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How Concussions Alter Brain Network Properties: Towards Better Diagnoses Of Concussions, Sara Krehbiel, Joanna R. Wares 2018 University of Richmond

How Concussions Alter Brain Network Properties: Towards Better Diagnoses Of Concussions, Sara Krehbiel, Joanna R. Wares

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Coordination Of Inpatient And Outpatient Care For Neurology Patients Undergoing Epilepsy Monitoring, Sara Schrock, Michelle Beane, Kathryn Cope, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks, Brendan Lilley 2018 Maine Medical Center

Coordination Of Inpatient And Outpatient Care For Neurology Patients Undergoing Epilepsy Monitoring, Sara Schrock, Michelle Beane, Kathryn Cope, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks, Brendan Lilley

Operational Excellence

ORGANIZING A SYSTEM TO CONSOLIDATE EPILEPSY REFERRALS TO AN OUTPATIENT NEUROLOGY PRACTICE

An outpatient neurology practice was experiencing delayed or lost referrals for epilepsy monitoring. This delay was leading many patients to suffer unnecessary and unmanaged seizures and, in some cases, frequent trips to the emergency department.

As a result, a team consisting of the neurology practice and neuro-navigators used baseline metrics to demonstrate the current state of the problem and conducted a root cause analysis that outlined several causes. A number of countermeasures were initiated with the goal of decreasing referral misses.

Post the initiation of two KPIs, a ...


Neurohype And The Law: A Cautionary Tale, Stephen J. Morse 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Neurohype And The Law: A Cautionary Tale, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This chapter suggests that for conceptual, empirical, and practical reasons, neuroscience in general and non-invasive brain imaging in particular are not likely to revolutionize the law and our conception of ourselves, but may make modest contributions to legal policy and case adjudication if the legal relevance of the science is properly understood.


Macrophages But Not Astrocytes Harbor Hiv Dna In The Brains Of Hiv-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Allen Ko, Guobin Kang, Julian B. Hattler, Hadiza I. Galadima, Junfeng Zhang, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim 2018 Old Dominion University

Macrophages But Not Astrocytes Harbor Hiv Dna In The Brains Of Hiv-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Allen Ko, Guobin Kang, Julian B. Hattler, Hadiza I. Galadima, Junfeng Zhang, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

The question of whether the human brain is an anatomical site of persistent HIV-1 infection during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical, but remains unanswered. The presence of virus in the brains of HIV patients whose viral load is effectively suppressed would demonstrate not only the potential for CNS to act as an anatomical HIV reservoir, but also the urgent need to understand the factors contributing to persistent HIV behind the blood-brain barrier. Here, we investigated for the first time the presence of cells harboring HIV DNA and RNA in the brains from subjects with undetectable plasma viral load and ...


Resting-State Functional Connectivity In Youth With Gender Dysphoria, Felix L. Garcia 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Resting-State Functional Connectivity In Youth With Gender Dysphoria, Felix L. Garcia

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Current developmental models of gender identity and gender dysphoria (GD) lack sex-specific profiles of brain function that differentiate between typically-developing and cross-gender identified youth, as postulated by models like the unified theory of the origins of sex differences (Arnold, 2009) and the neurobiological theory of the origins of transsexuality (Swaab & Garcia-Falgueras, 2009). Previously, investigators have used brain imaging modalities such as Resting-State functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (R-fMRI) to demonstrate differences in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between typically-developing male and female youth, and between typically-developing and GID-diagnosed youth. In the present pilot study, I used R-fMRI to investigate differences in RSFC between typically-developing and cross-gender identified male and female youth subgroups, with the hypothesis that GID-diagnosed subgroups would demonstrate connectivity patterns in between those of typically-developing males and females. Eleven youth diagnosed with gender identity disorder (four males, ages 9 to 20 years; seven females, ages 12 to 20 years) were matched on age and assigned gender with 11 typically-developing youth. All participants completed written informed consent to undergo the IRB-approved research procedures. R-fMRI were collected while the participants were lying down and resting, with their eyes closed. Primary analyses focused on 14 ...


Map7 Regulates Axon Morphogenesis By Recruiting Kinesin-1 To Microtubules And Modulating Organelle Transport., Stephen R. Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Kristen J. Verhey, Le Ma 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Map7 Regulates Axon Morphogenesis By Recruiting Kinesin-1 To Microtubules And Modulating Organelle Transport., Stephen R. Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Kristen J. Verhey, Le Ma

Department of Neuroscience

Neuronal cell morphogenesis depends on proper regulation of microtubule-based transport, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report our study of MAP7, a unique microtubule-associated protein that interacts with both microtubules and the motor protein kinesin-1. Structure-function analysis in rat embryonic sensory neurons shows that the kinesin-1 interacting domain in MAP7 is required for axon and branch growth but not for branch formation. Also, two unique microtubule binding sites are found in MAP7 that have distinct dissociation kinetics and are both required for branch formation. Furthermore, MAP7 recruits kinesin-1 dynamically to microtubules, leading to alterations in organelle ...


A-Type Kv Channels In Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons: Diversity, Function, And Dysfunction, Benjamin M. Zemel, David M. Ritter, Manuel Covarrubias, Tanziyah Muqeem 2018 Oregon Health and Science University

A-Type Kv Channels In Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons: Diversity, Function, And Dysfunction, Benjamin M. Zemel, David M. Ritter, Manuel Covarrubias, Tanziyah Muqeem

Department of Neuroscience

A-type voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are major regulators of neuronal excitability that have been mainly characterized in the central nervous system. By contrast, there is a paucity of knowledge about the molecular physiology of these Kv channels in the peripheral nervous system, including highly specialized and heterogenous dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Although all A-type Kv channels display pore-forming subunits with similar structural properties and fast inactivation, their voltage-, and time-dependent properties and modulation are significantly different. These differences ultimately determine distinct physiological roles of diverse A-type Kv channels, and how their dysfunction might contribute to neurological disorders. The importance ...


Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy In Diabetes: A Predictor Of Cardiometabolic Events, Aaron I. Vinik, Carolina Casellini, Henri K. Parson, Sheri R. Colberg, Marie-laure Nevoret 2018 Old Dominion University

Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy In Diabetes: A Predictor Of Cardiometabolic Events, Aaron I. Vinik, Carolina Casellini, Henri K. Parson, Sheri R. Colberg, Marie-Laure Nevoret

Human Movement Sciences Faculty Publications

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance manifesting as cardiac autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic population is an important predictor of cardiovascular events. Symptoms and signs of ANS dysfunction, such as resting heart rate elevations, diminished blood pressure responses to standing, and altered time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability in response to deep breathing, standing, and the Valsalva maneuver, should be elicited from all patients with diabetes and prediabetes. With the recognition of the presence of ANS imbalance or for its prevention, a rigorous regime should be implemented with lifestyle modification, physical activity, and cautious use of medications that ...


Different Behavioral Experiences Produce Distinctive Parallel Changes In, And Correlate With, Frontal Cortex And Hippocampal Global Post-Translational Histone Levels., Marissa Sobolewski, Garima Singh, Jay S. Schneider, Deborah A. Cory-Slechta 2018 University of Rochester Medical Center

Different Behavioral Experiences Produce Distinctive Parallel Changes In, And Correlate With, Frontal Cortex And Hippocampal Global Post-Translational Histone Levels., Marissa Sobolewski, Garima Singh, Jay S. Schneider, Deborah A. Cory-Slechta

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

While it is clear that behavioral experience modulates epigenetic profiles, it is less evident how the nature of that experience influences outcomes and whether epigenetic/genetic "biomarkers" could be extracted to classify different types of behavioral experience. To begin to address this question, male and female mice were subjected to either a Fixed Interval (FI) schedule of food reward, or a single episode of forced swim followed by restraint stress, or no explicit behavioral experience after which global expression levels of two activating (H3K9ac and H3K4me3) and two repressive (H3K9me2 and H3k27me3) post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs), were measured in hippocampus ...


Fasudil In Combination With Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (Bmscs) Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Changes Through The Regulation Of The Peripheral Immune System., Jiezhong Yu, Yuqing Yan, Qingfang Gu, Gajendra Kumar, Hongqiang Yu, Yijin Zhao, Chunyun Liu, Ye Gao, Zhi Chai, Jasleen Chumber, Bao-Guo Xiao, Guang-Xian Zhang, Han-Ting Zhang, Yuqiang Jiang, Cun-Gen Ma 2018 Shanxi Datong University; Chinese Academy of Sciences

Fasudil In Combination With Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (Bmscs) Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Changes Through The Regulation Of The Peripheral Immune System., Jiezhong Yu, Yuqing Yan, Qingfang Gu, Gajendra Kumar, Hongqiang Yu, Yijin Zhao, Chunyun Liu, Ye Gao, Zhi Chai, Jasleen Chumber, Bao-Guo Xiao, Guang-Xian Zhang, Han-Ting Zhang, Yuqiang Jiang, Cun-Gen Ma

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease. Its mechanism is still not clear. Majority of research focused on the central nervous system (CNS) changes, while few studies emphasize on peripheral immune system modulation. Our study aimed to investigate the regulation of the peripheral immune system and its relationship to the severity of the disease after treatment in an AD model of APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic (APP/PS1 Tg) mice. APP/PS1 Tg mice (8 months old) were treated with the ROCK-II inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-homo-piperazine (Fasudil) (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections, 25 mg/kg/day), bone marrow stromal cells ...


Testing The Efficacy Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (Tms) In Treating Depression In Patients With Cognitive Impairment, Daniel Robert Schaffer 2018 Old Dominion University

Testing The Efficacy Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (Tms) In Treating Depression In Patients With Cognitive Impairment, Daniel Robert Schaffer

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to (1) examine the efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in treating depression among individuals with cognitive impairment and (2) to examine if TMS is capable of facilitating cognitive improvements independent of mood improvements. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often seen as a pre-clinical stage to dementia, and depressive disorders are highly prevalent among both MCI and dementia. There is a large body of research that has linked depressive disorders as a prodromal symptom of MCI and the later development of dementia. While some researchers debate whether or not this link between depression and ...


Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi 2018 Old Dominion University

Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Stem cells are a cell type present during and following development, which possess self- renewal properties, as well as the ability to differentiate into specific cells. Asymmetrical division is the cellular process that allows stem cells to produce one differentiated and one un-differentiated daughter cell during the same mitotic event. Insights in the molecular mechanisms of such process are minimal, due to the absence of effective methods for its targeted study. Currently, traditional methods of investigation include monolayer cell culture and animal models. The first poses structural limitations to the accurate representation of human tissue and cell structures, while animal ...


Apoe And Alzheimer’S Disease: Neuroimaging Of Metabolic And Cerebrovascular Dysfunction, Jason A. Brandon, Brandon C. Farmer, Holden C. Williams, Lance A. Johnson 2018 University of Kentucky

Apoe And Alzheimer’S Disease: Neuroimaging Of Metabolic And Cerebrovascular Dysfunction, Jason A. Brandon, Brandon C. Farmer, Holden C. Williams, Lance A. Johnson

Physiology Faculty Publications

Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), and is associated with impairments in cerebral metabolism and cerebrovascular function. A substantial body of literature now points to E4 as a driver of multiple impairments seen in AD, including blunted brain insulin signaling, mismanagement of brain cholesterol and fatty acids, reductions in blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and decreased cerebral glucose uptake. Various neuroimaging techniques, in particular positron emission topography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been instrumental in characterizing these metabolic and vascular deficits associated with this important AD risk factor ...


Improving Resident Confidence And Efficiency During Stroke Alerts Through Simulation Training, Megan Margiotta, MD, Danielle Wilhour, MD, Elan Miller, MD, Robin D'Ambrosio, BSN, SCRN, Maria Carissa Pineda, MD, Fred Rincon, MD, Rodney Bell, MD, Diana Tzeng, MD 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Improving Resident Confidence And Efficiency During Stroke Alerts Through Simulation Training, Megan Margiotta, Md, Danielle Wilhour, Md, Elan Miller, Md, Robin D'Ambrosio, Bsn, Scrn, Maria Carissa Pineda, Md, Fred Rincon, Md, Rodney Bell, Md, Diana Tzeng, Md

House Staff Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Posters

Objectives

  • Teach incoming neurology residents how to respond efficiently and appropriately to stroke alerts
  • Improve the confidence level of residents during stroke alerts


Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...


Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, transfer endogenous RNAs between neurons over short and long distances. We have explored EVs for siRNA delivery to brain. (1) We optimized siRNA chemical modifications and siRNA conjugation to lipids for EV-mediated delivery. (2) We developed a GMP-compatible, scalable method to manufacture active EVs in bulk. (3) We characterized lipid and protein content of EVs in detail. (4) We established how protein and lipid composition relates to siRNA delivering activity of EVs, and we reverse engineered natural exosomes (small EVs) into artificial exosomes based on these data.

We established that cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs passively associate ...


Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett 2018 University of Wyoming

Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett

Honors Theses AY 17/18

One out of every five American children lives below the federal poverty line. Considering that poverty is deemed one of the most influential risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, it is critical to understand what effect poverty has on the developing brain and how those brain changes affect a child’s life. Poverty is chiefly defined by having a low socioeconomic status (SES), but a low SES is often accompanied by other influencers, such as nutrition and mental stimulation, termed poverty co-factors. Other poverty co-factors include, but are not limited to, maternal stress and malnutrition, environmental toxins, parental nurturance, and ...


Regional Microglia Are Transcriptionally Distinct But Similarly Exacerbate Neurodegeneration In A Culture Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Eric Wildon Kostuk, Jingli Cai, Lorraine Iacovitti 2018 Farber Institute for Neurosciences, Thomas Jefferson University

Regional Microglia Are Transcriptionally Distinct But Similarly Exacerbate Neurodegeneration In A Culture Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Eric Wildon Kostuk, Jingli Cai, Lorraine Iacovitti

Department of Neuroscience

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) while neighboring ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons are relatively spared. Mechanisms underlying the selective protection of the VTA and susceptibility of the SN are still mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate the importance of balance between astrocytes and microglia in the susceptibility of SN DA neurons to the PD mimetic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP

METHODS: Previously established methods were used to isolate astrocytes and microglia from the cortex (CTX), SN, and VTA, as well as embryonic midbrain DA neurons from ...


Treating Adhd With Suggestion: Neurofeedback And Placebo Therapeutics, Robert T. Thibault, Samuel Vassière, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz 2018 McGill University

Treating Adhd With Suggestion: Neurofeedback And Placebo Therapeutics, Robert T. Thibault, Samuel Vassière, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. Methods: We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. Results: The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD. Conclusion: Non-deceptive suggestion-based treatments, especially those drawing on accessories from neuroscience, may offer a safe complement and potential ...


A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman 2018 University of Pennsylvania

A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i.e. the sunscreen paradigm) to determine if mPFC shows similar predictive value with this technology. Consistent with prior fMRI work ...


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