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Levels Of Par-1 Kinase Determine The Localization Of Bruchpilot At The Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Synapses., Kara R. Barber, Martin Hruska, Keegan M. Bush, Jade A. Martinez, Hong Fei, Irwin B. Levitan, Matthew B. Dalva, Yogesh P. Wairkar 2018 University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston

Levels Of Par-1 Kinase Determine The Localization Of Bruchpilot At The Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Synapses., Kara R. Barber, Martin Hruska, Keegan M. Bush, Jade A. Martinez, Hong Fei, Irwin B. Levitan, Matthew B. Dalva, Yogesh P. Wairkar

Farber Institute for Neurosciences Faculty Papers

Functional synaptic networks are compromised in many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. While the mechanisms of axonal transport and localization of synaptic vesicles and mitochondria are relatively well studied, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the localization of proteins that localize to active zones. Recent finding suggests that mechanisms involved in transporting proteins destined to active zones are distinct from those that transport synaptic vesicles or mitochondria. Here we report that localization of BRP-an essential active zone scaffolding protein in Drosophila, depends on the precise balance of neuronal Par-1 kinase. Disruption of Par-1 levels leads to excess accumulation of ...


Leveling The Playing Field: Supporting Neurodiversity Via Virtual Realities, LouAnne E. Boyd, Kendra Day, Natalia Stewart, Kaitlyn Abdo, Kathleen Lamkin, Erik J. Linstead 2018 University of California, Irvine

Leveling The Playing Field: Supporting Neurodiversity Via Virtual Realities, Louanne E. Boyd, Kendra Day, Natalia Stewart, Kaitlyn Abdo, Kathleen Lamkin, Erik J. Linstead

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Neurodiversity is a term that encapsulates the diverse expression of human neurology. By thinking in broad terms about neurological development, we can become focused on delivering a diverse set of design features to meet the needs of the human condition. In this work, we move toward developing virtual environments that support variations in sensory processing. If we understand that people have differences in sensory perception that result in their own unique sensory traits, many of which are clustered by diagnostic labels such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Sensory Processing Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Rett syndrome, dyslexia, and so on, then ...


Role Of The Fractalkine Receptor In Cns Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing A Mouse Model Expressing The Human Cx3cr1, Sandra M. Cardona, Sangwon V. Kim, Kaira A. Church, Vanessa O. Torres, Ian A. Cleary, Andrew S. Mendiola, Stephen P. Saville, Stephanie S. Watowich, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Alejandro Soto-Ospina, Pedronel Araque, Richard M. Ransohoff, Astrid E. Cardona 2018 The University of Texas at San Antonio

Role Of The Fractalkine Receptor In Cns Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing A Mouse Model Expressing The Human Cx3cr1, Sandra M. Cardona, Sangwon V. Kim, Kaira A. Church, Vanessa O. Torres, Ian A. Cleary, Andrew S. Mendiola, Stephen P. Saville, Stephanie S. Watowich, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Alejandro Soto-Ospina, Pedronel Araque, Richard M. Ransohoff, Astrid E. Cardona

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults. Immune mediated destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes is considered the primary pathology of MS, but progressive axonal loss is the major cause of neurological disability. In an effort to understand microglia function during CNS inflammation, our laboratory focuses on the fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling as a regulator of microglia neurotoxicity in various models of neurodegeneration. Fractalkine (FKN) is a transmembrane chemokine expressed in the CNS by neurons and signals through its unique receptor CX3CR1 present in microglia ...


How Concussions Alter Brain Network Properties: Towards Better Diagnoses Of Concussions, Sara Krehbiel, Joanna R. Wares 2018 University of Richmond

How Concussions Alter Brain Network Properties: Towards Better Diagnoses Of Concussions, Sara Krehbiel, Joanna R. Wares

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Coordination Of Inpatient And Outpatient Care For Neurology Patients Undergoing Epilepsy Monitoring, Sara Schrock, Michelle Beane, Kathryn Cope, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks, Brendan Lilley 2018 Maine Medical Center

Coordination Of Inpatient And Outpatient Care For Neurology Patients Undergoing Epilepsy Monitoring, Sara Schrock, Michelle Beane, Kathryn Cope, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks, Brendan Lilley

Operational Excellence

ORGANIZING A SYSTEM TO CONSOLIDATE EPILEPSY REFERRALS TO AN OUTPATIENT NEUROLOGY PRACTICE

An outpatient neurology practice was experiencing delayed or lost referrals for epilepsy monitoring. This delay was leading many patients to suffer unnecessary and unmanaged seizures and, in some cases, frequent trips to the emergency department.

As a result, a team consisting of the neurology practice and neuro-navigators used baseline metrics to demonstrate the current state of the problem and conducted a root cause analysis that outlined several causes. A number of countermeasures were initiated with the goal of decreasing referral misses.

Post the initiation of two KPIs, a ...


Neurohype And The Law: A Cautionary Tale, Stephen J. Morse 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Neurohype And The Law: A Cautionary Tale, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This chapter suggests that for conceptual, empirical, and practical reasons, neuroscience in general and non-invasive brain imaging in particular are not likely to revolutionize the law and our conception of ourselves, but may make modest contributions to legal policy and case adjudication if the legal relevance of the science is properly understood.


Resting-State Functional Connectivity In Youth With Gender Dysphoria, Felix L. Garcia 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Resting-State Functional Connectivity In Youth With Gender Dysphoria, Felix L. Garcia

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Current developmental models of gender identity and gender dysphoria (GD) lack sex-specific profiles of brain function that differentiate between typically-developing and cross-gender identified youth, as postulated by models like the unified theory of the origins of sex differences (Arnold, 2009) and the neurobiological theory of the origins of transsexuality (Swaab & Garcia-Falgueras, 2009). Previously, investigators have used brain imaging modalities such as Resting-State functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (R-fMRI) to demonstrate differences in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between typically-developing male and female youth, and between typically-developing and GID-diagnosed youth. In the present pilot study, I used R-fMRI to investigate differences in RSFC between typically-developing and cross-gender identified male and female youth subgroups, with the hypothesis that GID-diagnosed subgroups would demonstrate connectivity patterns in between those of typically-developing males and females. Eleven youth diagnosed with gender identity disorder (four males, ages 9 to 20 years; seven females, ages 12 to 20 years) were matched on age and assigned gender with 11 typically-developing youth. All participants completed written informed consent to undergo the IRB-approved research procedures. R-fMRI were collected while the participants were lying down and resting, with their eyes closed. Primary analyses focused on 14 ...


Macrophages But Not Astrocytes Harbor Hiv Dna In The Brains Of Hiv-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Allen Ko, Guobin Kang, Julian B. Hattler, Hadiza I. Galadima, Junfeng Zhang, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim 2018 Old Dominion University

Macrophages But Not Astrocytes Harbor Hiv Dna In The Brains Of Hiv-1-Infected Aviremic Individuals On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Allen Ko, Guobin Kang, Julian B. Hattler, Hadiza I. Galadima, Junfeng Zhang, Qingsheng Li, Woong-Ki Kim

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

The question of whether the human brain is an anatomical site of persistent HIV-1 infection during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical, but remains unanswered. The presence of virus in the brains of HIV patients whose viral load is effectively suppressed would demonstrate not only the potential for CNS to act as an anatomical HIV reservoir, but also the urgent need to understand the factors contributing to persistent HIV behind the blood-brain barrier. Here, we investigated for the first time the presence of cells harboring HIV DNA and RNA in the brains from subjects with undetectable plasma viral load and ...


Map7 Regulates Axon Morphogenesis By Recruiting Kinesin-1 To Microtubules And Modulating Organelle Transport., Stephen R. Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Kristen J. Verhey, Le Ma 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Map7 Regulates Axon Morphogenesis By Recruiting Kinesin-1 To Microtubules And Modulating Organelle Transport., Stephen R. Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Kristen J. Verhey, Le Ma

Department of Neuroscience

Neuronal cell morphogenesis depends on proper regulation of microtubule-based transport, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report our study of MAP7, a unique microtubule-associated protein that interacts with both microtubules and the motor protein kinesin-1. Structure-function analysis in rat embryonic sensory neurons shows that the kinesin-1 interacting domain in MAP7 is required for axon and branch growth but not for branch formation. Also, two unique microtubule binding sites are found in MAP7 that have distinct dissociation kinetics and are both required for branch formation. Furthermore, MAP7 recruits kinesin-1 dynamically to microtubules, leading to alterations in organelle ...


A-Type Kv Channels In Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons: Diversity, Function, And Dysfunction, Benjamin M. Zemel, David M. Ritter, Manuel Covarrubias, Tanziyah Muqeem 2018 Oregon Health and Science University

A-Type Kv Channels In Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons: Diversity, Function, And Dysfunction, Benjamin M. Zemel, David M. Ritter, Manuel Covarrubias, Tanziyah Muqeem

Department of Neuroscience

A-type voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are major regulators of neuronal excitability that have been mainly characterized in the central nervous system. By contrast, there is a paucity of knowledge about the molecular physiology of these Kv channels in the peripheral nervous system, including highly specialized and heterogenous dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Although all A-type Kv channels display pore-forming subunits with similar structural properties and fast inactivation, their voltage-, and time-dependent properties and modulation are significantly different. These differences ultimately determine distinct physiological roles of diverse A-type Kv channels, and how their dysfunction might contribute to neurological disorders. The importance ...


Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy In Diabetes: A Predictor Of Cardiometabolic Events, Aaron I. Vinik, Carolina Casellini, Henri K. Parson, Sheri R. Colberg, Marie-laure Nevoret 2018 Old Dominion University

Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy In Diabetes: A Predictor Of Cardiometabolic Events, Aaron I. Vinik, Carolina Casellini, Henri K. Parson, Sheri R. Colberg, Marie-Laure Nevoret

Human Movement Sciences Faculty Publications

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance manifesting as cardiac autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic population is an important predictor of cardiovascular events. Symptoms and signs of ANS dysfunction, such as resting heart rate elevations, diminished blood pressure responses to standing, and altered time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability in response to deep breathing, standing, and the Valsalva maneuver, should be elicited from all patients with diabetes and prediabetes. With the recognition of the presence of ANS imbalance or for its prevention, a rigorous regime should be implemented with lifestyle modification, physical activity, and cautious use of medications that ...


Different Behavioral Experiences Produce Distinctive Parallel Changes In, And Correlate With, Frontal Cortex And Hippocampal Global Post-Translational Histone Levels., Marissa Sobolewski, Garima Singh, Jay S. Schneider, Deborah A. Cory-Slechta 2018 University of Rochester Medical Center

Different Behavioral Experiences Produce Distinctive Parallel Changes In, And Correlate With, Frontal Cortex And Hippocampal Global Post-Translational Histone Levels., Marissa Sobolewski, Garima Singh, Jay S. Schneider, Deborah A. Cory-Slechta

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

While it is clear that behavioral experience modulates epigenetic profiles, it is less evident how the nature of that experience influences outcomes and whether epigenetic/genetic "biomarkers" could be extracted to classify different types of behavioral experience. To begin to address this question, male and female mice were subjected to either a Fixed Interval (FI) schedule of food reward, or a single episode of forced swim followed by restraint stress, or no explicit behavioral experience after which global expression levels of two activating (H3K9ac and H3K4me3) and two repressive (H3K9me2 and H3k27me3) post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs), were measured in hippocampus ...


Fasudil In Combination With Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (Bmscs) Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Changes Through The Regulation Of The Peripheral Immune System., Jiezhong Yu, Yuqing Yan, Qingfang Gu, Gajendra Kumar, Hongqiang Yu, Yijin Zhao, Chunyun Liu, Ye Gao, Zhi Chai, Jasleen Chumber, Bao-Guo Xiao, Guang-Xian Zhang, Han-Ting Zhang, Yuqiang Jiang, Cun-Gen Ma 2018 Shanxi Datong University; Chinese Academy of Sciences

Fasudil In Combination With Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (Bmscs) Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Changes Through The Regulation Of The Peripheral Immune System., Jiezhong Yu, Yuqing Yan, Qingfang Gu, Gajendra Kumar, Hongqiang Yu, Yijin Zhao, Chunyun Liu, Ye Gao, Zhi Chai, Jasleen Chumber, Bao-Guo Xiao, Guang-Xian Zhang, Han-Ting Zhang, Yuqiang Jiang, Cun-Gen Ma

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease. Its mechanism is still not clear. Majority of research focused on the central nervous system (CNS) changes, while few studies emphasize on peripheral immune system modulation. Our study aimed to investigate the regulation of the peripheral immune system and its relationship to the severity of the disease after treatment in an AD model of APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic (APP/PS1 Tg) mice. APP/PS1 Tg mice (8 months old) were treated with the ROCK-II inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-homo-piperazine (Fasudil) (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections, 25 mg/kg/day), bone marrow stromal cells ...


Brazilian Jiu Jitsu: A Tool For Veteran Reassimilation, Gino L. Collura 2018 University of South Florida

Brazilian Jiu Jitsu: A Tool For Veteran Reassimilation, Gino L. Collura

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation evaluates veteran participation in the martial art of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) as a tool of reassimilation for veterans suffering from anxiety, stress and/or combat PTSD associated with military deployment. From the onset of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation New Dawn, challenges associated with U.S. Veteran assimilation and reintegration have been increasing. Coping with long term displacement, trauma, loss, and making sense of identity shifts between being an active duty service member and civilian can often present challenges when navigating back into civilian life.

By utilizing a neuroanthropological lens, ethnographic inquiry, surveys, semi-structured ...


Effects Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury On Ethanol Consumption And The Combined Effects On Neuroinflammation, Cognition, And Behavior In Mice, Jessica L. Hoffman 2018 University of South Florida

Effects Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury On Ethanol Consumption And The Combined Effects On Neuroinflammation, Cognition, And Behavior In Mice, Jessica L. Hoffman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The relationship between alcohol consumption and traumatic brain injury (TBI) often focuses on alcohol consumption increasing the likelihood of incurring a TBI, rather than alcohol use outcomes after TBI. This focus is in part due to the large numbers of TBI patients visiting emergency rooms notable levels of alcohol in their blood. Additionally, increases in alcohol use disorders following TBI can be predicted by previous history of alcohol use. However, studies have also shown patients without a history of an alcohol use disorder can experience increases in problem drinking after single or multiple TBIs. Due to the diffuse impact of ...


Testing The Efficacy Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (Tms) In Treating Depression In Patients With Cognitive Impairment, Daniel Robert Schaffer 2018 Old Dominion University

Testing The Efficacy Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (Tms) In Treating Depression In Patients With Cognitive Impairment, Daniel Robert Schaffer

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to (1) examine the efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in treating depression among individuals with cognitive impairment and (2) to examine if TMS is capable of facilitating cognitive improvements independent of mood improvements. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often seen as a pre-clinical stage to dementia, and depressive disorders are highly prevalent among both MCI and dementia. There is a large body of research that has linked depressive disorders as a prodromal symptom of MCI and the later development of dementia. While some researchers debate whether or not this link between depression and ...


Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi 2018 Old Dominion University

Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Stem cells are a cell type present during and following development, which possess self- renewal properties, as well as the ability to differentiate into specific cells. Asymmetrical division is the cellular process that allows stem cells to produce one differentiated and one un-differentiated daughter cell during the same mitotic event. Insights in the molecular mechanisms of such process are minimal, due to the absence of effective methods for its targeted study. Currently, traditional methods of investigation include monolayer cell culture and animal models. The first poses structural limitations to the accurate representation of human tissue and cell structures, while animal ...


An Investigation Of The Neurobiology Of Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures, Finian O'Brien 2018 The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

An Investigation Of The Neurobiology Of Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures, Finian O'Brien

PhD theses

Background: Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal episodes of seizure-like behaviour that superficially resemble epileptic events, but lack EEG correlates of epilepsy. Diagnosis is often delayed and the condition is associated with significant impairments of general functioning. At the time that this project was commenced, there were few neuropsychological studies of PNES and the neural correlates of this condition were unknown.

Aims: This project aimed to firstly, examine the prevalence and management of PNES in an Irish epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) and secondly to examine neuropsychiatric, neuropsychological, structural and functional neuroimaging correlates of adults with PNES.

Methods: Standardised assessments and ...


Local Bdnf Delivery To The Injured Cervical Spinal Cord Using An Engineered Hydrogel Enhances Diaphragmatic Respiratory Function., Biswarup Ghosh, Zhicheng Wang, Jia Nong, Mark W. Urban, Zhiling Zhang, Victoria A. Trovillion, Megan C. Wright, Yinghui Zhong, Angelo C. Lepore 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Local Bdnf Delivery To The Injured Cervical Spinal Cord Using An Engineered Hydrogel Enhances Diaphragmatic Respiratory Function., Biswarup Ghosh, Zhicheng Wang, Jia Nong, Mark W. Urban, Zhiling Zhang, Victoria A. Trovillion, Megan C. Wright, Yinghui Zhong, Angelo C. Lepore

Farber Institute for Neurosciences Faculty Papers

We developed an innovative biomaterial-based approach to repair the critical neural circuitry that controls diaphragm activation by locally delivering brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to injured cervical spinal cord. BDNF can be used to restore respiratory function via a number of potential repair mechanisms; however, widespread BDNF biodistribution resulting from delivery methods such as systemic injection or lumbar puncture can lead to inefficient drug delivery and adverse side effects. As a viable alternative, we developed a novel hydrogel-based system loaded with polysaccharide-BDNF particles self-assembled by electrostatic interactions that can be safely implanted in the intrathecal space for achieving local BDNF delivery ...


Apoe And Alzheimer’S Disease: Neuroimaging Of Metabolic And Cerebrovascular Dysfunction, Jason A. Brandon, Brandon C. Farmer, Holden C. Williams, Lance A. Johnson 2018 University of Kentucky

Apoe And Alzheimer’S Disease: Neuroimaging Of Metabolic And Cerebrovascular Dysfunction, Jason A. Brandon, Brandon C. Farmer, Holden C. Williams, Lance A. Johnson

Physiology Faculty Publications

Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), and is associated with impairments in cerebral metabolism and cerebrovascular function. A substantial body of literature now points to E4 as a driver of multiple impairments seen in AD, including blunted brain insulin signaling, mismanagement of brain cholesterol and fatty acids, reductions in blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and decreased cerebral glucose uptake. Various neuroimaging techniques, in particular positron emission topography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been instrumental in characterizing these metabolic and vascular deficits associated with this important AD risk factor ...


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