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Substance P Differentially Modulates Firing Rate Of Solitary Complex (Sc) Neurons From Control And Chronic Hypoxia-Adapted Adult Rats, Nicole L. Nichols, Frank L. Powell, Jay B. Dean, Robert W. Putnam 2017 Wright State University

Substance P Differentially Modulates Firing Rate Of Solitary Complex (Sc) Neurons From Control And Chronic Hypoxia-Adapted Adult Rats, Nicole L. Nichols, Frank L. Powell, Jay B. Dean, Robert W. Putnam

Robert W. Putnam

NK1 receptors, which bind substance P, are present in the majority of brainstem regions that contain CO2/H+-sensitive neurons that play a role in central chemosensitivity. However, the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive response of neurons from these regions has not been studied. Hypoxia increases substance P release from peripheral afferents that terminate in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Here we studied the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive responses of solitary complex (SC: NTS and dorsal motor nucleus) neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted (CHx) adult rats. We simultaneously measured intracellular pH and ...


Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, Martha Jean Sonner, Marie C. Walters, David R. Ladle 2017 Wright State University

Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, Martha Jean Sonner, Marie C. Walters, David R. Ladle

David R. Ladle

Muscle proprioceptive afferents provide feedback critical for successful execution of motor tasks via specialized mechanoreceptors housed within skeletal muscles: muscle spindles, supplied by group Ia and group II afferents, and Golgi tendon organs, supplied by group Ib afferents. The morphology of these proprioceptors and their associated afferents has been studied extensively in the cat soleus, and to a lesser degree, in the rat; however, quantitative analyses of proprioceptive innervation in the mouse soleus are comparatively limited. The present study employed genetically-encoded fluorescent reporting systems to label and analyze muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and the proprioceptive sensory neuron subpopulations supplying ...


Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez 2017 Wright State University

Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez

Francisco J. Alvarez

Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw ...


P03. Role Of Prefrontal Cortical Dopamine Transmission In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Opiate Addiction Vulnerability, Jingjing Li 2017 Western University

P03. Role Of Prefrontal Cortical Dopamine Transmission In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Opiate Addiction Vulnerability, Jingjing Li

Western Research Forum

Background

PTSD and opiate addiction share strong co-morbidity and the inability to suppress obtrusive memory recall related to either stressful or rewarding experiences may be an underlying neuropsychological feature triggering PTSD and/or addiction. Our previous research has shown that dopamine (DA) transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) strongly modulates emotional memory formation: activation of the DA D4 receptor (D4R) strongly potentiates the emotional salience of normally non-salient fear memories whereas DA D1 receptor (D1R) activation blocks the behavioural recall of fear memory. Thus, while intra-PFC D4 transmission strongly controls the acquisition of emotional memory, D1 transmission is selectively involved ...


Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This is a chapter in a volume, Ethics Dilemmas in Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Practice, edited by Ezra E. H. Griffith, M.D. and to be published by Columbia University Press. The chapter addresses whether the use of new neuroscience techniques, especially non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the data from studies employing them raise new ethical issues for forensic psychiatrists and psychologists. The implicit thesis throughout is that if the legal questions, the limits of the new techniques and the relevance of neuroscience to law are properly understood, no new ethical issues are raised. A major ethical lapse ...


Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, Martha Jean Sonner, Marie C. Walters, David R. Ladle 2017 Wright State University

Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, Martha Jean Sonner, Marie C. Walters, David R. Ladle

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Muscle proprioceptive afferents provide feedback critical for successful execution of motor tasks via specialized mechanoreceptors housed within skeletal muscles: muscle spindles, supplied by group Ia and group II afferents, and Golgi tendon organs, supplied by group Ib afferents. The morphology of these proprioceptors and their associated afferents has been studied extensively in the cat soleus, and to a lesser degree, in the rat; however, quantitative analyses of proprioceptive innervation in the mouse soleus are comparatively limited. The present study employed genetically-encoded fluorescent reporting systems to label and analyze muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and the proprioceptive sensory neuron subpopulations supplying ...


Regulation Of Sleep Plasticity By A Thermo-Sensitive Circuit In Drosophila., Angelique Lamaze, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Robin Fischer, Nicolai Peschel, Kyunghee Koh, James E.C. Jepson 2017 UCL Institute of Neurology

Regulation Of Sleep Plasticity By A Thermo-Sensitive Circuit In Drosophila., Angelique Lamaze, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Robin Fischer, Nicolai Peschel, Kyunghee Koh, James E.C. Jepson

Department of Neuroscience

Sleep is a highly conserved and essential behaviour in many species, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the wild, sensory signalling encoding environmental information must be integrated with sleep drive to ensure that sleep is not initiated during detrimental conditions. However, the molecular and circuit mechanisms by which sleep timing is modulated by the environment are unclear. Here we introduce a novel behavioural paradigm to study this issue. We show that in male fruit flies, onset of the daytime siesta is delayed by ambient temperatures above 29 °C. We term this effect Prolonged Morning Wakefulness (PMW). We show that ...


Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas 2017 University of Alberta

Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction: Amylin receptor serves as a portal for the expression of deleterious effects of amyloid b-protein (Ab), a key pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we showed that AC253, an amylin receptor antagonist, is neuroprotective against Ab toxicity in vitro and abrogates Ab-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation.

Methods: Amyloid precursor protein–overexpressing TgCRND8 mice received intracerebroventricularly AC253 for 5 months. New cyclized peptide cAC253 was synthesized and administered intraperitoneally three times a week for 10 weeks in the same mouse model. Cognitive functions were monitored, and pathologic changes were quantified biochemically and immunohistochemically.

Results: AC253, when administered intracerebroventricularly ...


An Examination Of The Neural Unreliability Thesis Of Autism, John Butler, Sophie Molholm, Gizely Andrade, John J. Foxe 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

An Examination Of The Neural Unreliability Thesis Of Autism, John Butler, Sophie Molholm, Gizely Andrade, John J. Foxe

Articles

An emerging neuropathological theory of Autism, referred to here as “the neural unreliability thesis,” proposes greater variability in moment-to-moment cortical representation of environmental events, such that the system shows general instability in its impulse response function. Leading evidence for this thesis derives from functional neuroimaging, a methodology ill-suited for detailed assessment of sensory transmission dynamics occurring at the millisecond scale. Electrophysiological assessments of this thesis, however, are sparse and unconvincing. We conducted detailed examination of visual and somatosensory evoked activity using high-density electrical mapping in individuals with autism (N = 20) and precisely matched neurotypical controls (N = 20), recording large numbers ...


An Examination Into The Relationship Between Iron Deficiency And Postpartum Depression, Sara A. Burroughs 2016 Liberty University

An Examination Into The Relationship Between Iron Deficiency And Postpartum Depression, Sara A. Burroughs

Senior Honors Theses

Postpartum depression is recognized as the most common complication of childbearing; however, its etiology remains fairly undetermined. Many different influences have been hypothesized as to what may cause postpartum depression, including changes in levels of various hormones (such as estrogen and progesterone), a decrease in serotonin, low levels of vitamin D, social factors, and iron deficiency. The lack of strong evidence for one specific cause makes it fairly clear that there are many factors that play a role in the development of postpartum depression. Iron deficiency is one issue that is thought to contribute to the development of postpartum depression ...


Post-Concussion Experiences Of Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kaitlin Iris Singer 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Post-Concussion Experiences Of Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kaitlin Iris Singer

Doctoral Dissertations

Sports-related concussions are a major public health concern affecting a significant number of collegiate student-athletes. Medical and public health research has addressed every aspect of concussion management processes including concussion education, medical diagnosis, recovery, and returning to sport and classroom. This research has led to several best-practices for concussion management. Since 2010, the NCAA has mandated that its member institutions maintain concussion management policies and procedures. However, the current recommendations, based primarily on medical research, have been found in quantitative studies of the behaviors and practices of athletic trainers, coaches, and student-athletes to be ineffective. To date, no studies have ...


Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman 2016 University of Louisville

Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in whole-body dysfunction. While the majority of SCI research is focused on improving locomotor function after injury, cardiovascular (CV) disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity in the chronic SCI patient population. The combination of injury-induced destruction of autonomic pathways, maladaptive plasticity within lumbosacral circuits, and the progressive decline in physical fitness contribute to the poor CV status of SCI individuals. Currently, there is little emphasis on implementing appropriately-timed acute rehabilitation techniques aimed to curtail maladaptive remodeling and improve CV outcomes. Furthermore, no pre-clinical or clinical studies have investigated the most appropriate time-course ...


Epigenetic Profiling Reveals A Developmental Decrease In Promoter Accessibility During Cortical Maturation In Vivo, Ishwariya Venkatesh, Matthew T. Simpson, Denise M. Coley, Murray G. Blackmore 2016 Marquette University

Epigenetic Profiling Reveals A Developmental Decrease In Promoter Accessibility During Cortical Maturation In Vivo, Ishwariya Venkatesh, Matthew T. Simpson, Denise M. Coley, Murray G. Blackmore

Biomedical Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

Axon regeneration in adult central nervous system (CNS) is limited in part by a developmental decline in the ability of injured neurons to re-express needed regeneration associated genes (RAGs). Adult CNS neurons may lack appropriate pro-regenerative transcription factors, or may display chromatin structure that restricts transcriptional access to RAGs. Here we performed epigenetic profiling around the promoter regions of key RAGs, and found progressive restriction across a time course of cortical maturation. These data identify a potential intrinsic constraint to axon growth in adult CNS neurons. Neurite outgrowth from cultured postnatal cortical neurons, however, proved insensitive to treatments that improve ...


New Roles For Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Signaling In The Physiology And Pathology Of Dopamine Neurons, Paul Kramer 2016 Oregon Health & Science University

New Roles For Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Signaling In The Physiology And Pathology Of Dopamine Neurons, Paul Kramer

Scholar Archive

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) modulate the activity of neurons in many

ways on both short and long timescales. These receptors initiate intracellular

signaling cascades that can activate ion channels, suppress neurotransmitter

release, mobilize calcium release from stores, promote gene transcription,

increase or decrease adenylyl cyclase activity, and perform many other functions.

Therefore the comprehensive result of activating a single GPCR is not

straightforward, and will depend on the context in which that receptor was

stimulated.

Dopamine neurons synthesize and release dopamine throughout the

brain, and contribute to behaviors like movement, learning, and reward; as well

as many diseases of the ...


The Effects Of Synthetic And Dietary Therapeutics On Learning, Memory, Motor Coordination, And Seizure In An Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model, Stephanie Lynn Ciarlone 2016 University of South Florida

The Effects Of Synthetic And Dietary Therapeutics On Learning, Memory, Motor Coordination, And Seizure In An Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model, Stephanie Lynn Ciarlone

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare genetic and neurological disorder presenting with severe developmental delay, ataxia, epilepsy, and lack of speech. AS is associated with a neuron-specific loss of function of the maternal UBE3A allele, a gene encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Currently, no cure exists for this disorder; however, recent research using an AS mouse model suggests that pharmacological intervention is plausible, and can alleviate some of the detrimental phenotypes reported in AS patients.

Although there is no curative treatment for AS, seizure medication and behavioral therapies are most commonly prescribed in order to minimize symptoms. However, these options ...


Hypercapnic Hyperoxia Increases Free Radical Production And Cellular Excitability In Rat Caudal Solitary Complex Brain Slice Neurons, Geoffrey Edward Ciarlone 2016 University of South Florida

Hypercapnic Hyperoxia Increases Free Radical Production And Cellular Excitability In Rat Caudal Solitary Complex Brain Slice Neurons, Geoffrey Edward Ciarlone

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The caudal solitary complex (cSC) is a cardiorespiratory integrative center in the dorsal medulla oblongata that plays a vital role in the central CO2-chemoreceptive network. Neurons in this area respond to hypercapnic acidosis (HA) by a depolarization of the membrane potential and increase in firing rate, however a definitive mechanism for this response remains unknown. Likewise, CO2-chemoreceptive neurons in the cSC respond to hyperoxia in a similar fashion, but via a free radical mediated mechanism. It remains unknown if the response to increased pO2 is merely an increase in redox signaling, or if it’s the result of a pathological ...


Regulation Of Palmitoylation Enzymes And Substrates By Intrinsically Disordered Regions, Krishna D. Reddy 2016 University of South Florida

Regulation Of Palmitoylation Enzymes And Substrates By Intrinsically Disordered Regions, Krishna D. Reddy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Protein palmitoylation refers to the process of adding a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid to the cysteine of a substrate protein, and this can in turn affect the substrate’s localization, stability, folding, and several other processes. This process is catalyzed by a family of 23 mammalian protein acyltransferases (PATs), a family of transmembrane enzymes that modify an estimated 10% of the proteome. At this point in time, no structure of a protein in this family has been solved, and therefore there is poor understanding about the regulation of the enzymes and their substrates. Most proteins, including palmitoylation enzymes and substrates ...


Brainwave Signatures For Detecting Malingered Neurocognitive Deficit (Mncd), Esias K. Bedingar 2016 University of Kentucky

Brainwave Signatures For Detecting Malingered Neurocognitive Deficit (Mncd), Esias K. Bedingar

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Traumatic brain injury is a major public health concern in the United States, affecting up to 1.7 million people each year. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for 80% of these cases. Various tests have been created in order to document brain injury and evaluate cognitive functions. However, neuropsychologists report that up to 40% of individuals undergoing evaluations following mTBI may be malingering deficits. This points to a need for innovative and non-invasive approaches to validating mTBI while identifying malingerers.

The aim of this study was to utilize neuroimaging and behavioral approaches to detect MNCD by comparing the reaction ...


Metabolic Therapy For Temporal Lobe Epilepsy In A Dish: Investigating Mechanisms Of Ketogenic Diet Using Electrophysiological Recordings In Hippocampal Slices, Masahito Kawamura Jr., David N. Ruskin, Susan A. Masino 2016 Trinity College

Metabolic Therapy For Temporal Lobe Epilepsy In A Dish: Investigating Mechanisms Of Ketogenic Diet Using Electrophysiological Recordings In Hippocampal Slices, Masahito Kawamura Jr., David N. Ruskin, Susan A. Masino

Faculty Scholarship

The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these ...


When Empathy Bites Back: Cautionary Tales From Neuroscience For Capital Sentencing, Sheri Lynn Johnson, Amelia Courtney Hritz, Caisa Elizabeth Royer, John H. Blume 2016 Cornell Law School

When Empathy Bites Back: Cautionary Tales From Neuroscience For Capital Sentencing, Sheri Lynn Johnson, Amelia Courtney Hritz, Caisa Elizabeth Royer, John H. Blume

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

The neuroscience of empathy provides one more reason to believe that the decision to sentence another human being to death is inevitably an arbitrary one, and one that cannot be divorced from either race or caprice. While we can tinker with aspects of capital trials that exacerbate caprice and discrimination stemming from empathy, we cannot alter basic neural responses to the pain of others and therefore cannot rationalize (in either sense of the word) empathic responses.


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