Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Neurosciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1230 Full-Text Articles 2653 Authors 143916 Downloads 98 Institutions

All Articles in Neurosciences

Faceted Search

1230 full-text articles. Page 1 of 45.

Persistent Neurobehavioral Traits In A Mouse Model Of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure, Jill M. Lawrence 2017 Ursinus College

Persistent Neurobehavioral Traits In A Mouse Model Of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure, Jill M. Lawrence

Neuroscience Honors Papers

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) effect an estimated 2% of the population, causing a range of symptoms: from craniofacial defects to inhibited cortical growth (May, et al., 2009; Murawski, et al., 2015). Impaired medial forebrain function apparent in FASD is associated with lifelong cognitive behavioral deficits, but these consequences may be avoided with early diagnosis and intervention (Streissguth, et al., 2004). Our goal is to identify early neurobehavioral abnormalities that persist into adulthood that could potentially serve as early indicators for FASD. Mouse models of prenatal ethanol exposure were developed using a voluntary drinking paradigm that introduced a sweetened ethanol ...


The Use Of Rhyme, Rhythm, And Melody As A Form Of Repetition Priming To Aid In Encoding, Storage, And Retrieval Of Semantic Memories In Alzheimer’S Patients, Faiz Plastikwala 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Use Of Rhyme, Rhythm, And Melody As A Form Of Repetition Priming To Aid In Encoding, Storage, And Retrieval Of Semantic Memories In Alzheimer’S Patients, Faiz Plastikwala

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Treating Alzheimer’s disease, especially through non-pharmaceutical means, has become increasingly important over the past few decades. I examined the use of melody, rhyme, and rhythm as encoding mechanisms to aid in the retrieval of long term semantic information by juxtaposing previous experiments in the field. Melody, rhyme, and rhythm provide an organizational structure to facilitate the encoding of information. Specifically, chunking, the grouping of smaller units into larger ‘chunks’, helps facilitate long term encoding in patients, and is the byproduct of the organizational structure of a text. A major drawback of using these devices is the loss in the ...


Informational Dichotomy Of The Mind; The Role Of Sexual Neuromodulators, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland 2017 Carol Davila University, St. Pantelimon Hospital

Informational Dichotomy Of The Mind; The Role Of Sexual Neuromodulators, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Many basic physiological mechanisms of sexuality were initially studied on animal subjects and conclusions regarding human subjects extrapolated afterward. These ancestral reflexes are assumed to have ascended during human evolution to the cerebral level, where cognition would intermediate (being an environmental operator) both sexual and mental processes. Accordingly, the study of human sexuality suggests an additional/ particular documentation regarding mental existence and its implication, phenomena that are not characteristic of animals.

In a previously published paper we presented ideas regarding the structural dichotomy of the mind and its subsequent implications to sexuality. In this paper we present a general perspective ...


Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez 2017 Wright State University

Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez

Francisco J. Alvarez

Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw ...


Use Of Porous Elastomer Foams To Support Long Term Three Dimensional Neuronal Cultures, Richard M. Cukelj, Elda Hegmann, Ernest Freeman, Jennifer McDonough, Robert Clements 2017 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Use Of Porous Elastomer Foams To Support Long Term Three Dimensional Neuronal Cultures, Richard M. Cukelj, Elda Hegmann, Ernest Freeman, Jennifer Mcdonough, Robert Clements

Undergraduate Research Symposium

In order to effectively study the interactions that occur between neurons found in the brain, spatially and after an extended period of time, it is necessary to have reliable, repeatable studies. This is difficult to accomplish through conventional two-dimensional cell culture techniques, but three dimensional (3D) elastomer foams satisfy these criteria. Here we present a platform to study complex neuronal networks for extended periods in vitro. Elastomer foams were constructed with pore sizes ranging from 150μm to 400μm with 40μm secondary pores which allowed human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) to adhere and interact with the foam and be sustained for long ...


