induced lesions in surviving NK-cells, transcriptional profiles were evaluated and indicated changes consistent with impaired effector functionality. A corresponding deficit in ...


The Conquest Of Pus -- A History Of Bitumen, Creosote And Carbolic Acid, Charles T. Ambrose 2018 University of Kentucky

The Conquest Of Pus -- A History Of Bitumen, Creosote And Carbolic Acid, Charles T. Ambrose

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

In the Western world from antiquity on, open wounds were treated topically with petroleum-derived substances, such as bitumen, asphalt, pitch, and tar. The immediate aim was to stifle bleeding and ease pain but a potential benefit was preventing local corruption with pus formation. In the early 19th century, creosote was recovered from bitumen and found to reduce suppuration. Carbolic acid was later isolated from creosote and recognized as an underlying active agent. In the 1860s, carbolic acid was first employed by Jules Lemaire to treat local skin infections and later by Joseph Lister to prevent the suppuration in compound fractures ...


Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky 2018 George Washington University

Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV infection is associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), even in patients successfully treated with the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the relationship between HIV, cART, and pathogenesis of CVD remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected subjects receiving or not receiving cART. One hundred nine newly diagnosed HIV-infected subjects and one hundred nine uninfected age-matched controls (all males) without the history of CVD, hypertension, or diabetes were recruited into the present study. Cross-sectional analysis at baseline (BL) showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides ...


Identification Of Bhlhe40 And Irg1 As Essential Regulators Of The Inflammatory Response To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Jeremy Peter Huynh 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Identification Of Bhlhe40 And Irg1 As Essential Regulators Of The Inflammatory Response To Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Jeremy Peter Huynh

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protective immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must induce bactericidal functions while minimizing damage to the lung. Such responses require precise control of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors to regulate the recruitment and function of protective immune cells but the mechanisms by which this control is exerted remain incompletely defined. Basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40 (Bhlhe40) is a transcription factor known to regulate production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that affect protective immunity to Mtb. Immune-responsive Gene 1 (Irg1) is an enzyme that generates itaconate, a metabolite with potential anti-inflammatory and antibacterial roles during Mtb infection. The impact of Bhlhe40 and ...


Cd4 T Cell Interaction With Intestinal Microbes Under Homeostasis And Inflammation, Jiani Chai 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Cd4 T Cell Interaction With Intestinal Microbes Under Homeostasis And Inflammation, Jiani Chai

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Specific gut commensal bacteria improve host health by eliciting mutualistic regulatory T (Treg) cells responses. However, the bacteria that induce effector T (Teff) cells during inflammation are unclear. Here, we addressed this by analyzing bacterial-reactive T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic cells and TCR repertoires in a murine colitis model. Unexpectedly, we found that mucosal-associated Helicobacter species triggered both Treg responses during homeostasis and Teff responses during colitis, as suggested by an increased overlap between the Teff/Treg TCR repertoires with colitis. In fact, 4/6 Treg TCRs tested recognized mucosal-associated Helicobacter species in vitro and in vivo. By contrast, the ...


Carnosol Modulates Th17 Cell Differentiation And Microglial Switch In Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Xing Li, Li Zhao, Juan-Juan Han, Fei Zhang, Shuai Liu, Lin Zhu, Zhe-Zhi Wang, Guang-Xian Zhang, Yuan Zhang 2018 Thomas Jefferson University; Shaanxi Normal University

Carnosol Modulates Th17 Cell Differentiation And Microglial Switch In Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Xing Li, Li Zhao, Juan-Juan Han, Fei Zhang, Shuai Liu, Lin Zhu, Zhe-Zhi Wang, Guang-Xian Zhang, Yuan Zhang

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Medicinal plants as a rich pool for developing novel small molecule therapeutic medicine have been used for thousands of years. Carnosol as a bioactive diterpene compound originated from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Salvia officinalis, herbs extensively applied in traditional medicine for the treatment of multiple autoimmune diseases (1). In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects and molecule mechanism of carnosol in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Carnosol treatment significantly alleviated clinical development in the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35–55) peptide-induced EAE model, markedly decreased inflammatory cell infiltration into the central nervous system and ...


Endomembrane-Associated Pre-Embedding Immunogold Labeling, Zuzana Nichtova, Celia Fernandez-Sanz, A. Bartok, Sergio De La Fuente, György Hajnóczky, Shey-Shing Sheu, György Csordás 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Endomembrane-Associated Pre-Embedding Immunogold Labeling, Zuzana Nichtova, Celia Fernandez-Sanz, A. Bartok, Sergio De La Fuente, György Hajnóczky, Shey-Shing Sheu, György Csordás

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Posters

Aim

To optimize the pre-embedding IG in stable cell lines and primary adult cardiomyocytes to get the most effective visualization of endomembrane/associated proteins: endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels IP3 receptors and ryanodine receptors (IP3R, and RyR2) and the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1.


With Some Risk-Taking And Luck: A Veterinarian's Adventures In Viral Immunology., Luis J. Sigal 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

With Some Risk-Taking And Luck: A Veterinarian's Adventures In Viral Immunology., Luis J. Sigal

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Extracellular Release Of Virulence Factor Major Surface Protease Via Exosomes In Leishmania Infantum Promastigotes, Skye Marshall, Patrick H. Kelly, Brajesh K. Singh, R Marshall Pope, Peter Kim, Bayan Zhanbolat, Mary E. Wilson, Chaoqun Yao 2018 University of Iowa

Extracellular Release Of Virulence Factor Major Surface Protease Via Exosomes In Leishmania Infantum Promastigotes, Skye Marshall, Patrick H. Kelly, Brajesh K. Singh, R Marshall Pope, Peter Kim, Bayan Zhanbolat, Mary E. Wilson, Chaoqun Yao

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

BACKGROUND: The Leishmania spp. protozoa are introduced into humans through a sand fly blood meal, depositing the infectious metacyclic promastigote form of the parasite into human skin. Parasites enter a variety of host cells, although a majority are found in macrophages where they replicate intracellularly during chronic leishmaniasis. Symptomatic leishmaniasis causes considerable human morbidity in endemic regions. The Leishmania spp. evade host microbicidal mechanisms partially through virulence-associated proteins such as the major surface protease (MSP or GP63), to inactivate immune factors in the host environment. MSP is a metalloprotease encoded by a tandem array of genes belonging to three msp ...


Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart 2018 George Washington University

Tgf-Β Sustains Tumor Progression Through Biochemical And Mechanical Signal Transduction., Robert L Furler, Douglas F Nixon, Christine A Brantner, Anastas Popratiloff, Christel H Uittenbogaart

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD transcription factor signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In this article, we review how TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activation lies at the intersection of proinflammatory signaling by immune receptors and anti-inflammatory signaling by TGF-β receptors. Additionally, we discuss the role of TGF-β in the mechanobiology of cancer. Understanding how TGF-β dampens proinflammatory responses and induces pro-survival mechanical signals throughout cancer development is critical for designing therapeutics that ...


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