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A Neurorhetoric Of Incongruity, Michelle Gibbons 2018 University of New Hampshire

A Neurorhetoric Of Incongruity, Michelle Gibbons

Poroi

As a conceptual resource for rhetoric, contemporary neuroscience has considerable potential. Yet how exactly rhetoricians should deploy it as such requires careful consideration. While some engage neuroscience in a foundationalist fashion, using it to ground rhetoric in empirically tested claims, I make the case for a non-foundationalist approach, arguing that neuroscience can serve as a resource for rhetoric on the basis of epistemologies that value the speculative, indeterminate, and contingent. That is, we can use neuroscience to achieve perspective rather than proof and continued conversation rather than resolution. More specifically, I suggest placing neuroscience in incongruous contact with rhetoric, using ...


Virtual Reality As A Training Tool To Treat Physical Inactivity In Children, Adam W. Kiefer, David Pincus, Michael J. Richardson, Gregory D. Myer 2017 Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center

Virtual Reality As A Training Tool To Treat Physical Inactivity In Children, Adam W. Kiefer, David Pincus, Michael J. Richardson, Gregory D. Myer

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Lack of adequate physical activity in children is an epidemic that can result in obesity and other poor health outcomes across the lifespan. Physical activity interventions focused on motor skill competence continue to be developed, but some interventions, such as neuromuscular training (NMT), may be limited in how early they can be implemented due to dependence on the child’s level of cognitive and perceptual-motor development. Early implementation of motor-rich activities that support motor skill development in children is critical for the development of healthy levels of physical activity that carry through into adulthood. Virtual reality (VR) training may be ...


Structural Insights Into The Potency Of Sk Channel Positive Modulators, Young-Woo Nam, Razan Orfali, Tingting Liu, Kunqian Yu, Meng Cui, Heike Wulff, Miao Zhang 2017 Chapman University

Structural Insights Into The Potency Of Sk Channel Positive Modulators, Young-Woo Nam, Razan Orfali, Tingting Liu, Kunqian Yu, Meng Cui, Heike Wulff, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels play essential roles in the regulation of cellular excitability and have been implicated in neurological and cardiovascular diseases through both animal model studies and human genetic association studies. Over the past two decades, positive modulators of SK channels such as NS309 and 1-EBIO have been developed. Our previous structural studies have identified the binding pocket of 1-EBIO and NS309 that is located at the interface between the channel and calmodulin. In this study, we took advantage of four compounds with potencies varying over three orders of magnitude, including 1-EBIO, NS309, SKS-11 (6-bromo-5-methyl-1H-indole-2 ...


Validation Of Minimally-Invasive Sample Collection Methods For Measurement Of Telomere Length, Stephanie A. Stout, Jue Lin, Natalie Hernandez, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Judith E. Carroll, Laura M. Glynn 2017 University of Denver

Validation Of Minimally-Invasive Sample Collection Methods For Measurement Of Telomere Length, Stephanie A. Stout, Jue Lin, Natalie Hernandez, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Judith E. Carroll, Laura M. Glynn

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: The discovery of telomere length (TL) as a biomarker of cellular aging and correlate of age-related disease has generated a new field of research in the biology of healthy aging. Although the most common method of sample collection for TL is venous blood draw, less-invasive DNA collection methods are becoming more widely used. However, how TL relates across tissues derived from these sample collection methods is poorly understood. The current study is the first to characterize the associations in TL across three sample collection methods: venous whole blood, finger prick dried blood spot and saliva.

Methods: TL was measured ...


Widespread Theta Synchrony And High-Frequency Desynchronization Underlies Enhanced Cognition., E. A. Solomon, J. E. Kragel, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, G. Worrell, M. Kucewicz, C. S. Inman, B. Lega, K. A. Davis, J. M. Stein, B. C. Jobst, K. A. Zaghloul, S. A. Sheth, D. S. Rizzuto, M. J. Kahana 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Widespread Theta Synchrony And High-Frequency Desynchronization Underlies Enhanced Cognition., E. A. Solomon, J. E. Kragel, Michael R. Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, G. Worrell, M. Kucewicz, C. S. Inman, B. Lega, K. A. Davis, J. M. Stein, B. C. Jobst, K. A. Zaghloul, S. A. Sheth, D. S. Rizzuto, M. J. Kahana

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

The idea that synchronous neural activity underlies cognition has driven an extensive body of research in human and animal neuroscience. Yet, insufficient data on intracranial electrical connectivity has precluded a direct test of this hypothesis in a whole-brain setting. Through the lens of memory encoding and retrieval processes, we construct whole-brain connectivity maps of fast gamma (30-100 Hz) and slow theta (3-8 Hz) spectral neural activity, based on data from 294 neurosurgical patients fitted with indwelling electrodes. Here we report that gamma networks desynchronize and theta networks synchronize during encoding and retrieval. Furthermore, for nearly all brain regions we studied ...


Concussion As A Multi-Scale Complex System: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis Of Current Knowledge, Erin S. Kenzie, Elle L. Parks, Erin D. Bigler, Miranda M. Lim, James C. Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland 2017 Portland State University

Concussion As A Multi-Scale Complex System: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis Of Current Knowledge, Erin S. Kenzie, Elle L. Parks, Erin D. Bigler, Miranda M. Lim, James C. Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland

Wayne W. Wakeland

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called “the most complicated disease of the most complex organ of the body” and is an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Many patients report long-term impairments following even “mild” injuries, but reliable criteria for diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Every clinical trial for TBI treatment to date has failed to demonstrate reliable and safe improvement in outcomes, and the existing body of literature is insufficient to support the creation of a new classification system. Concussion, or mild TBI, is a highly heterogeneous phenomenon, and numerous factors interact dynamically to influence an individual’s recovery ...


Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

The hippocampus is critical for episodic memory, and synaptic changes induced by long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to underlie memory formation. In rodents, hippocampal LTP may be induced through electrical stimulation of the perforant path. To test whether similar techniques could improve episodic memory in humans, we implemented a microstimulation technique that allowed delivery of low-current electrical stimulation via 100 μm-diameter microelectrodes. As thirteen neurosurgical patients performed a person recognition task, microstimulation was applied in a theta-burst pattern, shown to optimally induce LTP. Microstimulation in the right entorhinal area during learning significantly improved subsequent memory specificity for novel portraits; participants ...


Sex Differential In 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Levels In The Lumen Of Human Intracranial Aneurysms., Nohra Chalouhi, Pascal Jabbour, Mario Zanaty, Robert M. Starke, James Torner, Daichi Nakagawa, David M. Hasan 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Sex Differential In 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Levels In The Lumen Of Human Intracranial Aneurysms., Nohra Chalouhi, Pascal Jabbour, Mario Zanaty, Robert M. Starke, James Torner, Daichi Nakagawa, David M. Hasan

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Aspirin is a promising medical therapy for the prevention of intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. Recently, we found that men have a better response to aspirin than women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a sex differential exists in the level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) in the lumen of human IAs.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients undergoing coiling or stent-assisted coiling for a saccular IA at our institution were enrolled. Two samples (A and B) were collected from IA lumens, and the plasma level of 15-PGDH was measured using an ELISA-based method. The study included 38 patients ...


Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist 2017 Cedarville University

Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

This paper will attempt to address God's grace towards those with mental illnesses. It also attempts to provide direction in response to historical church views towards this population. Through scripture, this paper seeks to emphasize the importance of seeing a person as more than what they physically appear capable of - seeing people through God's eyes.


Finasteride As A Model For Personalized Medicine, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland, Ioana Păunică, Octavian C. Tănăsescu, Petrişor Banu, Stana Păunică 2017 Carol Davila University, Faculty of General Medicine, Bucharest, Romania

Finasteride As A Model For Personalized Medicine, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland, Ioana Păunică, Octavian C. Tănăsescu, Petrişor Banu, Stana Păunică

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The side effects of Finasteride are currently a subject of controversy. Some studies report minor or acceptable adverse effects, which decrease after a variable period of time so that they do not necessitate terminating Finasteride administration. However, several clinical and neuro-endocrine studies show that some adverse effects persist indefinitely in the form of post-Finasteride syndrome, even after the drug cessation. This paper presents a possible explanation for these inconsistent findings. First, the study design of either informing or not informing patients prior therapy about possible adverse effects can influence the incidence and magnitude of reported adverse effects. Second, structural and ...


Concussion As A Multi-Scale Complex System: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis Of Current Knowledge, Erin S. Kenzie, Elle L. Parks, Erin D. Bigler, Miranda M. Lim, James C. Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland 2017 Portland State University

Concussion As A Multi-Scale Complex System: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis Of Current Knowledge, Erin S. Kenzie, Elle L. Parks, Erin D. Bigler, Miranda M. Lim, James C. Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called “the most complicated disease of the most complex organ of the body” and is an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Many patients report long-term impairments following even “mild” injuries, but reliable criteria for diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Every clinical trial for TBI treatment to date has failed to demonstrate reliable and safe improvement in outcomes, and the existing body of literature is insufficient to support the creation of a new classification system. Concussion, or mild TBI, is a highly heterogeneous phenomenon, and numerous factors interact dynamically to influence an individual’s recovery ...


Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski 2017 Brown University

Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI. Moderate to severe TBI elicits neuroinflammation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is associated with memory deficits. Here we demonstrate that CN2097 significantly reduces the post-traumatic synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and inhibits the ...


Brief Of Amici Curiae Of 11 Addiction Experts In Support Of Appellee, Gene M. Heyman, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Stephen J. Morse, Sally L. Satel 2017 Boston College

Brief Of Amici Curiae Of 11 Addiction Experts In Support Of Appellee, Gene M. Heyman, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Stephen J. Morse, Sally L. Satel

Faculty Scholarship

This brief is a critique of the brain disease model and many supposed implications of that model. It begins with a brief history of the model and moves to a discussion of the motivations behind the characterization of addiction as a “chronic and relapsing brain disease.” We follow with an enumeration of fallacious inferences based upon the brain disease model, including the very notion that addiction becomes a “brain disease” simply because it has neurobiological correlates. Regardless of whether addiction is labeled a brain disease, the real question, we contend, is whether the behavioral manifestations of addiction are unresponsive to ...


Buildings, Beauty, And The Brain: A Neuroscience Of Architectural Experience, Alex Coburn, Oshin Vartanian, Anjan Chatterjee 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Buildings, Beauty, And The Brain: A Neuroscience Of Architectural Experience, Alex Coburn, Oshin Vartanian, Anjan Chatterjee

Neuroethics Publications

A burgeoning interest in the intersection of neuroscience and architecture promises to offer biologically inspired insights into the design of spaces. The goal of such interdisciplinary approaches to architecture is to motivate construction of environments that would contribute to peoples' flourishing in behavior, health, and well-being. We suggest that this nascent field of neuroarchitecture is at a pivotal point in which neuroscience and architecture are poised to extend to a neuroscience of architecture. In such a research program, architectural experiences themselves are the target of neuroscientific inquiry. Here, we draw lessons from recent developments in neuroaesthetics to suggest how neuroarchitecture ...


Novel Influences Of Il-10 On Cns Inflammation Revealed By Integrated Analyses Of Cytokine Networks And Microglial Morphology., Warren D. Anderson, Andrew D. Greenhalgh, Aditya Takwale, Samuel David, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Novel Influences Of Il-10 On Cns Inflammation Revealed By Integrated Analyses Of Cytokine Networks And Microglial Morphology., Warren D. Anderson, Andrew D. Greenhalgh, Aditya Takwale, Samuel David, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Coordinated interactions between cytokine signaling and morphological dynamics of microglial cells regulate neuroinflammation in CNS injury and disease. We found that pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in vivo showed a pronounced recovery following systemic LPS. We performed a novel multivariate analysis of microglial morphology and identified changes in specific morphological properties of microglia that matched the expression dynamics of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. The adaptive recovery kinetics of TNFα expression and microglial soma size showed comparable profiles and dependence on anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 expression. The recovery of cytokine variations and microglial morphology responses to inflammation were negatively regulated by IL-10. Our novel ...


Induction Of Mir-155 After Brain Injury Promotes Type 1 Interferon And Has A Neuroprotective Effect., Emily Harrison, Kathleen M. Emanuel, Benjamin G. Lamberty, Brenda M. Morsey, Min Li, Matthew L. Kelso, Sowmya V. Yelamanchili, Howard S. Fox 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Induction Of Mir-155 After Brain Injury Promotes Type 1 Interferon And Has A Neuroprotective Effect., Emily Harrison, Kathleen M. Emanuel, Benjamin G. Lamberty, Brenda M. Morsey, Min Li, Matthew L. Kelso, Sowmya V. Yelamanchili, Howard S. Fox

Journal Articles: Pharmacology & Experimental Neuroscience

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces profound and lasting neuroinflammation that has both beneficial and detrimental effects. Recent evidence has implicated microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of inflammation both in the periphery and the CNS. We examined the expression of inflammation associated miRNAs in the context of TBI using a mouse controlled cortical impact (CCI) model and found increased levels of miR-21, miR-223 and miR-155 in the hippocampus after CCI. The expression of miR-155 was elevated 9-fold after CCI, an increase confirmed by in situ hybridization (ISH). Interestingly, expression of miR-155 was largely found in neuronal nuclei as evidenced by co-localization ...


Δfosb Regulates Gene Expression And Cognitive Dysfunction In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer's Disease., Brian F Corbett, Jason C You, Xiaohong Zhang, Mark S Pyfer, Umberto Tosi, Daniel M Iascone, Iraklis Petrof, Anupam Hazra, Chia-Hsuan Fu, Gabriel S Stephens, Annie Ashok, Suzan Aschmies, Lijuan Zhao, Eric J Nestler, Jeannie Chin 2017 Department of Neuroscience and Farber Institute for Neurosciences, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA

Δfosb Regulates Gene Expression And Cognitive Dysfunction In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer's Disease., Brian F Corbett, Jason C You, Xiaohong Zhang, Mark S Pyfer, Umberto Tosi, Daniel M Iascone, Iraklis Petrof, Anupam Hazra, Chia-Hsuan Fu, Gabriel S Stephens, Annie Ashok, Suzan Aschmies, Lijuan Zhao, Eric J Nestler, Jeannie Chin

Department of Neuroscience

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive decline and 5- to 10-fold increased seizure incidence. How seizures contribute to cognitive decline in AD or other disorders is unclear. We show that spontaneous seizures increase expression of ΔFosB, a highly stable Fos-family transcription factor, in the hippocampus of an AD mouse model. ΔFosB suppressed expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos, which is critical for plasticity and cognition, by binding its promoter and triggering histone deacetylation. Acute histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition or inhibition of ΔFosB activity restored c-Fos induction and improved cognition in AD mice. Administration of seizure-inducing agents to ...


Alzheimer’S Disease: Dawn Of A New Era?, Farideh Amirrad, Emira Bousoik, Kiumars Shamloo, Hassan Al-Shiyab, Viet-Hong Nguyen, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2017 Chapman University

Alzheimer’S Disease: Dawn Of A New Era?, Farideh Amirrad, Emira Bousoik, Kiumars Shamloo, Hassan Al-Shiyab, Viet-Hong Nguyen, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognition and memory, leading to significant impairment in daily activities and ultimately death. It is the most common cause of dementia, the prevalence of which increases with age; however, age is not the only predisposing factor. The pathology of this cognitive impairing disease is still not completely understood, which has limited the development of valid therapeutic options. Recent years have witnessed a wide range of novel approaches to combat this disease, so that they greatly increased our understanding of the disease and of the unique ...


The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, Chung Lung Chan 2017 Marquette University

The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, Chung Lung Chan

Dissertations (2009 -)

Humans and animals are constantly exposed to external stimuli. The ability to process reward value of a stimulus is critical to guiding appropriate behavior and essential for survival. These processes are regulated by neuronal activity and neurochemical signaling in the reward circuitry, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The NAc receives dopaminergic inputs from the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends GABAergic projections to the ventral pallidum (VP). Electrophysiological studies have characterized phasic neuronal responses in the NAc that differential encode appetitive and aversive taste stimuli. Exposure to an appetitive taste stimulus evoked predominantly phasic inhibitory responses in the ...


An Anatomical Study Of The Hyperpallium Densocellulare In The Pigeon (Columba Livia), Sara Leilani Kellogg 2017 University of South Florida

An Anatomical Study Of The Hyperpallium Densocellulare In The Pigeon (Columba Livia), Sara Leilani Kellogg

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The hyperpallium densocellulare (HD) is an avian cerebral structure, the origin of which remains unclear and considered to be critical to the understanding of the non-mammalian forebrain evolution. The main goal of this investigation was to clarify the anatomical characteristics and behavioral implications of HD, which had been assumed to be a homogeneous unitary entity. This project had three specific aims: 1) To identify possible subdivisions of HD in terms of cytoarchitecture, Substance P distribution, and connections based on unpublished (Aim 1a) as well as published data (Aim 1b); 2) To identify the unknown connections of these subdivisions by using ...


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