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Motor Cortical Excitability And Pre-Supplementary Motor Area Neurochemistry In Healthy Adults With Substantia Nigra Hyperechogenicity, Gabrielle Todd, Caroline D. Rae, Janet L. Taylor, Nigel C. Rogasch, Jane E. Butler, Michael Hayes, Robert A. Wilcox, Simon C. Gandevia, Karl Aoun, Adrian Esterman, Simon J. G. Lewis, Julie M. Hall, Elie Matar, Jana Godau, Daniela Berg, Christian Plewnia, Anna-Katharina von Thaler, Clarence Chiang, Kay L. Double 2023 Edith Cowan University

Motor Cortical Excitability And Pre-Supplementary Motor Area Neurochemistry In Healthy Adults With Substantia Nigra Hyperechogenicity, Gabrielle Todd, Caroline D. Rae, Janet L. Taylor, Nigel C. Rogasch, Jane E. Butler, Michael Hayes, Robert A. Wilcox, Simon C. Gandevia, Karl Aoun, Adrian Esterman, Simon J. G. Lewis, Julie M. Hall, Elie Matar, Jana Godau, Daniela Berg, Christian Plewnia, Anna-Katharina Von Thaler, Clarence Chiang, Kay L. Double

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity, viewed with transcranial ultrasound, is a risk marker for Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that SN hyperechogenicity in healthy adults aged 50 – 70 years is associated with reduced short-interval intracortical inhibition in primary motor cortex, and that the reduced intracortical inhibition is associated with neurochemical markers of activity in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). Short-interval intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation in primary motor cortex was assessed with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation in 23 healthy adults with normal (n = 14; 61 ± 7 yrs) or abnormally enlarged (hyperechogenic; n = 9; 60 ± 6 yrs) area …


Empowering Nurses To Recognize Post-Stroke Depression In The African American Community, Deidra Frisbie, Robin Simon 2022 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Empowering Nurses To Recognize Post-Stroke Depression In The African American Community, Deidra Frisbie, Robin Simon

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

African Americans (AA) have the highest prevalence of stroke and death compared to other racial groups in the United States. Post-stroke depression (PSD) affects approximately 1/3 of all stroke patients and is underdiagnosed in the African American community.

Aim: By using a mHealth mobile app and a Psychiatry provider list at discharge, PSD can be identified, and interventions initiated, thus decreasing the sequela of PSD in AA.

Methods: Nurses were provided education on PSD, expressions of depression in African-Americans, cultural humility, implicit bias, and the importance of the nurse's role in developing a therapeutic relationship.

Results: Quantitative analysis revealed the …


The Bidirectional Relationship Between The Circadian Clock And Alzheimer’S Disease, Patrick Sheehan 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

The Bidirectional Relationship Between The Circadian Clock And Alzheimer’S Disease, Patrick Sheehan

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The circadian clock and inflammation have a well-described bidirectional relationship in the peripheral immune system: the circadian clock regulates inflammatory responses, but inflammation also impacts oscillatory gene transcription controlled by the clock. The purpose of this thesis work is to understand if manipulation of the circadian clock can impact Alzheimer’s disease pathology, and if pathology itself can alter the circadian clock and its outputs. Here, I show that astrocyte-specific disruption of the circadian clock via deletion of the clock gene Bmal1 surprisingly decreased intra-neuronal protein pathologies. Further investigation found that deletion of the circadian clock resulted in a transcriptomic profile …


Sik3 & Wnk Signals Through Fray To Regulate Glial K+ Buffering And Seizure Susceptibility In Drosophila Models Of Hyperexcitability, Lorenzo Laronn Lones 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Sik3 & Wnk Signals Through Fray To Regulate Glial K+ Buffering And Seizure Susceptibility In Drosophila Models Of Hyperexcitability, Lorenzo Laronn Lones

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

K+ homeostasis is important for maintaining healthy, physiological levels of neuronal activity. Glial cells play a central role in maintaining homeostatic ion gradients. In previous work from our lab, we unravel a glial K+ buffering program that is centered on a key kinase, salt-inducible kinase 3 (SIK3). SIK3-HDAC4 signaling in glial regulates the transcription of channels and transporters involved in water and ion transport. Defects in this pathway lead to peripheral nerve edema, neuronal hyperactivity, and seizure sensitivity. In an hyperexcitability mutant, eag Shaker, we show this pathway is downregulated and genetic activation suppresses seizure behavior. In this thesis, I …


Extensive Behavioral Phenotyping Of Williams Syndrome Locus Relevant Mouse Models To Assess Contributions Of Oxytocin And Gtf2ird1, Kayla Rose Nygaard 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Extensive Behavioral Phenotyping Of Williams Syndrome Locus Relevant Mouse Models To Assess Contributions Of Oxytocin And Gtf2ird1, Kayla Rose Nygaard

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Williams Syndrome Critical Region (WSCR) at chromosome 7q11.23 provides a unique opportunity to untangle the relationship between genotype and phenotype in complex behaviors, from fear and anxiety to sociability and sensorimotor processing. Copy number variations (CNVs) in this region result in two syndromes, Williams Syndrome (WS) and Duplication 7q11.23 Syndrome (Dup7), which display phenotypes that may align, indicating a common disruption of a system, or diverge, reflecting an underlying gene dosage-dependent effect. While case studies of atypical deletions resulting in WS have implicated telomeric genes Gtf2ird1 and Gtf2i in the cognitive and behavioral profiles of WS, proving causation requires …


Nursing Considerations For Post-Traumatic Amnesia After A Traumatic Brain Injury, Hannah Grant 2022 Liberty University

Nursing Considerations For Post-Traumatic Amnesia After A Traumatic Brain Injury, Hannah Grant

Senior Honors Theses

A period known as post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) often follows a traumatic brain injury (TBI). PTA is characterized by anterograde and retrograde amnesia, confusion, disorientation, and agitation. The duration and severity of PTA is a key indicator of the long-term prognosis after a TBI, so proper assessment and nursing care of a PTA patient is crucial. TBIs range from mild to severe, but primarily affect the fronto-temporal lobes. In PTA, both neural lesions and white matter damage within the parahippocampal region can cause PTA. A nurse must perform a thorough assessment of a TBI patient, but, since PTA is a key …


Data-Driven Neuroanatomical Subtypes In Various Stages Of Schizophrenia: Linking Cortical Thickness, Glutamate, And Language Functioning, Liangbing Liang 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Data-Driven Neuroanatomical Subtypes In Various Stages Of Schizophrenia: Linking Cortical Thickness, Glutamate, And Language Functioning, Liangbing Liang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The considerable variation in the spatial distribution of cortical thickness changes has been used to parse heterogeneity in schizophrenia. We aimed to recover a ‘cortical impoverishment’ subgroup with widespread cortical thinning. We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to cortical thickness data of three datasets in different stages of psychosis and studied the cognitive, functional, neurochemical, language and symptom profiles of the observed subgroups. Our consensus-based clustering procedure consistently produced a subgroup characterized by significantly lower cortical thickness. This ‘cortical impoverishment’ subgroup was associated with a higher symptom burden in a clinically stable sample and higher glutamate levels with language impairments in …


Sex Differences In The Disease Progression Of Ftd Vs Ad, Abigail Mitchell, Danielle Frances, Chase Metzger 2022 Belmont University

Sex Differences In The Disease Progression Of Ftd Vs Ad, Abigail Mitchell, Danielle Frances, Chase Metzger

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

Abigail Mitchell, Danielle Frances, Chase Metzger

Sex Differences in the Disease Progression of FTD vs AD.

Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases are on the rise in aging populations due to the upper tier of the population getting larger in that age group (Zheng & Chen, 2022). Knowing this, there is great benefit in more accurate and early diagnosis of conditions like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Particularly, it is important to understand which variables may contribute to differences in disease burden and progression of associated sequalae, with one of those variables being biological sex. The current study investigated sex differences …


Facilitation–Inhibition Control Of Motor Neuronal Persistent Inward Currents In Young And Older Adults, Lucas B. R. Orssatto, Gabriel L. Fernandes, Anthony J. Blazevich, Gabriel S. Trajano 2022 Edith Cowan University

Facilitation–Inhibition Control Of Motor Neuronal Persistent Inward Currents In Young And Older Adults, Lucas B. R. Orssatto, Gabriel L. Fernandes, Anthony J. Blazevich, Gabriel S. Trajano

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

A well-coordinated facilitation–inhibition control of motor neuronal persistent inward currents (PICs) via diffuse neuromodulation and local inhibition is essential to ensure motor units discharge at required times and frequencies. Present best estimates indicate that PICs are reduced in older adults; however, it is not yet known whether PIC facilitation–inhibition control is also altered with ageing. We investigated the responses of PICs to (i) a remote handgrip contraction, which is believed to diffusely increase serotonergic input onto motor neurones, and (ii) tendon vibration of the antagonist muscle, which elicits reciprocal inhibition, in young and older adults. High-density surface electromyograms were collected …


Uncovering The Biological Basis Of Control Energy: Structural And Metabolic Correlates Of Energy Inefficiency In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Xiaosong He, Lorenzo Caciagli, Linden Parkes, Jennifer Stiso, Teresa M. Karrer, Jason Z. Kim, Zhixin Lu, Tommaso Menara, Fabio Pasqualetti, Michael R. Sperling, Joseph I. Tracy, Dani S. Bassett 2022 University of Science and Technology of China

Uncovering The Biological Basis Of Control Energy: Structural And Metabolic Correlates Of Energy Inefficiency In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Xiaosong He, Lorenzo Caciagli, Linden Parkes, Jennifer Stiso, Teresa M. Karrer, Jason Z. Kim, Zhixin Lu, Tommaso Menara, Fabio Pasqualetti, Michael R. Sperling, Joseph I. Tracy, Dani S. Bassett

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Network control theory is increasingly used to profile the brain's energy landscape via simulations of neural dynamics. This approach estimates the control energy required to simulate the activation of brain circuits based on structural connectome measured using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, thereby quantifying those circuits' energetic efficiency. The biological basis of control energy, however, remains unknown, hampering its further application. To fill this gap, investigating temporal lobe epilepsy as a lesion model, we show that patients require higher control energy to activate the limbic network than healthy volunteers, especially ipsilateral to the seizure focus. The energetic imbalance between ipsilateral and …


Living With Brain Cancer: From Researcher To Patient, Stephen P. Chelko, Daniel L. Fay Ph.D. 2022 Florida State University College of Medicine

Living With Brain Cancer: From Researcher To Patient, Stephen P. Chelko, Daniel L. Fay Ph.D.

Patient Experience Journal

As an academic researcher, my work-life revolves around testing the efficaciousness of pharmaceutical drugs on the prevention of cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death in animal models of heart disease. I never thought I would go from someone studying a life-threatening disease to a patient living with one in twenty-four hours. Yet, that transformation occurred October 8, 2019. I was just appointed to Assistant Professor at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), yet after sitting for my professional headshot I had a grand mal seizure. I cannot recall this event, but I bit the tip of my tongue …


Possibilities Of Using Neuromarketing Tools In The Hospitality Industry, Serdar Bulbul 2022 Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University

Possibilities Of Using Neuromarketing Tools In The Hospitality Industry, Serdar Bulbul

University of South Florida (USF) M3 Publishing

Usage of neurosciences in social sciences has emerged new perspectives and methods for marketing and tourism marketing. Neuro-marketing and Neuro-tourism are some of those concepts. In the hospitality industry, marketing is in a complex state because the decision-making processes of the guests are unpredictable. For this reason, hotel managements are unable to satisfy guest’s requests and demands with traditional methods. Therefore, Neuro-marketing has importance because this new way of marketing has a high chance to replace currently used methods. Usage of Neuro-marketing in the hospitality industry could satisfy the guest requests while generating new marketing perspectives on hotel management. This …


Transcriptional Profiles In Olfactory Pathway-Associated Brain Regions Of African Green Monkeys: Associations With Age And Alzheimer’S Disease Neuropathology, Jacob D Negrey, Dorothy L Dobbins, Timothy D Howard, Karin E Borgmann-Winter, C G Hahn, Sergey Kalinin, Douglas L Feinstein, Suzanne Craft, Carol A Shively, Thomas C Register 2022 Wake Forest School of Medicine

Transcriptional Profiles In Olfactory Pathway-Associated Brain Regions Of African Green Monkeys: Associations With Age And Alzheimer’S Disease Neuropathology, Jacob D Negrey, Dorothy L Dobbins, Timothy D Howard, Karin E Borgmann-Winter, C G Hahn, Sergey Kalinin, Douglas L Feinstein, Suzanne Craft, Carol A Shively, Thomas C Register

Department of Neuroscience Faculty Papers

Introduction: Olfactory impairment in older individuals is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Characterization of age versus neuropathology-associated changes in the brain olfactory pathway may elucidate processes underlying early AD pathogenesis. Here, we report age versus AD neuropathology-associated differential transcription in four brain regions in the olfactory pathway of 10 female African green monkeys (vervet, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), a well-described model of early AD-like neuropathology.

Methods: Transcriptional profiles were determined by microarray in the olfactory bulb (OB), piriform cortex (PC), temporal lobe white matter (WM), and inferior temporal cortex (ITC). Amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque load in …


Motoneuron Excitability Dysfunction In Als: Pseudo-Mystery Or Authentic Conundrum?, Sherif M. Elbasiouny 2022 Wright State University - Main Campus

Motoneuron Excitability Dysfunction In Als: Pseudo-Mystery Or Authentic Conundrum?, Sherif M. Elbasiouny

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), abnormalities in motoneuronal excitability are seen in early pathogenesis and throughout disease progression. Fully understanding motoneuron excitability dysfunction may lead to more effective treatments. Yet decades of research have not produced consensus on the nature, role or underlying mechanisms of motoneuron excitability dysfunction in ALS. For example, contrary to Ca excitotoxicity theory, predictions of motoneuronal hyper-excitability, normal and hypo-excitability have also been seen at various disease stages and in multiple ALS lines. Accordingly, motoneuron excitability dysfunction in ALS is a disputed topic in the field. Specifically, the form (hyper, hypo or unchanged) and what role …


Does Integrated Information Theory Make Testable Predictions About The Role Of Silent Neurons In Consciousness?, Gary Bartlett 2022 Central Washington University

Does Integrated Information Theory Make Testable Predictions About The Role Of Silent Neurons In Consciousness?, Gary Bartlett

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of Arts and Humanities

Tononi et al. claim that their integrated information theory of consciousness makes testable predictions. This article discusses two of the more startling predictions, which follow from the theory’s claim that conscious experiences are generated by inactive as well as active neurons. The first prediction is that a subject’s conscious experience at a time can be affected by the disabling of neurons that were already inactive at that time. The second is that even if a subject’s entire brain is “silent,” meaning that all of its neurons are inactive (but not disabled), the subject can still have a conscious experience. …


Retinal Degeneration In Mice Devoid Of Membrane-Type Frizzled-Related Proteinor Adiponectin Receptor 1 Results In Selective Fatty Acid Synthesis Impairments, Alise J. Aucoin, Marie-Audrey Kautzmann Guerin, William Gordon, Eric Prestenburg, Jeff Ji, Rasangi Perera, Nicolas Bazan 2022 LSU Health Sciences Center- New Orleans

Retinal Degeneration In Mice Devoid Of Membrane-Type Frizzled-Related Proteinor Adiponectin Receptor 1 Results In Selective Fatty Acid Synthesis Impairments, Alise J. Aucoin, Marie-Audrey Kautzmann Guerin, William Gordon, Eric Prestenburg, Jeff Ji, Rasangi Perera, Nicolas Bazan

Medical Research Day

Abnormal lipid metabolism is the derivation of multiple retinal degenerative and blinding diseases. The membrane-type frizzled-related protein (MFRP), and adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) were shown to be vital to the maintenance of a healthy retinal lipidome. The two mice models of retinal degenerations Mfrprd6 and Adipor1 -/- resulted in a reduction of phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6) and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs). In a pathway involving the ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6), the fatty acid elongase-4 (ELOVL4) elongates the fatty acid 28:6 into VLC-PUFAs, which are precursors to potent neuroprotective …


Chronic Stress May Disrupt Covariant Fluctuations Of Vitamin D And Cortisol Plasma Levels And Placentome Formation In Pregnant Sheep During The Last Trimester: A Methodological Approach And Preliminary Report, Colin Wakefield 2022 Drexel University College of Medicine

Chronic Stress May Disrupt Covariant Fluctuations Of Vitamin D And Cortisol Plasma Levels And Placentome Formation In Pregnant Sheep During The Last Trimester: A Methodological Approach And Preliminary Report, Colin Wakefield

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Tunable Action Potential Repolarization Governed By Kv3.4 Channels In Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons., Tyler D. Alexander, Tanziyah Muqeem, Lianteng Zhi, Stephen R. Tymanskyj, Manuel Covarrubias 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Tunable Action Potential Repolarization Governed By Kv3.4 Channels In Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons., Tyler D. Alexander, Tanziyah Muqeem, Lianteng Zhi, Stephen R. Tymanskyj, Manuel Covarrubias

Department of Neuroscience Faculty Papers

The Kv3.4 channel regulates action potential (AP) repolarization in nociceptors and excitatory synaptic transmission in the spinal cord. We hypothesize that this is a tunable role governed by protein kinase-C-dependent phosphorylation of the Kv3.4 cytoplasmic N-terminal inactivation domain (NTID) at four nonequivalent sites. However, there is a paucity of causation evidence linking the phosphorylation status of Kv3.4 to the properties of the AP. To establish this link, we used adeno-associated viral vectors to specifically manipulate the expression and the effective phosphorylation status of Kv3.4 in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from mixed-sex rat embryos at embryonic day 18. These …


Thirty-Six Months Recurrence After Acute Ischemic Stroke Among Patients With Comorbid Type 2 Diabetes: A Nested Case-Control Study, Lu Wang, Hongyun Li, Jiheng Hao, Chao Liu, Jiyue Wang, Jingjun Feng, Zheng Guo, Yulu Zheng, Yanbo Zhang, Hongxiang Li, Liyong Zhang, Haifeng Hou 2022 Edith Cowan University

Thirty-Six Months Recurrence After Acute Ischemic Stroke Among Patients With Comorbid Type 2 Diabetes: A Nested Case-Control Study, Lu Wang, Hongyun Li, Jiheng Hao, Chao Liu, Jiyue Wang, Jingjun Feng, Zheng Guo, Yulu Zheng, Yanbo Zhang, Hongxiang Li, Liyong Zhang, Haifeng Hou

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: Stroke patients have to face a high risk of recurrence, especially for those with comorbid T2DM, which usually lead to much more serious neurologic damage and an increased likelihood of death. This study aimed to explore determinants of stroke relapse among patients with comorbid T2DM. Materials and methods: We conducted this case-control study nested a prospective cohort of ischemic stroke (IS) with comorbid T2DM. During 36-month follow-up, the second stroke occurred in 84 diabetic IS patients who were allocated into the case group, while 613 patients without recurrence were the controls. We collected the demographic data, behaviors and habits, …


Long Term Outcomes After Norse: Treatment With Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Poul H. Espino, Jorge G. Burneo, Gaby Moscol, Teneille Gofton, Keith MacDougall, Ana Suller-Marti 2022 Western University

Long Term Outcomes After Norse: Treatment With Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Poul H. Espino, Jorge G. Burneo, Gaby Moscol, Teneille Gofton, Keith Macdougall, Ana Suller-Marti

Brain and Mind Institute Researchers' Publications

New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is associated with high mortality, therapy resistant epilepsy (TRE) and poor cognitive and functional outcomes. Some patients develop multifocal TRE, for whom surgery with a curative intention, is not an option. In these patients, Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) is performed as a palliative treatment. We report the long-term outcomes regarding seizure frequency, functional and cognitive outcome, and effectiveness of VNS in two patients with TRE as a consequence of NORSE. In the first patient with cryptogenic NORSE, VNS implantation occurred during the acute stage, probably contributing to the cessation of her status epilepticus. However, in …


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