P03. Role Of Prefrontal Cortical Dopamine Transmission In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Opiate Addiction Vulnerability, Jingjing Li 2017 Western University

P03. Role Of Prefrontal Cortical Dopamine Transmission In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Opiate Addiction Vulnerability, Jingjing Li

Western Research Forum

Background

PTSD and opiate addiction share strong co-morbidity and the inability to suppress obtrusive memory recall related to either stressful or rewarding experiences may be an underlying neuropsychological feature triggering PTSD and/or addiction. Our previous research has shown that dopamine (DA) transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) strongly modulates emotional memory formation: activation of the DA D4 receptor (D4R) strongly potentiates the emotional salience of normally non-salient fear memories whereas DA D1 receptor (D1R) activation blocks the behavioural recall of fear memory. Thus, while intra-PFC D4 transmission strongly controls the acquisition of emotional memory, D1 transmission is selectively involved ...


A Mature Macrophage Is A Principal Hiv-1 Cellular Reservoir In Humanized Mice After Treatment With Long Acting Antiretroviral Therapy., Mariluz Araínga, Benson J. Edagwa, R. Lee Mosley, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Santhi Gorantla, Howard Gendelman 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

A Mature Macrophage Is A Principal Hiv-1 Cellular Reservoir In Humanized Mice After Treatment With Long Acting Antiretroviral Therapy., Mariluz Araínga, Benson J. Edagwa, R. Lee Mosley, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Santhi Gorantla, Howard Gendelman

Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience

BACKGROUND: Despite improved clinical outcomes seen following antiretroviral therapy (ART), resting CD4+ T cells continue to harbor latent human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1). However, such cells are not likely the solitary viral reservoir and as such defining where and how others harbor virus is imperative for eradication measures. To such ends, we used HIV-1ADA-infected NOD.Cg-Prkdc (scid) Il2rg (tm1Wjl) /SzJ mice reconstituted with a human immune system to explore two long-acting ART regimens investigating their abilities to affect viral cell infection and latency. At 6 weeks of infection animals were divided into four groups. One received long-acting (LA) cabotegravir ...


Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This is a chapter in a volume, Ethics Dilemmas in Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Practice, edited by Ezra E. H. Griffith, M.D. and to be published by Columbia University Press. The chapter addresses whether the use of new neuroscience techniques, especially non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the data from studies employing them raise new ethical issues for forensic psychiatrists and psychologists. The implicit thesis throughout is that if the legal questions, the limits of the new techniques and the relevance of neuroscience to law are properly understood, no new ethical issues are raised. A major ethical lapse ...


Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, Martha Jean Sonner, Marie C. Walters, David R. Ladle 2017 Wright State University

Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, Martha Jean Sonner, Marie C. Walters, David R. Ladle

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Muscle proprioceptive afferents provide feedback critical for successful execution of motor tasks via specialized mechanoreceptors housed within skeletal muscles: muscle spindles, supplied by group Ia and group II afferents, and Golgi tendon organs, supplied by group Ib afferents. The morphology of these proprioceptors and their associated afferents has been studied extensively in the cat soleus, and to a lesser degree, in the rat; however, quantitative analyses of proprioceptive innervation in the mouse soleus are comparatively limited. The present study employed genetically-encoded fluorescent reporting systems to label and analyze muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and the proprioceptive sensory neuron subpopulations supplying ...


Regulation Of Sleep Plasticity By A Thermo-Sensitive Circuit In Drosophila., Angelique Lamaze, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Robin Fischer, Nicolai Peschel, Kyunghee Koh, James E.C. Jepson 2017 UCL Institute of Neurology

Regulation Of Sleep Plasticity By A Thermo-Sensitive Circuit In Drosophila., Angelique Lamaze, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Robin Fischer, Nicolai Peschel, Kyunghee Koh, James E.C. Jepson

Department of Neuroscience

Sleep is a highly conserved and essential behaviour in many species, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the wild, sensory signalling encoding environmental information must be integrated with sleep drive to ensure that sleep is not initiated during detrimental conditions. However, the molecular and circuit mechanisms by which sleep timing is modulated by the environment are unclear. Here we introduce a novel behavioural paradigm to study this issue. We show that in male fruit flies, onset of the daytime siesta is delayed by ambient temperatures above 29 °C. We term this effect Prolonged Morning Wakefulness (PMW). We show that ...


Neuroinflammation In Alzheimer's Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Erica M. Weekman 2017 University of Kentucky

Neuroinflammation In Alzheimer's Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Erica M. Weekman

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

It was once believed that the brain was immunologically privileged with no resident or infiltrating immune cells; however, now it is understood that the cells of the brain are capable of a wide range of inflammatory processes and phenotypes. Inflammation in the brain has been implicated in several disease processes such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID); however, the role of inflammation in these two dementias is poorly understood.

When we stimulated a pro-inflammatory phenotype with an adeno-associated viral vector in a transgenic mouse model of AD that develops Aβ plaques, we saw a ...


Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas 2017 University of Alberta

Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction: Amylin receptor serves as a portal for the expression of deleterious effects of amyloid b-protein (Ab), a key pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we showed that AC253, an amylin receptor antagonist, is neuroprotective against Ab toxicity in vitro and abrogates Ab-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation.

Methods: Amyloid precursor protein–overexpressing TgCRND8 mice received intracerebroventricularly AC253 for 5 months. New cyclized peptide cAC253 was synthesized and administered intraperitoneally three times a week for 10 weeks in the same mouse model. Cognitive functions were monitored, and pathologic changes were quantified biochemically and immunohistochemically.

Results: AC253, when administered intracerebroventricularly ...


Analysis Of The Secondary Neurodegenerative Consequences Of Primary Oligodendrocyte Stress Through The Use Of The Novel Obiden Mouse Model, Daniel Zdzislaw Radecki 2017 Wayne State University

Analysis Of The Secondary Neurodegenerative Consequences Of Primary Oligodendrocyte Stress Through The Use Of The Novel Obiden Mouse Model, Daniel Zdzislaw Radecki

Wayne State University Dissertations

The work of this project was to develop, test and characterize a potential novel mouse model of the neurodegenerative disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Historically, MS has been identified as a primary autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). However, treatments based on this view have met with limited success, and in most cases, fail to prevent progression of MS from mild to moderate and severe forms. Original observations regarding axonal and neuronal pathology in the white and gray matter of the CNS were rediscovered in the 1990s. These observations indicated that even in the absence of the immune system ...


Brain Connectivity After Concussion, Armin Iraji 2017 Wayne State University

Brain Connectivity After Concussion, Armin Iraji

Wayne State University Dissertations

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for over one million emergency visits in the United States each year. While most mTBI patients have normal findings in clinical neuroimaging, alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity have frequently been reported. In this study, we investigated the large-scale brain structural and functional connectivity using diffusion MRI and resting-state fMRI data. Data from 40 mTBI patients was acquired at the acute stage (within 24 hrs after injury). 35 patients returned for data acquisition at a follow-up (4-6 weeks after injury). Data was also collected from a cohort of 58 healthy subjects, 36 of ...


An Examination Of The Neural Unreliability Thesis Of Autism, John Butler, Sophie Molholm, Gizely Andrade, John J. Foxe 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

An Examination Of The Neural Unreliability Thesis Of Autism, John Butler, Sophie Molholm, Gizely Andrade, John J. Foxe

Articles

An emerging neuropathological theory of Autism, referred to here as “the neural unreliability thesis,” proposes greater variability in moment-to-moment cortical representation of environmental events, such that the system shows general instability in its impulse response function. Leading evidence for this thesis derives from functional neuroimaging, a methodology ill-suited for detailed assessment of sensory transmission dynamics occurring at the millisecond scale. Electrophysiological assessments of this thesis, however, are sparse and unconvincing. We conducted detailed examination of visual and somatosensory evoked activity using high-density electrical mapping in individuals with autism (N = 20) and precisely matched neurotypical controls (N = 20), recording large numbers ...


An Examination Into The Relationship Between Iron Deficiency And Postpartum Depression, Sara A. Burroughs 2016 Liberty University

An Examination Into The Relationship Between Iron Deficiency And Postpartum Depression, Sara A. Burroughs

Senior Honors Theses

Postpartum depression is recognized as the most common complication of childbearing; however, its etiology remains fairly undetermined. Many different influences have been hypothesized as to what may cause postpartum depression, including changes in levels of various hormones (such as estrogen and progesterone), a decrease in serotonin, low levels of vitamin D, social factors, and iron deficiency. The lack of strong evidence for one specific cause makes it fairly clear that there are many factors that play a role in the development of postpartum depression. Iron deficiency is one issue that is thought to contribute to the development of postpartum depression ...


Epigenetic Profiling Reveals A Developmental Decrease In Promoter Accessibility During Cortical Maturation In Vivo, Ishwariya Venkatesh, Matthew T. Simpson, Denise M. Coley, Murray G. Blackmore 2016 Marquette University

Epigenetic Profiling Reveals A Developmental Decrease In Promoter Accessibility During Cortical Maturation In Vivo, Ishwariya Venkatesh, Matthew T. Simpson, Denise M. Coley, Murray G. Blackmore

Biomedical Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

Axon regeneration in adult central nervous system (CNS) is limited in part by a developmental decline in the ability of injured neurons to re-express needed regeneration associated genes (RAGs). Adult CNS neurons may lack appropriate pro-regenerative transcription factors, or may display chromatin structure that restricts transcriptional access to RAGs. Here we performed epigenetic profiling around the promoter regions of key RAGs, and found progressive restriction across a time course of cortical maturation. These data identify a potential intrinsic constraint to axon growth in adult CNS neurons. Neurite outgrowth from cultured postnatal cortical neurons, however, proved insensitive to treatments that improve ...


Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman 2016 University of Louisville

Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in whole-body dysfunction. While the majority of SCI research is focused on improving locomotor function after injury, cardiovascular (CV) disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity in the chronic SCI patient population. The combination of injury-induced destruction of autonomic pathways, maladaptive plasticity within lumbosacral circuits, and the progressive decline in physical fitness contribute to the poor CV status of SCI individuals. Currently, there is little emphasis on implementing appropriately-timed acute rehabilitation techniques aimed to curtail maladaptive remodeling and improve CV outcomes. Furthermore, no pre-clinical or clinical studies have investigated the most appropriate time-course ...


Post-Concussion Experiences Of Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kaitlin Iris Singer 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Post-Concussion Experiences Of Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kaitlin Iris Singer

Doctoral Dissertations

Sports-related concussions are a major public health concern affecting a significant number of collegiate student-athletes. Medical and public health research has addressed every aspect of concussion management processes including concussion education, medical diagnosis, recovery, and returning to sport and classroom. This research has led to several best-practices for concussion management. Since 2010, the NCAA has mandated that its member institutions maintain concussion management policies and procedures. However, the current recommendations, based primarily on medical research, have been found in quantitative studies of the behaviors and practices of athletic trainers, coaches, and student-athletes to be ineffective. To date, no studies have ...


New Roles For Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Signaling In The Physiology And Pathology Of Dopamine Neurons, Paul Kramer 2016 Oregon Health & Science University

New Roles For Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Signaling In The Physiology And Pathology Of Dopamine Neurons, Paul Kramer

Scholar Archive

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) modulate the activity of neurons in many

ways on both short and long timescales. These receptors initiate intracellular

signaling cascades that can activate ion channels, suppress neurotransmitter

release, mobilize calcium release from stores, promote gene transcription,

increase or decrease adenylyl cyclase activity, and perform many other functions.

Therefore the comprehensive result of activating a single GPCR is not

straightforward, and will depend on the context in which that receptor was

stimulated.

Dopamine neurons synthesize and release dopamine throughout the

brain, and contribute to behaviors like movement, learning, and reward; as well

as many diseases of the ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress