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Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee 2019 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The NLRC4 inflammasome is a crucial part of the innate immune response against bacterial infections. We found that NLRC4 inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) is greatly dependent on interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8). NLRC4-mediated caspase-1 activation and subsequent production of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and cell death were impaired in IRF8-deficient cells. IRF8 mediated the transcription of genes encoding NAIPs, the receptors for NLRC4 inflammasome, which recognize bacterial flagellin and type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins. IRF8 was critical for host survival following infection with Salmonella Typhimurium or Burkholderia thailandensis. Furthermore, mice deficient in IRF8 were ...


Tradd Regulates Perinatal Development And Adulthood Survival In Mice Lacking Ripk1 And Ripk3., John P. Dowling, Mohamed Alsabbagh, Christina Del Casale, Zheng-Gang Liu, Jianke Zhang 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Tradd Regulates Perinatal Development And Adulthood Survival In Mice Lacking Ripk1 And Ripk3., John P. Dowling, Mohamed Alsabbagh, Christina Del Casale, Zheng-Gang Liu, Jianke Zhang

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

TRADD is an adaptor for TNFR1-induced apoptosis and NFκB activation. However, TRADD-deficient mice undergo normal development and contain normal lymphoid populations, which contrasts with an embryonic defect in mice lacking FADD, the shared adaptor mediating apoptosis. Recent studies indicate FADD suppresses embryonic necroptosis mediated by RIPK1. TRADD was suggested to also mediate necroptosis. Here we report that targeting TRADD fails to rescue Fadd −/− embryos from necroptosis, and ablation of TRADD rescues Ripk1 −/− mice from perinatal lethality when RIPK3-mediated necroptosis is disabled. The resulting Ripk1 −/− Ripk3 −/− Tradd −/− mice survive until early adulthood, but die thereafter. A single allele of Tradd is ...


Efficacy Of Combination Of Immunotherapies In A Murine In A Murine Squamous Cell Carcinoma Model, E. Correia, C. Portocarrero, U. Rodeck 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Efficacy Of Combination Of Immunotherapies In A Murine In A Murine Squamous Cell Carcinoma Model, E. Correia, C. Portocarrero, U. Rodeck

Phase 1

Introduction: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are a type of neoplasm found in the epithelium of the oral cavity, oropharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, or hypopharynx. Recent evidence has demonstrated that 70-90% of HNSCC are associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV), particularly strain 16 producing oncogenic proteins E6/E7. Currently, HNSCCs are treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, however immunotherapy with immune checkpoint (PD-1) blocking agents promises to improve outcomes in HNSCC.

Objective: This study examined the therapeutic effects of dual and triple combination immunotherapies in a mouse model of HPV-associated HNSCC.

Methods: Treatment modalities included a tumor vaccine (attenuated Listeria ...


Quantitative Clinical And Autoimmune Assessments In Stiff Person Syndrome: Evidence For A Progressive Disorder., Goran Rakocevic, Harry Alexopoulos, Marinos C. Dalakas 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Quantitative Clinical And Autoimmune Assessments In Stiff Person Syndrome: Evidence For A Progressive Disorder., Goran Rakocevic, Harry Alexopoulos, Marinos C. Dalakas

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) is an under-diagnosed disorder that affects mobility and the quality of life of affected patients. The aim of the study is to describe the natural history of SPS, the extent of accumulated disability and the associated clinical and immunological features in patients followed for up to 8 years in a single center.

METHODS: Our collective cohort included 57 SPS patients. Additionally, 32 of these patients were examined every 6 months for a two-year period in a longitudinal study protocol, to assess disease progression using quantitative measures of stiffness and heightened sensitivity.

RESULTS: The most frequent ...


Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling 2019 Tulane National Primate Research Center

Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling

Virology Papers

Understanding HIV latent reservoirs in tissues is essential for the development of new strategies targeting these sites for eradication. Here, we assessed the size of latent reservoirs and the source of residual viruses in multiple lymphoid tissues of SIV-infected and fully suppressed rhesus macaques of Chinese-origin (cRMs). Eight cRMs were infected with SIVmac251 and treated with tenofovir and emtricitabine daily for 24 weeks initiated 4 weeks post-infection. Four of the eight animals reached sustained full viral suppression with undetectable viremia. The levels of cell-associated SIV DNA varied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and multiple lymphoid tissues, but with higher ...


Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Nearly all cervical cancers are causally associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). The burden of HPV-associated dysplasias in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by HIV. To investigate the role of the bacterial microbiome in cervical dysplasia, cytobrush samples were collected directly from cervical lesions of 144 Tanzanian women. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and deep sequenced. Alpha diversity metrics (Chao1, PD whole tree, and operational taxonomic unit [OTU] estimates) displayed significantly higher bacterial richness in HIV-positive patients (P = 0.01) than in HIV-negative patients. In HIV-positive patients, there was higher bacterial richness in patients with high-grade ...


Near-Atomic Structure Of A Giant Virus, Qianglin Fang, Dongjie Zhu, Irina Agarkova, Jagat Adhikari, Thomas Klose, Yue Liu, Zhenguo Chen, Yingyuan Sun, Michael L. Gross, James L. Van Etten, Xinzheng Zhang, Michael G. Rossmann 2019 Purdue University

Near-Atomic Structure Of A Giant Virus, Qianglin Fang, Dongjie Zhu, Irina Agarkova, Jagat Adhikari, Thomas Klose, Yue Liu, Zhenguo Chen, Yingyuan Sun, Michael L. Gross, James L. Van Etten, Xinzheng Zhang, Michael G. Rossmann

Virology Papers

Although the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are one of the largest group of viruses that infect many eukaryotic hosts, the near-atomic resolution structures of these viruses have remained unknown. Here we describe a 3.5 Å resolution icosahedrally averaged capsid structure of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). This structure consists of 5040 copies of the major capsid protein, 60 copies of the penton protein and 1800 minor capsid proteins of which there are 13 different types. The minor capsid proteins form a hexagonal network below the outer capsid shell, stabilizing the capsid by binding neighboring capsomers together. The ...


A Poxvirus Pseudokinase Represses Viral Dna Replication Via A Pathway Antagonized By Its Paralog Kinase, Annabel T. Olson, Zhigang Wang, Amber B. Rico, Matthew S. Wiebe 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Poxvirus Pseudokinase Represses Viral Dna Replication Via A Pathway Antagonized By Its Paralog Kinase, Annabel T. Olson, Zhigang Wang, Amber B. Rico, Matthew S. Wiebe

Virology Papers

Poxviruses employ sophisticated, but incompletely understood, signaling pathways that engage cellular defense mechanisms and simultaneously ensure viral factors are modulated properly. For example, the vaccinia B1 protein kinase plays a vital role in inactivating the cellular antiviral factor BAF, and likely orchestrates other pathways as well. In this study, we utilized experimental evolution of a B1 deletion virus to perform an unbiased search for suppressor mutations and identify novel pathways involving B1. After several passages of the ΔB1 virus we observed a robust increase in viral titer of the adapted virus. Interestingly, our characterization of the adapted viruses reveals that ...


Development Of Onchocerca Volvulus In Humanized Nsg Mice And Detection Of Parasite Biomarkers In Urine And Serum., John B. Patton, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Mark L. Eberhard, Jessica A. Hess Ligas, April R. Torigian, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B. Nutman, David Abraham 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Development Of Onchocerca Volvulus In Humanized Nsg Mice And Detection Of Parasite Biomarkers In Urine And Serum., John B. Patton, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Mark L. Eberhard, Jessica A. Hess Ligas, April R. Torigian, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B. Nutman, David Abraham

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The study of Onchocerca volvulus has been limited by its host range, with only humans and non-human primates shown to be susceptible to the full life cycle infection. Small animal models that support the development of adult parasites have not been identified.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that highly immunodeficient NSG mice would support the survival and maturation of O. volvulus and alteration of the host microenvironment through the addition of various human cells and tissues would further enhance the level of parasite maturation. NSG mice were humanized with: (1) umbilical cord derived CD34+ stem cells, (2) fetal derived ...


A Virus-Encoded Type I Interferon Decoy Receptor Enables Evasion Of Host Immunity Through Cell-Surface Binding., Bruno Hernáez, Juan Manuel Alonso-Lobo, Imma Montanuy, Cornelius Fischer, Sascha Sauer, Luis J. Sigal, Noemí Sevilla, Antonio Alcamí 2018 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

A Virus-Encoded Type I Interferon Decoy Receptor Enables Evasion Of Host Immunity Through Cell-Surface Binding., Bruno Hernáez, Juan Manuel Alonso-Lobo, Imma Montanuy, Cornelius Fischer, Sascha Sauer, Luis J. Sigal, Noemí Sevilla, Antonio Alcamí

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Soluble cytokine decoy receptors are potent immune modulatory reagents with therapeutic applications. Some virus-encoded secreted cytokine receptors interact with glycosaminoglycans expressed at the cell surface, but the biological significance of this activity in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we show the type I interferon binding protein (IFNα/βBP) encoded by vaccinia and ectromelia viruses requires of this cell binding activity to confer full virulence to these viruses and to retain immunomodulatory activity. Expression of a variant form of the IFNα/βBP that inhibits IFN activity, but does not interact with cell surface glycosaminoglycans, results in highly attenuated viruses with a ...


Intratumoral Sting Activation Sensitizes Poorly Immunogenic Cancers To Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy, Casey Ager 2018 The University of Texas MD ANderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Intratumoral Sting Activation Sensitizes Poorly Immunogenic Cancers To Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy, Casey Ager

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Unprecedented durable tumor regression can be achieved in patients with checkpoint blockade immunotherapy, yet these responses are rare and are not observed in all tumor types. Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are two common lethal cancers that remain refractory to checkpoint blockade, requiring development of new therapeutic approaches to promote responsivity in patients with these diseases. Both CRPC and PDAC are characterized by an immunosuppressive tumor milieu rich in cells of the myeloid lineage, which regulate T cell activity in many ways independent of the coinhibitory receptor axis. We investigated whether activation of acute inflammatory signaling ...


Distinct Role Of Il-27 In Immature And Lps-Induced Mature Dendritic Cell-Mediated Development Of Cd4, Fang Zhou, Guang-Xian Zhang, A. M. Rostami 2018 Thomas Jefferson University; CAS Lamvac Biotech Co., Ltd.

Distinct Role Of Il-27 In Immature And Lps-Induced Mature Dendritic Cell-Mediated Development Of Cd4, Fang Zhou, Guang-Xian Zhang, A. M. Rostami

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Interleukin-27 (IL-27) plays an important role in regulation of anti-inflammatory responses and autoimmunity; however, the molecular mechanisms of IL-27 in modulation of immune tolerance and autoimmunity have not been fully elucidated. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in regulating immune responses mediated by innate and adaptive immune systems, but regulatory mechanisms of DCs in CD4+ T cell-mediated immune responses have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that IL-27 treated mature DCs induced by LPS inhibit immune tolerance mediated by LPS-stimulated DCs. IL-27 treatment facilitates development of the CD4+ CD127+3G11+ regulatory T cell subset in vitro and in ...


Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater 2018 University of Louisville

Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Immunotherapy strategies are very promising treatments for cancer patients. Specifically, Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy focusing on the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway shows long-lasting positive results in many cancer patients. Unfortunately, not all the patients can benefit from this highly effective treatment. Hence, there is a great need for predictive biomarkers. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining has been used as a way of predicting patient response, yet shows many problems. For example, IHC utilizes an invasive biopsy and sample fixing, which creates an incomplete and delayed picture of the patient’s biochemistry and the tumor microenvironment, consequently ignoring metastases.

The purpose of this study ...


31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar 2018 Augusta University

31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Abstract

Breast cancer is the leading malignancy and leading cause of cancer-related death in women globally. The greatest barrier to a treatment is the incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying molecular regulators whose function is cellular adaptation to estrogen. One such enzyme, ATAD3A, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme, has been brought under this lab’s scrutiny. The role of ATAD3A in breast cancer progression is largely unknown but it has been shown to be a crucial mediator in promoting cell cycle progression. The two objectives of this project were: to determine whether the ATAd3A is an Estrogen Receptor-α target (ERα) and to ...


21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix 2018 University of North Georgia

21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE UPREGULATION OF PGE₂ EXPRESSION IN THE BLADDER

Jessica Nix, Jane McHowat, Shannon Kispert

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. Despite known risks, 42.1 million Americans continue to smoke, making research into tobacco-related pathologies relevant and necessary. We previously discovered that cigarette smoke exposure leads to tumor progression in the breast via platelet activating factor (PAF) and other phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) metabolic pathways. These results led us to examine the PLA2 metabolite, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). We observed the expression of PGE₂ in mouse bladder and human heart ...


Role Of The Fractalkine Receptor In Cns Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing A Mouse Model Expressing The Human Cx3cr1, Sandra M. Cardona, Sangwon V. Kim, Kaira A. Church, Vanessa O. Torres, Ian A. Cleary, Andrew S. Mendiola, Stephen P. Saville, Stephanie S. Watowich, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Alejandro Soto-Ospina, Pedronel Araque, Richard M. Ransohoff, Astrid E. Cardona 2018 The University of Texas at San Antonio

Role Of The Fractalkine Receptor In Cns Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing A Mouse Model Expressing The Human Cx3cr1, Sandra M. Cardona, Sangwon V. Kim, Kaira A. Church, Vanessa O. Torres, Ian A. Cleary, Andrew S. Mendiola, Stephen P. Saville, Stephanie S. Watowich, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Alejandro Soto-Ospina, Pedronel Araque, Richard M. Ransohoff, Astrid E. Cardona

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults. Immune mediated destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes is considered the primary pathology of MS, but progressive axonal loss is the major cause of neurological disability. In an effort to understand microglia function during CNS inflammation, our laboratory focuses on the fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling as a regulator of microglia neurotoxicity in various models of neurodegeneration. Fractalkine (FKN) is a transmembrane chemokine expressed in the CNS by neurons and signals through its unique receptor CX3CR1 present in microglia ...


Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay 2018 Selected Works

Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay

David Turay, MD

Touted among the major achievements in the diagnosis and management of Prostate cancer (PCa) in the past few decades has been, the dramatic decline of men with advanced/metastatic PCa at diagnosis coupled with a significant improvement ( >90%) in the five and ten year survival rates of the disease. Non-palpable PCa (potentially clinically treatable disease) now accounts for 70-80% of all newly diagnosed cases of PCa. Preceding these changes by about a decade was the introduction of Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) into clinical practice; first as biomarker for monitoring response to therapy and subsequently as a complementary screening tool. It ...


Polymicrobial Sepsis Influences Nk-Cell-Mediated Immunity By Diminishing Nk-Cell-Intrinsic Receptor-Mediated Effector Responses To Viral Ligands Or Infections., Isaac J. Jensen, Christina S. Winborn, Micaela G. Fosdick, Peng Shao, Mikaela M. Tremblay, Qiang Shan, Sandeep Kumar Tripathy, Christopher M. Snyder, Hai-Hui Xue, Thomas S. Griffith, Jon C. Houtman, Vladimir P. Badovinac 2018 University of Iowa

Polymicrobial Sepsis Influences Nk-Cell-Mediated Immunity By Diminishing Nk-Cell-Intrinsic Receptor-Mediated Effector Responses To Viral Ligands Or Infections., Isaac J. Jensen, Christina S. Winborn, Micaela G. Fosdick, Peng Shao, Mikaela M. Tremblay, Qiang Shan, Sandeep Kumar Tripathy, Christopher M. Snyder, Hai-Hui Xue, Thomas S. Griffith, Jon C. Houtman, Vladimir P. Badovinac

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

The sepsis-induced cytokine storm leads to severe lymphopenia and reduced effector capacity of remaining/surviving cells. This results in a prolonged state of immunoparalysis, that contributes to enhanced morbidity/mortality of sepsis survivors upon secondary infection. The impact of sepsis on several lymphoid subsets has been characterized, yet its impact on NK-cells remains underappreciated-despite their critical role in controlling infection(s). Here, we observed numerical loss of NK-cells in multiple tissues after cecal-ligation-and-puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. To elucidate the sepsis-induced lesions in surviving NK-cells, transcriptional profiles were evaluated and indicated changes consistent with impaired effector functionality. A corresponding deficit in ...


The Conquest Of Pus -- A History Of Bitumen, Creosote And Carbolic Acid, Charles T. Ambrose 2018 University of Kentucky

The Conquest Of Pus -- A History Of Bitumen, Creosote And Carbolic Acid, Charles T. Ambrose

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

In the Western world from antiquity on, open wounds were treated topically with petroleum-derived substances, such as bitumen, asphalt, pitch, and tar. The immediate aim was to stifle bleeding and ease pain but a potential benefit was preventing local corruption with pus formation. In the early 19th century, creosote was recovered from bitumen and found to reduce suppuration. Carbolic acid was later isolated from creosote and recognized as an underlying active agent. In the 1860s, carbolic acid was first employed by Jules Lemaire to treat local skin infections and later by Joseph Lister to prevent the suppuration in compound fractures ...


Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky 2018 George Washington University

Atherosclerosis In Subjects Newly Diagnosed With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection., Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Tatiana E Shimonova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Dmitri Sviridov, Igor A Sobenin, Alexey I Mazus, Alexander N Orekhov, Michael I Bukrinsky

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV infection is associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), even in patients successfully treated with the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the relationship between HIV, cART, and pathogenesis of CVD remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected subjects receiving or not receiving cART. One hundred nine newly diagnosed HIV-infected subjects and one hundred nine uninfected age-matched controls (all males) without the history of CVD, hypertension, or diabetes were recruited into the present study. Cross-sectional analysis at baseline (BL) showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides ...


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