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Triad3a Induces The Degradation Of Early Necrosome To Limit Ripk1-Dependent Cytokine Production And Necroptosis., Norah A. Alturki, Scott McComb, Ardeshir Ariana, Dikchha Rijal, Robert G. Korneluk, Shao-Cong Sun, Emad S Alnemri, Subash Sad 2018 University of Ottawa; King Saud University

Triad3a Induces The Degradation Of Early Necrosome To Limit Ripk1-Dependent Cytokine Production And Necroptosis., Norah A. Alturki, Scott Mccomb, Ardeshir Ariana, Dikchha Rijal, Robert G. Korneluk, Shao-Cong Sun, Emad S Alnemri, Subash Sad

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Understanding the molecular signaling in programmed cell death is vital to a practical understanding of inflammation and immune cell function. Here we identify a previously unrecognized mechanism that functions to downregulate the necrosome, a central signaling complex involved in inflammation and necroptosis. We show that RipK1 associates with RipK3 in an early necrosome, independent of RipK3 phosphorylation and MLKL-induced necroptotic death. We find that formation of the early necrosome activates K48-ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of RipK1, Caspase-8, and other necrosomal proteins. Our results reveal that the E3-ubiquitin ligase Triad3a promotes this negative feedback loop independently of typical RipK1 ubiquitin editing enzymes ...


30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman

Celebration of Learning

There are no controlled studies of acetaminophen toxicity in horses. The objective was to test the hypotheses that oral acetaminophen administered at a dosage 25% higher than that sometimes used in horses would result in measurable hepatic toxicity as seen in humans and other species. Six healthy adult horses were administered 25 mg/kg acetaminophen powder in corn syrup twice daily for 30 days. Three other horses served as negative controls receiving only corn syrup. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained on days 7 and 1 before treatment; on treatment days 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26 ...


Novel Determinants That Influence Azole Susceptibility In Candida Glabrata And Candida Albicans, Sarah Garland Whaley 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Novel Determinants That Influence Azole Susceptibility In Candida Glabrata And Candida Albicans, Sarah Garland Whaley

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Despite the scientific and medical communities’ best efforts, the incidence of fungal infections in susceptible populations continues to rise. The most common cause of these opportunistic fungal infections is Candida. In fact, Candida is the fourth most common pathogen associated with nosocomial blood stream infections. Reported mortality rates for patients with candidemia vary, but have not decreased in the past fifteen years and are reported to be as high as 50%. Candida glabrata, second only to Candida albicans among Candida infections, expresses high rates of resistance to treatment with arguably the best class of currently available antifungals - the azoles.

Other ...


Linear Ubiquitin Chain-Binding Domains, Lilian Fennell, Simin Rahighi, Fumiyo Ikeda 2018 Vienna BioCenter

Linear Ubiquitin Chain-Binding Domains, Lilian Fennell, Simin Rahighi, Fumiyo Ikeda

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ubiquitin modification (ubiquitination) of target proteins can vary with respect to chain lengths, linkage type, and chain forms, such as homologous, mixed, and branched ubiquitin chains. Thus, ubiquitination can generate multiple unique surfaces on a target protein substrate. Ubiquitin‐binding domains (UBDs) recognize ubiquitinated substrates, by specifically binding to these unique surfaces, modulate the formation of cellular signaling complexes and regulate downstream signaling cascades. Among the eight different homotypic chain types, Met1‐linked (also termed linear) chains are the only chains in which linkage occurs on a non‐Lys residue of ubiquitin. Linear ubiquitin chains have been implicated in immune ...


Breaking Symmetry In Viral Icosahedral Capsids As Seen Through The Lenses Of X-Ray Crystallography And Cryo-Electron Microscopy., Kristin N. Parent, Jason R. Schrad, Gino Cingolani 2018 Michigan State University

Breaking Symmetry In Viral Icosahedral Capsids As Seen Through The Lenses Of X-Ray Crystallography And Cryo-Electron Microscopy., Kristin N. Parent, Jason R. Schrad, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The majority of viruses on Earth form capsids built by multiple copies of one or more types of a coat protein arranged with 532 symmetry, generating an icosahedral shell. This highly repetitive structure is ideal to closely pack identical protein subunits and to enclose the nucleic acid genomes. However, the icosahedral capsid is not merely a passive cage but undergoes dynamic events to promote packaging, maturation and the transfer of the viral genome into the host. These essential processes are often mediated by proteinaceous complexes that interrupt the shell's icosahedral symmetry, providing a gateway through the capsid. In this ...


Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan 2018 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans’ Hospital

Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

PURPOSE. We tested the potential of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) combination gene therapy to treat preformed corneal fibrosis using established rabbit in vivo and human in vitro models.

METHODS. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were used. Corneal fibrosis was produced by alkali injury. Twenty-four hours after scar formation, cornea received topically either balanced salt solution (BSS; n ¼ 6), polyethylenimine-conjugated gold nanoparticle (PEI2-GNP)-naked plasmid (n ¼ 6) or PEI2-GNP plasmids expressing BMP7 and HGF genes (n ¼ 6). Donor human corneas were used to obtain primary human corneal fibroblasts and myofibroblasts for mechanistic ...


Arylquinoline And Analog Compounds And Use Thereof To Treat Cancer, David S. Watt, Chunming Liu, Vivek M. Rangnekar, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Ravshan Burikhanov, Wen Zhang 2018 University of Kentucky

Arylquinoline And Analog Compounds And Use Thereof To Treat Cancer, David S. Watt, Chunming Liu, Vivek M. Rangnekar, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Ravshan Burikhanov, Wen Zhang

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Patents

The subject technology relates to arylquinoline compounds and their use for treating cancer or cancer metastasis. The compounds of the subject technology promote cells to secrete a pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor, i.e., prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), which in turn promote apoptosis in cancer cells or metastatic cells.


Sphingomyelin And Gm1 Influence Huntingtin Binding To, Disruption Of, And Aggregation On Lipid Membranes, Maxmore Chaibva, Xiang Gao, Pranav Jain, Warren A. Campbell, Shelli L. Frey, Justin Legleiter 2018 West Virginia University

Sphingomyelin And Gm1 Influence Huntingtin Binding To, Disruption Of, And Aggregation On Lipid Membranes, Maxmore Chaibva, Xiang Gao, Pranav Jain, Warren A. Campbell, Shelli L. Frey, Justin Legleiter

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion beyond a critical threshold of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract near the N-terminus of the huntingtin (htt) protein. Expanded polyQ promotes the formation of a variety of oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates of htt that accumulate into the hallmark proteinaceous inclusion bodies associated with HD. htt is also highly associated with numerous cellular and subcellular membranes that contain a variety of lipids. As lipid homeostasis and metabolism abnormalities are observed in HD patients, we investigated how varying both the sphingomyelin (SM) and ganglioside (GM1) contents modifies the interactions between htt ...


Characterization Of Cdk(5) Inhibitor, 20-223 (Aka Cp668863) For Colorectal Cancer Therapy, Caroline M. Robb, Smit Kour, Jacob I. Contreras, Ekta Agarwal, Carter J. Barger, Sandeep Rana, Yogesh Sonawane, Beth K. Neilsen, Margaret Taylor, Smitha Kizhake, Rhishikesh N. Thakare, Sanjib Chowdhury, Jing Wang, Jennifer D. Black, Michael A. Hollingsworth, Michael G. Brattain, Amarnath Natarajan 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Characterization Of Cdk(5) Inhibitor, 20-223 (Aka Cp668863) For Colorectal Cancer Therapy, Caroline M. Robb, Smit Kour, Jacob I. Contreras, Ekta Agarwal, Carter J. Barger, Sandeep Rana, Yogesh Sonawane, Beth K. Neilsen, Margaret Taylor, Smitha Kizhake, Rhishikesh N. Thakare, Sanjib Chowdhury, Jing Wang, Jennifer D. Black, Michael A. Hollingsworth, Michael G. Brattain, Amarnath Natarajan

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in the United States. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options for patients suffering from CRC, none of which focus on the cell signaling mechanisms controlled by the popular kinase family, cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). Here we evaluate a Pfizer developed compound, CP668863, that inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in neurodegenerative disorders. CDK5 has been implicated in a number of cancers, most recently as an oncogene in colorectal cancers. Our lab synthesized and characterized CP668863 – now called 20-223. In our established colorectal cancer xenograft model, 20-223 reduced tumor ...


The Effect Of Dna Methylation On Tp73 Expression In Tumorgenesis, Nujuma A. Moussa 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Effect Of Dna Methylation On Tp73 Expression In Tumorgenesis, Nujuma A. Moussa

Undergraduate Research Posters

Abstract: The Effect of DNA Methylation on TP73 Expression in Tumorgenesis

Nujuma Moussa, Zhixing Yao, Zaki A. Sherif

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Howard University College of Medicine

TP73 is a member of the TP53 family of proteins that acts as a transcription factor to help regulate cellular distress. This tumor protein may play a dual role as a tumor suppressor and tumor promoter. The TP73 gene is mapped to chromosome 1p36, a frequently deleted region in neuroblastoma and other types of tumors. While mutations in the TP53 gene are commonly known to cause noxious cancers, 30% of cancers result ...


Targeting Ovarian Cancer And Endothelium With An Allosteric Ptp4a3 Phosphatase Inhibitor, Kelley E. McQueeney, Joseph M. Salamoun, James C. Burnett, Nektarios Barabutis, Paula Pekic, Sophie L. Lewandowski, Danielle C. Llaneza, Robert Cornelison, Yunpeng Bai, Zhong-Yin Zhang, John D. Catravas 2018 Old Dominion University

Targeting Ovarian Cancer And Endothelium With An Allosteric Ptp4a3 Phosphatase Inhibitor, Kelley E. Mcqueeney, Joseph M. Salamoun, James C. Burnett, Nektarios Barabutis, Paula Pekic, Sophie L. Lewandowski, Danielle C. Llaneza, Robert Cornelison, Yunpeng Bai, Zhong-Yin Zhang, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP4A oncoproteins is common in many human cancers and is associated with poor patient prognosis and survival. We observed elevated levels of PTP4A3 phosphatase in 79% of human ovarian tumor samples, with significant overexpression in tumor endothelium and pericytes. Furthermore, PTP4A phosphatases appear to regulate several key malignant processes, such as invasion, migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting a pivotal regulatory role in cancer and endothelial signaling pathways. While phosphatases are attractive therapeutic targets, they have been poorly investigated because of a lack of potent and selective chemical probes. In this study, we disclose that a potent ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells Secreted Proteins With Therapeutic Potential For Β-Cell Regeneration, Miljan Kuljanin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Proteomic Characterization Of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells Secreted Proteins With Therapeutic Potential For Β-Cell Regeneration, Miljan Kuljanin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Novel strategies to stimulate the expansion of β-cell mass in situ are warranted for diabetes therapy. Cell-replacement therapies for the treatment of diabetes have become a focal point in recent years. Endogenous regeneration of β-cell mass has been demonstrated using human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC). However, the secretory factors responsible for initiating endogenous regeneration remain unknown. Successful large-scale proteomic applications to address these questions have been limited in part by difficulties in correctly selecting the appropriate methodologies. Thus, the goal of this thesis was a combination of assessing different proteomic workflows to facilitate investigation into hMSC biology, applying these methods ...


Synergy Of Two Low-Affinity Nlss Determines The High Avidity Of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Np For Human Importin Α Isoforms., Wei Wu, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Tyler J Florio, Lixin Zhou, Nhan L.T. Nguyen, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Gino Cingolani, Nelly Panté 2017 University of British Columbia

Synergy Of Two Low-Affinity Nlss Determines The High Avidity Of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Np For Human Importin Α Isoforms., Wei Wu, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Tyler J Florio, Lixin Zhou, Nhan L.T. Nguyen, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Gino Cingolani, Nelly Panté

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is an essential multifunctional protein that encapsidates the viral genome and functions as an adapter between the virus and the host cell machinery. NPs from all strains of influenza A viruses contain two nuclear localization signals (NLSs): a well-studied monopartite NLS1 and a less-characterized NLS2, thought to be bipartite. Through site-directed mutagenesis and functional analysis, we found that NLS2 is also monopartite and is indispensable for viral infection. Atomic structures of importin α bound to two variants of NLS2 revealed NLS2 primarily binds the major-NLS binding site of importin α, unlike NLS1 that associates ...


Three-Dimensional Context Rather Than Nls Amino Acid Sequence Determines Importin Α Subtype Specificity For Rcc1., Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Salma Begum, Ruth A. Pumroy, Richard E. Gillilan, Gino Cingolani 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Three-Dimensional Context Rather Than Nls Amino Acid Sequence Determines Importin Α Subtype Specificity For Rcc1., Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ravi K. Lokareddy, Salma Begum, Ruth A. Pumroy, Richard E. Gillilan, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Active nuclear import of Ran exchange factor RCC1 is mediated by importin α3. This pathway is essential to generate a gradient of RanGTP on chromatin that directs nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope formation. Here we identify the mechanisms of importin α3 selectivity for RCC1. We find this isoform binds RCC1 with one order of magnitude higher affinity than the generic importin α1, although the two isoforms share an identical NLS-binding groove. Importin α3 uses its greater conformational flexibility to wedge the RCC1 β-propeller flanking the NLS against its lateral surface, preventing steric clashes with its Armadillo-core. Removing ...


Pitx3null Mutant (Striatal Dopamine-Deficient) Mice Have Exaggerated Spiny Projection Neuron Responses To L-Dopa And D1 Agonism And Lack Baseline Striatonigral Spiking, Ben Sagot 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Pitx3null Mutant (Striatal Dopamine-Deficient) Mice Have Exaggerated Spiny Projection Neuron Responses To L-Dopa And D1 Agonism And Lack Baseline Striatonigral Spiking, Ben Sagot

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

L-3,4 dihidroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) strongly stimulates motor activity in parkinsonian patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease. Severe striatal dopamine (DA) loss characterizes Parkinson's disease and its animal models. Given the canonical rate model of Parkinson's Disease pathophysiology based on differences in DA pharmacology manifesting as electrophysiological differences in striatal projection neuron (SPN) spike rates, SPNs should increase spiking during the motor response to l-DOPA. In fact, stimulating specific subsets of these neurons to spike in freely-moving wild type and parkinsonian animals causes or inhibits motor activity as predicted. However, pharmacological effects of DA deficiency, let alone ...


Compounds And Method Of Use As Anti-Infection Compounds And Therapeutic Agents To Regulate Cholesterol Metabolism, Joseph Chappell, Tom D. Niehaus, Kristin Brooke Linscott 2017 University of Kentucky

Compounds And Method Of Use As Anti-Infection Compounds And Therapeutic Agents To Regulate Cholesterol Metabolism, Joseph Chappell, Tom D. Niehaus, Kristin Brooke Linscott

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Patents

A compound is provided which comprises at least a portion of an amino acid linker-domain from squalene synthase. In alternative forms, the compound can include the amino-acid linker-domain from various fungus, including S. cerevisiae or the compound can be the functional equivalent and/or mimics an amino acid linker-domain from squalene synthase. A pharmaceutical composition includes the compound and may further include a pharmaceutical carrier. A method is provided for treating or controlling cholesterol metabolism and ergosterol metabolism in non-fungal organisms. One method includes a therapeutic treatment in humans by administering a therapeutically effective amount of the compound or pharmaceutical ...


Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose McGlauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel 2017 University of Iowa

Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose Mcglauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood.

Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo.

Methods and Results: Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter. This is associated with increased palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation ...


Xenobiotic-Induced Activation Of Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Target Genes In Drosophila Is Mediated By The Epigenetic Chromatin Modifiers, Angelina A. Akishina, J. E. Vorontsova, Roman O. Cherezov, Ilja B. Mertsalov, Olga G. Zatsepina, Mikhail S. Slezinger, Vladislav M. Panin, Svetlana Petruk, Grigori N. Enikolopov, Alexander M. Mazo, Olga B. Simonova, Boris A. Kuzin 2017 Russian Academy of Sciences

Xenobiotic-Induced Activation Of Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Target Genes In Drosophila Is Mediated By The Epigenetic Chromatin Modifiers, Angelina A. Akishina, J. E. Vorontsova, Roman O. Cherezov, Ilja B. Mertsalov, Olga G. Zatsepina, Mikhail S. Slezinger, Vladislav M. Panin, Svetlana Petruk, Grigori N. Enikolopov, Alexander M. Mazo, Olga B. Simonova, Boris A. Kuzin

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is the key transcription factor that controls animal development and various adaptive processes. The AHR's target genes are involved in biodegradation of endogenous and exogenous toxins, regulation of immune response, organogenesis, and neurogenesis. Ligand binding is important for the activation of the AHR signaling pathway. Invertebrate AHR homologs are activated by endogenous ligands whereas vertebrate AHR can be activated by both endogenous and exogenous ligands (xenobiotics). Several studies using mammalian cultured cells have demonstrated that transcription of the AHR target genes can be activated by exogenous AHR ligands, but little is known about the effects ...


Difatty Acyl-Conjugated Linear And Cyclic Peptides For Sirna Delivery, Hung Do, Meenakshi Sharma, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Parvin Mahdipoor, Emira Bousoik, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2017 Chapman University

Difatty Acyl-Conjugated Linear And Cyclic Peptides For Sirna Delivery, Hung Do, Meenakshi Sharma, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Parvin Mahdipoor, Emira Bousoik, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A number of amphiphilic difatty acyl linear and cyclic R5K2 peptide conjugates were synthesized by solid-phase peptide methods to enhance the interaction with the hydrophobic cellular phospholipid bilayer and to improve siRNA delivery and silencing. Binding to siRNA molecules was significantly less for the cyclic peptide conjugates. A gradual decrease was observed in the particle size of the complexes with increasing peptide/siRNA ratio for most of the synthesized peptides, suggesting the complex formation. Most of the complexes showed a particle size of less than 200 nm, which is considered an appropriate size for in vitro siRNA delivery. A number ...


Integration Of Metabolomics, Transcriptomics, And Microrna Expression Profiling Reveals A Mir-143-Hk2-Glucose Network Underlying Zinc-Deficiency-Associated Esophageal Neoplasia., Louise Y. Fong, Ruiyan Jing, Karl J. Smalley, Cristian Taccioli, Johannes Fahrmann, Dinesh K. Barupal, Hansjuerg Alder, John L. Farber, Oliver Fiehn, Carlo M. Croce 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Integration Of Metabolomics, Transcriptomics, And Microrna Expression Profiling Reveals A Mir-143-Hk2-Glucose Network Underlying Zinc-Deficiency-Associated Esophageal Neoplasia., Louise Y. Fong, Ruiyan Jing, Karl J. Smalley, Cristian Taccioli, Johannes Fahrmann, Dinesh K. Barupal, Hansjuerg Alder, John L. Farber, Oliver Fiehn, Carlo M. Croce

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in humans is a deadly disease associated with dietary zinc (Zn)-deficiency. In the rat esophagus, Zn-deficiency induces cell proliferation, alters mRNA and microRNA gene expression, and promotes ESCC. We investigated whether Zn-deficiency alters cell metabolism by evaluating metabolomic profiles of esophageal epithelia from Zn-deficient and replenished rats vs sufficient rats, using untargeted gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (n = 8/group). The Zn-deficient proliferative esophagus exhibits a distinct metabolic profile with glucose down 153-fold and lactic acid up 1.7-fold (P < 0.0001), indicating aerobic glycolysis (the "Warburg effect"), a hallmark of cancer cells. Zn-replenishment rapidly increases glucose content, restores deregulated metabolites to control levels, and reverses the hyperplastic phenotype. Integration of metabolomics and our reported transcriptomic data for this tissue unveils a link between glucose down-regulation and overexpression of HK2, an enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glycolysis and is overexpressed in cancer cells. Searching our published microRNA profile, we find that the tumor-suppressor miR-143, a negative regulator of HK2, is down-regulated in Zn-deficient esophagus. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis, the inverse correlation between miR-143 down-regulation and HK2 overexpression is documented in hyperplastic Zn-deficient esophagus, archived ESCC-bearing Zn-deficient esophagus, and human ESCC tissues. Thus, to sustain uncontrolled cell proliferation, Zn-deficiency reprograms glucose metabolism by modulating expression of miR-143 and its target HK2. Our work provides new insight into critical roles of Zn in ESCC development and prevention.


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