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Ebola Vp40 In Exosomes Can Cause Immune Cell Dysfunction, Michelle Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine DeMarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Robert Barclay, Sergey N. Iordanskiy, +6 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Ebola Vp40 In Exosomes Can Cause Immune Cell Dysfunction, Michelle Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine Demarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Robert Barclay, Sergey N. Iordanskiy, +6 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, ssRNA virus from the family Filoviridae capable of causing severe hemorrhagic fever with up to 80–90% mortality rates. The most recent outbreak of EBOV in West Africa starting in 2014 resulted in over 11,300 deaths; however, long-lasting persistence and recurrence in survivors has been documented, potentially leading to further transmission of the virus. We have previously shown that exosomes from cells infected with HIV-1, HTLV-1 and Rift Valley Fever virus are able to transfer viral proteins and non-coding RNAs to naïve recipient cells, resulting in an altered cellular activity. In the current ...


P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi SenGupta 2016 George Washington University

P16ink4a Expression And Immunologic Aging In Chronic Hiv Infection, Susan Ribeiro, Jeffrey Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Peter W. Hunt, Steven Deeks, Douglas F. Nixon, Devi Sengupta

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Chronic HIV infection is characterized by increased immune activation and immunosenescence. p16 INK4a (p16) is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase antagonist family that inhibits cellular proliferation, and its protein expression increases during normal chronological aging. However, some infectious diseases can increase the expression of this anti-proliferative protein, potentially accelerating immunological aging and dysfunction. In order to investigate the immunological aging in HIV patients, p16 protein expression was evaluated by flow cytometry, in T cell subsets in a cohort of chronically HIV-infected patients on and off ART as well as age-matched healthy controls. Results showed that untreated HIV-infected subjects exhibited ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Implicates The P53 Signaling Pathway In The Establishment Of Hiv-1 Latency In Central Memory Cd4 T Cells In An In Vitro Model, Cory White, Bastiaan Moesker, Nadejda Beliakova-Bethell, Laura Martins, Celsa Spina, Alberto Bosque, +4 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Transcriptomic Analysis Implicates The P53 Signaling Pathway In The Establishment Of Hiv-1 Latency In Central Memory Cd4 T Cells In An In Vitro Model, Cory White, Bastiaan Moesker, Nadejda Beliakova-Bethell, Laura Martins, Celsa Spina, Alberto Bosque, +4 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The search for an HIV-1 cure has been greatly hindered by the presence of a viral reservoir that persists despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies of HIV-1 latency in vivo are also complicated by the low proportion of latently infected cells in HIV-1 infected individuals. A number of models of HIV-1 latency have been developed to examine the signaling pathways and viral determinants of latency and reactivation. A primary cell model of HIV-1 latency, which incorporates the generation of primary central memory CD4 T cells (TCM), full-length virus infection (HIVNL4-3) and ART to suppress virus replication, was used to investigate the ...


Evaluating Frequency And Quality Of Pathogen-Specific T Cells., Nadia Anikeeva, Dolores Grosso, Yuri Sykulev 2016 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University

Evaluating Frequency And Quality Of Pathogen-Specific T Cells., Nadia Anikeeva, Dolores Grosso, Yuri Sykulev

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

It is generally accepted that enumeration and characterization of antigen-specific T cells provide essential information about potency of the immune response. Here, we report a new technique to determine the frequency and potency of antigen-specific CD8 T cells. The assay measures changes of intracellular Ca(2+) in real time by fluorescent microscopy in individual CD8 T cells responding to cognate peptides. The T cells form continuous monolayer, enabling the cells to present the peptides to each other. This approach allows us to evaluate the kinetics of intracellular Ca(2+) signalling that characterizes the quality of T cell response. We demonstrate ...


Redefining Myeloid Subsets In Murine Spleen, Ying-Ying Hey, Jonathan K H Tan, Helen C O'Neill 2016 Australian National University

Redefining Myeloid Subsets In Murine Spleen, Ying-Ying Hey, Jonathan K H Tan, Helen C O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Spleen is known to contain multiple dendritic and myeloid cell subsets, distinguishable on the basis of phenotype, function and anatomical location. As a result of recent intensive flow cytometric analyses, splenic dendritic cell (DC) subsets are now better characterized than other myeloid subsets. In order to identify and fully characterize a novel splenic subset termed "L-DC" in relation to other myeloid cells, it was necessary to investigate myeloid subsets in more detail. In terms of cell surface phenotype, L-DC were initially characterized as a CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)MHCII(-)Ly6C(-)Ly6G(-) subset in murine spleen. Their expression of CD43, lack ...


Hiv-1 Integrates Widely Throughout The Genome Of The Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma Mansoni., Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H. Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I. Bukrinsky, Paul J. Brindley 2016 George Washington University

Hiv-1 Integrates Widely Throughout The Genome Of The Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma Mansoni., Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H. Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I. Bukrinsky, Paul J. Brindley

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The appearance of strong stop and positive strand cDNAs indicated that virions fused to schistosome cells, the nucleocapsid internalized and the ...


The Global Economic And Health Burden Of Human Hookworm Infection., Sarah M Bartsch, Peter J. Hotez, Lindsey Asti, Kristina M Zapf, Maria Elena Bottazzi, David J. Diemert, Bruce Y Lee 2016 George Washington University

The Global Economic And Health Burden Of Human Hookworm Infection., Sarah M Bartsch, Peter J. Hotez, Lindsey Asti, Kristina M Zapf, Maria Elena Bottazzi, David J. Diemert, Bruce Y Lee

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Even though human hookworm infection is highly endemic in many countries throughout the world, its global economic and health impact is not well known. Without a better understanding of hookworm's economic burden worldwide, it is difficult for decision makers such as funders, policy makers, disease control officials, and intervention manufacturers to determine how much time, energy, and resources to invest in hookworm control.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic and health burden of hookworm infection in every country, WHO region, and globally, in 2016 from the societal perspective. Globally, hookworm infection ...


Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis

Master's Theses

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...


Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mutation Suppresses Hyperhomocysteinemia-Mediated Hypertension., Anastasia Familtseva 2016 University of Louisville

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mutation Suppresses Hyperhomocysteinemia-Mediated Hypertension., Anastasia Familtseva

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been observed to promote hypertension, but the mechanisms are unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is a cellular membrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed in all cell types of the vasculature. TLR-4 activation has been shown to promote inflammation that has been associated with pathogenesis of hypertension. In this study, we hypothesize that HHcy induces hypertension by TLR-4 activation that promotes inflammatory cytokine up-regulation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death and chronic vascular inflammation. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we used C57BL/6J mice (WT); Cystathionine-β-synthase deficient mice (CBS+/-) with genetic ...


In Vivo Monitoring Of Therapeutic Efficacy And Virulence Profile By Bioluminescent Klebsiella Pneumoniae., Ramy Ameen Fodah 2016 University of Louisville

In Vivo Monitoring Of Therapeutic Efficacy And Virulence Profile By Bioluminescent Klebsiella Pneumoniae., Ramy Ameen Fodah

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes an acute respiratory infection in human with severe outcomes and high mortality rates even with antibiotic treatment. Even with its critical clinical importance, few virulence systems have been identified for K. pneumoniae limiting the development of new therapeutic strategies. Accordingly, we performed Next Generation sequencing for the strain ATCC 43816, a virulent strain in mouse respiratory disease models, and compared its genomic data with two previously sequenced strains NTUH-K2044 and MGH 78578 for the purpose of identifying genes required for colonizing host lungs. Furthermore, the virulence potential of the three K. pneumoniae strains were tested in a ...


Blimp-1–Mediated Cd4 T Cell Exhaustion Causes Cd8 T Cell Dysfunction During Chronic Toxoplasmosis, Sujin Hwang, Dustin A. Cobb, Rajarshi Bhadra, Ben Youngblood, Imtiaz A. Khan 2016 George Washington University

Blimp-1–Mediated Cd4 T Cell Exhaustion Causes Cd8 T Cell Dysfunction During Chronic Toxoplasmosis, Sujin Hwang, Dustin A. Cobb, Rajarshi Bhadra, Ben Youngblood, Imtiaz A. Khan

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

CD8, but not CD4, T cells are considered critical for control of chronic toxoplasmosis. Although CD8 exhaustion has been previously reported inToxoplasma encephalitis (TE)–susceptible model, our current work demonstrates that CD4 not only become exhausted during chronic toxoplasmosis but this dysfunction is more pronounced than CD8 T cells. Exhausted CD4 population expressed elevated levels of multiple inhibitory receptors concomitant with the reduced functionality and up-regulation of Blimp-1, a transcription factor. Our data demonstrates for the first time that Blimp-1 is a critical regulator for CD4 T cell exhaustion especially in the CD4 central memory cell subset. Using a ...


The Immunomodulatory Role Of Adjuvants In Vaccines Formulated With The Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 And Ov-Ral-2 Against Onchocerca Volvulus In Mice., Jessica A. Hess Ligas, Bin Zhan, April R. Torigian, John B. Patton, Nikolai Petrovsky, Tingting Zhan, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, Thomas R. Klei, Sara Lustigman, David Abraham 2016 Thomas Jefferson University

The Immunomodulatory Role Of Adjuvants In Vaccines Formulated With The Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 And Ov-Ral-2 Against Onchocerca Volvulus In Mice., Jessica A. Hess Ligas, Bin Zhan, April R. Torigian, John B. Patton, Nikolai Petrovsky, Tingting Zhan, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, Thomas R. Klei, Sara Lustigman, David Abraham

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: In some regions in Africa, elimination of onchocerciasis may be possible with mass drug administration, although there is concern based on several factors that onchocerciasis cannot be eliminated solely through this approach. A vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus would provide a critical tool for the ultimate elimination of this infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that immunization of mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, when formulated with alum, induced protective immunity. It was hypothesized that the levels of protective immunity induced with the two recombinant antigens formulated with alum would be improved by formulation with other adjuvants known to enhance different types ...


Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease And Infection With Opisthorchis Felineus., Irina V. Saltykova, Vjacheslav A Petrov, Maria D Logacheva, Polina G Ivanova, Nikolay V Merzlikin, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Paul J. Brindley 2016 George Washington University

Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease And Infection With Opisthorchis Felineus., Irina V. Saltykova, Vjacheslav A Petrov, Maria D Logacheva, Polina G Ivanova, Nikolay V Merzlikin, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Paul J. Brindley

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system. This study investigated the influence of infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus on the biliary microbiome of residents of the Tomsk region of western Siberia.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples of bile were provided by 56 study participants, half of who were infected with O. felineus, and all of who were diagnosed with gallstone disease. The microbiota of the bile was investigated using high throughput, Illumina-based sequencing targeting the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. About 2,797, discrete phylotypes of prokaryotes were detected. At the level of phylum ...


Inversion Of The Vδ1 To Vδ2 Γδ T Cell Ratio In Cvid Is Not Restored By Ivig And Is Associated With Immune Activation And Exhaustion., Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Nathália Silveira Barsotti, Bianca A N Santos, Ana Karolina B B Marinho, Cristina M Kokron, Karina I Carvalho, Myrthes T Barros, Jorge Kalil, Douglas F. Nixon, Esper G Kallas 2016 George Washington University

Inversion Of The Vδ1 To Vδ2 Γδ T Cell Ratio In Cvid Is Not Restored By Ivig And Is Associated With Immune Activation And Exhaustion., Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Nathália Silveira Barsotti, Bianca A N Santos, Ana Karolina B B Marinho, Cristina M Kokron, Karina I Carvalho, Myrthes T Barros, Jorge Kalil, Douglas F. Nixon, Esper G Kallas

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is defined by low levels of IgG and IgA, but perturbations in T cells are also commonly found. However, there is limited information on γδ T cells in CVID patients. Newly diagnosed CVID patients (n = 15) were enrolled before and after intravenous IgG (IVIg) replacement therapy. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then used to study γδ T cells and CVID patients were compared to healthy controls (n = 22). The frequency and absolute count of Vδ1 γδ T cells was found to be increased in CVID (median 0.60% vs 2.64%, P <0.01 and 7.5 vs 39, P <0.01 respectively), while they were decreased for Vδ2 γδ T cells (median, 2.36% vs 0.74%,P <0.01 and 37.8 vs 13.9, P ...


Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay 2016 Loma Linda University

Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Touted among the major achievements in the diagnosis and management of Prostate cancer (PCa) in the past few decades has been, the dramatic decline of men with advanced/metastatic PCa at diagnosis coupled with a significant improvement ( >90%) in the five and ten year survival rates of the disease. Non-palpable PCa (potentially clinically treatable disease) now accounts for 70-80% of all newly diagnosed cases of PCa. Preceding these changes by about a decade was the introduction of Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) into clinical practice; first as biomarker for monitoring response to therapy and subsequently as a complementary screening tool. It ...


Mechanism Of Chimeric Vaccine Mediated Immune Suppression Of Human Dendritic Cells, Jacques Christian Mbongue 2016 Loma Linda University

Mechanism Of Chimeric Vaccine Mediated Immune Suppression Of Human Dendritic Cells, Jacques Christian Mbongue

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic inflammatory disease in which insulin producing β-cells of the pancreatic islets are killed by autoreactive cells of the immune system in response to a loss of tolerance. Dendritic cells (DC) interact predominantly with naïve T cells to regulate the delicate balance between immunity and tolerance required to maintain immunological homeostasis. In this dissertation, immature human dendritic cells (iDC) were inoculated with a chimeric fusion protein vaccine containing the pancreatic β-cell auto-antigen proinsulin linked to a mucosal adjuvant the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-INS). Proteomic analysis of vaccine inoculated DCs revealed strong up-regulation of ...


Needle In The Haystack: Combining Intravital Imaging And Mathematical Modeling To Understand How Vaccine-Induced T Cells Find Malaria-Infected Cells In Murine Livers, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Ian Cockburn, Reka Kelemen 2016 University of Tennessee

Needle In The Haystack: Combining Intravital Imaging And Mathematical Modeling To Understand How Vaccine-Induced T Cells Find Malaria-Infected Cells In Murine Livers, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Ian Cockburn, Reka Kelemen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Gdf-6 Blocking Antibodies As Anti-Melanoma Therapeutics, Ejemel Monir, Danielle Wisheart, Alec Gramann, Arvind Venkatesan, Mark S. Klempner, Craig J. Ceol, Yang Wang 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of Gdf-6 Blocking Antibodies As Anti-Melanoma Therapeutics, Ejemel Monir, Danielle Wisheart, Alec Gramann, Arvind Venkatesan, Mark S. Klempner, Craig J. Ceol, Yang Wang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Through comparative oncogenomic studies and functional analyses, we have identified the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) factor GDF6 as a new melanoma oncogene. The secreted, carboxy-terminal portion of GDF6 is the active form that binds to cell-surface receptors to initiate BMP signaling. Targeted antibodies directed against secreted proteins are a proven therapeutic modality in several diseases.

To develop therapeutic antibodies against the active form of GDF6, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Due to the high similarity of human and mouse GDF6 proteins, the C-terminal GDF6 protein was expressed as bacterial recombinant protein with fusion tags to enhance immunogenicity. The ...


Hiv-1 Genetic Variation Resulting In The Development Of New Quasispecies Continues To Be Encountered In The Peripheral Blood Of Well-Suppressed Patients., Will Dampier, Michael R Nonnemacher, Joshua Mell, Joshua Earl, Garth D Ehrlich, Vanessa Pirrone, Benjamas Aiamkitsumrit, Wen Zhong, Katherine Kercher, Shendra Passic, Jean W Williams, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Brian Wigdahl 2016 Drexel University College of Medicine

Hiv-1 Genetic Variation Resulting In The Development Of New Quasispecies Continues To Be Encountered In The Peripheral Blood Of Well-Suppressed Patients., Will Dampier, Michael R Nonnemacher, Joshua Mell, Joshua Earl, Garth D Ehrlich, Vanessa Pirrone, Benjamas Aiamkitsumrit, Wen Zhong, Katherine Kercher, Shendra Passic, Jean W Williams, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Brian Wigdahl

Faculty papers Kimmel Cancer Center

As a result of antiretroviral therapeutic strategies, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has become a long-term clinically manageable chronic disease for many infected individuals. However, despite this progress in therapeutic control, including undetectable viral loads and CD4+ T-cell counts in the normal range, viral mutations continue to accumulate in the peripheral blood compartment over time, indicating either low level reactivation and/or replication. Using patients from the Drexel Medicine CNS AIDS Research and Eradication Study (CARES) Cohort, whom have been sampled longitudinally for more than 7 years, genetic change was modeled against to the dominant integrated proviral quasispecies ...


The Resolution Phase Of Nk Cell Proliferation And Ifn Production Following Viral Infection Are Highly Regulated Processes., Leslie Abigail Fogel 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

The Resolution Phase Of Nk Cell Proliferation And Ifn Production Following Viral Infection Are Highly Regulated Processes., Leslie Abigail Fogel

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In response to MCMV infection, NK cells undergo three distinct phases of proliferation: the non-specific phase mediated by pro-proliferative cytokines; the specific phase mediated by recognition of an MCMV-encoded protein by an NK cell activating receptor, Ly49H; and the resolution phase, whose mechanism is unknown. MCMV infection of RAG mice, which lack all adaptive immune cells, results in prolonged proliferation of NK cells despite similar viral titers compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, there are different kinetics for Ly49H+ and Ly49H- NK cells. We have identified several additional markers that may distinguish NK cells that have been specifically activated through their ...


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