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Metabolic Regulation Of Cellular Signaling, Rashid John Darbandi 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Metabolic Regulation Of Cellular Signaling, Rashid John Darbandi

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Using the biochemically tractable Xenopus oocyte model system, we have previously characterized a novel metabolic regulation of cell death. We found that glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) via the pentose phosphate pathway leads to increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels, a subsequent increase in cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A and activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). We recently identified coenzyme A (CoA), derived from the breakdown of acetyl-CoA, as the key metabolic signal that mediates a novel mechanism of calmodulindependent activation of CaMKII. CoA binds directly to the calmodulin (CaM) binding domain (CaMBD) of CaMKII resulting in its activation and downstream inhibitory ...


Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2017 Marshall University

Pnaktide Inhibits Na/K-Atpase Reactive Oxygen Species Amplification And Attenuates Adipogenesis, Komal Sodhi, Kyle Maxwell, Yanling Yan, Jiang Liu, Muhammad Chaudhry, Morgan Getty, Zijian Xie, Nader G. Abraham, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Jiang Liu

Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the generation and maintenance of an obesity phenotype in both isolated adipocytes and intact animals. Because we had identified that the Na/K-ATPase can amplify oxidant signaling, we speculated that a peptide designed to inhibit this pathway, pNaKtide, might ameliorate an obesity phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we first performed studies in isolated murine preadipocytes (3T3L1 cells) and found that pNaKtide attenuated oxidant stress and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Complementary experiments in C57Bl6 mice ...


Profiling Igg N-Glycans As Potential Biomarker Of Chronological And Biological Ages: A Community-Based Study In A Han Chinese Population, Xinwei Yu, Youix Wang, Jasminka Krištić, Jing Dong, Xi Chu, Siqi Ge, Hao Wang, Honghong Fang, Qing Gao, Di Lui, Zhongya Zhao, Hongli Peng, Maja P. Baković, Lijuan Wu, Manshu Song, Igor Rudan, Harry Campbell, Gordan Lauc, Wei Wang 2017 Edith Cowan University

Profiling Igg N-Glycans As Potential Biomarker Of Chronological And Biological Ages: A Community-Based Study In A Han Chinese Population, Xinwei Yu, Youix Wang, Jasminka Krištić, Jing Dong, Xi Chu, Siqi Ge, Hao Wang, Honghong Fang, Qing Gao, Di Lui, Zhongya Zhao, Hongli Peng, Maja P. Baković, Lijuan Wu, Manshu Song, Igor Rudan, Harry Campbell, Gordan Lauc, Wei Wang

Jing Dong

As an important post-translation modifying process, glycosylation significantly affects the structure and function of immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules and is essential in many steps of the inflammatory cascade. Studies have demonstrated the potential of using glycosylation features of IgG as a component of predictive biomarkers for chronological age in several European populations, whereas no study has been reported in Chinese. Herein, we report various patterns of changes in IgG glycosylation associated with age by analyzing IgG glycosylation in 701 community-based Han Chinese (244 males, 457 females; 23-68 years old). Eleven IgG glycans, including FA2B, A2G1, FA2[6]G1, FA2[3 ...


Diagnostic Effectiveness Of High-Sensitivity Troponins, Sean R. Bodin, Jacqueline Ramirez 2017 James Madison University

Diagnostic Effectiveness Of High-Sensitivity Troponins, Sean R. Bodin, Jacqueline Ramirez

Physician Assistant Capstones

Background: Acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) are a leading cause of death in the United States. The key to increasing survivability is early recognition to expedite the proper treatment modalities. In conjunction with the clinical presentation and electrocardiograms, the use of cardiac biomarkers is exponentially important in not only recognizing a cardiac event but also determining the extent of injury. Advancement in laboratory technology has led to the development of high-sensitive troponin (hs-troponin) assays which can detect smaller cardiac troponin serum levels compared to conventional troponin assays. This implies that the use of hs-troponin assays is more effective in the early ...


Structure Activity Relationship Studies Of Novel Diarylpentanoid Analogs Targeting The Androgen Receptor In Prostate Cancer Cells, Haili Coffin, Marco Bisoffi 2017 Chapman University

Structure Activity Relationship Studies Of Novel Diarylpentanoid Analogs Targeting The Androgen Receptor In Prostate Cancer Cells, Haili Coffin, Marco Bisoffi

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The development of prostate cancer (PCa) relies strongly on the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway by its natural ligand dihydrotestosterone. Furthermore, PCa progression to metastatic disease represents oncogene addiction to AR activity. Androgen ablation therapy is thus a mainstay therapy against this disease, but the development of ligand-independent AR activation and persisting AR expression eventually leads to castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Therefore, down-regulation of AR expression in PCa cells may be an effective therapeutic modality. The diarylpentanoid ca27 has previously been shown to down-regulate AR expression by an unknown mechanism of action. The present work represents a ...


Investigating The Mechanism Of Novel Anticancer Agent, As1411 : Does Metabolism To Guanine Play A Role?, Parker T Howard 2017 University of Louisville

Investigating The Mechanism Of Novel Anticancer Agent, As1411 : Does Metabolism To Guanine Play A Role?, Parker T Howard

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

AS1411 is an oligonucleotide that has shown promising results in lab experiments and clinical trials as an anti-cancer drug, Likewise, treatments with guanine based purine compounds (GBPCs) have demonstrated similar anti-proliferative effects in vitro. This activity is dependent on the HGPRT enzyme. Similarities in activity and physical structure has led us to believe that AS1411 and GBPCs operate by a similar mechanism. To test this, we compare the activity of both in the presence of HGPRT siRNAs and HGPRT deficient cells. While siRNA treatment was unable to alter the activity of GBPCs or AS1411 in our cell lines, HGPRT deficient ...


Role Of Dendritic Cells In Pathology Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Neonates, Bishwas Shrestha 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Role Of Dendritic Cells In Pathology Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Neonates, Bishwas Shrestha

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of bronchiolitis in children. We have shown that neonatal mice respond to primary RSV infection with T helper type 2 (Th2) biased immune responses, which are enhanced following reinfection. Dendritic cells (DCs) including myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) play important roles in driving host responses to RSV infection. mDCs present antigens to help Th cells differentiate, and pDCs protect against viral infection through type I interferons (IFNs). Despite data demonstrating importance of mDCs and pDCs in protection against RSV, it has not been studied in an age appropriate ...


Kinetic Studies Of Dna Repair Enzyme Alkbh2, Michael R. Vittori 2017 University of Rhode Island

Kinetic Studies Of Dna Repair Enzyme Alkbh2, Michael R. Vittori

Senior Honors Projects

The genomes of living organisms are under constant bombardment from various sources, including chemical modification stemming from processes within the organisms themselves or from exogenous agents, and from radiation. These sources of genomic damage may induce structural changes in the genome’s most basic functional units, the nucleotides that comprise DNA. Damage to an organism’s DNA may result in the production of dysfunctional or nonfunctional proteins. Failure to repair such damage may result in the compounding of successive mutations within the organism’s genome, the pathogenesis of cancer and various genetic disorders in humans. To ensure their viability, organisms ...


Foxo3 Increases Mir-34a To Cause Palmitate-Induced Cholangiocyte Lipoapoptosis., Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Bailey A. Stringham, Ashley M. Mohr, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Sizhao Lu, Mary A. Smith, Dee Harrison-Findik, Justin L. Mott 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Foxo3 Increases Mir-34a To Cause Palmitate-Induced Cholangiocyte Lipoapoptosis., Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Bailey A. Stringham, Ashley M. Mohr, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Sizhao Lu, Mary A. Smith, Dee Harrison-Findik, Justin L. Mott

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients have elevated plasma saturated free fatty acid levels. These toxic fatty acids can induce liver cell death and our recent results demonstrated that the biliary epithelium may be susceptible to lipotoxicity. Here, we explored the molecular mechanisms of cholangiocyte lipoapoptosis in cell culture and in an animal model of NASH. Treatment of cholangiocytes with palmitate (PA) showed increased caspase 3/7 activity and increased levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase 3, demonstrating cholangiocyte lipoapoptosis. Interestingly, treatment with PA significantly increased the levels of microRNA miR-34a, a pro-apoptotic microRNA known to be elevated in ...


Chemical And Structural Characterization Of A Model Post-Termination Complex (Potc) For The Ribosome Recycling Reaction: Evidence For The Release Of The Mrna By Rrf And Ef-G., Nobuhiro Iwakura, Takeshi Yokoyama, Fabio Quaglia, Kaoru Mitsuoka, Kazuhiro Mio, Hideki Shigematsu, Mikako Shirouzu, Akira Kaji, Hideko Kaji 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Chemical And Structural Characterization Of A Model Post-Termination Complex (Potc) For The Ribosome Recycling Reaction: Evidence For The Release Of The Mrna By Rrf And Ef-G., Nobuhiro Iwakura, Takeshi Yokoyama, Fabio Quaglia, Kaoru Mitsuoka, Kazuhiro Mio, Hideki Shigematsu, Mikako Shirouzu, Akira Kaji, Hideko Kaji

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

A model Post-Termination Complex (PoTC) used for the discovery of Ribosome Recycling Factor (RRF) was purified and characterized by cryo-electron microscopic analysis and biochemical methods. We established that the model PoTC has mostly one tRNA, at the P/E or P/P position, together with one mRNA. The structural studies were supported by the biochemical measurement of bound tRNA and mRNA. Using this substrate, we establish that the release of tRNA, release of mRNA and splitting of ribosomal subunits occur during the recycling reaction. Order of these events is tRNA release first followed by mRNA release and splitting almost simultaneously ...


