Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Neurosciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,995 Full-Text Articles 5,713 Authors 338,100 Downloads 130 Institutions

All Articles in Neurosciences

Faceted Search

1,995 full-text articles. Page 1 of 82.

Neural Stem Cell Metabolic Changes In The Presence Of Interferon-Gamma, Dylan McKibben 2021 The University of Akron

Neural Stem Cell Metabolic Changes In The Presence Of Interferon-Gamma, Dylan Mckibben

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Spinal cord injury results in significant disability and health care costs due to an inability of the mature central nervous system to regenerate. One potential therapy would be implantation of neural stem cells to the injury site and stimulation of their differentiation to mature neurons. Previous work has shown that the cytokine interferon-gamma can promote this process; however, the signaling pathways induced in neural stem cells have not been well-defined. This proposal examines neural stem cell metabolic responses to signaling induced by interferon-gamma. Two questions will be answered: i) What specific metabolic pathway is activated to guide neural stem cell ...


Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Electrochemical Evaluation Of A Multi-Site Clinical Depth Recording Electrode For Monitoring Cerebral Tissue Oxygen, Ana Ledo, Eliana Fernandes, Jorge E. Quintero, Greg A. Gerhardt, Rui M. Barbosa 2020 University of Coimbra, Portugal

Electrochemical Evaluation Of A Multi-Site Clinical Depth Recording Electrode For Monitoring Cerebral Tissue Oxygen, Ana Ledo, Eliana Fernandes, Jorge E. Quintero, Greg A. Gerhardt, Rui M. Barbosa

Neurosurgery Faculty Publications

The intracranial measurement of local cerebral tissue oxygen levels—PbtO2—has become a useful tool for the critical care unit to investigate severe trauma and ischemia injury in patients. Our preliminary work in animal models supports the hypothesis that multi-site depth electrode recording of PbtO2 may give surgeons and critical care providers needed information about brain viability and the capacity for better recovery. Here, we present a surface morphology characterization and an electrochemical evaluation of the analytical properties toward oxygen detection of an FDA-approved, commercially available, clinical grade depth recording electrode comprising 12 Pt recording contacts. We found ...


Ire1Α And Igf Signaling Predict Resistance To An Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Inducing Drug In Glioblastoma Cells., Jeffrey J Rodvold, Su Xian, Julia Nussbacher, Brian Tsui, T Cameron Waller, Stephen C Searles, Alyssa Lew, Pengfei Jiang, Ivan Babic, Natsuko Nomura, Jonathan H Lin, Santosh Kesari, Hannah Carter, Maurizio Zanetti 2020 Department of Translational Neurosciences and Neurotherapeutics, John Wayne Cancer Institute/Pacific Neuroscience Institute, 2200 Santa Monica Boulevard, Santa Monica, CA, 90404, USA

Ire1Α And Igf Signaling Predict Resistance To An Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Inducing Drug In Glioblastoma Cells., Jeffrey J Rodvold, Su Xian, Julia Nussbacher, Brian Tsui, T Cameron Waller, Stephen C Searles, Alyssa Lew, Pengfei Jiang, Ivan Babic, Natsuko Nomura, Jonathan H Lin, Santosh Kesari, Hannah Carter, Maurizio Zanetti

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

To date current therapies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are largely ineffective. The induction of apoptosis by an unresolvable unfolded protein response (UPR) represents a potential new therapeutic strategy. Here we tested 12ADT, a sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor, on a panel of unselected patient-derived neurosphere-forming cells and found that GBM cells can be distinguished into "responder" and "non-responder". By RNASeq analysis we found that the non-responder phenotype is significantly linked with the expression of UPR genes, and in particular ERN1 (IRE1) and ATF4. We also identified two additional genes selectively overexpressed among non-responders, IGFBP3 and IGFBP5. CRISPR-mediated deletion of ...


The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma

Theses & Dissertations

Sympatho-excitation is a key characteristic in cardiovascular diseases such as chronic heart failure (CHF) and primary Hypertension (HTN). Evidence suggests that increased sympathetic tone is closely related to activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAAS) in the central nervous system. An underlying mechanism for sympatho-excitation is thought to be oxidative stress resulting from Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. Over the past several decades, pharmacological targeting of components of the RAAS have been used as standard therapy in CHF and HTN. However, additional therapeutic strategies are necessary to control these diseases. Oxidative stress is regulated, in part, by the ...


