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Convalescent Plasma In Covid-19, Ranjit S. Banwait, Joshua K. Salabei, Troy J. Fishman, Uma G. Iyer 2020 UCF/HCA

Convalescent Plasma In Covid-19, Ranjit S. Banwait, Joshua K. Salabei, Troy J. Fishman, Uma G. Iyer

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

The recent pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, which causes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has had devastating impact on a global and national scale. In order to overcome this outbreak it is imperative we find treatments that are safe and effective. To date, no definitive treatment is available that can curtail the spread of this viral syndrome. Convalescent plasma (CP) is one such option that has repeatedly served as an important tool in treatment of various bacterial and viral infections, especially in the setting of no specific antimicrobial or vaccination against an infectious disease. Herein, we review the history of CP, prior ...


Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Epstein Barr Virus-Immortalizedblymphocytes Exacerbate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Xenograft Mice, Pascal Polepole, Alison Bartenslager, Yutong Liu, Thomas M. Petro, Samodha C. Fernando, Luwen Zhang

Virology Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent for infectious mononucleosis (IM) that is associated with MS pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanism by which EBV, specifically in IM, increases the risk for MS remains unknown. EBV immortalizes primary B lymphocytes in vitro and causes excessive B lymphocyte proliferation in IM in vivo. In asymptomatic carriers, EBV-infected B lymphocytes still proliferate to certain degrees, the process of which is tightly controlled by the host immune systems. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mimics key features of MS in humans and ...


Frequency Of Monocyte Subsets Is Linked To The Severity Of Atherosclerosis In Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study, Irina V. Kologrivova, Tatiana Suslova, Olga Koshelskaya, Oksana Trubacheva, Olga Haritonova, Irina Vinnitskaya 2020 Cardiology Research Institute, Tomsk National Research Medical Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences

Frequency Of Monocyte Subsets Is Linked To The Severity Of Atherosclerosis In Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study, Irina V. Kologrivova, Tatiana Suslova, Olga Koshelskaya, Oksana Trubacheva, Olga Haritonova, Irina Vinnitskaya

BioMedicine

Background: Monocytes are recognized as central cells in the progression of atherosclerosis, and are subcategorized into classical (CD14++CD16lo), intermediate (CD14++CD16hi) and non-classical (CD14+CD16hi) subsets.

Purpose: The present study aimed to assess the relationships between different subsets of monocytes, metabolic and inflammatory factors in patients with stable coronary heart disease.

Methods: A total of 26 patients (both men and women) with stable ischemic heart disease (IHD). Among all the recruited patients, 17 patients had significant coronary artery disease defined as diameter stenosis more than 70%. Severity of CHD was assessed by the Gensini score (GS ...


Epigenetic And Signaling Pathways Regulating The Maintenance Of Cd8 T Cell Identity And Function, Daniel Verbaro 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Epigenetic And Signaling Pathways Regulating The Maintenance Of Cd8 T Cell Identity And Function, Daniel Verbaro

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In response to infection, antigen specific CD4 and CD8 T cells rapidly divide to provide help to the immune system and promote cytotoxicity of infected cells, respectively. Through this rapid division, CD4 and CD8 T cells maintain silencing of the opposing lineage’s genes, which is essential to acutely eliminating pathogens. However, not all pathogens are acutely eliminated even when silencing is maintained, and the pathogen persists in the presence of activated CD8 T cells. CD8 T cells chronically exposed to antigen are phenotypically different than CD8 T cells acutely exposed to antigen, but CD8 T cell still exert control ...


In Vivo Mechanisms Of Natural Killer Cell Tolerance, Michael Bern 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

In Vivo Mechanisms Of Natural Killer Cell Tolerance, Michael Bern

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic innate immune cells that provide protection from pathogens and tumors. To carry out these functions, NK cells must distinguish between healthy and unhealthy self-cells. Inability to recognize stressed cells would lead to a failure of NK-cell immunity whereas inability to identify healthy cells could lead to NK-cell autoimmunity. It remains unclear, however, how NK cells are able to distinguish healthy and unhealthy self-cells with a limited repertoire of germline-encoded receptors. The "missing-self" hypothesis proposes that NK cells identify stressed cells by their reduced expression of MHC class I (MHC-I) that is almost ubiquitously expressed ...


Effects Of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection On Nk Cells And Ilc1s, Eugene Park 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Effects Of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection On Nk Cells And Ilc1s, Eugene Park

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Natural killer cells and Type I innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are subsets of ILCs. In C57BL/6 mice, they share expression of the surface markers NK1. 1 and NKp46, and can produce the cytokine interferon-gamma. These similarities led to the initial classification of natural killer cells and Type I ILCs together under the category of Group 1 ILCs. However, more recent studies found that natural killer cells and ILC1s develop from distinct progenitor cells and utilize transcription factor in distinct manners. Whereas ILC1s require Tbet for their development and are Eomes-independent, natural killer cells require Tbet only for terminal maturation ...


Signaling Mechanisms In Adaptive Immunity, Saravanan Raju 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Signaling Mechanisms In Adaptive Immunity, Saravanan Raju

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The adaptive immune response consists of interplay between CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and B cells which function in control of pathogen in the host. T cells responding via their TCR express cytokines and costimulatory molecules that support direct effector activity and also promote high-affinity antibody generation through augmenting of B cell responses. However, the molecular components that contribute T cell function to balance viral control and the potential for host damage are incompletely understood. In this work, we establish a role for the adaptor molecule CD2AP in modulation of CD4 T cell responses to chronic LCMV infection in ...


Dendritic Cell Development And Function, Vivek Durai 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Dendritic Cell Development And Function, Vivek Durai

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a group of immune cells that include both classical dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). cDCs are further comprised of two distinct subsets, cDC1s and cDC2s, which play critical roles in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Understanding how these lineages develop and function is therefore paramount. All DCs require the receptor tyrosine kinase Flt3 and its ligand Flt3L for their development, but the loss of Flt3L in mice leads to a more severe DC deficiency than does the loss of Flt3. This has led to speculation that Flt3L can bind to ...


The Enzymatic Function Of The Tir Domain: From Axon Degeneration To Innate Immunity, Kow Essuman 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

The Enzymatic Function Of The Tir Domain: From Axon Degeneration To Innate Immunity, Kow Essuman

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor (TIR) domain is an evolutionarily ancient protein domain conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes, and is an essential signaling component of innate immunity pathways. In animal innate immunity, TIR domains have primarily been described for their scaffolding function in assembling protein complexes in host defense. In plant immunity, TIR domains are key components of the intracellular Nucleotide Binding Leucine rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors that confer resistance to pathogens. These NLR receptors trigger cell death and an immune response upon activation, but their mechanism has remained elusive. In bacteria, TIR domain proteins have been suggested to function ...


Cognitive Recovery In The Post-Infectious Cns, Charise Joy Garber 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Cognitive Recovery In The Post-Infectious Cns, Charise Joy Garber

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role in a variety of diseases of the CNS associated with cognitive impairment, including Alzheimerճ Disease, Parkinsonճ Disease with dementia, Multiple Sclerosis, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive disease (WNND). Despite strong evidence that infiltration of peripheral immune cells and activation of resident microglia and astrocytes occurs in these various diseases, very little is known about how this altered immune environment may influence normal cognitive function. Given that communication between the nervous and immune system is essential for normal cognitive function, the central motivation of my thesis work is to understand the mechanisms by ...


