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The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch 2016 Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET)

The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

The Expert Meeting on alternative methods for Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) potency testing was held at the BfR as the result of a decree from the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), after it was informed by German state authorities about an increase in animal numbers being used in the LD50 potency test in mice for the purposes of BoNT potency testing. Ethical concerns have been raised in both Europe and the United States about the animal suffering involved in this type of testing, especially in the context of BoNT’s aesthetic applications. There had been increased ...


N-Acetyl Cysteine May Support Dopamine Neurons In Parkinson's Disease: Preliminary Clinical And Cell Line Data., Daniel A. Monti, George Zabrecky, Daniel Kremens, Tsao-Wei Liang, Nancy A. Wintering, Jingli Cai, Xiatao Wei, Anthony J. Bazzan, Li Zhong, Brendan Bowen, Charles Intenzo, Lorraine Iacovitti, Andrew B. Newberg 2016 Thomas Jefferson University

N-Acetyl Cysteine May Support Dopamine Neurons In Parkinson's Disease: Preliminary Clinical And Cell Line Data., Daniel A. Monti, George Zabrecky, Daniel Kremens, Tsao-Wei Liang, Nancy A. Wintering, Jingli Cai, Xiatao Wei, Anthony J. Bazzan, Li Zhong, Brendan Bowen, Charles Intenzo, Lorraine Iacovitti, Andrew B. Newberg

Jefferson Myrna Brind Center of Integration Medicine Faculty Papers

BACKGOUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the biological and clinical effects of n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in Parkinson's disease (PD).

METHODS: The overarching goal of this pilot study was to generate additional data about potentially protective properties of NAC in PD, using an in vitro and in vivo approach. In preparation for the clinical study we performed a cell tissue culture study with human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons that were treated with rotenone as a model for PD. The primary outcome in the cell tissue cultures was the number of cells that survived ...


Traumatic Brain Injury Increases Levels Of Mir-21 In Extracellular Vesicles: Implications For Neuroinflammation, Emily B. Harrison, Colleen G. Hochfelder, Benjamin G. Lamberty, Brittney M. Meays, Brenda M. Morsey, Matthew L. Kelso, Howard S. Fox, Sowmya V. Yelamanchili 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Traumatic Brain Injury Increases Levels Of Mir-21 In Extracellular Vesicles: Implications For Neuroinflammation, Emily B. Harrison, Colleen G. Hochfelder, Benjamin G. Lamberty, Brittney M. Meays, Brenda M. Morsey, Matthew L. Kelso, Howard S. Fox, Sowmya V. Yelamanchili

Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience

No abstract provided.


Actions Speak Louder Than Images: The Use Of Neuroscientific Evidence In Criminal Cases, Stephen J. Morse 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Actions Speak Louder Than Images: The Use Of Neuroscientific Evidence In Criminal Cases, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This invited commentary for Journal of Law & the Biosciences considers four empirical studies previously published in the journal of the reception of neuroscientific evidence in criminal cases in the United States, Canada, England and Wales, and the Netherlands. There are conceded methodological problems with all, but the data are nonetheless instructive and suggestive. The thesis of the comment is that the courts are committing the same errors that have bedeviled the reception of psychiatric and psychological evidence. There is insufficient caution about the state of the science, and more importantly, there is insufficient understanding of the relevance of the neuroscientific ...


1st Place: The Effectiveness Of Yoga Therapy On An Adult, Post-Stroke Population: A Systematic Review (Final Research Paper), Baylor E. Hogan 2016 Chapman University

1st Place: The Effectiveness Of Yoga Therapy On An Adult, Post-Stroke Population: A Systematic Review (Final Research Paper), Baylor E. Hogan

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to (1) give a brief overview of stroke pathophysiology (2) outline yoga as a therapeutic strategy (3) present the current research on yoga rehabilitation for stroke (4) discuss the efficacy of yoga for chronic stroke.

Methods: Relevant terms were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Academic OneFile, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar electronic databases. Studies were excluded if they contained pediatric stroke, non-stroke neurological diseases, or subjects with comorbidities. Statistically significant data was extracted for the primary measures of nine trials.

Results: Four studies measured statistically significant outcomes (p<0.05). These included improvements in balance, independence, endurance, trait anxiety, fear of falling, self-efficacy, pain, strength, range of motion (ROM), activity, participation, and quality of life (QoL). Discussion: Lack of statistical significance in post-stroke depression (PSD) measures may be due to inadequate intervention length or a psychosocial cause of depression. Improvements in balance, flexibility, and strength from yoga participation permitted progress in disability and functionality. Finally, overall health-related quality of life (HRQL) is affected by the severity of mental disorders and physical disability. Yoga can have a positive effect in both domains and therefore, may improve HRQL.

Conclusion: Preliminary evidence suggests the ...


Targeting Tau Degradation By Small Molecule Inhibitors For Treatment Of Tauopathies, Mackenzie Martin 2016 University of South Florida

Targeting Tau Degradation By Small Molecule Inhibitors For Treatment Of Tauopathies, Mackenzie Martin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases that affect millions of people around the world. Tauopathies include more than 20 neurodegenerative diseases. Some of the most common tauopathies are Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), Pick’s disease, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), agyrophillic grain disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These diseases can cause significant memory loss, behavioral changes, motor deficits and speech impairments. Tauopathies stem from accumulation of the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT). Tau stabilizes microtubules and helps with axonal transport. In a disease state tau becomes hyperphosphorylated and truncated leading to its aggregation ...


Carotid Ultrasound Is Not Helpful In Simple Syncope, Nicholus Yee M.D., Shilin Patel M.D., Raymond Gong 2016 Oakwood Annapolis Hospital Family Medicine Residency

Carotid Ultrasound Is Not Helpful In Simple Syncope, Nicholus Yee M.D., Shilin Patel M.D., Raymond Gong

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Scott JW, Schwartz AL, Gates JD, Gerhard-Herman M, Havens JM. Choosing wisely for syncope: low-value carotid ultrasound use. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Aug 13;3(4). pii: e001063. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001063


Reverse Engineering A Kinetic Model Of A Dopaminergic Neuron To Apoptosis, Johnathan Morris 2016 Rowan University

Reverse Engineering A Kinetic Model Of A Dopaminergic Neuron To Apoptosis, Johnathan Morris

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church 2016 Trinity College

An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church

Senior Theses and Projects

A growing body of research suggests that dopaminergic cell death seen in Parkinson’s disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress, with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species, is the hallmark biochemical product of mitochondrial dysfunction. The ketogenic diet has been found to enhance mitochondrial energy production, protect against reactive oxygen species-generated cell death, and increase adenosine, a purine that modulates dopamine activity. The current study evaluates the effects of a long-term (5-month) ketogenic diet on behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical measures in PINK1-KO rats, a new animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Both wild-type and PINK1-KO animals fed a ...


Focusing On Selection For Fixation, John K. Tsotsos, Calden Wloka, Yulia Kotseruba 2016 York University

Focusing On Selection For Fixation, John K. Tsotsos, Calden Wloka, Yulia Kotseruba

MODVIS Workshop

Building on our presentation at MODVIS 2015, we continue in our quest to discover a functional, computational, explanation of the relationship among visual attention, interpretation of visual stimuli, and eye movements, and how these produce visual behavior. Here, we focus on one component, how selection is accomplished for the next fixation. The popularity of saliency map models drives the inference that this is solved; we suggested otherwise at MODVIS 2015. Here, we provide additional empirical and theoretical arguments. We then develop arguments that a cluster of complementary, conspicuity representations drive selection, modulated by task goals and history, leading to a ...


Metabolic Drift In The Aging Brain., Julijana Ivanisevic, Kelly L. Stauch, Michael Petrascheck, H. Paul Benton, Adrian A. Epstein, Mingliang Fang, Santhi Gorantla, Minerva Tran, Linh Hoang, Michael E. Kurczy, Michael D. Boska, Howard Gendelman, Howard S. Fox, Gary Siuzdak 2016 University of Lausanne

Metabolic Drift In The Aging Brain., Julijana Ivanisevic, Kelly L. Stauch, Michael Petrascheck, H. Paul Benton, Adrian A. Epstein, Mingliang Fang, Santhi Gorantla, Minerva Tran, Linh Hoang, Michael E. Kurczy, Michael D. Boska, Howard Gendelman, Howard S. Fox, Gary Siuzdak

Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience

Brain function is highly dependent upon controlled energy metabolism whose loss heralds cognitive impairments. This is particularly notable in the aged individuals and in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, how metabolic homeostasis is disrupted in the aging brain is still poorly understood. Here we performed global, metabolomic and proteomic analyses across different anatomical regions of mouse brain at different stages of its adult lifespan. Interestingly, while severe proteomic imbalance was absent, global-untargeted metabolomics revealed an energymetabolic drift or significant imbalance in core metabolite levels in aged mouse brains. Metabolic imbalance was characterized by compromised cellular energy status (NAD decline, increased AMP ...


Leukemia Inhibitory Factor As A Neuroprotective Agent Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia, Stephanie Davis 2016 University of South Florida

Leukemia Inhibitory Factor As A Neuroprotective Agent Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia, Stephanie Davis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous publications from this laboratory demonstrated that administration of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) (125 µg/kg) to young, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 6, 24, and 48 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) reduced infract volume, improved sensimotor skills, and alleviated damage to white matter at 72 h after the injury. In vitro studies using cultured oligodendrocytes (OLs) showed that LIF (200 ng/ml) also protects against 24 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation through activation of Akt signaling and upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin IV and metallothionein III. Other groups have demonstrated that LIF reduces neurodegeneration in animal models of ...


Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Associated Visual System Dysfunction: Investigating Histopathology, Functional Correlates, And A Novel Therapeutic Immune Modulator, Natalie M. Guley 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury With Associated Visual System Dysfunction: Investigating Histopathology, Functional Correlates, And A Novel Therapeutic Immune Modulator, Natalie M. Guley

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Injuries associated with moderate to severe TBI can be profound, and have historically overshadowed the significant impact mild TBI (mTBI) can have on the lives of affected individuals. Mild TBI can manifest in a number of different ways, but one of the most significant and often debilitating is its impact on the visual system. In order to further investigate the underlying pathology of mTBI and test potential therapeutics, we developed a mouse model of mTBI induced by blast overpressure. In this model, a 50-60 psi blast ...


Gradenigo Syndrome: A Rare Complication Of Otitis Media, Paul Brent Ferguson, MD 2016 Marshall University

Gradenigo Syndrome: A Rare Complication Of Otitis Media, Paul Brent Ferguson, Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Gradenigo syndrome is a very rare complication of otitis media that if left unrecognized and subsequently untreated will result in severe neurologic sequelae. Gradenigo Syndrome clinically represented by the triad of otitis media, ipsilateral, abducens nerve palsy and dysasthesia within the V1 and V2 divisions of the trigeminal nerve branches. We describe a 4 year-old patient who presented with headache, facial pain, diplopia and a recent history of upper respiratory tract symptomatology. Examination revealed an abducens palsy with subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating inflammation in the left petrous apex and along the tracts of the 6th, 7th, and ...


Law And The Sciences Of The Brain/Mind, Stephen J. Morse 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Law And The Sciences Of The Brain/Mind, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter is a submission to the Oxford Handbook of Law and the Regulation of Technology edited by Roger Brownsword. It considers whether the new sciences of the brain/mind, especially neuroscience and behavioral genetics, are likely to transform the law’s traditional concepts of the person, agency and responsibility. The chapter begins with a brief speculation about why so many people think these sciences will transform the law. After reviewing the law’s concepts, misguided challenges to them, and the achievements of the new sciences, the chapter confronts the claim that these sciences prove that we are really not ...


1st Place: The Effectiveness Of Yoga Therapy On An Adult, Post-Stroke Population: A Systematic Review (Contest Entry), Baylor E. Hogan 2016 Chapman University

1st Place: The Effectiveness Of Yoga Therapy On An Adult, Post-Stroke Population: A Systematic Review (Contest Entry), Baylor E. Hogan

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

This is Baylor Hogan's submission for the 2016 Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize, which won first place. She wrote about the effects of yoga therapy on the physical and mental wellbeing of stroke patients. You can read the final essay that came out of her research here.

Baylor is a senior at Chapman University, majoring in Kinesiology. Her faculty mentor is Dr. Elizabeth DeBaets.


Gene Expression Profiling In An Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model, Matthew R. Dalton 2016 Liberty University

Gene Expression Profiling In An Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model, Matthew R. Dalton

Senior Honors Theses

Explaining precisely how Alzheimer’s disease (AD)—the world’s most common form of dementia—materializes in the human brain has proven to be one of the most elusive ends in modern medicine. Progressive memory loss, neurodegeneration, and the presence of abnormal protein aggregates of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) characterize this disease. Genome sequencing provides researchers with the ability to better identify disease-related changes in gene expression, some of which may play a role in the initiation and progression toward the AD-like state. Intimate interactions between tissues have been observed in many diseases, particularly between the brain and ...


Exploring Oculomotor Trends In Collegiate Athletes, Brett Whorley, Julie A. Honaker 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Exploring Oculomotor Trends In Collegiate Athletes, Brett Whorley, Julie A. Honaker

UCARE Research Products

Collaborative efforts to improve athlete safety without significantly hindering the rules of the games aim to develop a novel system to better measure and diagnose concussions. Provided that common signs of concussions include blurred vision, distant gaze, and dizziness, the Dizziness and Balance Disorders Lab at UNL believes that the simple oculomotor exam studied in this project may be applied to this procedure. Within the broader goal to better understand the causes, signs, symptoms, and prognosis of concussions, researchers desired to further investigate the results of this oculomotor test. The aim was to identify and interpret correlations between collegiate athlete ...


An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church 2016 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church

Masters Theses

A growing body of research suggests that dopaminergic cell death seen in Parkinson’s disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress, with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species, is the hallmark biochemical product of mitochondrial dysfunction. The ketogenic diet has been found to enhance mitochondrial energy production, protect against reactive oxygen species-generated cell death, and increase adenosine, a purine that modulates dopamine activity. The current study evaluates the effects of a long-term (5-month) ketogenic diet on behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical measures in PINK1-KO rats, a new animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Both wild-type and PINK1-KO animals fed a ...


An In Vivo Study Of The Effects Of Perinatal Caffeine Exposure On Synaptic Efficacy In The Hippocampus Of Freely Moving Adult Rats, Jee Eun Park 2016 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

An In Vivo Study Of The Effects Of Perinatal Caffeine Exposure On Synaptic Efficacy In The Hippocampus Of Freely Moving Adult Rats, Jee Eun Park

Senior Theses and Projects

The synapse from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus has been widely used successfully to demonstrate long-term potentiation, a cellular model underlying learning and memory. Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive stimulants in the world. Caffeine consumption increases in alertness, improvements in motor skills, and neurological functions, and these effects have promoted its use throughout history. Although the many short term cognitive benefits of caffeine intake are well understood, the long term effects of caffeine exposure have been widely disputed. Despite this, it is estimated that over 80% of women continue to consume caffeine throughout pregnancy ...


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