An Examination Of The Neural Unreliability Thesis Of Autism, 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology
An Examination Of The Neural Unreliability Thesis Of Autism, John Butler, Sophie Molholm, Gizely Andrade, John J. Foxe
An emerging neuropathological theory of Autism, referred to here as “the neural unreliability thesis,” proposes greater variability in moment-to-moment cortical representation of environmental events, such that the system shows general instability in its impulse response function. Leading evidence for this thesis derives from functional neuroimaging, a methodology ill-suited for detailed assessment of sensory transmission dynamics occurring at the millisecond scale. Electrophysiological assessments of this thesis, however, are sparse and unconvincing. We conducted detailed examination of visual and somatosensory evoked activity using high-density electrical mapping in individuals with autism (N = 20) and precisely matched neurotypical controls (N = 20), recording large numbers ...
Post-Concussion Experiences Of Collegiate Student-Athletes, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Post-Concussion Experiences Of Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kaitlin Iris Singer
Sports-related concussions are a major public health concern affecting a significant number of collegiate student-athletes. Medical and public health research has addressed every aspect of concussion management processes including concussion education, medical diagnosis, recovery, and returning to sport and classroom. This research has led to several best-practices for concussion management. Since 2010, the NCAA has mandated that its member institutions maintain concussion management policies and procedures. However, the current recommendations, based primarily on medical research, have been found in quantitative studies of the behaviors and practices of athletic trainers, coaches, and student-athletes to be ineffective. To date, no studies have ...
New Roles For Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Signaling In The Physiology And Pathology Of Dopamine Neurons, 2016 Oregon Health & Science University
New Roles For Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Signaling In The Physiology And Pathology Of Dopamine Neurons, Paul Kramer
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) modulate the activity of neurons in many
ways on both short and long timescales. These receptors initiate intracellular
signaling cascades that can activate ion channels, suppress neurotransmitter
release, mobilize calcium release from stores, promote gene transcription,
increase or decrease adenylyl cyclase activity, and perform many other functions.
Therefore the comprehensive result of activating a single GPCR is not
straightforward, and will depend on the context in which that receptor was
Dopamine neurons synthesize and release dopamine throughout the
brain, and contribute to behaviors like movement, learning, and reward; as well
as many diseases of the ...
Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in whole-body dysfunction. While the majority of SCI research is focused on improving locomotor function after injury, cardiovascular (CV) disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity in the chronic SCI patient population. The combination of injury-induced destruction of autonomic pathways, maladaptive plasticity within lumbosacral circuits, and the progressive decline in physical fitness contribute to the poor CV status of SCI individuals. Currently, there is little emphasis on implementing appropriately-timed acute rehabilitation techniques aimed to curtail maladaptive remodeling and improve CV outcomes. Furthermore, no pre-clinical or clinical studies have investigated the most appropriate time-course ...
The Effects Of Synthetic And Dietary Therapeutics On Learning, Memory, Motor Coordination, And Seizure In An Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model, Stephanie Lynn Ciarlone
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare genetic and neurological disorder presenting with severe developmental delay, ataxia, epilepsy, and lack of speech. AS is associated with a neuron-specific loss of function of the maternal UBE3A allele, a gene encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Currently, no cure exists for this disorder; however, recent research using an AS mouse model suggests that pharmacological intervention is plausible, and can alleviate some of the detrimental phenotypes reported in AS patients.
Although there is no curative treatment for AS, seizure medication and behavioral therapies are most commonly prescribed in order to minimize symptoms. However, these options ...
Hypercapnic Hyperoxia Increases Free Radical Production And Cellular Excitability In Rat Caudal Solitary Complex Brain Slice Neurons, 2016 University of South Florida
Hypercapnic Hyperoxia Increases Free Radical Production And Cellular Excitability In Rat Caudal Solitary Complex Brain Slice Neurons, Geoffrey Edward Ciarlone
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
The caudal solitary complex (cSC) is a cardiorespiratory integrative center in the dorsal medulla oblongata that plays a vital role in the central CO2-chemoreceptive network. Neurons in this area respond to hypercapnic acidosis (HA) by a depolarization of the membrane potential and increase in firing rate, however a definitive mechanism for this response remains unknown. Likewise, CO2-chemoreceptive neurons in the cSC respond to hyperoxia in a similar fashion, but via a free radical mediated mechanism. It remains unknown if the response to increased pO2 is merely an increase in redox signaling, or if it’s the result of a pathological ...
Regulation Of Palmitoylation Enzymes And Substrates By Intrinsically Disordered Regions, 2016 University of South Florida
Regulation Of Palmitoylation Enzymes And Substrates By Intrinsically Disordered Regions, Krishna D. Reddy
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Protein palmitoylation refers to the process of adding a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid to the cysteine of a substrate protein, and this can in turn affect the substrate’s localization, stability, folding, and several other processes. This process is catalyzed by a family of 23 mammalian protein acyltransferases (PATs), a family of transmembrane enzymes that modify an estimated 10% of the proteome. At this point in time, no structure of a protein in this family has been solved, and therefore there is poor understanding about the regulation of the enzymes and their substrates. Most proteins, including palmitoylation enzymes and substrates ...
Brainwave Signatures For Detecting Malingered Neurocognitive Deficit (Mncd), 2016 University of Kentucky
Brainwave Signatures For Detecting Malingered Neurocognitive Deficit (Mncd), Esias K. Bedingar
Traumatic brain injury is a major public health concern in the United States, affecting up to 1.7 million people each year. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for 80% of these cases. Various tests have been created in order to document brain injury and evaluate cognitive functions. However, neuropsychologists report that up to 40% of individuals undergoing evaluations following mTBI may be malingering deficits. This points to a need for innovative and non-invasive approaches to validating mTBI while identifying malingerers.
The aim of this study was to utilize neuroimaging and behavioral approaches to detect MNCD by comparing the reaction ...
When Empathy Bites Back: Cautionary Tales From Neuroscience For Capital Sentencing, 2016 Cornell Law School
When Empathy Bites Back: Cautionary Tales From Neuroscience For Capital Sentencing, Sheri Lynn Johnson, Amelia Courtney Hritz, Caisa Elizabeth Royer, John H. Blume
Cornell Law Faculty Publications
The neuroscience of empathy provides one more reason to believe that the decision to sentence another human being to death is inevitably an arbitrary one, and one that cannot be divorced from either race or caprice. While we can tinker with aspects of capital trials that exacerbate caprice and discrimination stemming from empathy, we cannot alter basic neural responses to the pain of others and therefore cannot rationalize (in either sense of the word) empathic responses.
Gradenigo Syndrome: A Rare Complication Of Otitis Media, 2016 Marshall University
Gradenigo Syndrome: A Rare Complication Of Otitis Media, Paul Brent Ferguson, Md
Gradenigo syndrome is a very rare complication of otitis media that if left unrecognized and subsequently untreated will result in severe neurologic sequelae. Gradenigo Syndrome clinically represented by the triad of otitis media, ipsilateral, abducens nerve palsy and dysasthesia within the V1 and V2 divisions of the trigeminal nerve branches. We describe a 4 year-old patient who presented with headache, facial pain, diplopia and a recent history of upper respiratory tract symptomatology. Examination revealed an abducens palsy with subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating inflammation in the left petrous apex and along the tracts of the 6th, 7th, and ...
Spinal Cord Injury And Autonomic Dysreflexia- A Case Report, 2016 University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine
Spinal Cord Injury And Autonomic Dysreflexia- A Case Report, Apurva Bhatt, Brit Moore, Talal Asif, Kristy E. Steigerwalt, Rebecca R. Pauly
Marshall Journal of Medicine
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a life threatening condition affecting patients with spinal cord lesions T6 level and above. A 51 year old male with a history of paraplegia due to a C6 spinal cord injury (30 years prior) presented with recurrent debilitating episodic diaphoresis, hypertension, low body temperature, and bradycardia. Previous hospitalizations presumed sepsis from UTI to be the etiology, however on further evaluation his symptoms were consistent with undiagnosed AD. This article describes a unique case presentation and reviews AD in depth, including the etiology, pathophysiology and management.
The Scripps Research Institute Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship, 2016 Nova Southeastern University
The Scripps Research Institute Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship, Ezana Assefa
Trick to the Treat of Internships and Research
This program is a 10-week internship designed for undergraduates interested in the scientific field to engage in current research. Students have the option of requesting to work under three mentors, one of which they will be paired. Students will work in the lab with the principal investigator and other members of the lab. Along with working in the lab, students in the program will also attend bi-weekly talks/lectures from researchers, grad students, and professionals at TSRI as well as participating in two presentations and a final poster or oral presentation.
Fumarate Modulates The Immune/Inflammatory Response And Rescues Nerve Cells And Neurological Function After Stroke In Rats., 2016 Thomas Jefferson University, The Joseph and Marie Field Cerebrovascular Research Laboratory, Jefferson, Vickie and Jack Farber Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Neuroscience, Sidney Kimmel Medical College
Fumarate Modulates The Immune/Inflammatory Response And Rescues Nerve Cells And Neurological Function After Stroke In Rats., Ruihe Lin, Jingli Cai, Eric W Kostuk, Robert H. Rosenwasswer Md, Lorraine Iacovitti
Faculty papers Farber Institute for Neurosciences
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), working via its metabolite monomethylfumarate (MMF), acts as a potent antioxidant and immunomodulator in animal models of neurologic disease and in patients with multiple sclerosis. These properties and their translational potential led us to investigate whether DMF/MMF could also protect at-risk and/or dying neurons in models of ischemic stroke in vitro and in vivo. Although the antioxidant effects have been partially addressed, the benefits of DMF immunomodulation after ischemic stroke still need to be explored.
METHODS: In vitro neuronal culture with oxygen-glucose deprivation and rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion were subjected to DMF ...
Professional Action Sport Athletes’ Experiences With And Attitudes Toward Concussion: A Phenomenological Study, 2016 Idaho State University
Professional Action Sport Athletes’ Experiences With And Attitudes Toward Concussion: A Phenomenological Study, Caroline E. Faure, John M. Fitzpatrick
The Qualitative Report
This study examined the lived experiences and subsequent attitudes of freestyle BMX and motocross athletes relative to suffering concussions. Eleven professional athletes were interviewed using a semi-structured protocol. All cited a significant personal history with concussion and those personal accounts, along with their observations of others who experienced similar head injuries, shaped the athletes’ attitudes towards concussion. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributed to each athlete’s acceptance of concussion risk inherent in their respective sport. Generally, athletes accepted concussion risk as part of their sport, but were largely unfamiliar with what concussion was and what long-term effects could result ...
Assessment Of The Effects Of Mptp And Paraquat On Dopaminergic Neurons And Microglia In The Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta Of C57bl/6 Mice., 2016 Thomas Jefferson University; St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Assessment Of The Effects Of Mptp And Paraquat On Dopaminergic Neurons And Microglia In The Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta Of C57bl/6 Mice., Richard Jay Smeyne, Charles B. Breckenridge, Melissa Beck, Yun Jiao, Mark T. Butt, Jeffrey C. Wolf, Dan Zadory, Daniel J. Minnema, Nicholas C. Sturgess, Kim Z. Travis, Andrew R. Cook, Lewis L. Smith, Philip A. Botham
Department of Neuroscience
The neurotoxicity of paraquat dichloride (PQ) was assessed in two inbred strains of 9- or 16-week old male C57BL/6 mice housed in two different laboratories and compared to the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). PQ was administered by intraperitoneal injections; either once (20 mg/kg) or twice (10 mg/kg) weekly for 3 weeks, while MPTP-HCl was injected 4 times on a single day (20 mg/kg/dose). Brains were collected 8, 16, 24, 48, 96 or 168 hours after the last PQ treatment, and 48 or 168 hours after MPTP treatment. Dopamine neurons in the substantia ...
Structural Dichotomy Of The Mind; The Role Of Sexual Neuromodulators, 2016 Carol Davila University, Department of Surgery and Psychiatry
Structural Dichotomy Of The Mind; The Role Of Sexual Neuromodulators, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
The mind (mental function) and sexuality represent two distinct environmental functions, but which are supported within the brain by a common (somatic-autonomic) neurobiological substrate. As a consequence, mental function takes on autonomic characteristics from the sexual-autonomic system (like autonomy, duality), while sexual function takes on features from mental functioning (such as lateralization). In this paper we discuss the lateralized action of two classes of sexual neuromodulators: hormones and pheromones. This process of lateralization is assimilated with the structural dichotomy of the mind.
A relatively similar process but related to informational dichotomy of the mind will be presented in a forthcoming ...
The Substrate Of The Biopsychosocial Influences In The Carcinogenesis Of The Digestive Tract, 2016 Cardiology Resident Doctor, PhD Student Internal Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania
The Substrate Of The Biopsychosocial Influences In The Carcinogenesis Of The Digestive Tract, Georgică C. Târtea, Cristina Florescu, Daniel Pirici, Daniel Caragea, Elena A. Târtea, Cristin C. Vere
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Digestive cancer represents a severe public health problem, being one of the main causes of death. It is considered a multifactorial disease, with hereditary predisposition, environmental factors, and other factors involved in carcinogenesis. Both the evolution and the pathogenesis of digestive neoplasms remain incompletely elucidated. As a multifactorial disease, it can be approached by taking into account the biopsychosocial influences via enteric nervous system. Many peptides and non-peptides having a neurotransmitter role can be found in the enteric nervous system, which can influence the neoplastic process directly or indirectly by affecting some angiogenic, growth, and metastasis factors. However, neurotransmitters can ...
The Postfinasteride Syndrome; An Overview, 2016 Valparaiso University, Department of Psychology
The Postfinasteride Syndrome; An Overview, David L. Rowland, Ion G. Motofei, Florian Popa, Vlad D. Constantin, Adriana Vasilache, Ioana Păunică, Cristian Bălălău, Georgeta P. Păunică, Petrisor Banu, Stana Păunică
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
As a 5-α reductase inhibitor, Finasteride has proven effective in ameliorating two conditions documented to be androgen dependent, namely male androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Therapeutic results are maintained as long as the drug is administered, with treatment cessation generally leading to the return of symptomatology for each condition. In addition, during the therapeutic phase, several adverse effects have been reported, some of which persist long or indefinitely after treatment cessation, known as “post-finasteride syndrome.”
Herein we present and discuss the most common finasteride side effects, along with a psycho-neuroendocrine rationale that could explain the persistence of many adverse ...
Neural Control Of Tongue Movements Across Effort Levels, 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Neural Control Of Tongue Movements Across Effort Levels, Megan Rovang, Angela M. Dietsch
UCARE Research Products
A hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a mismatch between the perceived effort and actual forces exerted during functional activities such as speech. Current evidence supports therapy to help reset this perception of effort, but the neurological underpinnings of such treatments are unclear. This study examined brain activity during tongue movements performed at varying levels of effort to determine (1) which brain areas are involved in each task, and (2) which areas, if any, scale in activation according to effort level. These results, considered with the neurological changes associated with PD, can be used to develop and refine ...
Is Online Motor Control Really Impaired In Parkinson's Disease?, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Is Online Motor Control Really Impaired In Parkinson's Disease?, Kate E. Merritt
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are thought to be selectively impaired in consciously-mediated online automatic motor control, whereas the ability to perform subconscious online adjustments remains intact. This present study evaluates the hypothesis that the previously alleged deficits in online motor control in PD are not due to the consciousness of the correction, but rather are attributable to aspects of the prior experimental designs disproportionately penalizing patients for PD-related bradykinesia. Here, we implemented a modified traditional double-step paradigm to investigate consciously-mediated online motor control in PD, in a manner that would be unconfounded by disease-related bradykinesia. Further, we investigated ...