Effects Of Agonistic Anti-Cd137 Antibody On Chikungunya Virus Infection And B Cell Responses, Jun Hong 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Effects Of Agonistic Anti-Cd137 Antibody On Chikungunya Virus Infection And B Cell Responses, Jun Hong

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

CD137, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily of cell surface proteins, acts as a costimulatory receptor on T cells, natural killer cells, B cell subsets, and some dendritic cells. Agonistic anti-CD137 monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapy has been combined with other chemotherapeutic agents in human cancer trials. Based on its ability to promote tumor clearance, we hypothesized that anti-CD137 MAb might activate immune responses and resolve chronic viral infections. We evaluated anti-CD137 MAb therapy in a mouse infection model of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus that causes chronic polyarthritis in humans and is associated with reservoirs of CHIKV ...


Identification And Characterization Of A Novel Non-Homologous End Joining Factor Mri, Putzer Joseph Hung 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Identification And Characterization Of A Novel Non-Homologous End Joining Factor Mri, Putzer Joseph Hung

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the predominant DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in G1-phase cells. In particular, developing lymphocytes utilize NHEJ to repair physiologic DSBs generated during the processes of antigen receptor gene assembly and class-switch recombination (CSR). Thus, proper regulation of NHEJ is important not only for immune repertoire diversification, but also for the prevention of chromosomal translocations or deletions that can arise from misrepaired DSBs. The XRCC4-like factor (XLF) has been strongly implicated in promoting NHEJ, presumably by tethering broken DNA ends together in a sleeve-like complex, but its necessity appears to be cell context-dependent. While XLF ...


Correlation Of Inflammation In Arthritis With The Myelination In The Brain, Anna Spears 2020 University of Mississippi

Correlation Of Inflammation In Arthritis With The Myelination In The Brain, Anna Spears

Honors Theses

This study was conducted to investigate whether the influence of arthritis has an effect on the cerebral white matter. The project was performed at the South Oxford Campus, where diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was obtained from the Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample (NKI- RS). Image processing was conducted using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Software Library in which we obtained raw data to formulate Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), Axial Diffusivity (AD), Radial Diffusivity (RD), and Fractional Anisotropy. A one way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to determine the significant difference between the history of arthritis on each of ...


Targeting Natural Killer Cells For Improved Immunity And Control Of The Adaptive Immune Response., Stephen Pierce, Eric S. Geanes, Todd Bradley 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Targeting Natural Killer Cells For Improved Immunity And Control Of The Adaptive Immune Response., Stephen Pierce, Eric S. Geanes, Todd Bradley

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Natural killer (NK) cells are critical for targeting and killing tumor, virus-infected and stressed cells as a member of the innate immune system. Recently, NK cells have also emerged as key regulators of adaptive immunity and have become a prominent therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy and infection control. NK cells display a diverse array of phenotypes and function. Determining how NK cells develop and are regulated is critical for understanding their role in both innate and adaptive immunity. In this review we discuss current research approaches into NK cell adaptive immunity and how these cells are being harnessed for improving ...


Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito 2020 Sunrise Health GME Consortium

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include encephalopathy, motor deficits, ataxia, and meningeal signs. In most cases, ADEM is preceded by either vaccination or viral illness. Here, we present a case with neither of the two predisposing elements.

Discussion: A 28-year-old Hispanic female presenting with substance use and suicidal ideation was placed on an involuntary psychiatric hold, started on olanzapine and scheduled for a psychiatric facility transfer. The following day, she was noted to have neurological deficits when ambulating. Computed tomography of the brain showed a right frontal ...


How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi k. Kamepalli MD,FIDSA,CWSP 2020 Regional Infectious diseases and infusion ctr,Inc

How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi K. Kamepalli Md,Fidsa,Cwsp

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston 2020 Liberty University

Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston

Senior Honors Theses

The use of vaccinations has drastically decreased mortality and morbidity rates related to infectious disease and has become an intrinsic part of modern health care. However, the fear of risks related to vaccines has been partially responsible for the decisions of many parents to delay or avoid vaccinating their children. The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine specifically is one of the most controversial vaccines in current culture due to reports of new onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, infertility, and even death following its administration. This review synthesizes information regarding the relevance and safety of the HPV vaccine, as well ...


Insights From Immuno-Oncology: The Society For Immunotherapy Of Cancer Statement On Access To Il-6-Targeting Therapies For Covid-19., Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Bernard Fox, Walter Urba, Ana Carrizosa Anderson, Michael B Atkins, Ernest C Borden, Julie Brahmer, Lisa H Butterfield, Alessandra Cesano, Daniel Chen, Tanja de Gruijl, Robert O Dillman, Charles G Drake, Leisha A Emens, Thomas F Gajewski, James L Gulley, F Stephen Hodi, Patrick Hwu, David Kaufman, Howard Kaufman, Michael Lotze, Douglas G McNeel, Kim Margolin, Francesco Marincola, Michael J Mastrangelo, Marcela V Maus, David R Parkinson, Pedro J Romero, Paul M Sondel, Stefani Spranger, Mario Sznol, George J Weiner, Jon M Wiggington, Jeffrey S Weber 2020 Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS Fondazione Pascale, Napoli, Italy

Insights From Immuno-Oncology: The Society For Immunotherapy Of Cancer Statement On Access To Il-6-Targeting Therapies For Covid-19., Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Bernard Fox, Walter Urba, Ana Carrizosa Anderson, Michael B Atkins, Ernest C Borden, Julie Brahmer, Lisa H Butterfield, Alessandra Cesano, Daniel Chen, Tanja De Gruijl, Robert O Dillman, Charles G Drake, Leisha A Emens, Thomas F Gajewski, James L Gulley, F Stephen Hodi, Patrick Hwu, David Kaufman, Howard Kaufman, Michael Lotze, Douglas G Mcneel, Kim Margolin, Francesco Marincola, Michael J Mastrangelo, Marcela V Maus, David R Parkinson, Pedro J Romero, Paul M Sondel, Stefani Spranger, Mario Sznol, George J Weiner, Jon M Wiggington, Jeffrey S Weber

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Vaccine Confidence, Coverage, And Hesitancy Worldwide: A Literature Analysis Of Vaccine Hesitancy And Potential Causes Worldwide, Jordan Hammond 2020 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Vaccine Confidence, Coverage, And Hesitancy Worldwide: A Literature Analysis Of Vaccine Hesitancy And Potential Causes Worldwide, Jordan Hammond

Senior Theses

Vaccines are one of the world’s most impactful medical therapies. They are cost-effective, successfully proven, and one of the quickest treatment options available today (Clark et al., 2016). They save millions of lives every year and have eliminated certain diseases on a national and international level. However, millions of people worldwide still remain unvaccinated. In developed nations, mainly The United States (U.S.) and the European countries, many of the unvaccinated are a result of rising vaccine hesitancy of parents in conjunction with the anti-vaccination movement. Vaccine hesitancy is defined as “a delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines ...


Elucidating The Regulon Of A Fur-Like Protein In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Map), Fernanda Miyagaki Shoyama, Taveesak Janetanakit, John P. Bannantine, Raul G. Barletta, Srinand Sreevatsan 2020 Michigan State University

Elucidating The Regulon Of A Fur-Like Protein In Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis (Map), Fernanda Miyagaki Shoyama, Taveesak Janetanakit, John P. Bannantine, Raul G. Barletta, Srinand Sreevatsan

Virology Papers

Intracellular iron concentration is tightly regulated to maintain cell viability. Iron plays important roles in electron transport, nucleic acid synthesis, and oxidative stress. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific genomic island carries a putative metal transport operon that includes MAP3773c, which encodes a Fur-like protein. Although well characterized as a global regulator of iron homeostasis in multiple bacteria, the function of Fur (ferric uptake regulator) in MAP is unknown as this organism also carries IdeR (iron dependent regulator), a native iron regulatory protein specific to mycobacteria. Computational analysis using PRODORIC identified 23 different pathways involved in respiration, metabolism, and ...


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