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1268 full-text articles. Page 1 of 47.

Synaptic Computations In The Olfactory Bulb Glomerular Microcircuit, Christopher Vaaga 2017 Oregon Health & Science University

Synaptic Computations In The Olfactory Bulb Glomerular Microcircuit, Christopher Vaaga

Scholar Archive

No abstract provided.


The Acquisition And Analysis Of Electroencephalogram Data For The Classification Of Benign Partial Epilepsy Of Childhood With Centrotemporal Spikes, Jessica A. Scarborough 2017 University of San Francisco

The Acquisition And Analysis Of Electroencephalogram Data For The Classification Of Benign Partial Epilepsy Of Childhood With Centrotemporal Spikes, Jessica A. Scarborough

Master's Theses

In this thesis, I will expand upon each step in the process of acquiring and analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG) for the classification of benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. Despite huge advancements in the field of health informatics—natural language processing, machine learning, predictive modeling—there are significant barriers to the access of clinical data. These barriers include information blocking, privacy policy concerns, and a lack of stakeholder support. We will see that these roadblocks are all responsible for stunting biomedical research in some way, including my own experiences in acquiring the data for the second chapter of this thesis.

This ...


Identification Of Octopaminergic Neurons That Modulate Sleep Suppression By Male Sex Drive., Daniel R. Machado, Dinis Afonso, Alexandra R. Kenny, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Emilia H. Moscato, Benjamin Mainwaring, Matthew Kayser, Kyunghee Koh 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Identification Of Octopaminergic Neurons That Modulate Sleep Suppression By Male Sex Drive., Daniel R. Machado, Dinis Afonso, Alexandra R. Kenny, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Emilia H. Moscato, Benjamin Mainwaring, Matthew Kayser, Kyunghee Koh

Department of Neuroscience

Molecular and circuit mechanisms for balancing competing drives are not well understood. While circadian and homeostatic mechanisms generally ensure sufficient sleep at night, other pressing needs can overcome sleep drive. Here, we demonstrate that the balance between sleep and sex drives determines whether male flies sleep or court, and identify a subset of octopaminergic neurons (MS1) that regulate sleep specifically in males. When MS1 neurons are activated, isolated males sleep less, and when MS1 neurons are silenced, the normal male sleep suppression in female presence is attenuated and mating behavior is impaired. MS1 neurons do not express the sexually dimorphic ...


The Impact Spectrum Of Head Injuries On The Sport Of Hockey, Caleb W. Neal 2017 University of Rhode Island

The Impact Spectrum Of Head Injuries On The Sport Of Hockey, Caleb W. Neal

Senior Honors Projects

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates there are between 1.6-3.8 million sports and recreation related concussions per year. In fact there are over 4 million concussions (including non-sports related) in total each year. A concussion is defined as a serious brain injury caused by the rapid movement (linear front-to-back, side-to-side) or rotational (angular) movement of the brain inside the skull, which results in damage and disruption to the brain cell function, causing brain trauma (sports concussion library). Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are concussions that are specifically sustained during a sporting event. The sport with the highest ...


Persistent Neurobehavioral Traits In A Mouse Model Of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure, Jill M. Lawrence 2017 Ursinus College

Persistent Neurobehavioral Traits In A Mouse Model Of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure, Jill M. Lawrence

Neuroscience Honors Papers

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) effect an estimated 2% of the population, causing a range of symptoms: from craniofacial defects to inhibited cortical growth (May, et al., 2009; Murawski, et al., 2015). Impaired medial forebrain function apparent in FASD is associated with lifelong cognitive behavioral deficits, but these consequences may be avoided with early diagnosis and intervention (Streissguth, et al., 2004). Our goal is to identify early neurobehavioral abnormalities that persist into adulthood that could potentially serve as early indicators for FASD. Mouse models of prenatal ethanol exposure were developed using a voluntary drinking paradigm that introduced a sweetened ethanol ...


Serial Deletion Reveals Structural Basis And Stability For The Core Enzyme Activity Of Human Glutaminase 1 Isoforms: Relevance To Excitotoxic Neurodegeneration., Yuju Li, Justin Peer, Runze Zhao, Yinghua Xu, Beiqing Wu, Yi Wang, Changhai Tian, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C. Zheng 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Serial Deletion Reveals Structural Basis And Stability For The Core Enzyme Activity Of Human Glutaminase 1 Isoforms: Relevance To Excitotoxic Neurodegeneration., Yuju Li, Justin Peer, Runze Zhao, Yinghua Xu, Beiqing Wu, Yi Wang, Changhai Tian, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C. Zheng

Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience

BACKGROUND: Glutaminase 1 is a phosphate-activated metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glutaminolysis, which converts glutamine into glutamate. Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter of excitatory synapses, executing important physiological functions in the central nervous system. There are two isoforms of glutaminase 1, KGA and GAC, both of which are generated through alternative splicing from the same gene. KGA and GAC both transcribe 1-14 exons in the N-terminal, but each has its unique C-terminal in the coding sequence. We have previously identified that KGA and GAC are differentially regulated during inflammatory stimulation and HIV infection. Furthermore, glutaminase 1 has ...


The Use Of Rhyme, Rhythm, And Melody As A Form Of Repetition Priming To Aid In Encoding, Storage, And Retrieval Of Semantic Memories In Alzheimer’S Patients, Faiz Plastikwala 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Use Of Rhyme, Rhythm, And Melody As A Form Of Repetition Priming To Aid In Encoding, Storage, And Retrieval Of Semantic Memories In Alzheimer’S Patients, Faiz Plastikwala

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Treating Alzheimer’s disease, especially through non-pharmaceutical means, has become increasingly important over the past few decades. I examined the use of melody, rhyme, and rhythm as encoding mechanisms to aid in the retrieval of long term semantic information by juxtaposing previous experiments in the field. Melody, rhyme, and rhythm provide an organizational structure to facilitate the encoding of information. Specifically, chunking, the grouping of smaller units into larger ‘chunks’, helps facilitate long term encoding in patients, and is the byproduct of the organizational structure of a text. A major drawback of using these devices is the loss in the ...


Receptor-Associated Protein (Rap) Models In Vivo Reelin Haploinsufficiency: Implications In Schizophrenia, Jamileh Ahmed 2017 University of South Florida

Receptor-Associated Protein (Rap) Models In Vivo Reelin Haploinsufficiency: Implications In Schizophrenia, Jamileh Ahmed

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The “two-hit” schizophrenia hypothesis suggests genetic and environmental abnormalities interrupt early CNS function. This increases vulnerability of a “second hit” and schizophrenia onset. Chronic stress and decreased Reelin signaling are reportedly associated with schizophrenia. Heterozygous Reeler Mice (HRM) show a 50% reduction in Reelin and display major schizophrenia phenotypes. Receptor-Associated Protein (RAP) blocks ligand-association to Reelin receptor Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2). In this study, we sought to replicate major heterozygous reeler mouse (HRM) phenotypes using in vivo RAP studies to establish an experimental in vitro model. Using an in vitro model, we investigated the effects of chronic stress and ...


Informational Dichotomy Of The Mind; The Role Of Sexual Neuromodulators, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland 2017 Carol Davila University, St. Pantelimon Hospital

Informational Dichotomy Of The Mind; The Role Of Sexual Neuromodulators, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Many basic physiological mechanisms of sexuality were initially studied on animal subjects and conclusions regarding human subjects extrapolated afterward. These ancestral reflexes are assumed to have ascended during human evolution to the cerebral level, where cognition would intermediate (being an environmental operator) both sexual and mental processes. Accordingly, the study of human sexuality suggests an additional/ particular documentation regarding mental existence and its implication, phenomena that are not characteristic of animals.

In a previously published paper we presented ideas regarding the structural dichotomy of the mind and its subsequent implications to sexuality. In this paper we present a general perspective ...


Tau-Directed Immunotherapy For Alzheimer’S Disease, Sulana Kay Schroeder 2017 University of South Florida

Tau-Directed Immunotherapy For Alzheimer’S Disease, Sulana Kay Schroeder

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia, accounting for 50 to 80 percent of dementia cases, and the prevalence of the disease is projected to increase significantly with time. AD is characterized by severe cognitive decline with age, ultimately requiring continued caregiving and eventually death. The pathology of AD is characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, neuron loss, and evidence of inflammation indicated by the presence of reactive microglia and astrocytes. Frontotemporal Lobe Dementia (FTLD) is a rare form of dementia that is related to AD ...


Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez 2017 Wright State University

Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez

Francisco J. Alvarez

Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw ...


Use Of Porous Elastomer Foams To Support Long Term Three Dimensional Neuronal Cultures, Richard M. Cukelj, Elda Hegmann, Ernest Freeman, Jennifer McDonough, Robert Clements 2017 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Use Of Porous Elastomer Foams To Support Long Term Three Dimensional Neuronal Cultures, Richard M. Cukelj, Elda Hegmann, Ernest Freeman, Jennifer Mcdonough, Robert Clements

Undergraduate Research Symposium

In order to effectively study the interactions that occur between neurons found in the brain, spatially and after an extended period of time, it is necessary to have reliable, repeatable studies. This is difficult to accomplish through conventional two-dimensional cell culture techniques, but three dimensional (3D) elastomer foams satisfy these criteria. Here we present a platform to study complex neuronal networks for extended periods in vitro. Elastomer foams were constructed with pore sizes ranging from 150μm to 400μm with 40μm secondary pores which allowed human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) to adhere and interact with the foam and be sustained for long ...


P03. Role Of Prefrontal Cortical Dopamine Transmission In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Opiate Addiction Vulnerability, Jingjing Li 2017 Western University

P03. Role Of Prefrontal Cortical Dopamine Transmission In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Opiate Addiction Vulnerability, Jingjing Li

Western Research Forum

Background

PTSD and opiate addiction share strong co-morbidity and the inability to suppress obtrusive memory recall related to either stressful or rewarding experiences may be an underlying neuropsychological feature triggering PTSD and/or addiction. Our previous research has shown that dopamine (DA) transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) strongly modulates emotional memory formation: activation of the DA D4 receptor (D4R) strongly potentiates the emotional salience of normally non-salient fear memories whereas DA D1 receptor (D1R) activation blocks the behavioural recall of fear memory. Thus, while intra-PFC D4 transmission strongly controls the acquisition of emotional memory, D1 transmission is selectively involved ...


A Mature Macrophage Is A Principal Hiv-1 Cellular Reservoir In Humanized Mice After Treatment With Long Acting Antiretroviral Therapy., Mariluz Araínga, Benson J. Edagwa, R. Lee Mosley, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Santhi Gorantla, Howard Gendelman 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

A Mature Macrophage Is A Principal Hiv-1 Cellular Reservoir In Humanized Mice After Treatment With Long Acting Antiretroviral Therapy., Mariluz Araínga, Benson J. Edagwa, R. Lee Mosley, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Santhi Gorantla, Howard Gendelman

Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience

BACKGROUND: Despite improved clinical outcomes seen following antiretroviral therapy (ART), resting CD4+ T cells continue to harbor latent human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1). However, such cells are not likely the solitary viral reservoir and as such defining where and how others harbor virus is imperative for eradication measures. To such ends, we used HIV-1ADA-infected NOD.Cg-Prkdc (scid) Il2rg (tm1Wjl) /SzJ mice reconstituted with a human immune system to explore two long-acting ART regimens investigating their abilities to affect viral cell infection and latency. At 6 weeks of infection animals were divided into four groups. One received long-acting (LA) cabotegravir ...


Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This is a chapter in a volume, Ethics Dilemmas in Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Practice, edited by Ezra E. H. Griffith, M.D. and to be published by Columbia University Press. The chapter addresses whether the use of new neuroscience techniques, especially non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the data from studies employing them raise new ethical issues for forensic psychiatrists and psychologists. The implicit thesis throughout is that if the legal questions, the limits of the new techniques and the relevance of neuroscience to law are properly understood, no new ethical issues are raised. A major ethical lapse ...


Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, Martha Jean Sonner, Marie C. Walters, David R. Ladle 2017 Wright State University

Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, Martha Jean Sonner, Marie C. Walters, David R. Ladle

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Muscle proprioceptive afferents provide feedback critical for successful execution of motor tasks via specialized mechanoreceptors housed within skeletal muscles: muscle spindles, supplied by group Ia and group II afferents, and Golgi tendon organs, supplied by group Ib afferents. The morphology of these proprioceptors and their associated afferents has been studied extensively in the cat soleus, and to a lesser degree, in the rat; however, quantitative analyses of proprioceptive innervation in the mouse soleus are comparatively limited. The present study employed genetically-encoded fluorescent reporting systems to label and analyze muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and the proprioceptive sensory neuron subpopulations supplying ...


Regulation Of Sleep Plasticity By A Thermo-Sensitive Circuit In Drosophila., Angelique Lamaze, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Robin Fischer, Nicolai Peschel, Kyunghee Koh, James E.C. Jepson 2017 UCL Institute of Neurology

Regulation Of Sleep Plasticity By A Thermo-Sensitive Circuit In Drosophila., Angelique Lamaze, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Robin Fischer, Nicolai Peschel, Kyunghee Koh, James E.C. Jepson

Department of Neuroscience

Sleep is a highly conserved and essential behaviour in many species, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the wild, sensory signalling encoding environmental information must be integrated with sleep drive to ensure that sleep is not initiated during detrimental conditions. However, the molecular and circuit mechanisms by which sleep timing is modulated by the environment are unclear. Here we introduce a novel behavioural paradigm to study this issue. We show that in male fruit flies, onset of the daytime siesta is delayed by ambient temperatures above 29 °C. We term this effect Prolonged Morning Wakefulness (PMW). We show that ...


Analysis Of The Secondary Neurodegenerative Consequences Of Primary Oligodendrocyte Stress Through The Use Of The Novel Obiden Mouse Model, Daniel Zdzislaw Radecki 2017 Wayne State University

Analysis Of The Secondary Neurodegenerative Consequences Of Primary Oligodendrocyte Stress Through The Use Of The Novel Obiden Mouse Model, Daniel Zdzislaw Radecki

Wayne State University Dissertations

The work of this project was to develop, test and characterize a potential novel mouse model of the neurodegenerative disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Historically, MS has been identified as a primary autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). However, treatments based on this view have met with limited success, and in most cases, fail to prevent progression of MS from mild to moderate and severe forms. Original observations regarding axonal and neuronal pathology in the white and gray matter of the CNS were rediscovered in the 1990s. These observations indicated that even in the absence of the immune system ...


Brain Connectivity After Concussion, Armin Iraji 2017 Wayne State University

Brain Connectivity After Concussion, Armin Iraji

Wayne State University Dissertations

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for over one million emergency visits in the United States each year. While most mTBI patients have normal findings in clinical neuroimaging, alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity have frequently been reported. In this study, we investigated the large-scale brain structural and functional connectivity using diffusion MRI and resting-state fMRI data. Data from 40 mTBI patients was acquired at the acute stage (within 24 hrs after injury). 35 patients returned for data acquisition at a follow-up (4-6 weeks after injury). Data was also collected from a cohort of 58 healthy subjects, 36 of ...


Evaluating Stressor Controllability Effects In Female Rats, Isabella Fallon 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Evaluating Stressor Controllability Effects In Female Rats, Isabella Fallon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Women are at a higher risk for developing neuropsychiatric conditions including generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression. Moreover, traumatic life events may provoke disease development to a higher degree in women than in men. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown, however it has been argued that they emerge, in part, from different coping responses to adverse life events. In humans, factors associated with resilience revolve around coping of which actual or perceived behavioral control over stress is a critical element. Work conducted almost entirely with male rats has demonstrated that behavioral control over stress potently modulates the ...


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