Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Neurosciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1175 Full-Text Articles 2526 Authors 135218 Downloads 88 Institutions

All Articles in Neurosciences

Faceted Search

1175 full-text articles. Page 1 of 42.

Brainwave Signatures For Detecting Malingered Neurocognitive Deficit (Mncd), Esias K. Bedingar 2016 University of Kentucky

Brainwave Signatures For Detecting Malingered Neurocognitive Deficit (Mncd), Esias K. Bedingar

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Traumatic brain injury is a major public health concern in the United States, affecting up to 1.7 million people each year. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for 80% of these cases. Various tests have been created in order to document brain injury and evaluate cognitive functions. However, neuropsychologists report that up to 40% of individuals undergoing evaluations following mTBI may be malingering deficits. This points to a need for innovative and non-invasive approaches to validating mTBI while identifying malingerers.

The aim of this study was to utilize neuroimaging and behavioral approaches to detect MNCD by comparing the reaction ...


Gradenigo Syndrome: A Rare Complication Of Otitis Media, Paul Brent Ferguson, MD 2016 Marshall University

Gradenigo Syndrome: A Rare Complication Of Otitis Media, Paul Brent Ferguson, Md

Paul Ferguson

Gradenigo syndrome is a very rare complication of otitis media that if left unrecognized and subsequently untreated will result in severe neurologic sequelae. Gradenigo Syndrome clinically represented by the triad of otitis media, ipsilateral, abducens nerve palsy and dysasthesia within the V1 and V2 divisions of the trigeminal nerve branches. We describe a 4 year-old patient who presented with headache, facial pain, diplopia and a recent history of upper respiratory tract symptomatology. Examination revealed an abducens palsy with subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating inflammation in the left petrous apex and along the tracts of the 6th, 7th, and ...


Spinal Cord Injury And Autonomic Dysreflexia- A Case Report, Apurva Bhatt, Brit Moore, Talal Asif, Kristy E. Steigerwalt, Rebecca R. Pauly 2016 University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine

Spinal Cord Injury And Autonomic Dysreflexia- A Case Report, Apurva Bhatt, Brit Moore, Talal Asif, Kristy E. Steigerwalt, Rebecca R. Pauly

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a life threatening condition affecting patients with spinal cord lesions T6 level and above. A 51 year old male with a history of paraplegia due to a C6 spinal cord injury (30 years prior) presented with recurrent debilitating episodic diaphoresis, hypertension, low body temperature, and bradycardia. Previous hospitalizations presumed sepsis from UTI to be the etiology, however on further evaluation his symptoms were consistent with undiagnosed AD. This article describes a unique case presentation and reviews AD in depth, including the etiology, pathophysiology and management.


The Scripps Research Institute Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship, Ezana Assefa 2016 Nova Southeastern University

The Scripps Research Institute Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship, Ezana Assefa

Trick to the Treat of Internships and Research

This program is a 10-week internship designed for undergraduates interested in the scientific field to engage in current research. Students have the option of requesting to work under three mentors, one of which they will be paired. Students will work in the lab with the principal investigator and other members of the lab. Along with working in the lab, students in the program will also attend bi-weekly talks/lectures from researchers, grad students, and professionals at TSRI as well as participating in two presentations and a final poster or oral presentation.


Fumarate Modulates The Immune/Inflammatory Response And Rescues Nerve Cells And Neurological Function After Stroke In Rats., Ruihe Lin, Jingli Cai, Eric W Kostuk, Robert H. Rosenwasswer MD, Lorraine Iacovitti 2016 Thomas Jefferson University, The Joseph and Marie Field Cerebrovascular Research Laboratory, Jefferson, Vickie and Jack Farber Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Neuroscience, Sidney Kimmel Medical College

Fumarate Modulates The Immune/Inflammatory Response And Rescues Nerve Cells And Neurological Function After Stroke In Rats., Ruihe Lin, Jingli Cai, Eric W Kostuk, Robert H. Rosenwasswer Md, Lorraine Iacovitti

Faculty papers Farber Institute for Neurosciences

BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), working via its metabolite monomethylfumarate (MMF), acts as a potent antioxidant and immunomodulator in animal models of neurologic disease and in patients with multiple sclerosis. These properties and their translational potential led us to investigate whether DMF/MMF could also protect at-risk and/or dying neurons in models of ischemic stroke in vitro and in vivo. Although the antioxidant effects have been partially addressed, the benefits of DMF immunomodulation after ischemic stroke still need to be explored.

METHODS: In vitro neuronal culture with oxygen-glucose deprivation and rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion were subjected to DMF ...


Professional Action Sport Athletes’ Experiences With And Attitudes Toward Concussion: A Phenomenological Study, Caroline E. Faure, John M. Fitzpatrick 2016 Idaho State University

Professional Action Sport Athletes’ Experiences With And Attitudes Toward Concussion: A Phenomenological Study, Caroline E. Faure, John M. Fitzpatrick

The Qualitative Report

This study examined the lived experiences and subsequent attitudes of freestyle BMX and motocross athletes relative to suffering concussions. Eleven professional athletes were interviewed using a semi-structured protocol. All cited a significant personal history with concussion and those personal accounts, along with their observations of others who experienced similar head injuries, shaped the athletes’ attitudes towards concussion. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributed to each athlete’s acceptance of concussion risk inherent in their respective sport. Generally, athletes accepted concussion risk as part of their sport, but were largely unfamiliar with what concussion was and what long-term effects could result ...


Assessment Of The Effects Of Mptp And Paraquat On Dopaminergic Neurons And Microglia In The Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta Of C57bl/6 Mice., Richard Jay Smeyne, Charles B. Breckenridge, Melissa Beck, Yun Jiao, Mark T. Butt, Jeffrey C. Wolf, Dan Zadory, Daniel J. Minnema, Nicholas C. Sturgess, Kim Z. Travis, Andrew R. Cook, Lewis L. Smith, Philip A. Botham 2016 Thomas Jefferson University; St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

Assessment Of The Effects Of Mptp And Paraquat On Dopaminergic Neurons And Microglia In The Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta Of C57bl/6 Mice., Richard Jay Smeyne, Charles B. Breckenridge, Melissa Beck, Yun Jiao, Mark T. Butt, Jeffrey C. Wolf, Dan Zadory, Daniel J. Minnema, Nicholas C. Sturgess, Kim Z. Travis, Andrew R. Cook, Lewis L. Smith, Philip A. Botham

Department of Neuroscience

The neurotoxicity of paraquat dichloride (PQ) was assessed in two inbred strains of 9- or 16-week old male C57BL/6 mice housed in two different laboratories and compared to the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). PQ was administered by intraperitoneal injections; either once (20 mg/kg) or twice (10 mg/kg) weekly for 3 weeks, while MPTP-HCl was injected 4 times on a single day (20 mg/kg/dose). Brains were collected 8, 16, 24, 48, 96 or 168 hours after the last PQ treatment, and 48 or 168 hours after MPTP treatment. Dopamine neurons in the substantia ...


Structural Dichotomy Of The Mind; The Role Of Sexual Neuromodulators, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland 2016 Carol Davila University, Department of Surgery and Psychiatry

Structural Dichotomy Of The Mind; The Role Of Sexual Neuromodulators, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The mind (mental function) and sexuality represent two distinct environmental functions, but which are supported within the brain by a common (somatic-autonomic) neurobiological substrate. As a consequence, mental function takes on autonomic characteristics from the sexual-autonomic system (like autonomy, duality), while sexual function takes on features from mental functioning (such as lateralization). In this paper we discuss the lateralized action of two classes of sexual neuromodulators: hormones and pheromones. This process of lateralization is assimilated with the structural dichotomy of the mind.

A relatively similar process but related to informational dichotomy of the mind will be presented in a forthcoming ...


The Substrate Of The Biopsychosocial Influences In The Carcinogenesis Of The Digestive Tract, Georgică C. Târtea, Cristina Florescu, Daniel Pirici, Daniel Caragea, Elena A. Târtea, Cristin C. Vere 2016 Cardiology Resident Doctor, PhD Student Internal Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania

The Substrate Of The Biopsychosocial Influences In The Carcinogenesis Of The Digestive Tract, Georgică C. Târtea, Cristina Florescu, Daniel Pirici, Daniel Caragea, Elena A. Târtea, Cristin C. Vere

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Digestive cancer represents a severe public health problem, being one of the main causes of death. It is considered a multifactorial disease, with hereditary predisposition, environmental factors, and other factors involved in carcinogenesis. Both the evolution and the pathogenesis of digestive neoplasms remain incompletely elucidated. As a multifactorial disease, it can be approached by taking into account the biopsychosocial influences via enteric nervous system. Many peptides and non-peptides having a neurotransmitter role can be found in the enteric nervous system, which can influence the neoplastic process directly or indirectly by affecting some angiogenic, growth, and metastasis factors. However, neurotransmitters can ...


The Postfinasteride Syndrome; An Overview, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei, Florian Popa, Vlad D. Constantin, Adriana Vasilache, Ioana Păunică, Cristian Bălălău, Georgeta P. Păunică, Petrisor Banu, Stana Păunică 2016 Valparaiso University, Department of Psychology

The Postfinasteride Syndrome; An Overview, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei, Florian Popa, Vlad D. Constantin, Adriana Vasilache, Ioana Păunică, Cristian Bălălău, Georgeta P. Păunică, Petrisor Banu, Stana Păunică

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

As a 5-α reductase inhibitor, Finasteride has proven effective in ameliorating two conditions documented to be androgen dependent, namely male androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Therapeutic results are maintained as long as the drug is administered, with treatment cessation generally leading to the return of symptomatology for each condition. In addition, during the therapeutic phase, several adverse effects have been reported, some of which persist long or indefinitely after treatment cessation, known as “post-finasteride syndrome.”

Herein we present and discuss the most common finasteride side effects, along with a psycho-neuroendocrine rationale that could explain the persistence of many adverse ...


Neural Control Of Tongue Movements Across Effort Levels, Megan Rovang, Angela M. Dietsch 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Neural Control Of Tongue Movements Across Effort Levels, Megan Rovang, Angela M. Dietsch

UCARE Research Products

Background

A hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a mismatch between the perceived effort and actual forces exerted during functional activities such as speech. Current evidence supports therapy to help reset this perception of effort, but the neurological underpinnings of such treatments are unclear. This study examined brain activity during tongue movements performed at varying levels of effort to determine (1) which brain areas are involved in each task, and (2) which areas, if any, scale in activation according to effort level. These results, considered with the neurological changes associated with PD, can be used to develop and refine ...


Is Online Motor Control Really Impaired In Parkinson's Disease?, Kate E. Merritt 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Is Online Motor Control Really Impaired In Parkinson's Disease?, Kate E. Merritt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are thought to be selectively impaired in consciously-mediated online automatic motor control, whereas the ability to perform subconscious online adjustments remains intact. This present study evaluates the hypothesis that the previously alleged deficits in online motor control in PD are not due to the consciousness of the correction, but rather are attributable to aspects of the prior experimental designs disproportionately penalizing patients for PD-related bradykinesia. Here, we implemented a modified traditional double-step paradigm to investigate consciously-mediated online motor control in PD, in a manner that would be unconfounded by disease-related bradykinesia. Further, we investigated ...


Closed-State Inactivation Involving An Internal Gate In Kv4.1 Channels Modulates Pore Blockade By Intracellular Quaternary Ammonium Ions., Jeffrey D. Fineberg, Tibor G. Szanto, Gyorgy Panyi, Manuel Covarrubias 2016 Thomas Jefferson University

Closed-State Inactivation Involving An Internal Gate In Kv4.1 Channels Modulates Pore Blockade By Intracellular Quaternary Ammonium Ions., Jeffrey D. Fineberg, Tibor G. Szanto, Gyorgy Panyi, Manuel Covarrubias

Department of Neuroscience

Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel activation depends on interactions between voltage sensors and an intracellular activation gate that controls access to a central pore cavity. Here, we hypothesize that this gate is additionally responsible for closed-state inactivation (CSI) in Kv4.x channels. These Kv channels undergo CSI by a mechanism that is still poorly understood. To test the hypothesis, we deduced the state of the Kv4.1 channel intracellular gate by exploiting the trap-door paradigm of pore blockade by internally applied quaternary ammonium (QA) ions exhibiting slow blocking kinetics and high-affinity for a blocking site. We found that inactivation gating seemingly ...


Mechanical Reliability Of Implantable Polyimide-Based Magnetic Microactuators For Biofouling Removal, Christian G. Figueroa-Espada, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee 2016 University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez

Mechanical Reliability Of Implantable Polyimide-Based Magnetic Microactuators For Biofouling Removal, Christian G. Figueroa-Espada, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hydrocephalus is a neurological disorder that typically requires a long-term implantation of a shunt system to manage its symptoms. These shunt systems are notorious for their extremely high failure rate. More than 40% of all implanted shunt systems fail within the first year of implantation. On average, 85% of all hydrocephalus patients with shunt systems undergo at least two shunt-revision surgeries within 10 years of implantation. A large portion of this high failure rate can be attributed to biofouling-related obstructions and infections. Previously, we developed flexible polyimide-based magnetic microactuators to remove obstructions formed on hydrocephalus shunts. To test the long-term ...


Characterization And Personalization Of Botulinum Toxin Type A Therapy For Upper Limb Tremor In Parkinson Disease And Essential Tremor Patients Using Multi-Sensor Kinematic Technology, Olivia Samotus 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Characterization And Personalization Of Botulinum Toxin Type A Therapy For Upper Limb Tremor In Parkinson Disease And Essential Tremor Patients Using Multi-Sensor Kinematic Technology, Olivia Samotus

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tremor commonly affects the upper extremities in essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson disease (PD) patients where many experience functional disability and ultimately seek therapy. As ET and PD tremor features overlap and clinical assessment is challenging due to its highly complex nature, misdiagnosis is common resulting in unsuitable therapies and prognosis. Current treatment options for ET and PD tremor include pharmacotherapy, focal therapy with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections, and surgical interventions which provide modest relief of tremor. However, such therapies are commonly associated with significant adverse events and lack long-term efficacy and tolerability. Hence lack of standardized, objective ...


Neuroanatomical Maps And Taste Reactivity To Sweet, Umami, And Bitter Taste In The Pbn Of C57bl/6j Mice, Jennifer Marie Saputra 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Neuroanatomical Maps And Taste Reactivity To Sweet, Umami, And Bitter Taste In The Pbn Of C57bl/6j Mice, Jennifer Marie Saputra

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Humans can distinguish at least five different taste qualities, sour, salty, bitter, sweet, and umami (the savory taste of certain amino acids). In neuroscience research, behavioral testing is used to measure the ability of rodents (including inbred mice) to discriminate between the different taste qualities. Taste reactivity and two-bottle preference are behavioral tests that are utilized to investigate different aspects of taste. These tests involve either voluntary or forced consumption of taste stimuli, respectively. Either test can be used to infer the preference and palatability of the stimulus consumed by an animal.

In order to understand the basis of taste ...


Evaluating The Therapeutic Effect Of An Hsp90 Inhibitor In Mouse Models Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Bin Wang 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Evaluating The Therapeutic Effect Of An Hsp90 Inhibitor In Mouse Models Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Bin Wang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The excessive accumulation of amyloid peptides (Aβ) represents one major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is most notably characterized by synaptic dysfunction. Strategies targeting heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition have been widely investigated in the treatment of cancer for over two decades. Its application in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases however, has emerged more recently in the last decade. The role of the Hsp90 chaperone in clearing misfolded protein aggregates has been well established (in vitro only), but its function in synaptic activity remains elusive.

In our study, we utilized a widely used Hsp90 inhibitor, 17-AAG ...


Repeated Zolpidem Treatment Effects On Sedative Tolerance, Withdrawal, Mrna Levels, And Protein Expression, Brittany T. Wright 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Repeated Zolpidem Treatment Effects On Sedative Tolerance, Withdrawal, Mrna Levels, And Protein Expression, Brittany T. Wright

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Zolpidem and benzodiazepines (BZs) potentiate the inhibitory action of gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) by allosterically binding to GABAA receptors (GABAAR). Prolonged use of GABAAR positive allosteric modulators (PAM) can lead to behavioral tolerance, the diminished response to the same drug dose with repeated use, and withdrawal, a group of symptoms that occur due to abrupt end of drug treatment. Zolpidem is a short-acting, non-BZ GABAAR PAM whose potential for tolerance and withdrawal is unclear. Zolpidem demonstrates sedative efficacy similar to BZs and has become a main treatment of insomnia in lieu of BZs. Zolpidem replaced BZs due to lower incidences of ...


Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- And Palatability-Induced Binge Eating, Matthew M. Hurley, Brian Maunze, Megan E. Block, Michael J. Reilly, Eugene Kim, Yao Chen, Yan Li, David A. Baker, Qing-Song Liu, Sujean Choi 2016 Marquette University

Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- And Palatability-Induced Binge Eating, Matthew M. Hurley, Brian Maunze, Megan E. Block, Michael J. Reilly, Eugene Kim, Yao Chen, Yan Li, David A. Baker, Qing-Song Liu, Sujean Choi

Biomedical Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding ...


The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch 2016 Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET)

The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

The Expert Meeting on alternative methods for Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) potency testing was held at the BfR as the result of a decree from the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), after it was informed by German state authorities about an increase in animal numbers being used in the LD50 potency test in mice for the purposes of BoNT potency testing. Ethical concerns have been raised in both Europe and the United States about the animal suffering involved in this type of testing, especially in the context of BoNT’s aesthetic applications. There had been increased ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress