The Single Mitochondrion Of The Kinetoplastid Parasite Crithidia Fasciculata Is A Dynamic Network., 2018 The Pennsylvania State University
The Single Mitochondrion Of The Kinetoplastid Parasite Crithidia Fasciculata Is A Dynamic Network., John Dimaio, Gordon Ruthel, Joshua J. Cannon, Madeline F. Malfara, Megan L. Povelones
Department of Bioscience Technologies Faculty Papers
Mitochondria are central organelles in cellular metabolism. Their structure is highly dynamic, allowing them to adapt to different energy requirements, to be partitioned during cell division, and to maintain functionality. Mitochondrial dynamics, including membrane fusion and fission reactions, are well studied in yeast and mammals but it is not known if these processes are conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. Kinetoplastid parasites are some of the earliest-diverging eukaryotes to retain a mitochondrion. Each cell has only a single mitochondrial organelle, making them an interesting model for the role of dynamics in controlling mitochondrial architecture. We have investigated the mitochondrial division cycle in ...
Preparation And Characterization Of Functionalized Heparin-Loaded Poly-Ɛ-Caprolactone Fibrous Mats To Prevent Infection With Human Papillomaviruses, 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Preparation And Characterization Of Functionalized Heparin-Loaded Poly-Ɛ-Caprolactone Fibrous Mats To Prevent Infection With Human Papillomaviruses, Daniela Gonzalez, Jorge Ragusa, Peter C. Angeletti, Gustavo F. Larsen
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers
In this study, heparin-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) fibrous mats were prepared and characterized based on their physical, cytotoxic, thermal, and biological properties. The main objective of the work described here was to test the hypothesis that incorporation of heparin into a PCL carrier could serve as bio-compatible material capable of inhibiting Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The idea of firmly anchoring heparin to capture soluble virus, vs. a slow heparin release to inhibit a virus in solution was tested. Thus, one material was produced via conventional heparin matrix encapsulation and electrohydrodynamic fiber processing in one step. A second type of material was ...
Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, transfer endogenous RNAs between neurons over short and long distances. We have explored EVs for siRNA delivery to brain. (1) We optimized siRNA chemical modifications and siRNA conjugation to lipids for EV-mediated delivery. (2) We developed a GMP-compatible, scalable method to manufacture active EVs in bulk. (3) We characterized lipid and protein content of EVs in detail. (4) We established how protein and lipid composition relates to siRNA delivering activity of EVs, and we reverse engineered natural exosomes (small EVs) into artificial exosomes based on these data.
We established that cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs passively associate ...
Different Methodologies To Characterize And Diagnose Sickle Cell Disease In Both Developed And Developing Nations, 2018 Dominican University of California
Different Methodologies To Characterize And Diagnose Sickle Cell Disease In Both Developed And Developing Nations, Mohammed Alharbi
Graduate Master's Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that causes the RBC to become sickle shaped due to a mutation in the β-globin gene encoding the protein hemoglobin. This disease causes reduced oxygen carrying capacity of RBC resulting in painful crisis, hemolytic anemia, and infection susceptibility. SCD affects around 100,000 individuals in USA alone and 14 million people globally. SCD affected individuals have high mortality rates. Early detection and constant monitoring of this disease is essential. The following review focuses on various methodologies that have emerged in the diagnosis of SCD. Also, low cost methods that can be ...
Outer Limits Of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective, 2018 Touro College
Outer Limits Of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective, John D. Loike, Alan H. Kadish
Office of the President Publications and Research
A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.
S100b As A Potential Biomarker For Concussion In Male And Female Collegiate Rugby Athletes, 2018 Humboldt State University
S100b As A Potential Biomarker For Concussion In Male And Female Collegiate Rugby Athletes, Monica L. Ortiz
Theses and projects
Sport related concussions are among the top ten most common sport injuries. Substantial and mounting evidence points to extensive short and long term negative consequences from mismanaged sport related concussions. Consequently, researchers have called for better diagnostic concussion tests that are rapid, reliable, sensitive, specific and objective. The purpose of this research was to determine the ability of salivary S100B to detect concussions, predict concussion symptom resolution time, and correlate with changes in neurocognitive performance over the course of one athletic season. A repeated measures of salivary S100B and neurocognitive performance using the ImPACT test and a concussion symptom questionnaire ...
Role Of Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis (Map) And Tnfsf15 Snps On Tl1a In Cd, 2018 University of Central Florida
Role Of Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis (Map) And Tnfsf15 Snps On Tl1a In Cd, Sayf Al-Deen Hassouneh
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Tumor Necrosis Factor-Like Ligand 1a (TL1A) is a cytokine encoded by Tumor Necrosis Factor Super Family 15 gene (TNFSF15) gene mostly in endothelial cells which binds to T-cells and foments the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1b, IFN- γ and IL-13. TL1A level is elevated in inflammatory diseases including Crohn's Disease (CD). Although Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNFSF15 have been reported in CD, no studies have investigated the effect of these SNPs on TL1A, inflammation, and susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. MAP is a strong candidate in CD pathogenesis. This study is designed ...
Development Of A Non-Human Primate Model For Staphylococcus Aureus Nasal Carriage, 2018 University of Central Florida
Development Of A Non-Human Primate Model For Staphylococcus Aureus Nasal Carriage, Amanda Lasseter
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage (SANC) is largely asymptomatic, but presents a risk of autoinfection and dissemination to new immunocompromised hosts. SA disease states range from mild cutaneous infections to life-threatening bacteremia. Historically utilized rodent models do not naturally carry SA in the nose, are insufficient in longitudinal SANC experimentation, and lack immune factors that are vital in human clearance of SA. The nasal passages of non-human primates are similar anatomically and histologically, and reproductive mucosal studies have shown similar immune responses to pathogens and human-relevant microbial profiles. Seventeen captive pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were found to naturally carry SA in ...
Functionalizing Titanium Implants With Bioactive Peptides To Increase Osseointegration, 2018 The University of Akron
Functionalizing Titanium Implants With Bioactive Peptides To Increase Osseointegration, Neil Bernard
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
Orthopedic surgeries have continued to increase, but the material of choice remains constant: titanium. Titanium has become the benchmark implant material due to its durability and non-immunogenic properties. However, while high rates of success are correlated with joint replacement surgery, certain patients with predisposed diseases such as diabetes or arthritis may have increased complications.1 This can be due to lack of osseointegration due to decreased bone formation and mineralization,2 which will lead to increased rates of infection or aseptic loosening of the implant from the bone. 3 Current methods to alleviate these complications include invasive revisional surgeries, which ...
Tumor Cell Death After Electrotransfer Of Plasmid Dna Is Associated With Cytosolic Dna Sensor Upregulation, 2018 Old Dominion University
Tumor Cell Death After Electrotransfer Of Plasmid Dna Is Associated With Cytosolic Dna Sensor Upregulation, Katarina Znidar, Masa Bosnjak, Nina Semenova, Olga N. Pakhomova, Loree Heller, Maja Cemazar
Cytosolic DNA sensors are a subgroup of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and are activated by the abnormal presence of the DNA in the cytosol. Their activation leads to the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and can also induce cell death. The presence of cytosolic DNA sensors and inflammatory cytokines in TS/A murine mammary adenocarcinoma and WEHI 164 fibrosarcoma cells was demonstrated using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After electrotransfer of plasmid DNA (pDNA) using two pulse protocols, the upregulation of DNA-depended activator of interferon regulatory factor or Z-DNA ...
Nano-Pulse Stimulation Ablates Orthotopic Rat Hepatocellular Carcinoma And Induces Innate And Adaptive Memory Immune Mechanisms That Prevent Recurrence, Brittany P. Lassiter, Siqi Guo, Stephen J. Beebe
Nano-pulse stimulation (NPS), previously called nsPEFs, induced a vaccine-like effect after ablation of orthotopic N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), protecting rats from subsequent challenges with N1-S1 cells. To determine immunity, immune cell phenotypes were analyzed in naïve, treated and protected rats. NPS provides a positive, post-ablation immuno-therapeutic outcome by alleviating immunosuppressive T regulatory cells (Treg) in the tumor microenvironment (TME), allowing dendritic cell influx and inducing dynamic changes in natural killer cells (NKs), NKT-cells and T-lymphocytes in blood, spleen and liver. NPS induced specific increases in NKs and NKT-cells expressing CD8 and activation receptors CD314-NKG2D and CD161 (NK1.1) in the ...
Carcinogenesis In Prostate Cancer: The Role Of Long Non-Coding Rnas, 2018 Department of Histopathology and Morbid Anatomy, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Carcinogenesis In Prostate Cancer: The Role Of Long Non-Coding Rnas, John Aird, Anne-Marie Baird, Marvin C.J Lim, Ray Mcdermott, Stephen P. Finn, Steven G. Gray
LncRNAs appear to play a considerable role in tumourigenesis through regulating key processes in cancer cells such as proliferative signalling, replicative immortality, invasion and metastasis, evasion of growth suppressors, induction of angiogenesis and resistance to apoptosis. LncRNAs have been reported to play a role in prostate cancer, particularly in regulating the androgen receptor signalling pathway. In this review article, we summarise the role of 34 lncRNAs in prostate cancer with a particular focus on their role in the androgen receptor signalling pathway and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway.
Cold Atmospheric Plasma As A Potential Tool For Multiple Myeloma Treatment, 2018 Old Dominion University
Cold Atmospheric Plasma As A Potential Tool For Multiple Myeloma Treatment, Dehui Xu, Yujing Xu, Qingjie Cui, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Yanjie Yang, Niaojuan Feng, Rong Liang, Hailan Chen, Kai Ye, Michael G. Kong
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a fatal and incurable hematological malignancy thus new therapy need to be developed. Cold atmospheric plasma, a new technology that could generate various active species, could efficiently induce various tumor cells apoptosis. More details about the interaction of plasma and tumor cells need to be addressed before the application of gas plasma in clinical cancer treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that He+O2 plasma could efficiently induce myeloma cell apoptosis through the activation of CD95 and downstream caspase cascades. Extracellular and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation is essential for CD95-mediated cell apoptosis in ...
Esope-Equivalent Pulsing Protocols For Calcium Electroporation: An In Vitro Optimization Study On 2 Cancer Cell Models, 2018 Old Dominion University
Esope-Equivalent Pulsing Protocols For Calcium Electroporation: An In Vitro Optimization Study On 2 Cancer Cell Models, Stefania Romeo, Anna Sannino, Maria Rosaria Scarfi, P. Thomas Vernier, Ruggero Cadossi, Julie Gehl, Olga Zeni
Reversible electroporation is used to increase the uptake of chemotherapeutic drugs in local tumor treatment (electrochemotherapy) by applying the pulsing protocol (8 rectangular pulses, 1000 V/cm, 100 µs) standardized in the framework of the European Standard Operating Procedure on Electrochemotherapy multicenter trial. Currently, new electrochemotherapy strategies are under development to extend its applicability to tumors with different histology. Electrical parameters and drug type are critical factors. A possible approach is to test pulse parameters different from European Standard Operating Procedure on Electrochemotherapy but with comparable electroporation yield (European Standard Operating Procedure on Electrochemotherapy-equivalent protocols). Moreover, the use of non-toxic ...
A Scale Space Local Binary Pattern (Sslbp) – Based Feature Extraction Framework To Detect Bones From Knee Mri Scans, 2018 South Dakota State University
A Scale Space Local Binary Pattern (Sslbp) – Based Feature Extraction Framework To Detect Bones From Knee Mri Scans, Jinyeong Mun
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The medical industry is currently working on a fully autonomous surgical system, which is considered a novel modality to go beyond technical limitations of conventional surgery. In order to apply an autonomous surgical system to knees, one of the primarily responsible areas for supporting the total weight of human body, accurate segmentation of bones from knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans plays a crucial role. In this paper, we propose employing the Scale Space Local Binary Pattern (SSLBP) feature extraction, a variant of local binary pattern extractions, for detecting bones from knee images. The proposed methods consist of two phases ...
Achieving Totally Local Anticoagulation On Blood Contacting Devices, 2017 University of New Haven
Achieving Totally Local Anticoagulation On Blood Contacting Devices, Rana Gbyli, Anna Mercaldi, Harihara Sundaram, Kagya Amoako
Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Faculty Publications
The recent years have witnessed an increased activity in biocompatibility research aimed at limiting biomaterial-induced blood coagulation. From 2008 to 2016, a total of $36,946,764.00 USD was awarded in grants to 213 research proposals and as large as 50.4% ($18,627,854.00) of that award monies were distributed to 101 proposals over the fiscal years of FY14 to FY16 alone. However, the complexity in blood responses to biomaterials, variability in blood function between individuals and animal species, and differences in medical device application and test setting all continue to pose difficulties in making a breakthrough ...
Controllable Moderate Heating Enhances The Therapeutic Efficacy Of Irreversible Electroporation For Pancreatic Cancer, 2017 Old Dominion University
Controllable Moderate Heating Enhances The Therapeutic Efficacy Of Irreversible Electroporation For Pancreatic Cancer, Chelsea M. Edelblute, James Hornef, Niculina I. Burcus, Thomas Norman, Stephen J. Beebe, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller, Chunqi Jiang, Sigi Guo
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) as a non-thermal tumor ablation technology has been studied for the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma and has shown a significant survival benefit. We discovered that moderate heating (MH) at 43°C for 1-2 minutes significantly enhanced ex vivo IRE tumor ablation of Pan02 cells by 5.67-fold at 750 V/cm and by 1.67-fold at 1500 V/cm. This amount of heating alone did not cause cell death. An integrated IRE system with controllable laser heating and tumor impedance monitoring was developed to treat mouse ectopic pancreatic cancer. With this novel IRE system, we were able ...
Electrospun Collagen Nanofibers For Tissue Engineering, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Electrospun Collagen Nanofibers For Tissue Engineering, Nisha Sharma
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Design and fabrication of the scaffold is an important part of the tissue engineering process. Nanofibrous scaffolds based on proteins are gaining increasing acceptance due to its structural similarity to the extracellular matrix. Making use of the electrospinning technique, rat tail collagen type I nanofibers were produced using a collagen in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) solution. In addition to optimizing the electrospinning process parameters, the effect of humidity on fiber morphology and diameter was investigated for fiber size control for particular tissue engineering applications. A generalized humidity effect on polymer fiber diameter of the polymer solution electrospinning process was developed. The as ...
The Importance Of Inhaler Technique In Measuring And Calculating Inhaler Adherence, And Its Clinical Outcomes, 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
The Importance Of Inhaler Technique In Measuring And Calculating Inhaler Adherence, And Its Clinical Outcomes, Imran Sulaiman
Depending on the population studied, cross-sectional observational studies suggest that between 14%-90% of patients do not use their pressurized metered dose inhaler correctly, while 50-60% misuse a dry powder inhaler. This means that unless incorrect technique is acounted for a significant underestimation of how much medication the person actually obtained may be made.
The aim of this thesis was to objectively determine the frequency and importance of inhaler technique errors and to combine these with inhaler use to provide an acurate method of calculating adherence. I then investigated different patterns of inhaler use, determinants of inhaler use and the ...
Intratracheal Instillation Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Hepatic Toxicity In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Siva Krishna Nalabotu, Madhukar Babu Kolli, William E. Triest, Jane Y. Ma, Nandini Dpk Manne, Anjaiah Katta, Hari S. Addagarla, Kevin M. Rice, Eric R. Blough
Background: Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods and results: Compared with control animals, CeO2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05). Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal ...