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Investigating The Role Of Dispatched In Hedgehog Ligand Transport And Delivery, William Bodeen 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Investigating The Role Of Dispatched In Hedgehog Ligand Transport And Delivery, William Bodeen

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

During the development of all metazoans, the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway provides instructional cues influencing a variety of cellular processes. The pathway ligand, Hh, is dually lipidated by cholesterol and palmitate, which effectively anchors the molecule to the lipid bilayer of the signal producing cell. To complicate the Hh pathway induction process, the Hh ligand is often produced at a significant distance from the cells it influences. Only one known conserved molecule, Dispatched (Disp), can alleviate the membrane tethering imparted by Hh lipidation. Underscoring the importance of Disp protein during development, knockout animals succumb to lethality at E9.5, an ...


P33. Design And Evaluation Of An Escherichia Coli Biomarker For Indication Of Ph, Kevin X. Zhou, Luana Langlois, Ashmita Singh, John Prince 2017 Western University

P33. Design And Evaluation Of An Escherichia Coli Biomarker For Indication Of Ph, Kevin X. Zhou, Luana Langlois, Ashmita Singh, John Prince

Western Research Forum

Measuring pH is one of the most commonly used techniques in both the laboratory as well as the field due to its importance in a multitude of biochemical processes. Traditional methods of measuring pH may be highly developed in accuracy and precision but often involve disruption of the environment. Biological markers offer an alternative that allows for long-term pH monitoring. This innovative approach allows for vast applications such as in the manufacturing, food processing and research industries. Under moderate acidic conditions, the asr (acid shock RNA) gene is highly inducible and has been demonstrated to be crucial for growth at ...


Reliability Issues In Imaging Genetics, Annika Eriksson 2017 Oregon Health & Science University

Reliability Issues In Imaging Genetics, Annika Eriksson

Scholar Archive

No abstract provided.


Sleep Disturbances And Depression: The Role Of Genes And Trauma, Mackenzie J. Lind 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Sleep Disturbances And Depression: The Role Of Genes And Trauma, Mackenzie J. Lind

Theses and Dissertations

Sleep disturbances and insomnia are prevalent, with around 33% of adults indicating that they experience at least one main symptom of insomnia, and bidirectional relationships exist with common psychopathology, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD). However, genetic and environmental (e.g., traumatic event exposure) contributions to the etiology of these phenotypes are not yet well understood. A genetically informative sample of approximately 12,000 Han Chinese women aged 30-60 (50% with recurrent MDD) was used to address several gaps within the sleep literature. Sleep disturbances were assessed in all individuals using a general item addressing sleeplessness (GS). A sleep within depression ...


Integrative Genomic And Transcriptomic Analysis For Pinpointing Recurrent Alterations Of Plant Homeodomain Genes And Their Clinical Significance In Breast Cancer, Huimei Yu, Yuanyuan Jiang, Lanxin Liu, Wenqi Shan, Xiaofang Chu, Zhe Yang, Zeng-Quan Yang 2016 Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine

Integrative Genomic And Transcriptomic Analysis For Pinpointing Recurrent Alterations Of Plant Homeodomain Genes And Their Clinical Significance In Breast Cancer, Huimei Yu, Yuanyuan Jiang, Lanxin Liu, Wenqi Shan, Xiaofang Chu, Zhe Yang, Zeng-Quan Yang

Oncology Faculty Publications

A wide range of the epigenetic effectors that regulate chromatin modification, gene expression, genomic stability, and DNA repair contain structurally conserved domains called plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers. Alternations of several PHD finger-containing proteins (PHFs) due to genomic amplification, mutations, deletions, and translocations have been linked directly to various types of cancer. However, little is known about the genomic landscape and the clinical significance of PHFs in breast cancer. Hence, we performed a large-scale genomic and transcriptomic analysis of 98 PHF genes in breast cancer using TCGA and METABRIC datasets and correlated the recurrent alterations with clinicopathological features and survival of ...


A Tale Of Two Species: Evolvability, Genomic Context, And Pathogen Forecasting, Meghan May 2016 University of New England

A Tale Of Two Species: Evolvability, Genomic Context, And Pathogen Forecasting, Meghan May

Biomedical Sciences Faculty Presentations

Dr. Meghan May gives an overview presentation of her research on evolution of virulence and pathogen prediction. The focus of the presentation is a group of organisms called mycoplasmas, and covered subjects include: Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, genomic context, predictive modeling, sequence evolution, and genome reduction.


High-Throughput Allele-Specific Expression Across 250 Environmental Conditions, Gregory A. Moyerbrailean, Allison L. Richards, Daniel Kurtz, Cynthia A. Kalita, Gordon O. Davis, Chris T. Harvey, Adnan Alazizi, Donovan Watza, Yoram Sorokin, Nancy J. Hauff, Xiang Zhou, Xiaoquan Wen, Roger Pique-Regi, Francesca Luca 2016 Wayne State Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University

High-Throughput Allele-Specific Expression Across 250 Environmental Conditions, Gregory A. Moyerbrailean, Allison L. Richards, Daniel Kurtz, Cynthia A. Kalita, Gordon O. Davis, Chris T. Harvey, Adnan Alazizi, Donovan Watza, Yoram Sorokin, Nancy J. Hauff, Xiang Zhou, Xiaoquan Wen, Roger Pique-Regi, Francesca Luca

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics

Gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions determine common disease risk factors and biomedically relevant complex traits. However, quantifying how the environment modulates genetic effects on human quantitative phenotypes presents unique challenges. Environmental covariates are complex and difficult to measure and control at the organismal level, as found in GWAS and epidemiological studies. An alternative approach focuses on the cellular environment using in vitro treatments as a proxy for the organismal environment. These cellular environments simplify the organism-level environmental exposures to provide a tractable influence on subcellular phenotypes, such as gene expression. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping studies identified GxE interactions in response ...


Regulation Of Polycystin-1 Function By Calmodulin Binding, Nicholas Doerr, Yidi Wang, Kevin R. Kipp, Guangyi Liu, Jesse J. Benza, Vladimir Pletnev, Tengis S. Pavlov, Alexander Staruschenko, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Maki Takahashi, Surya M. Nauli, Thomas Weimbs 2016 University of California, Santa Barbara

Regulation Of Polycystin-1 Function By Calmodulin Binding, Nicholas Doerr, Yidi Wang, Kevin R. Kipp, Guangyi Liu, Jesse J. Benza, Vladimir Pletnev, Tengis S. Pavlov, Alexander Staruschenko, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Maki Takahashi, Surya M. Nauli, Thomas Weimbs

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease that leads to progressive renal cyst growth and loss of renal function, and is caused by mutations in the genes encoding polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively. The PC1/PC2 complex localizes to primary cilia and can act as a flow-dependent calcium channel in addition to numerous other signaling functions. The exact functions of the polycystins, their regulation and the purpose of the PC1/PC2 channel are still poorly understood. PC1 is an integral membrane protein with a large extracytoplasmic N-terminal domain and a short, ~200 amino acid C-terminal ...


Analyzing Mutations Of Spt7 Protein That Disrupt Interaction With Sf3b Subunits, Arryn T. Harris, Peyton J. Spreacker, Rachel Stegeman, Vikki M. Weake, Edwin C. Acosta 2016 Purdue University

Analyzing Mutations Of Spt7 Protein That Disrupt Interaction With Sf3b Subunits, Arryn T. Harris, Peyton J. Spreacker, Rachel Stegeman, Vikki M. Weake, Edwin C. Acosta

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Proper transcription, the process of converting DNA to RNA, is crucial for the health and viability of an organism. This process is regulated by many proteins, such as co-transcriptional activators; one being the protein complex known as Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase, or SAGA. While much is known about the roles of SAGA in cell processes, how SAGA’s subunits promote functionality is still unknown. The focus of this study is to analyze the purpose of SAGA’s SF3B subunits. These subunits are also found in the spliceosome, the compound responsible for generating mature RNA. SAGA has no known functions relating to this process ...


Activation Of Target Gene Expression In Neurons By The C. Elegans Rfx Transcription Factor, Daf-19, Katherine P. Mueller 2016 Lawrence University

Activation Of Target Gene Expression In Neurons By The C. Elegans Rfx Transcription Factor, Daf-19, Katherine P. Mueller

Lawrence University Honors Projects

DAF-19, the only RFX transcription factor found in C. elegans, is required for the formation of neuronal sensory cilia. Four isoforms of the DAF-19 protein have been reported, and the m86 nonsense (null) mutation affecting all four isoforms has been shown to prevent cilia formation. Transcriptome analyses employing microarrays of L1 and adult stage worms were completed using RNA from daf-19(m86) worms and an isogenic wild type strain to identify additional putative DAF-19 target genes. Using transcriptional fusions with GFP, we compared the expression patterns of several potential gene targets using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Expression patterns were characterized in ...


Sustained Expression With Partial Correction Of Neutrophil Defects 5 Years After Intramuscular Raav1 Gene Therapy For Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Terence R. Flotte, Christian Mueller, Gwladys Gernoux, Alisha Gruntman, Jeffrey D. Chulay, David R. Knop, Noel G. McElvaney, Martha Campbell-Thompson, James M. Wilson 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sustained Expression With Partial Correction Of Neutrophil Defects 5 Years After Intramuscular Raav1 Gene Therapy For Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Terence R. Flotte, Christian Mueller, Gwladys Gernoux, Alisha Gruntman, Jeffrey D. Chulay, David R. Knop, Noel G. Mcelvaney, Martha Campbell-Thompson, James M. Wilson

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a common monogenic disorder resulting in emphysema, which is currently treated with weekly infusions of protein replacement. We previously reported achieving plasma wild-type (M) AAT concentrations at 2.5-3.8% of the therapeutic level at 1 year after intramuscular (IM) administration of 6×1012vg/kg of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (rAAV1)-AAT vector in AAT-deficient patients, with an associated regulatory T cell (Treg) response to AAV1 capsid epitopes in the absence of any exogenous immune suppression. Here, we report sustained expression at greater than 2% of the therapeutic level for 5 years after ...


Novel Oncogenic Drivers In Pediatric Gliomagenesis, Alexander K. Diaz 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Novel Oncogenic Drivers In Pediatric Gliomagenesis, Alexander K. Diaz

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs), with a two-year survival rate of less than 20%, are some of the most aggressive human cancers. This dissertation begins with our analysis of 127 pHGGs, including brainstem (BS) and non-brainstem (NBS) tumors, from 118 patients using next-generation sequencing technologies. Nearly one-third of BS-HGGs, also known as diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), harbored somatic heterozygous missense mutations in ACVR1, coding for a receptor serine-threonine kinase involved in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. These alterations led to gain-of-function as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of downstream targets in primary astrocytes and zebrafish embryo ventralization. Whole-genome sequencing and RNASeq ...


Discordant Expression Of Circulating Microrna From Cellular And Extracellular Sources, Ravi Shah, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Daniel Levy, Martin Larson, Mark B. Gerstein, Eric O. Mick, Joel Rozowsky, Robert Kitchen, Venkatesh Murthy, Ekaterina Mikalev, Jane E. Freedman 2016 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Discordant Expression Of Circulating Microrna From Cellular And Extracellular Sources, Ravi Shah, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Daniel Levy, Martin Larson, Mark B. Gerstein, Eric O. Mick, Joel Rozowsky, Robert Kitchen, Venkatesh Murthy, Ekaterina Mikalev, Jane E. Freedman

Open Access Articles

MicroRNA (miRNA) expression has rapidly grown into one of the largest fields for disease characterization and development of clinical biomarkers. Consensus is lacking in regards to the optimal sample source or if different circulating sources are concordant. Here, using miRNA measurements from contemporaneously obtained whole blood- and plasma-derived RNA from 2391 individuals, we demonstrate that plasma and blood miRNA levels are divergent and may reflect different biological processes and disease associations.


A Multi-Exon-Skipping Detection Assay Reveals Surprising Diversity Of Splice Isoforms Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Genes, Natalia N. Singh, Joonbae Seo, Sarah Jane Rahn, Ravindra N. Singh 2016 Iowa State University

A Multi-Exon-Skipping Detection Assay Reveals Surprising Diversity Of Splice Isoforms Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Genes, Natalia N. Singh, Joonbae Seo, Sarah Jane Rahn, Ravindra N. Singh

Ravindra Singh

Humans have two near identical copies of Survival Motor Neuron gene: SMN1 and SMN2. Loss of SMN1 coupled with the predominant skipping of SMN2 exon 7 causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neurodegenerative disease. SMA patient cells devoid of SMN1 provide a powerful system to examine splicing pattern of various SMN2 exons. Until now, similar system to examine splicing of SMN1 exons was unavailable. We have recently screened several patient cell lines derived from various diseases, including SMA, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Batten disease. Here we report a Batten disease cell line that lacks functional SMN2, as ...


Il-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity Through A Ppar𝛿-Dependent-Ppar𝛼-Independent Mechanism In Skeletal Muscle Cells, Shantaé M. Thornton, James E. Krolopp, Marcia J. Abbott 2016 Chapman University

Il-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity Through A Ppar𝛿-Dependent-Ppar𝛼-Independent Mechanism In Skeletal Muscle Cells, Shantaé M. Thornton, James E. Krolopp, Marcia J. Abbott

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Molecular mediators of metabolic processes, to increase energy expenditure, have become a focus for therapies of obesity. The discovery of cytokines secreted from the skeletal muscle (SKM), termed “myokines,” has garnered attention due to their positive effects on metabolic processes. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has numerous positive metabolic effects and is linked to the PPAR family of mitochondrial regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the importance of PPAR𝛼 and/or PPAR𝛿 as targets of IL-15 signaling. C2C12 SKM cells were differentiated for 6 days and treated every other day with IL-15 (100 ng/mL), a PPAR𝛼 inhibitor (GW-6471 ...


Genetic Counseling Students’ Perceptions: Does Supervisory Training Affect Students’ Perceived Competence Of Their Supervisors?, Sara Malka Cohen 2016 Long Island University

Genetic Counseling Students’ Perceptions: Does Supervisory Training Affect Students’ Perceived Competence Of Their Supervisors?, Sara Malka Cohen

Post & Beyond

Clinical supervision of genetic counseling students is one of the integral methods for teaching, training and ensuring competent entry-level genetic counselors. Because of the large impact a clinical supervisor plays in his/her student’s training, the genetic counselor needs to be effective in his/her role. However, a qualified genetic counselor is not guaranteed to be a competent clinical supervisor due to the different skill set required for both counseling and supervision. Therefore, supervisor training may be a good method for aiding genetic counselors in adapting to the skills needed for successful supervision. There is a strong positive correlation ...


Molecular Genetics Of Ms4a6a And Alzheimer's Disease, Ryan Harpole 2016 University of Kentucky

Molecular Genetics Of Ms4a6a And Alzheimer's Disease, Ryan Harpole

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

Increased Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk has previously been associated with a SNP called rs610932 near the gene MS4A6A. The goal of this experiment was to quantify the expression of two MS4A6A isoforms in the brains of AD and non-AD subjects, particularly as a function of rs610932 genotype. According to an article titled “Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility Variants in the MS4A6A Gene are Associated with Altered Levels of MS4A6A Expression in Blood”, MS4A6A has four different isoforms that have been reported to be differentially expressed in the blood of AD subjects compared to non-AD subjects (Petroula et al., 2014). After ...


Pharmacogenomic Management Of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: An Integrative Review Of The Literature, Brian V. Skibo 2016 University of Central Florida

Pharmacogenomic Management Of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: An Integrative Review Of The Literature, Brian V. Skibo

Honors in the Major Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to examine familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and emerging pharmacogenomics therapies that propose to lower serum low density lipid (LDL) levels. The search of various data bases resulted in nine research articles being selected for review. Syntheses of the articles suggest emerging phamacogenomic drug therapy can improve treatment outcomes for individuals with a diagnosis of FH. The Human Genome Project (HGP) has had far reaching applications for genomic technologies and pharmacagenomic interventions, tailored to human conditions associated with select genomic traits. Synthesis of nine research articles demonstrate that little is known on the topic and reveals ...


How The Manipulation Of The Ras Homolog Enriched In Striatum Alters The Behavioral And Molecular Progression Of Huntington’S Disease, Franklin A. Lee 2015 The University of New Orleans

How The Manipulation Of The Ras Homolog Enriched In Striatum Alters The Behavioral And Molecular Progression Of Huntington’S Disease, Franklin A. Lee

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease is an incurable, progressive neurological disorder characterized by loss of motor control, psychiatric dysfunction, and eventual dystonia leading to death. Despite the fact that this disorder is caused by a mutation in one single gene, there is no cure. The mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) protein is expressed ubiquitously throughout the brain but frank cell death is limited to the striatum. Recent work has suggested that Rhes, Ras homolog enriched in striatum, which is selectively expressed in the striatum, may play a role in Huntington’s disease neuropathology. In vitro studies have shown Rhes to be an E3 ligase ...


Functional Analysis Of Genomic Variation And Impact On Molecular And Higher Order Phenotypes, Ashutosh Kumar Pandey 2015 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Functional Analysis Of Genomic Variation And Impact On Molecular And Higher Order Phenotypes, Ashutosh Kumar Pandey

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Reverse genetics methods, particularly the production of gene knockouts and knockins, have revolutionized the understanding of gene function. High throughput sequencing now makes it practical to exploit reverse genetics to simultaneously study functions of thousands of normal sequence variants and spontaneous mutations that segregate in intercross and backcross progeny generated by mating completely sequenced parental lines. To evaluate this new reverse genetic method we resequenced the genome of one of the oldest inbred strains of mice—DBA/2J—the father of the large family of BXD recombinant inbred strains. We analyzed ~100X wholegenome sequence data for the DBA/2J strain ...


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