Correlation Of Inflammation In Arthritis With The Myelination In The Brain, Anna Spears 2020 University of Mississippi

Correlation Of Inflammation In Arthritis With The Myelination In The Brain, Anna Spears

Honors Theses

This study was conducted to investigate whether the influence of arthritis has an effect on the cerebral white matter. The project was performed at the South Oxford Campus, where diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was obtained from the Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample (NKI- RS). Image processing was conducted using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Software Library in which we obtained raw data to formulate Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), Axial Diffusivity (AD), Radial Diffusivity (RD), and Fractional Anisotropy. A one way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to determine the significant difference between the history of arthritis on each of ...


Are "Replicants" The Spine Surgeons Of The Future?, Jens R Chapman, Jeffrey C Wang, Karsten Wiechert 2020 Swedish Neuroscience Institute

Are "Replicants" The Spine Surgeons Of The Future?, Jens R Chapman, Jeffrey C Wang, Karsten Wiechert

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

No abstract provided.


Baclofen-Induced Changes In The Resting Brain Modulate Smoking Cue Reactivity: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study In Cigarette Smokers, Ariel Ketcherside, Kanchana Jagannathan, Sudipto Dolui, Nathan Hager, Nathaniel Spilka, Chaela Nutor, Hengyi Rao, Teresa Franklin, Reagan Wetherill 2020 Old Dominion University

Baclofen-Induced Changes In The Resting Brain Modulate Smoking Cue Reactivity: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study In Cigarette Smokers, Ariel Ketcherside, Kanchana Jagannathan, Sudipto Dolui, Nathan Hager, Nathaniel Spilka, Chaela Nutor, Hengyi Rao, Teresa Franklin, Reagan Wetherill

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: Smoking cue-(SC) elicited craving can lead to relapse in SC-vulnerable individuals. Thus, identifying treatments that target SC-elicited craving is a top research priority. Reduced drug cue neural activity is associated with recovery and is marked by a profile of greater tonic (resting) activation in executive control regions, and increased connectivity between executive and salience regions. Evidence suggests the GABA-B agonist baclofen can reduce drug cue-elicited neural activity, potentially through its actions on the resting brain. Based on the literature, we hypothesize that baclofen’s effects in the resting brain can predict its effects during SC exposure.

Methods: In ...


Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito 2020 Sunrise Health GME Consortium

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include encephalopathy, motor deficits, ataxia, and meningeal signs. In most cases, ADEM is preceded by either vaccination or viral illness. Here, we present a case with neither of the two predisposing elements.

Discussion: A 28-year-old Hispanic female presenting with substance use and suicidal ideation was placed on an involuntary psychiatric hold, started on olanzapine and scheduled for a psychiatric facility transfer. The following day, she was noted to have neurological deficits when ambulating. Computed tomography of the brain showed a right frontal ...


Assessment Of Intrinsic Hand Neuromuscular Physiology, Philemon Tsang 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Assessment Of Intrinsic Hand Neuromuscular Physiology, Philemon Tsang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alterations to the peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular physiology may impact hand function in a typical or clinical population, such as individuals with ulnar neuropathy. The mechanisms that influence these positive and negative changes are still not well understood. The three studies within my thesis aim to validate the reliability of decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG) measurements and explore the changes in intrinsic hand neuromuscular physiology in a typical aging population and individuals recovering from a surgical intervention for severe ulnar neuropathy.

The purpose of the first study was to determine the test-retest reliability of near-fibre (NF) jiggle, a measure of ...


Adverse Aftereffects Of Methotrexate As Chemotherapy On Cognitive Deficits In Rat Models, Jubin Kang 2020 Liberty University

Adverse Aftereffects Of Methotrexate As Chemotherapy On Cognitive Deficits In Rat Models, Jubin Kang

Senior Honors Theses

Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have a high five-year survival rate thanks to methotrexate (MTX). However, cognitive side effects are reported, characterized as chemo brain. The study investigated if impulsiveness is part of the aberrant cognitive functions after being exposed to MTX in the early stage of physical development. Adolescent rats were injected with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or MTX. The novel object recognition (NOR) task was conducted a month after the injections to measure the memory deficits. The discounting task was performed after the rats completed training on a fixed-ratio one schedule for both levers. The NOR test showed ...


Anxiety In Alzheimer's Disease, Zachary Cooper 2020 Liberty University

Anxiety In Alzheimer's Disease, Zachary Cooper

Senior Honors Theses

Researchers familiar with Alzheimer’s disease have often noted the presence of comorbid anxiety symptomatology. Likewise, the occurrence of anxiety before the development of Alzheimer’s disease has been prevalent enough to warrant attention. This review seeks to elaborate on the pathophysiology behind these two conditions, and to accentuate overlapping aspects that promote a causal relationship between these two pathologies on the macroscopic and cellular levels. Subsequent evidence will show that these pathologies are not independent of each other, and that cellular mechanisms of pathology hint at their interrelatedness. Areas requiring further research that would clarify the relationship between Clinical ...


Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Covid 19 What You Need To Know, Dawn P. Wooley, Giancarlo Mariani, Craig Woolley, Laura M. Luehrmann

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

This is the first presentation in the new Shelter-in-Place lecture series. This first lecture is two-fold. First, it covers the basics of the COVID-19 virus including: how it spreads, possible origin, and other pertinent information. This portion of the presentation was followed by an overview of the international recruitment efforts in response to the virus, including: student perspectives, recruitment methods, and other important information.


First-In-Human Studies Of Mw01-6-189wh, A Brain-Penetrant, Antineuroinflammatory Small-Molecule Drug Candidate: Phase 1 Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic, And Pharmacodynamic Studies In Healthy Adult Volunteers, Linda J. Van Eldik, Lumy Sawaki, Karen Bowen, Daniel T. Laskowitz, Robert J. Noveck, Byron Hauser, Lynn Jordan, Tracy G. Spears, Huali Wu, Kevin Watt, Shruti Raja, Saktimayee M. Roy, D. Martin Watterson, Jeffrey T. Guptill 2020 University of Kentucky

First-In-Human Studies Of Mw01-6-189wh, A Brain-Penetrant, Antineuroinflammatory Small-Molecule Drug Candidate: Phase 1 Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic, And Pharmacodynamic Studies In Healthy Adult Volunteers, Linda J. Van Eldik, Lumy Sawaki, Karen Bowen, Daniel T. Laskowitz, Robert J. Noveck, Byron Hauser, Lynn Jordan, Tracy G. Spears, Huali Wu, Kevin Watt, Shruti Raja, Saktimayee M. Roy, D. Martin Watterson, Jeffrey T. Guptill

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

MW01-6-189WH (MW189) is a novel central nervous system-penetrant small-molecule drug candidate that selectively attenuates stressor-induced proinflammatory cytokine overproduction and is efficacious in intracerebral hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury animal models. We report first-in-human, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 studies to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of single and multiple ascending intravenous doses of MW189 in healthy adult volunteers. MW189 was safe and well tolerated in single and multiple doses up to 0.25 mg/kg, with no clinically significant concerns. The most common drug-related treatment-emergent adverse event was infusion-site reactions, likely related to drug solution acidity. No clinically ...


The Effects Of Saido Learning On The Cognition Of Patients With Dementia: A Retrospective Study, Stephanie N. LaDuke 2020 Grand Valley State University

The Effects Of Saido Learning On The Cognition Of Patients With Dementia: A Retrospective Study, Stephanie N. Laduke

Honors Projects

SAIDO Learning is a cognitive and social intervention developed by the Kumon Institute in 2004 to slow the progress of symptoms in patients diagnosed with dementia. Today, twenty-three nursing facilities nationwide utilize SAIDO Learning. The data in this retrospective study compare the baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores to the MMSE scores obtained six months after SAIDO Learning is implemented from patients diagnosed with dementia at Waterford Place in Jenison, Michigan. These scores are reassessed every 6 months as a standard of care. The data was deidentified by the staff of Waterford Place before given to the research team. A ...


Meaning In Architecture: Affordances, Atmosphere And Mood, Bob Condia, Michael Arbib, Colin Ellard, Brent Chamberlain, Kevin Rooney 2020 Kansas State University

Meaning In Architecture: Affordances, Atmosphere And Mood, Bob Condia, Michael Arbib, Colin Ellard, Brent Chamberlain, Kevin Rooney

NPP eBooks

Abstract: Meaning in Architecture: Affordances, Atmosphere and Mood, began as a public forum about human awareness of building, specifically speaking to the significance of affordances, embodied simulation theory, atmosphere and mood. It is herewith presented in copy form for broader distribution. An exchange between scientists and architects, this symposium was the inaugural Interface event of ANFA (the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture, Salk Institute) held 17 April 2018 in the Regnier Forum of APDesign, Kansas State University. The authors for Meaning in Architecture: Affordances, Atmosphere and Mood will escort you to the intersection of deep brain function, as studied by ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


Effect Of Dimethyl Fumarate On Lymphocyte Subsets In Patients With Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis., Guy Buckle, Daniel Bandari, Jeffrey Greenstein, Mark Gudesblatt, Bhupendra Khatri, Mariko Kita, P Repovic, Emily Riser, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Ben Thrower, Sherrill Loring, Katherine Riester, Nick Everage, Claudia Prada, Irene Koulinska, Monica Mann 2020 Multiple Sclerosis Center (P.R., A.M., P.Q., L.K.J.H., B.G., J.D.B.), Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, Washington

Effect Of Dimethyl Fumarate On Lymphocyte Subsets In Patients With Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis., Guy Buckle, Daniel Bandari, Jeffrey Greenstein, Mark Gudesblatt, Bhupendra Khatri, Mariko Kita, P Repovic, Emily Riser, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Ben Thrower, Sherrill Loring, Katherine Riester, Nick Everage, Claudia Prada, Irene Koulinska, Monica Mann

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Background: In patients treated with dimethyl fumarate, absolute lymphocyte count decline typically occurs during the first year and then plateaus; early drops have been associated with the development of severe prolonged lymphopenia.

Objective: We investigated the effect of dimethyl fumarate on absolute lymphocyte counts and CD4+/CD8+ T cells in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with dimethyl fumarate in routine practice.

Methods: Lymphocyte data were collected via medical chart abstraction. Primary endpoint: change from baseline in absolute lymphocyte count and CD4+/CD8+ counts at 6-month intervals following dimethyl fumarate initiation.

Results: Charts of 483 patients were abstracted and 476 ...


Radiological Data Of Brachial Plexus Avulsion Injury Associated Spinal Cord Herniation (Bpai-Sch) And Comparison To Anterior Thoracic Spinal Cord Herniation (Atsch)., Andrew Jack, Jens R Chapman, Praveen V Mummaneni, Carter S Gerard, Line Jacques 2020 Department of Neurosurgery, Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA

Radiological Data Of Brachial Plexus Avulsion Injury Associated Spinal Cord Herniation (Bpai-Sch) And Comparison To Anterior Thoracic Spinal Cord Herniation (Atsch)., Andrew Jack, Jens R Chapman, Praveen V Mummaneni, Carter S Gerard, Line Jacques

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Spinal cord herniation (SCH) is a rare cause of myelopathy. When reported, SCH has most commonly been described as occurring spontaneously in the thoracic spine, and being idiopathic in nature (anterior thoracic spinal cord herniation, ATSCH) [1-3]. Several theories have been proposed to explain its occurrence, including congenital, inflammatory, and traumatic etiologies alike [1-4]. Even more rarely, SCH has been described to occur in the cervical spine in association with brachial plexus avulsion injuries (BPAI-SCH). In our accompanying article, "Late Cervical Spinal Cord Herniation Resulting from Post-Traumatic Brachial Plexus Avulsion Injury," two cases of BPAI-SCH are presented and discussed in ...


Changing The Game: Spine Care In The Era Of Artificial Intelligence And Deep Learning Algorithms., Karsten Wiechert, Jeffrey C Wang, Jens R Chapman 2020 Swedish Neuroscience Institute

Changing The Game: Spine Care In The Era Of Artificial Intelligence And Deep Learning Algorithms., Karsten Wiechert, Jeffrey C Wang, Jens R Chapman

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress