Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Neurosciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,476 Full-Text Articles 3,386 Authors 256,191 Downloads 113 Institutions

All Articles in Neurosciences

Faceted Search

1,476 full-text articles. Page 1 of 58.

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...


Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett 2018 University of Wyoming

Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett

Honors Theses AY 17/18

One out of every five American children lives below the federal poverty line. Considering that poverty is deemed one of the most influential risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, it is critical to understand what effect poverty has on the developing brain and how those brain changes affect a child’s life. Poverty is chiefly defined by having a low socioeconomic status (SES), but a low SES is often accompanied by other influencers, such as nutrition and mental stimulation, termed poverty co-factors. Other poverty co-factors include, but are not limited to, maternal stress and malnutrition, environmental toxins, parental nurturance, and ...


Regional Microglia Are Transcriptionally Distinct But Similarly Exacerbate Neurodegeneration In A Culture Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Eric Wildon Kostuk, Jingli Cai, Lorraine Iacovitti 2018 Farber Institute for Neurosciences, Thomas Jefferson University

Regional Microglia Are Transcriptionally Distinct But Similarly Exacerbate Neurodegeneration In A Culture Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Eric Wildon Kostuk, Jingli Cai, Lorraine Iacovitti

Department of Neuroscience

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) while neighboring ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons are relatively spared. Mechanisms underlying the selective protection of the VTA and susceptibility of the SN are still mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate the importance of balance between astrocytes and microglia in the susceptibility of SN DA neurons to the PD mimetic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP

METHODS: Previously established methods were used to isolate astrocytes and microglia from the cortex (CTX), SN, and VTA, as well as embryonic midbrain DA neurons from ...


Treating Adhd With Suggestion: Neurofeedback And Placebo Therapeutics, Robert T. Thibault, Samuel Vassière, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz 2018 McGill University

Treating Adhd With Suggestion: Neurofeedback And Placebo Therapeutics, Robert T. Thibault, Samuel Vassière, Jay A. Olson, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. Methods: We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. Results: The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD. Conclusion: Non-deceptive suggestion-based treatments, especially those drawing on accessories from neuroscience, may offer a safe complement and potential ...


Behavior Coding Strategies: Population Coupling And The Functional Role Of Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance In Primary Motor Cortex, Patrick Aaron Kells 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Behavior Coding Strategies: Population Coupling And The Functional Role Of Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance In Primary Motor Cortex, Patrick Aaron Kells

Theses and Dissertations

The complexities of an organism’s experience of- and interaction with the world are emergent phenomena produced by large populations of neurons within the cerebral cortex and other brain regions. The network dynamics of these populations have been shown to be sometimes synchronous, with many neurons firing together, and sometimes asynchronous, with neurons firing more independently, leading to a decades-old debate within the neuroscience community. This discrepancy comes from viewing the system at two different scales; at the single cell level, the spiking activity of two neurons within cortex tend to be rather independent, but when the average activity of ...


Effect Of Trinucleotide Repeats In The Huntington's Gene On Intelligence, Jessica K. Lee, Amy Conrad, Eric Epping, Kathy Mathews, Vincent Magnotta, Jeffrey D. Dawson, Peg Nopoulos 2018 University of Iowa

Effect Of Trinucleotide Repeats In The Huntington's Gene On Intelligence, Jessica K. Lee, Amy Conrad, Eric Epping, Kathy Mathews, Vincent Magnotta, Jeffrey D. Dawson, Peg Nopoulos

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Huntington's Disease (HD) is caused by an abnormality in the HTT gene. This gene includes trinucleotide repeats ranging from 10 to 35, and when expanded beyond 39, causes HD. We previously reported that CAG repeats in the normal range had a direct and beneficial effect on brain development with higher repeats being associated with higher cognitive function. The current study now expands this line of inquiry to evaluate the effects of CAG repeat throughout the entire spectrum of repeats from 15 to 58.

METHODS: We evaluated brain function in children ages 6-18 years old. DNA samples were processed ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin 2018 Liberty University

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman 2018 University of Pennsylvania

A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i.e. the sunscreen paradigm) to determine if mPFC shows similar predictive value with this technology. Consistent with prior fMRI work ...


Time-Evolving Dynamics In Brain Networks Forecast Responses To Health Messaging, Nicole Cooper, Javier O. Garcia, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Time-Evolving Dynamics In Brain Networks Forecast Responses To Health Messaging, Nicole Cooper, Javier O. Garcia, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Neuroimaging measures have been used to forecast complex behaviors, including how individuals change decisions about their health in response to persuasive communications, but have rarely incorporated metrics of brain network dynamics. How do functional dynamics within and between brain networks relate to the processes of persuasion and behavior change? To address this question, we scanned forty-five adult smokers using functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed antismoking images. Participants reported their smoking behavior and intentions to quit smoking before the scan and one month later. We focused on regions within four atlas-defined networks and examined whether they formed consistent network ...


Common Ribs Of Inhibitory Synaptic Dysfunction In The Umbrella Of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Rachel Ali Rodriguez, Christina Joya, Rochelle M. Hines 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Common Ribs Of Inhibitory Synaptic Dysfunction In The Umbrella Of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Rachel Ali Rodriguez, Christina Joya, Rochelle M. Hines

Psychology Faculty Publications

The term neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) is an umbrella term used to group together a heterogeneous class of disorders characterized by disruption in cognition, emotion, and behavior, early in the developmental timescale. These disorders are heterogeneous, yet they share common behavioral symptomatology as well as overlapping genetic contributors, including proteins involved in the formation, specialization, and function of synaptic connections. Advances may arise from bridging the current knowledge on synapse related factors indicated from both human studies in NDD populations, and in animal models. Mounting evidence has shown a link to inhibitory synapse formation, specialization, and function among Autism, Angelman, Rett ...


Freedom With Responsibility: A Consensus Strategy For Preventing Injury, Death, And Disability From Firearm Violence, Ronald M. Stewart MD, FACS, Deborah A. Kuhls MD, FACS, Michael F. Rotondo MD, FACS, Eileen M. Bulger MD, FACS 2018 UT Health San Antonio

Freedom With Responsibility: A Consensus Strategy For Preventing Injury, Death, And Disability From Firearm Violence, Ronald M. Stewart Md, Facs, Deborah A. Kuhls Md, Facs, Michael F. Rotondo Md, Facs, Eileen M. Bulger Md, Facs

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

We are surgeons who have committed our personal and professional lives to reducing needless suffering from injury. As leaders in the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS COT), we have put our hearts and souls into reducing firearm violence, yet we continue to experience the senseless tragedy of mass shooting events and the daily impact of violence on our patients and our communities. Two of us (DK, RMS) personally cared for innocent victims in 2 of the largest mass shootings in modern American history: the Las Vegas, NV and Sutherland Springs, TX tragedies, which, within a little more ...


Effects Of The Environment On Recovery And Neuroplasticity In Brain Injury Patients, Rebekkah McLellan 2018 Lynchburg College

Effects Of The Environment On Recovery And Neuroplasticity In Brain Injury Patients, Rebekkah Mclellan

Student Scholar Showcase

According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 1.7 million people sustain a Traumatic Brain Injury each year, making the topic of brain plasticity and patient recovery an important area of study. An added element is understanding whether biological, social, and environmental factors can impact the recovery and plasticity of the patient’s brain. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate if the environment surrounding an individual who has sustained a brain injury affects their recovery and neuroplasticity. The databases used for the scope of this review included LC OneSearch, Medline, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar. Key words ...


Effects On Recovery And Neuroplasticity In Brain Injury Patients, Rebekkah McLellan 2018 Lynchburg College

Effects On Recovery And Neuroplasticity In Brain Injury Patients, Rebekkah Mclellan

Student Scholar Showcase

Abstract

According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 1.7 million people sustain a Traumatic Brain Injury each year, making the topic of brain plasticity and patient recovery an important area of study. An added element is understanding whether biological, social, and environmental factors can impact the recovery and plasticity of the patient’s brain.The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate if the environment surrounding an individual who has sustained a brain injury affects their recovery and neuroplasticity. The databases used for the scope of this review included LC OneSearch, Medline, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar. Keywords ...


The Role Of Reactive Astrocitose In The Chronological Evolution Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Roxana M. Duncea-Borca, Vladimir Belis, Mihnea Costescu, Relu G. Calota, Reka Kutasi, Cosmin A. Moldovan 2018 Forensic Medicine of Teleorman County, Department of Forensic Medicine

The Role Of Reactive Astrocitose In The Chronological Evolution Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Roxana M. Duncea-Borca, Vladimir Belis, Mihnea Costescu, Relu G. Calota, Reka Kutasi, Cosmin A. Moldovan

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction and objectives. This study aims to investigate whether the cerebral modifications of posttraumatic reactive astrocitose can be considered an objective criterion for determining the age of traumatic cranio-cerebral lesions.

Materials and methods. The present study consists of a series of 23 medico-legal cases that underwent autopsy inTeleormanCounty(Romania) Department of Forensic Medicine during 2007–2016, with full immune-histochemical microscopic examination using GFAP staining. The study consists of two groups, a series of 13 cases with cranio-cerebral trauma with different posttraumatic survival periods and 9 cases as a control group.

Results and discussions. We discovered GFAP+ reactive astrocytes even when ...


The Mind-Body Problem; Three Equations And One Solution Represented By Immaterial-Material Data, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland 2018 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of General Medicine

The Mind-Body Problem; Three Equations And One Solution Represented By Immaterial-Material Data, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Human life occurs within a complex bio-psycho-social milieu, a heterogeneous system that is integrated by multiple bidirectional interrelations existing between the abstract-intangible ideas and physical-chemical support of environment. The mind is thus placed between the abstract ideas/ concepts and neurobiological brain that is further connected to environment. In other words, the mind acts as an interface between the immaterial (abstract/ intangible) data and material (biological) support. The science is unable to conceives and explains an interaction between the immaterial and material domains (to understand nature of the mind), this question generating in literature the mind-body problem. We have published in ...


Vascular Neurocognitive Disorders And The Vascular Risk Factors, Carmen V. Albu, Vlad Padureanu, Mihail V. Boldeanu, Ana M. Bumbea, Anca S. Enescu, Dana M. Albulescu, Cristian A. Silosi, Aurelia Enescu 2018 Craiova University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Neurology

Vascular Neurocognitive Disorders And The Vascular Risk Factors, Carmen V. Albu, Vlad Padureanu, Mihail V. Boldeanu, Ana M. Bumbea, Anca S. Enescu, Dana M. Albulescu, Cristian A. Silosi, Aurelia Enescu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Dementias are clinical neurodegenerative diseases characterized by permanent and progressive transformation of cognitive functions such as memory, learning capacity, attention, thinking, language, passing judgments, calculation or orientation. Dementias represent a relatively frequent pathology, encountered at about 10% of the population of 65-year olds and 20% of the population of 80-year olds.

This review presents the main etiological forms of dementia, which include Alzheimer form of dementia, vascular dementia, dementia associated with alpha-synucleionopathies, and mixed forms. Regarding vascular dementia, the risk factors are similar to those for an ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, age ...


Inhibition Of Tumor Cell Migration Through Slit/Robo/Tubb3 Pathway, Shirley Yee, Tao Yang, Guofa Liu Dr. 2018 The University of Toledo

Inhibition Of Tumor Cell Migration Through Slit/Robo/Tubb3 Pathway, Shirley Yee, Tao Yang, Guofa Liu Dr.

Scholars' Celebration: Undergraduate Research Showcase

Studies have shown that the Slit-Robo signaling pathway is important in guiding neural and non-neural cell migration through attraction and repulsion. In addition, Slit and Robo play important roles in tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and metastasis. Specifically, Robo1 binds to a tubulin protein known as TUBB3. The purpose of this research is to investigate the involvement of Slit and Robo signaling in glioblastoma progression. Though the mechanisms have yet to be fully explored, a connection between the presence of the Slit protein and the rate of cancer cell invasion, specifically glioblastoma, may exist, which can lead to a better understanding of ...


Addressing Hydrocephaly In Viet Nam: A Plausible Prevention And Intervention Medical Support Program Proposal, Chelle McIntyre-Brewer 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Addressing Hydrocephaly In Viet Nam: A Plausible Prevention And Intervention Medical Support Program Proposal, Chelle Mcintyre-Brewer

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Families affected by hydrocephalus in Viet Nam have few options for sustainable treatment for a myriad of reasons, primarily centering on barriers to care prevalent to minority, underserved, and economically disadvantaged populations. High morbidity and abandonment rates often result from these circumstances. An interdisciplinary examination of the factors contributing to causal concerns reveals unique cultural considerations, language and literacy barriers, ethnic and geographic differences, as well as economic and governmental issues greatly impacting patient outcome for this condition. The author contends that a program that addresses sociological concerns, along with the medical treatment of the patient, proffers the opportunity for ...


Representing Diversity In The Dish: Using Patient-Derived In Vitro Models To Recreate The Heterogeneity Of Neurological Disease, Layla T. Ghaffari, Alexander Starr, Andrew T. Nelson, Rita Sattler 2018 Barrow Neurological Institute, Dignity Health-St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center

Representing Diversity In The Dish: Using Patient-Derived In Vitro Models To Recreate The Heterogeneity Of Neurological Disease, Layla T. Ghaffari, Alexander Starr, Andrew T. Nelson, Rita Sattler

Department of Neuroscience

Neurological diseases, including dementias such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) and degenerative motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are responsible for an increasing fraction of worldwide fatalities. Researching these heterogeneous diseases requires models that endogenously express the full array of genetic and epigenetic factors which may influence disease development in both familial and sporadic patients. Here, we discuss the two primary methods of developing patient-derived neurons and glia to model neurodegenerative disease: reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are differentiated into neurons or glial cells, or directly converting (DC ...


Predicting Risk Factors Of Working Aged Hemorrhagic Stroke Patients In A Tertiary Teaching Hospital In Chiang Mai, Suphannee Triamvisit, Wilaiwan Chongruksut, Wanarak Watcharasaksilp, Rujee Rattanasathien 2018 Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Predicting Risk Factors Of Working Aged Hemorrhagic Stroke Patients In A Tertiary Teaching Hospital In Chiang Mai, Suphannee Triamvisit, Wilaiwan Chongruksut, Wanarak Watcharasaksilp, Rujee Rattanasathien

Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal

Stroke is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Thailand accounting for a significant and increasing share of hospital costs. The purpose of this project is to study the epidemiology of the prevalence and its predicting factors of working aged hemorrhagic stroke (HS) patients admitted at a tertiary teaching hospital in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

We conducted a five-year retrospective descriptive study. The subjects in this study were patients diagnosed with HS, between 15-59 years of age, and admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital in Chiang Mai, Thailand from January 2009 to December 2013. A total of 404 ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress