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The Myth Of "It's All In Your Head", 2019 DePaul University

The Myth Of "It's All In Your Head"

DePaul Magazine

Researchers at DePaul's Center for Community Research are mapping the brain to uncover the causes of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Psychologist Leonard Jason has been carrying out community-based epidemiology prevalence studies that show that about one million Americans, many of them from ethnic minorities, are afflicted with the condition.


Systematic Literature Review Of Quetiapine For The Treatment Of Psychosis In Patients With Parkinsonism, Jack J. Chen, Henry Hua, Lilian Massihi, Ivan Portillo, Azita Alipour, William Ondo, Khashayar Dashtipour 2019 American University of Health Sciences

Systematic Literature Review Of Quetiapine For The Treatment Of Psychosis In Patients With Parkinsonism, Jack J. Chen, Henry Hua, Lilian Massihi, Ivan Portillo, Azita Alipour, William Ondo, Khashayar Dashtipour

Library Articles and Research

Objective:

The purpose of this article was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine compared with placebo or other interventions for psychosis in parkinsonism.

Methods:

Participants with a diagnosis of parkinsonism participated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine for psychotic symptoms within a defined follow-up period. The authors conducted searches on PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, and EMBASE for articles published from January 1991 to October 2017. Study methodology and patient- and treatment-level data were independently extracted and summarized by using descriptive statistics. Studies underwent quality assessment for risk of bias.

Results ...


An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Stimulants are a class of drugs that have a variety of effects on the brain, including changes in receptor activity in the brain areas responsible for- memory, attention, emotion, motor control, and the reward pathway. Stimulants may be generally classified by their availability. For example, prescription stimulants, which include drugs such as methylphenidate (Concerta™, Ritalin™) and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall™), must be prescribed by medical professionals. Another regulated stimulant, albeit one available without a prescription, is nicotine; a highly addictive chemical that is age-restricted by the U.S. federal government. Nicotine is found in tobacco products, and in tobacco-free alternatives ...


Ephrin-B3 Controls Excitatory Synapse Density Through Cell-Cell Competition For Ephbs., Nathan T. Henderson, Sylvain J. Le Marchand, Martin Hruska, Simon Hippenmeyer, Liqun Luo, Matthew B. Dalva 2019 Thomas Jefferson University; University of Pennsylvania

Ephrin-B3 Controls Excitatory Synapse Density Through Cell-Cell Competition For Ephbs., Nathan T. Henderson, Sylvain J. Le Marchand, Martin Hruska, Simon Hippenmeyer, Liqun Luo, Matthew B. Dalva

Department of Neuroscience

Cortical networks are characterized by sparse connectivity, with synapses found at only a subset of axo-dendritic contacts. Yet within these networks, neurons can exhibit high connection probabilities, suggesting that cell-intrinsic factors, not proximity, determine connectivity. Here, we identify ephrin-B3 (eB3) as a factor that determines synapse density by mediating a cell-cell competition that requires ephrin-B-EphB signaling. In a microisland culture system designed to isolate cell-cell competition, we find that eB3 determines winning and losing neurons in a contest for synapses. In a Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM) genetic mouse model system in vivo the relative levels of eB3 control ...


Selection Criteria For Posterior Circulation Stroke And Functional Outcome Following Mechanical Thrombectomy, Vivian Xu, Ahmad Sweid, MD, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, MD, Kavya Shivashankar, BA, Karim Hafazalla, BS, Michael R. Gooch, MD, Nabeel Herial, MD, Robert H. Rosenwasswer MD, Pascal Jabbour, MD 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Selection Criteria For Posterior Circulation Stroke And Functional Outcome Following Mechanical Thrombectomy, Vivian Xu, Ahmad Sweid, Md, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Md, Kavya Shivashankar, Ba, Karim Hafazalla, Bs, Michael R. Gooch, Md, Nabeel Herial, Md, Robert H. Rosenwasswer Md, Pascal Jabbour, Md

Phase 1

Objective: 20% of all acute ischemic strokes (AIS) are caused by posterior circulation strokes, which carry an intensified mortality touching 95%. Early recanalization improves outcome as shown by several reports; however, safety, patient selection, and prognostic factors remain lacking. An investigation of the safety and prognostic factors for posterior circulation mechanical thrombectomy (MT) was performed.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients presenting with posterior circulation AIS, who underwent MT between 2010 and 2018.

Results: Of 443 patients who underwent MT for AIS, 83 patients had posterior circulation strokes. 95% of procedures were conducted under general anesthesia. The median NIHSS upon ...


Predictors Of Ventriculostomy Infection In A Large Cohort, Christine Wamsley, BA, Ahmad Sweid, MD, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, MD, Erica J. Mann, BA, Christopher Neely, BS, Jeffrey Head, BA, Michael R. Gooch, MD, Nabeel Herial, MD, Robert Rosenwasswer, MD, Pascal Jabbour, MD 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Predictors Of Ventriculostomy Infection In A Large Cohort, Christine Wamsley, Ba, Ahmad Sweid, Md, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Md, Erica J. Mann, Ba, Christopher Neely, Bs, Jeffrey Head, Ba, Michael R. Gooch, Md, Nabeel Herial, Md, Robert Rosenwasswer, Md, Pascal Jabbour, Md

Phase 1

Introduction: External ventricular drains (EVDs) are neurosurgical devices used to treat hydrocephalus and monitor intracranial pressure. Ventriculostomy-associated infections (VAIs) are a complication of EVD placement associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as cost. A previous study at Jefferson reported a decrease in VAI’s with the use of antibiotic-coated catheters.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the current rate of VAI’s and determine risk factors associated with infections.

Methods: Using Epic, the electronic medical records software, we conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent EVD placement at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital and Jefferson ...


Modeling Reveals The Dependence Of Hippocampal Neurogenesis Radiosensitivity On Age And Strain Of Rats, Eliedonna Cacao, Sidath Kapukotuwa, Francis A. Cucinotta 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Modeling Reveals The Dependence Of Hippocampal Neurogenesis Radiosensitivity On Age And Strain Of Rats, Eliedonna Cacao, Sidath Kapukotuwa, Francis A. Cucinotta

Health Physics & Diagnostic Sciences Faculty Publications

Cognitive dysfunction following radiation treatment for brain cancers in both children and adults have been correlated to impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Various species and strains of rodent models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis and these investigations have utilized only a limited number of doses, dose-fractions, age and time after exposures conditions. In this paper, we have extended our previous mathematical model of radiation-induced hippocampal neurogenesis impairment of C57BL/6 mice to delineate the time, age, and dose dependent alterations in neurogenesis of a diverse strain of rats. To the best of our ...


Investigating The Role Of Endogenous Atf4 Upregulation On Neuronal Glutathione Level, Fatemeh Mirshafiei 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Role Of Endogenous Atf4 Upregulation On Neuronal Glutathione Level, Fatemeh Mirshafiei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ATF4 is a transcription factor that is activated in response to integrated stress response (ISR). In neurons specifically, ATF4 has been suggested to act as a pro-apoptotic transcription factor. The expression of ATF4, as well as its downstream gene targets have been implicated in both in vivo and in vitro models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. However, the mechanism by which ATF4 promotes cell death remains unclear. It was previously shown that overexpression of ATF4 in primary cortical neurons caused a reduction in glutathione levels, resulting in oxidative stress-induced cell death. The aim of this project was to ...


Levels Of Par-1 Kinase Determine The Localization Of Bruchpilot At The Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Synapses., Kara R. Barber, Martin Hruska, Keegan M. Bush, Jade A. Martinez, Hong Fei, Irwin B. Levitan, Matthew B. Dalva, Yogesh P. Wairkar 2018 University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston

Levels Of Par-1 Kinase Determine The Localization Of Bruchpilot At The Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Synapses., Kara R. Barber, Martin Hruska, Keegan M. Bush, Jade A. Martinez, Hong Fei, Irwin B. Levitan, Matthew B. Dalva, Yogesh P. Wairkar

Farber Institute for Neurosciences Faculty Papers

Functional synaptic networks are compromised in many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. While the mechanisms of axonal transport and localization of synaptic vesicles and mitochondria are relatively well studied, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the localization of proteins that localize to active zones. Recent finding suggests that mechanisms involved in transporting proteins destined to active zones are distinct from those that transport synaptic vesicles or mitochondria. Here we report that localization of BRP-an essential active zone scaffolding protein in Drosophila, depends on the precise balance of neuronal Par-1 kinase. Disruption of Par-1 levels leads to excess accumulation of ...


The Migration And Developmental Remodeling Of Intrinsic Interneurons In Visual Thalamus And The Role Of Retinal Signaling., Naomi E. Charalambakis 2018 University of Louisville

The Migration And Developmental Remodeling Of Intrinsic Interneurons In Visual Thalamus And The Role Of Retinal Signaling., Naomi E. Charalambakis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the mouse is a model system to study the development of thalamic circuitry. While most studies focus on relay neurons of dLGN, little is known about the factors regulating the development of the other principal cell type, intrinsic interneurons. To date, the targeting and migratory path of dLGN interneurons as well as their morphological development remains unclear. Here we examined whether the migration, structure, and function of interneurons relies on retinal signaling. We took a loss-of-function approach and crossed GAD67-GFP mice, which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in dLGN interneurons, with math5 nulls ...


Proteolysis Of Cx3cl1 Impacts Cx3cr1 Signaling And Therapeutic Benefits In A Tauopathy Model, Dylan John Finneran 2018 University of South Florida

Proteolysis Of Cx3cl1 Impacts Cx3cr1 Signaling And Therapeutic Benefits In A Tauopathy Model, Dylan John Finneran

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. The hallmark pathologies of AD are extracellular aggregates of amyloid-beta, intracellular aggregates of microtubule associated protein tau and increased neuroinflammation. Current therapeutics offer only symptomatic relief and clinical trials investigating therapeutic benefits of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have yielded no positive results. Therefore, recent work has focused on immunomodulators, such as CD200 and fractalkine, as potential therapeutic targets for AD.

Fractalkine (CX3CL1; FKN) is expressed as a transmembrane protein with an N-terminal chemokine domain followed by a long, mucin-like stalk. FKN can signal as a ...


Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin 2018 University of South Florida

Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) provide a communication pathway between the electrical conducting units of the brain (neurons) and external devices. BMI technology may provide improved neurological and physiological functions to patients suffering from disabilities due to damaged nervous systems. Unfortunately, microelectrodes used in Intracortical Neural Interfaces (INI), a subset of the BMI device family, have yet to demonstrate long-term in vivo performance due to material, mechanical and electrical failures. Many state-of-the-art INI devices are constructed using stacks of multiple materials, such as silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), platinum (Pt), parylene C, and polyimide. Not only must each material tolerate the biological ...


Exploring The Neural Mechanisms Of Physics Learning, Jessica E. Bartley 2018 Florida International University

Exploring The Neural Mechanisms Of Physics Learning, Jessica E. Bartley

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents a series of neuroimaging investigations and achievements that strive to deepen and broaden our understanding of human problem solving and physics learning. Neuroscience conceives of dynamic relationships between behavior, experience, and brain structure and function, but how neural changes enable human learning across classroom instruction remains an open question. At the same time, physics is a challenging area of study in which introductory students regularly struggle to achieve success across university instruction. Research and initiatives in neuroeducation promise a new understanding into the interactions between biology and education, including the neural mechanisms of learning and development. These ...


Leveling The Playing Field: Supporting Neurodiversity Via Virtual Realities, LouAnne E. Boyd, Kendra Day, Natalia Stewart, Kaitlyn Abdo, Kathleen Lamkin, Erik J. Linstead 2018 University of California, Irvine

Leveling The Playing Field: Supporting Neurodiversity Via Virtual Realities, Louanne E. Boyd, Kendra Day, Natalia Stewart, Kaitlyn Abdo, Kathleen Lamkin, Erik J. Linstead

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Neurodiversity is a term that encapsulates the diverse expression of human neurology. By thinking in broad terms about neurological development, we can become focused on delivering a diverse set of design features to meet the needs of the human condition. In this work, we move toward developing virtual environments that support variations in sensory processing. If we understand that people have differences in sensory perception that result in their own unique sensory traits, many of which are clustered by diagnostic labels such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Sensory Processing Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Rett syndrome, dyslexia, and so on, then ...


Role Of The Fractalkine Receptor In Cns Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing A Mouse Model Expressing The Human Cx3cr1, Sandra M. Cardona, Sangwon V. Kim, Kaira A. Church, Vanessa O. Torres, Ian A. Cleary, Andrew S. Mendiola, Stephen P. Saville, Stephanie S. Watowich, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Alejandro Soto-Ospina, Pedronel Araque, Richard M. Ransohoff, Astrid E. Cardona 2018 The University of Texas at San Antonio

Role Of The Fractalkine Receptor In Cns Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing A Mouse Model Expressing The Human Cx3cr1, Sandra M. Cardona, Sangwon V. Kim, Kaira A. Church, Vanessa O. Torres, Ian A. Cleary, Andrew S. Mendiola, Stephen P. Saville, Stephanie S. Watowich, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Alejandro Soto-Ospina, Pedronel Araque, Richard M. Ransohoff, Astrid E. Cardona

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults. Immune mediated destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes is considered the primary pathology of MS, but progressive axonal loss is the major cause of neurological disability. In an effort to understand microglia function during CNS inflammation, our laboratory focuses on the fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling as a regulator of microglia neurotoxicity in various models of neurodegeneration. Fractalkine (FKN) is a transmembrane chemokine expressed in the CNS by neurons and signals through its unique receptor CX3CR1 present in microglia ...


How Concussions Alter Brain Network Properties: Towards Better Diagnoses Of Concussions, Sara Krehbiel, Joanna R. Wares 2018 University of Richmond

How Concussions Alter Brain Network Properties: Towards Better Diagnoses Of Concussions, Sara Krehbiel, Joanna R. Wares

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Coordination Of Inpatient And Outpatient Care For Neurology Patients Undergoing Epilepsy Monitoring, Sara Schrock, Michelle Beane, Kathryn Cope, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks, Brendan Lilley 2018 Maine Medical Center

Coordination Of Inpatient And Outpatient Care For Neurology Patients Undergoing Epilepsy Monitoring, Sara Schrock, Michelle Beane, Kathryn Cope, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks, Brendan Lilley

Operational Excellence

ORGANIZING A SYSTEM TO CONSOLIDATE EPILEPSY REFERRALS TO AN OUTPATIENT NEUROLOGY PRACTICE

An outpatient neurology practice was experiencing delayed or lost referrals for epilepsy monitoring. This delay was leading many patients to suffer unnecessary and unmanaged seizures and, in some cases, frequent trips to the emergency department.

As a result, a team consisting of the neurology practice and neuro-navigators used baseline metrics to demonstrate the current state of the problem and conducted a root cause analysis that outlined several causes. A number of countermeasures were initiated with the goal of decreasing referral misses.

Post the initiation of two KPIs, a ...


Henle's Ligament: A Comprehensive Review Of Its Anatomy And Terminology Over Almost One And A Half Centuries., Raja Gnanadev, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs 2018 Neurosurgery, Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, USA.

Henle's Ligament: A Comprehensive Review Of Its Anatomy And Terminology Over Almost One And A Half Centuries., Raja Gnanadev, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Henle's ligament was first described by German physician and anatomist, Friedrich Henle, in 1871. This review article will cover Henle's original description of the ligament, historical changes in terminology, embryological studies of the ligament, and the clinical significance of Henle's ligament. This article has a particular focus on the variation in the terminology of this structure and the implications of this.


Isolation Of Cerebral Capillaries From Fresh Human Brain Tissue, Anika M. S. Hartz, Julia A. Schulz, Brent S. Sokola, Stephanie E. Edelmann, Andrew N. Shen, Ralf G. Rempe, Yu Zhong, Nader El Seblani, Bjoern Bauer 2018 University of Kentucky

Isolation Of Cerebral Capillaries From Fresh Human Brain Tissue, Anika M. S. Hartz, Julia A. Schulz, Brent S. Sokola, Stephanie E. Edelmann, Andrew N. Shen, Ralf G. Rempe, Yu Zhong, Nader El Seblani, Bjoern Bauer

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Understanding blood-brain barrier function under physiological and pathophysiological conditions is critical for the development of new therapeutic strategies that hold the promise to enhance brain drug delivery, improve brain protection, and treat brain disorders. However, studying the human blood-brain barrier function is challenging. Thus, there is a critical need for appropriate models. In this regard, brain capillaries isolated from human brain tissue represent a unique tool to study barrier function as close to the human in vivo situation as possible. Here, we describe an optimized protocol to isolate capillaries from human brain tissue at a high yield and with consistent ...


Neurohype And The Law: A Cautionary Tale, Stephen J. Morse 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Neurohype And The Law: A Cautionary Tale, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This chapter suggests that for conceptual, empirical, and practical reasons, neuroscience in general and non-invasive brain imaging in particular are not likely to revolutionize the law and our conception of ourselves, but may make modest contributions to legal policy and case adjudication if the legal relevance of the science is properly understood.


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