Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Neurosciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1353 Full-Text Articles 3106 Authors 249346 Downloads 99 Institutions

All Articles in Neurosciences

Faceted Search

1353 full-text articles. Page 1 of 52.

Concussion As A Multi-Scale Complex System: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis Of Current Knowledge, Erin S. Kenzie, Elle L. Parks, Erin D. Bigler, Miranda M. Lim, James C. Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland 2017 Portland State University

Concussion As A Multi-Scale Complex System: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis Of Current Knowledge, Erin S. Kenzie, Elle L. Parks, Erin D. Bigler, Miranda M. Lim, James C. Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland

Wayne W. Wakeland

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called “the most complicated disease of the most complex organ of the body” and is an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Many patients report long-term impairments following even “mild” injuries, but reliable criteria for diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Every clinical trial for TBI treatment to date has failed to demonstrate reliable and safe improvement in outcomes, and the existing body of literature is insufficient to support the creation of a new classification system. Concussion, or mild TBI, is a highly heterogeneous phenomenon, and numerous factors interact dynamically to influence an individual’s recovery ...


Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

The hippocampus is critical for episodic memory, and synaptic changes induced by long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to underlie memory formation. In rodents, hippocampal LTP may be induced through electrical stimulation of the perforant path. To test whether similar techniques could improve episodic memory in humans, we implemented a microstimulation technique that allowed delivery of low-current electrical stimulation via 100 μm-diameter microelectrodes. As thirteen neurosurgical patients performed a person recognition task, microstimulation was applied in a theta-burst pattern, shown to optimally induce LTP. Microstimulation in the right entorhinal area during learning significantly improved subsequent memory specificity for novel portraits; participants ...


Sex Differential In 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Levels In The Lumen Of Human Intracranial Aneurysms., Nohra Chalouhi, Pascal Jabbour, Mario Zanaty, Robert M. Starke, James Torner, Daichi Nakagawa, David M. Hasan 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Sex Differential In 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Levels In The Lumen Of Human Intracranial Aneurysms., Nohra Chalouhi, Pascal Jabbour, Mario Zanaty, Robert M. Starke, James Torner, Daichi Nakagawa, David M. Hasan

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Aspirin is a promising medical therapy for the prevention of intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. Recently, we found that men have a better response to aspirin than women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a sex differential exists in the level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) in the lumen of human IAs.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients undergoing coiling or stent-assisted coiling for a saccular IA at our institution were enrolled. Two samples (A and B) were collected from IA lumens, and the plasma level of 15-PGDH was measured using an ELISA-based method. The study included 38 patients ...


Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist 2017 Cedarville University

Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

This paper will attempt to address God's grace towards those with mental illnesses. It also attempts to provide direction in response to historical church views towards this population. Through scripture, this paper seeks to emphasize the importance of seeing a person as more than what they physically appear capable of - seeing people through God's eyes.


Finasteride As A Model For Personalized Medicine, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland, Ioana Păunică, Octavian C. Tănăsescu, Petrişor Banu, Stana Păunică 2017 Carol Davila University, Faculty of General Medicine, Bucharest, Romania

Finasteride As A Model For Personalized Medicine, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland, Ioana Păunică, Octavian C. Tănăsescu, Petrişor Banu, Stana Păunică

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The side effects of Finasteride are currently a subject of controversy. Some studies report minor or acceptable adverse effects, which decrease after a variable period of time so that they do not necessitate terminating Finasteride administration. However, several clinical and neuro-endocrine studies show that some adverse effects persist indefinitely in the form of post-Finasteride syndrome, even after the drug cessation. This paper presents a possible explanation for these inconsistent findings. First, the study design of either informing or not informing patients prior therapy about possible adverse effects can influence the incidence and magnitude of reported adverse effects. Second, structural and ...


Pontine Haemorrhage Due To Chondrosarcoma Of The Skull Base, Maliha Iqbal Jumani, Roomasa Channa, Sayed Nabeel Zafar, S. Ather Enam 2017 Aga Khan University

Pontine Haemorrhage Due To Chondrosarcoma Of The Skull Base, Maliha Iqbal Jumani, Roomasa Channa, Sayed Nabeel Zafar, S. Ather Enam

Ather Enam

A young adult presented with acute weakness of right side of body and slurring of speech. An initial brain CT scan showed a pontine haemorrhage, however MRI done a few days later revealed a mass in the left parapharyngeal space. Histopathology of the mass revealed that it was a chondrosarcoma. Subsequently the patient was initially treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and later surgery. Skull base chondrosarcomabe is to be included in the differentials of a young patient presenting with signs consistent with pontine haemorrhage.


Concussion As A Multi-Scale Complex System: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis Of Current Knowledge, Erin S. Kenzie, Elle L. Parks, Erin D. Bigler, Miranda M. Lim, James C. Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland 2017 Portland State University

Concussion As A Multi-Scale Complex System: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis Of Current Knowledge, Erin S. Kenzie, Elle L. Parks, Erin D. Bigler, Miranda M. Lim, James C. Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called “the most complicated disease of the most complex organ of the body” and is an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Many patients report long-term impairments following even “mild” injuries, but reliable criteria for diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Every clinical trial for TBI treatment to date has failed to demonstrate reliable and safe improvement in outcomes, and the existing body of literature is insufficient to support the creation of a new classification system. Concussion, or mild TBI, is a highly heterogeneous phenomenon, and numerous factors interact dynamically to influence an individual’s recovery ...


Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski 2017 Brown University

Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI. Moderate to severe TBI elicits neuroinflammation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is associated with memory deficits. Here we demonstrate that CN2097 significantly reduces the post-traumatic synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and inhibits the ...


Brief Of Amici Curiae Of 11 Addiction Experts In Support Of Appellee, Gene M. Heyman, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Stephen J. Morse, Sally L. Satel 2017 Boston College

Brief Of Amici Curiae Of 11 Addiction Experts In Support Of Appellee, Gene M. Heyman, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Stephen J. Morse, Sally L. Satel

Faculty Scholarship

This brief is a critique of the brain disease model and many supposed implications of that model. It begins with a brief history of the model and moves to a discussion of the motivations behind the characterization of addiction as a “chronic and relapsing brain disease.” We follow with an enumeration of fallacious inferences based upon the brain disease model, including the very notion that addiction becomes a “brain disease” simply because it has neurobiological correlates. Regardless of whether addiction is labeled a brain disease, the real question, we contend, is whether the behavioral manifestations of addiction are unresponsive to ...


Novel Influences Of Il-10 On Cns Inflammation Revealed By Integrated Analyses Of Cytokine Networks And Microglial Morphology., Warren D. Anderson, Andrew D. Greenhalgh, Aditya Takwale, Samuel David, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Novel Influences Of Il-10 On Cns Inflammation Revealed By Integrated Analyses Of Cytokine Networks And Microglial Morphology., Warren D. Anderson, Andrew D. Greenhalgh, Aditya Takwale, Samuel David, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Coordinated interactions between cytokine signaling and morphological dynamics of microglial cells regulate neuroinflammation in CNS injury and disease. We found that pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in vivo showed a pronounced recovery following systemic LPS. We performed a novel multivariate analysis of microglial morphology and identified changes in specific morphological properties of microglia that matched the expression dynamics of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. The adaptive recovery kinetics of TNFα expression and microglial soma size showed comparable profiles and dependence on anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 expression. The recovery of cytokine variations and microglial morphology responses to inflammation were negatively regulated by IL-10. Our novel ...


Induction Of Mir-155 After Brain Injury Promotes Type 1 Interferon And Has A Neuroprotective Effect., Emily Harrison, Kathleen M. Emanuel, Benjamin G. Lamberty, Brenda M. Morsey, Min Li, Matthew L. Kelso, Sowmya V. Yelamanchili, Howard S. Fox 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Induction Of Mir-155 After Brain Injury Promotes Type 1 Interferon And Has A Neuroprotective Effect., Emily Harrison, Kathleen M. Emanuel, Benjamin G. Lamberty, Brenda M. Morsey, Min Li, Matthew L. Kelso, Sowmya V. Yelamanchili, Howard S. Fox

Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces profound and lasting neuroinflammation that has both beneficial and detrimental effects. Recent evidence has implicated microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of inflammation both in the periphery and the CNS. We examined the expression of inflammation associated miRNAs in the context of TBI using a mouse controlled cortical impact (CCI) model and found increased levels of miR-21, miR-223 and miR-155 in the hippocampus after CCI. The expression of miR-155 was elevated 9-fold after CCI, an increase confirmed by in situ hybridization (ISH). Interestingly, expression of miR-155 was largely found in neuronal nuclei as evidenced by co-localization ...


Δfosb Regulates Gene Expression And Cognitive Dysfunction In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer's Disease., Brian F Corbett, Jason C You, Xiaohong Zhang, Mark S Pyfer, Umberto Tosi, Daniel M Iascone, Iraklis Petrof, Anupam Hazra, Chia-Hsuan Fu, Gabriel S Stephens, Annie Ashok, Suzan Aschmies, Lijuan Zhao, Eric J Nestler, Jeannie Chin 2017 Department of Neuroscience and Farber Institute for Neurosciences, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA

Δfosb Regulates Gene Expression And Cognitive Dysfunction In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer's Disease., Brian F Corbett, Jason C You, Xiaohong Zhang, Mark S Pyfer, Umberto Tosi, Daniel M Iascone, Iraklis Petrof, Anupam Hazra, Chia-Hsuan Fu, Gabriel S Stephens, Annie Ashok, Suzan Aschmies, Lijuan Zhao, Eric J Nestler, Jeannie Chin

Department of Neuroscience

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive decline and 5- to 10-fold increased seizure incidence. How seizures contribute to cognitive decline in AD or other disorders is unclear. We show that spontaneous seizures increase expression of ΔFosB, a highly stable Fos-family transcription factor, in the hippocampus of an AD mouse model. ΔFosB suppressed expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos, which is critical for plasticity and cognition, by binding its promoter and triggering histone deacetylation. Acute histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition or inhibition of ΔFosB activity restored c-Fos induction and improved cognition in AD mice. Administration of seizure-inducing agents to ...


Alzheimer’S Disease: Dawn Of A New Era?, Farideh Amirrad, Emira Bousoik, Kiumars Shamloo, Hassan Al-Shiyab, Viet-Hong Nguyen, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2017 Chapman University

Alzheimer’S Disease: Dawn Of A New Era?, Farideh Amirrad, Emira Bousoik, Kiumars Shamloo, Hassan Al-Shiyab, Viet-Hong Nguyen, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognition and memory, leading to significant impairment in daily activities and ultimately death. It is the most common cause of dementia, the prevalence of which increases with age; however, age is not the only predisposing factor. The pathology of this cognitive impairing disease is still not completely understood, which has limited the development of valid therapeutic options. Recent years have witnessed a wide range of novel approaches to combat this disease, so that they greatly increased our understanding of the disease and of the unique ...


The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, Chung Lung Chan 2017 Marquette University

The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, Chung Lung Chan

Dissertations (2009 -)

Humans and animals are constantly exposed to external stimuli. The ability to process reward value of a stimulus is critical to guiding appropriate behavior and essential for survival. These processes are regulated by neuronal activity and neurochemical signaling in the reward circuitry, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The NAc receives dopaminergic inputs from the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends GABAergic projections to the ventral pallidum (VP). Electrophysiological studies have characterized phasic neuronal responses in the NAc that differential encode appetitive and aversive taste stimuli. Exposure to an appetitive taste stimulus evoked predominantly phasic inhibitory responses in the ...


An Anatomical Study Of The Hyperpallium Densocellulare In The Pigeon (Columba Livia), Sara Leilani Kellogg 2017 University of South Florida

An Anatomical Study Of The Hyperpallium Densocellulare In The Pigeon (Columba Livia), Sara Leilani Kellogg

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The hyperpallium densocellulare (HD) is an avian cerebral structure, the origin of which remains unclear and considered to be critical to the understanding of the non-mammalian forebrain evolution. The main goal of this investigation was to clarify the anatomical characteristics and behavioral implications of HD, which had been assumed to be a homogeneous unitary entity. This project had three specific aims: 1) To identify possible subdivisions of HD in terms of cytoarchitecture, Substance P distribution, and connections based on unpublished (Aim 1a) as well as published data (Aim 1b); 2) To identify the unknown connections of these subdivisions by using ...


Presynaptic Lrp4 Promotes Synapse Number And Function Of Excitatory Cns Neurons., Timothy J. Mosca, David J. Luginbuhl, Irving E. Wang, Liqun Luo 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Presynaptic Lrp4 Promotes Synapse Number And Function Of Excitatory Cns Neurons., Timothy J. Mosca, David J. Luginbuhl, Irving E. Wang, Liqun Luo

Department of Neuroscience

Precise coordination of synaptic connections ensures proper information flow within circuits. The activity of presynaptic organizing molecules signaling to downstream pathways is essential for such coordination, though such entities remain incompletely known. We show that LRP4, a conserved transmembrane protein known for its postsynaptic roles, functions presynaptically as an organizing molecule. In the Drosophila brain, LRP4 localizes to the nerve terminals at or near active zones. Loss of presynaptic LRP4 reduces excitatory (not inhibitory) synapse number, impairs active zone architecture, and abolishes olfactory attraction - the latter of which can be suppressed by reducing presynaptic GABAB receptors. LRP4 overexpression increases synapse ...


Synaptic Computations In The Olfactory Bulb Glomerular Microcircuit, Christopher Vaaga 2017 Oregon Health & Science University

Synaptic Computations In The Olfactory Bulb Glomerular Microcircuit, Christopher Vaaga

Scholar Archive

No abstract provided.


Mixed-Mode Oscillations In Pyramidal Neurons Under Antiepileptic Drug Conditions, Babak V-Ghaffari, M. Kouhnavard, Sherif M. Elbasiouny 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Mixed-Mode Oscillations In Pyramidal Neurons Under Antiepileptic Drug Conditions, Babak V-Ghaffari, M. Kouhnavard, Sherif M. Elbasiouny

Neuroscience, Cell Biology, & Physiology Faculty Publications

Subthreshold oscillations in combination with large-amplitude oscillations generate mixedmode oscillations (MMOs), which mediate various spatial and temporal cognition and memory processes and behavioral motor tasks. Although many studies have shown that canard theory is a reliable method to investigate the properties underlying the MMOs phenomena, the relationship between the results obtained by applying canard theory and conductancebased models of neurons and their electrophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. The goal of this study was to apply canard theory to the conductance-based model of pyramidal neurons in layer V of the Entorhinal Cortex to investigate the properties of MMOs under ...


A Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On: Movement Disorders Caused By Brain Trauma, Jack E. Hubbard, Samuel D. Hodge, Jr. 2017 Temple University

A Whole Lot Of Shakin' Going On: Movement Disorders Caused By Brain Trauma, Jack E. Hubbard, Samuel D. Hodge, Jr.

Cleveland State Law Review

There has been a lot of publicity directed to the consequence of brain trauma, such as headaches forgetfulness, irritability, and depression. That is only part of the sequelae. A little-known but challenging result of brain trauma is the development of or aggravation of a movement disorder such as a tremor, dystonia, a tic, or Parkinson’s Disease.

A movement disorder is an all-encompassing term that refers to a constellation of neurological issues that cause involuntary or voluntary movements or abnormal positioning of a body part. Various regions of the brain interact with each other to control movements of the body ...


The Trial Lawyer And The Reptilian Brain: A Critique, Louis J. Sirico, Jr. 2017 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

The Trial Lawyer And The Reptilian Brain: A Critique, Louis J. Sirico, Jr.

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article brings together neuroscience, cultural symbolism, and the strategies of practicing lawyers to critique the reptile strategy, now popular among trial lawyers. The strategy directs the lawyer to trigger the reptilian brains of jurors so that they react instinctively to threats to themselves and their communities. When humans feel threatened, the reptilian brain, the most primitive part of the brain, takes charge and instinctively controls human conduct. Therefore, if a lawyer can make a juror feel threatened, the lawyer makes an appeal to the juror’s reptilian brain and virtually assures a victory. Thus, a lawyer’s argument should ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress