Outer Limits Of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective, 2018 Touro College
Outer Limits Of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective, John D. Loike, Alan H. Kadish
Office of the President Publications and Research
A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.
Controllable Moderate Heating Enhances The Therapeutic Efficacy Of Irreversible Electroporation For Pancreatic Cancer, 2017 Old Dominion University
Controllable Moderate Heating Enhances The Therapeutic Efficacy Of Irreversible Electroporation For Pancreatic Cancer, Chelsea M. Edelblute, James Hornef, Niculina I. Burcus, Thomas Norman, Stephen J. Beebe, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller, Chunqi Jiang, Sigi Guo
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) as a non-thermal tumor ablation technology has been studied for the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma and has shown a significant survival benefit. We discovered that moderate heating (MH) at 43°C for 1-2 minutes significantly enhanced ex vivo IRE tumor ablation of Pan02 cells by 5.67-fold at 750 V/cm and by 1.67-fold at 1500 V/cm. This amount of heating alone did not cause cell death. An integrated IRE system with controllable laser heating and tumor impedance monitoring was developed to treat mouse ectopic pancreatic cancer. With this novel IRE system, we were able ...
Electrospun Collagen Nanofibers For Tissue Engineering, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Electrospun Collagen Nanofibers For Tissue Engineering, Nisha Sharma
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Design and fabrication of the scaffold is an important part of the tissue engineering process. Nanofibrous scaffolds based on proteins are gaining increasing acceptance due to its structural similarity to the extracellular matrix. Making use of the electrospinning technique, rat tail collagen type I nanofibers were produced using a collagen in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) solution. In addition to optimizing the electrospinning process parameters, the effect of humidity on fiber morphology and diameter was investigated for fiber size control for particular tissue engineering applications. A generalized humidity effect on polymer fiber diameter of the polymer solution electrospinning process was developed. The as ...
The Importance Of Inhaler Technique In Measuring And Calculating Inhaler Adherence, And Its Clinical Outcomes, 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
The Importance Of Inhaler Technique In Measuring And Calculating Inhaler Adherence, And Its Clinical Outcomes, Imran Sulaiman
Depending on the population studied, cross-sectional observational studies suggest that between 14%-90% of patients do not use their pressurized metered dose inhaler correctly, while 50-60% misuse a dry powder inhaler. This means that unless incorrect technique is acounted for a significant underestimation of how much medication the person actually obtained may be made.
The aim of this thesis was to objectively determine the frequency and importance of inhaler technique errors and to combine these with inhaler use to provide an acurate method of calculating adherence. I then investigated different patterns of inhaler use, determinants of inhaler use and the ...
Intratracheal Instillation Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Hepatic Toxicity In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Siva Krishna Nalabotu, Madhukar Babu Kolli, William E. Triest, Jane Y. Ma, Nandini Dpk Manne, Anjaiah Katta, Hari S. Addagarla, Kevin M. Rice, Eric R. Blough
Background: Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods and results: Compared with control animals, CeO2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05). Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal ...
Validation Of The Pre-B Cell Receptor As A Therapeutic Target In B Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, 2017 University of New Mexico Medical School
Validation Of The Pre-B Cell Receptor As A Therapeutic Target In B Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Michael F. Erasmus
Biomedical Sciences ETDs
This dissertation is built upon the fundamental idea that the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) is important to leukemia cell survival and a logical therapeutic target in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). The pre-BCR is expressed early at a specific stage during B cell development where it plays a central role in survival of healthy B lymphocytes. This receptor is composed of the membrane heavy chain (mIgμ) associated with surrogate light chain components, 5 and VpreB. Through the use of advanced imaging modalities, in particular two-color single particle tracking (SPT), we showed that pre-BCRs formed transient, homotypic interactions. These ...
The Effect Of Auditory Stimulation On Human Movement Variability And Associated Cortical Involvement, 2017 Biomechanics Research Building
The Effect Of Auditory Stimulation On Human Movement Variability And Associated Cortical Involvement, Samuel Maaiah 9051573
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
The Biomechanics Research Building (BRB) is presently using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure and understand brain activity during human movement and exercise. Compared to other brain activity measuring methods, which require subjects to remain very still during recording, fNIRS allows researchers to study brain activity while subjects perform a range of movement tasks. It is consequently a useful tool for studying movements (e.g. walking) that are not conducive to conventional methods of measuring brain activity. Experiments using fNIRS can vary dramatically in duration depending upon the research question. Some experimental methods contain multiple trials for short time intervals ...
Shape Recovery With Concomitant Mechanical Strengthening Of Amphiphilic Shape Memory Polymers In Warm Water, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Shape Recovery With Concomitant Mechanical Strengthening Of Amphiphilic Shape Memory Polymers In Warm Water, Ben Zhang, Janae E. Debartolo, Jie Song
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
Maintaining adequate or enhancing mechanical properties of shape memory polymers (SMPs) after shape recovery in an aqueous environment are greatly desired for biomedical applications of SMPs as self-fitting tissue scaffolds or minimally invasive surgical implants. Here we report stable temporary shape fixing and facile shape recovery of biodegradable triblock amphiphilic SMPs containing a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) center block and flanking poly(lactic acid) or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) blocks in warm water, accompanied by concomitant enhanced mechanical strengths. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses revealed that the unique stiffening of the amphiphilic ...
Stem Cell Derived Osteoprogenitors And Their Role In Bone Repair Using Morphogenic Activators, 2017 Dominican University of California
Stem Cell Derived Osteoprogenitors And Their Role In Bone Repair Using Morphogenic Activators, George Washington Brownridge Iii, Sylvanna Islas, Angelina Miller, Warren Hoeffler
Student Research Posters
Bone constantly cycles through a dynamic process of breakdown and remodeling. Osteoblasts are the specialized mesenchymal stem cells that have a major role in bone formation and the remodeling process whereas their counterpart osteoclasts, handle bone resorption. Embryonic stem cells can be partially differentiated into Progenitor cells, and we worked with #18, a candidate for being an osteoprogenitor that has the potential to respond to morphogenic activators. In the case of bone remodeling, TGF-β 2, BMP-2 and an abundance of CA++ have been shown to be potential activators of differentiation into osteoblasts. Eight different trials were conducted with the cells ...
Iss-N1 Makes The First Fda-Approved Drug For Spinal Muscular Atrophy, 2017 Iowa State University
Iss-N1 Makes The First Fda-Approved Drug For Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Eric W. Ottesen
Biomedical Sciences Publications
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the leading genetic diseases of children and infants. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations of Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy of SMN1, cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to predominant skipping of exon 7. While various regulatory elements that modulate SMN2 exon 7 splicing have been proposed, intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) has emerged as the most promising target thus far for antisense oligonucleotide-mediated splicing correction in SMA. Upon procuring exclusive license from the University of Massachussets Medical School in 2010, Ionis Pharmaceuticals (formerly ...
A Low-Cost Time-Lapse Imaging System Developed For Documentation Of Human Pre-Implantation Embryogenesis In Clinical Ivf Settings, 2017 University of Colorado Boulder
A Low-Cost Time-Lapse Imaging System Developed For Documentation Of Human Pre-Implantation Embryogenesis In Clinical Ivf Settings, Christine E. Hennigan Miss
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system that affects many women of various ages, races, and socioeconomic factors across the world (CDC, WHO, 2017). The expensive nature of treatments for infertility, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), has been combated with a simplified culture system (SCS) developed in the Van Blerkom lab (Van Blerkom et al., 2013). This recent advancement in clinical IVF procedures has prompted an effort to develop additional, low-cost technology able to help assess pre-implantation embryogenesis development and competence. This study examines the development and application of a low-cost, simplified, time-lapse imaging system that has shown ...
Modelling Random Antibody Adsorption And Immunoassay Activity, 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology
Modelling Random Antibody Adsorption And Immunoassay Activity, Dana Mackey, Eilis Kelly, Robert Nooney
One of the primary considerations in immunoassay design is optimizing the concentration of capture antibody in order to achieve maximal antigen binding and, subsequently, improved sensitivity and limit of detection. Many immunoassay technologies involve immobilization of the antibody to solid surfaces. Antibodies are large molecules in which the position and accessibility of the antigen-binding site depend on their orientation and packing density. In this paper we propose a simple mathematical model, based on the theory known as random sequential adsorption (RSA), in order to calculate how the concentration of correctly oriented antibodies (active site exposed for subsequent reactions) evolves during ...
Targeted And Controlled Anticancer Drug Delivery And Release With Magnetoelectric Nanoparticles, 2016 Florida International University
Targeted And Controlled Anticancer Drug Delivery And Release With Magnetoelectric Nanoparticles, Alexandra Rodzinski
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
A major challenge of cancer treatment is successful discrimination of cancer cells from healthy cells. Nanotechnology offers multiple venues for efficient cancer targeting. Magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) are a novel, multifaceted, physics-based cancer treatment platform that enables high specificity cancer targeting and externally controlled loaded drug release. The unique magnetoelectric coupling of MENs allows them to convert externally applied magnetic fields into intrinsic electric signals, which allows MENs to both be drawn magnetically towards the cancer site and to electrically interface with cancer cells. Once internalized, the MEN payload release can be externally triggered with a magnetic field. MENs uniquely allow ...
Cardiomems™ In Lvad Patients: A Case Series, 2016 Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky
Cardiomems™ In Lvad Patients: A Case Series, Maya Guglin, Bennet George, Sarah Branam, Amanda Hart
The VAD Journal
Patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) commonly encounter issues with volume status post-implant. Volume overload can result from incomplete compensation of left ventricular failure or from right ventricular failure. The CardioMEMS™ intracardiac hemodynamic monitoring device is an area of growing interest regarding the management of chronic congestive heart failure, however, its utility has not been serially investigated in patients with an LVAD. We present a case series of patients with ventricular assist devices care for at our institution in which the CardioMEMS™ device aided in the management of volume status and pump performance.
Selecting Medical Hardware Using Pairwise Comparisons: A Patient's Perspective Of Cochlear Implant Device Selection, 2016 Portland State University
Selecting Medical Hardware Using Pairwise Comparisons: A Patient's Perspective Of Cochlear Implant Device Selection, Timothy R. Anderson, Shabnam Razeghian Jahromi
Engineering and Technology Management Faculty Publications and Presentations
Selecting medical hardware can be a difficult and permanent decision for patients that they are often unprepared for. The authors explore the use of pairwise comparison techniques to better inform medical decision making in an application of choosing between three major cochlear implant manufacturers. This paper appears to be the first study to apply a pairwise comparison decision making approach for cochlear implant device selection. Also, unlike many medical decision making studies that are developed by the healthcare professional, this model and analysis was conducted entirely by the patient for the purpose of making the real-world decision of a device ...
Rnai Nanotechnology: A Platform For Sirna Screening And Cancer Gene Therapy, 2016 Seton Hall University
Rnai Nanotechnology: A Platform For Sirna Screening And Cancer Gene Therapy, Mayurbhai Ravikant Patel
Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)
Over the past two decades, advances in RNA structural biology have improved our understanding of the structures and folding properties of naturally occurring RNAs. RNA sequences and structures participate in many specific biological functions, such as those performed by messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), micro RNA (miRNA), short-interfering RNA (siRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and many others. The noncoding RNAs, such as siRNA, do not express proteins but have been utilized in a wide range of applications, including RNA interference (RNAi) and the regulation of mRNA expression. These important biological functions have been implemented in gene ...
Cartilage Engineering: Optimization Of Media For Chondrogenic Differentiation In Vitro, 2016 Purdue University
Cartilage Engineering: Optimization Of Media For Chondrogenic Differentiation In Vitro, Evan Surma, Sherry L. Harbin, Hongji Zhang, Stacy Halum
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Lower back pain from intervertebral disc injury affects around 84% of the population at some point in their life, which at its worst may cause total immobilization. This pain can only be temporarily relieved by spinal fusion or intervertebral disc replacement; however, both of these cause loss of natural motion in patients by removing damaged fibrocartilage discs. While these techniques help mitigate pain briefly, no permanent solution exists currently to both relieve pain and preserve natural motion. My work may be a solution by eventually providing patient-specific implants that resemble native tissue in the regeneration process that could be absorbed ...
Preparation Of Myod Mrna For The Differentiation Of Stem Cells Into Muscle Cells, 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi
Preparation Of Myod Mrna For The Differentiation Of Stem Cells Into Muscle Cells, Stephanie A. Ye
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterized by their two special properties: pluripotency and self-renewal. Pluripotency is the ability of ESCs to differentiate into any cell type upon expression of specific proteins called transcription factors. In order to induce differentiation, transcription factors specific for the particular cell type have to be introduced and expressed in the ESCs. The introduction of transcription factors can be achieved by using either DNA, RNA, or protein. According to the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology, DNA is first transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA), which is then translated to make a functional protein molecule. Among the available ...
Structure-Activity Relationships Governing The Interaction Of Nanoparticles With Mammalian Cells- Predictive Models For Toxicology And Medical Appliances, Marcus A. Maher
Nanoscience is seen as one of the key enabling technologies of the 20th century and as its range of applications increases it is important to look at how nanomaterials interact with biological environments. Some of these interactions have given rise to toxic effects and thus, the creation of the field of nanotoxicology, it has also been noted that current methods of evaluating toxicity may not be sufficient to keep up with the rapidly emerging range of nanomaterials becoming available. It is clear that alternatives are necessary. In this thesis, a phenomenological rate equation model is constructed to simulate nanoparticle uptake ...
Modeling The Structural Consequences Of Best1 Missense Mutations, 2016 University of Pennsylvania
Modeling The Structural Consequences Of Best1 Missense Mutations, Karina Guziewicz, Gustavo Aguirre, Barbara Zangerl
Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD
Mutations in the bestrophin-1 gene (BEST1) are an important cause of inherited retinal disorders. Hitherto, over 100 unique allelic variants have been linked to the human BEST1 (hBEST1), and associated with disease phenotypes, broadly termed as bestrophinopathies. A spontaneous animal model recapitulating BEST1-related phenotypes, canine multifocal retinopathy (cmr), is caused by mutations in the canine gene ortholog (cBEST1). We have recently characterized molecular consequences of cmr, demonstrating defective protein trafficking as a result of G161D (cmr2) mutation. To further investigate the pathological effects of BEST1 missense mutations, canine and human peptide fragments derived from the protein sequence have been studied ...