Investigating The Role Of Dispatched In Hedgehog Ligand Transport And Delivery, William Bodeen 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Investigating The Role Of Dispatched In Hedgehog Ligand Transport And Delivery, William Bodeen

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

During the development of all metazoans, the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway provides instructional cues influencing a variety of cellular processes. The pathway ligand, Hh, is dually lipidated by cholesterol and palmitate, which effectively anchors the molecule to the lipid bilayer of the signal producing cell. To complicate the Hh pathway induction process, the Hh ligand is often produced at a significant distance from the cells it influences. Only one known conserved molecule, Dispatched (Disp), can alleviate the membrane tethering imparted by Hh lipidation. Underscoring the importance of Disp protein during development, knockout animals succumb to lethality at E9.5, an ...


Determining The Protective Effects Of Quercetin Against Cadmium Toxicity In Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Caroline N. Smith 2017 Bellarmine University

Determining The Protective Effects Of Quercetin Against Cadmium Toxicity In Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Caroline N. Smith

Undergraduate Theses

Cadmium is a toxic industrial and environmental pollutant found in groundwater, air, soils, food and cigarettes. Chronic intake of low levels of cadmium has been shown to result in renal dysfunction due to cell death which can occur via apoptosis as well as necrosis. Previous studies have shown that plant extracts containing quercetin, a flavonoid found in many fruits and vegetables, protect against cadmium toxicity in rat liver hepatocytes. To determine if quercetin may have a protective effect in a cadmium-treated human embryonic kidney cell line, HEK-293 cells were treated using concentrations of cadmium chloride from 10 to 50 μM ...


A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Trna Is Active In Live-Cell Protein Synthesis., Isao Masuda, Takao Igarashi, Reiko Sakaguchi, Ram G. Nitharwal, Ryuichi Takase, Kyu Young Han, Benjamin J. Leslie, Cuiping Liu, Howard Gamper, Taekjip Ha, Suparna Sanyal, Ya-Ming Hou 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Trna Is Active In Live-Cell Protein Synthesis., Isao Masuda, Takao Igarashi, Reiko Sakaguchi, Ram G. Nitharwal, Ryuichi Takase, Kyu Young Han, Benjamin J. Leslie, Cuiping Liu, Howard Gamper, Taekjip Ha, Suparna Sanyal, Ya-Ming Hou

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) perform essential tasks for all living cells. They are major components of the ribosomal machinery for protein synthesis and they also serve in non-ribosomal pathways for regulation and signaling metabolism. We describe the development of a genetically encoded fluorescent tRNA fusion with the potential for imaging in live Escherichia coli cells. This tRNA fusion carries a Spinach aptamer that becomes fluorescent upon binding of a cell-permeable and non-toxic fluorophore. We show that, despite having a structural framework significantly larger than any natural tRNA species, this fusion is a viable probe for monitoring tRNA stability in a cellular ...


Antisense Oligonucleotide Modulators Of Serotonin Receptor 2c And Uses Thereof, Stefan Stamm, Manli Shen, Serene Josiah 2017 University of Kentucky

Antisense Oligonucleotide Modulators Of Serotonin Receptor 2c And Uses Thereof, Stefan Stamm, Manli Shen, Serene Josiah

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Patents

The present invention provides, among other things, oligonucleotide modulators of human 5'-HT2C receptor (HTR2C) and improved methods and composition for treating HTR2C-related diseases, disorders or conditions based on such modulators. In particular, oligonucleotides modulators according to the invention target specific regions in the Exon V/Intron V junction of the human HTR2C pre-mRNA and drive expression of HTR2C Vb splice isoform, leading to increased generation of non-edited strong HTR2C receptor and enhanced serotonin receptor activity.


Portal Protein Functions Akin To A Dna-Sensor That Couples Genome-Packaging To Icosahedral Capsid Maturation., Ravi K. Lokareddy, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ankoor Roy, Pavel V. Afonine, Tina Motwani, Carolyn M M. Teschke, Kristin N. Parent, Gino Cingolani 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Portal Protein Functions Akin To A Dna-Sensor That Couples Genome-Packaging To Icosahedral Capsid Maturation., Ravi K. Lokareddy, Rajeshwer S. Sankhala, Ankoor Roy, Pavel V. Afonine, Tina Motwani, Carolyn M M. Teschke, Kristin N. Parent, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or 'procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity ...


Cleavage Of Dfna5 By Caspase-3 During Apoptosis Mediates Progression To Secondary Necrotic/Pyroptotic Cell Death., Corey Rogers, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Lindsey Mayes, Diana Alnemri, Gino Cingolani, Emad S. Alnemri 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Cleavage Of Dfna5 By Caspase-3 During Apoptosis Mediates Progression To Secondary Necrotic/Pyroptotic Cell Death., Corey Rogers, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Lindsey Mayes, Diana Alnemri, Gino Cingolani, Emad S. Alnemri

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Apoptosis is a genetically regulated cell suicide programme mediated by activation of the effector caspases 3, 6 and 7. If apoptotic cells are not scavenged, they progress to a lytic and inflammatory phase called secondary necrosis. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show that caspase-3 cleaves the GSDMD-related protein DFNA5 after Asp270 to generate a necrotic DFNA5-N fragment that targets the plasma membrane to induce secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Cells that express DFNA5 progress to secondary necrosis, when stimulated with apoptotic triggers such as etoposide or vesicular stomatitis virus infection, but disassemble into small apoptotic bodies when ...


The Potential Role Of Oxidative Stress In Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure Vascular Reactivity, Abigail J. Gindlesberger 2017 The University of Akron

The Potential Role Of Oxidative Stress In Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure Vascular Reactivity, Abigail J. Gindlesberger

Honors Research Projects

Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disease of pregnant women that is known to cause detrimental physiological complications to both the mother and fetus. The hypertension hypothesized to result from endothelial dysfunction may be improved therapeutically by increasing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor ligand concentration and it’s Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGF and VEGFR2). Together, this receptor pathway may help overall vasodilation of key blood vessels linking the mother and fetal placental unit, allowing for increased clinical pathologies of both. Previous studies have also linked increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in preeclamptic pregnancies to the damaged endothelial tissues of ...


The International Scientific Association For Probiotics And Prebiotics (Isapp) Consensus Statement On The Definition And Scope Of Prebiotics, Glenn R. Gibson, Robert W. Hutkins, Mary Ellen Sanders, Susan L. Prescott, Raylene A. Reimer, Seppo J. Salminen, Karen Scott, Catherine Stanton, Kelly S. Swanson, Patrice D. Cani, Kristin Verbeke, Gregor Reid 2017 University of Reading

The International Scientific Association For Probiotics And Prebiotics (Isapp) Consensus Statement On The Definition And Scope Of Prebiotics, Glenn R. Gibson, Robert W. Hutkins, Mary Ellen Sanders, Susan L. Prescott, Raylene A. Reimer, Seppo J. Salminen, Karen Scott, Catherine Stanton, Kelly S. Swanson, Patrice D. Cani, Kristin Verbeke, Gregor Reid

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

In December 2016, a panel of experts in microbiology, nutrition and clinical research was convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics to review the definition and scope of prebiotics. Consistent with the original embodiment of prebiotics, but aware of the latest scientific and clinical developments, the panel updated the definition of a prebiotic: a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit. This definition expands the concept of prebiotics to possibly include non-carbohydrate substances, applications to body sites other than the gastrointestinal tract, and diverse categories other than food. The requirement for selective ...


The Yersinia Pestis Effector Yopm Inhibits Pyrin Inflammasome Activation., Dmitry Ratner, M Pontus A Orning, Megan K. Proulx, Donghai Wang, Mikhail A. Gavrilin, Mark D. Wewers, Emad S. Alnemri, Peter F. Johnson, Bettina Lee, Joan Mecsas, Nobuhiko Kayagaki, Jon D. Goguen, Egil Lien 2016 UMass Medical School

The Yersinia Pestis Effector Yopm Inhibits Pyrin Inflammasome Activation., Dmitry Ratner, M Pontus A Orning, Megan K. Proulx, Donghai Wang, Mikhail A. Gavrilin, Mark D. Wewers, Emad S. Alnemri, Peter F. Johnson, Bettina Lee, Joan Mecsas, Nobuhiko Kayagaki, Jon D. Goguen, Egil Lien

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are central virulence factors for many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, and secreted T3SS effectors can block key aspects of host cell signaling. To counter this, innate immune responses can also sense some T3SS components to initiate anti-bacterial mechanisms. The Yersinia pestis T3SS is particularly effective and sophisticated in manipulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, which are typically processed into their mature forms by active caspase-1 following inflammasome formation. Some effectors, like Y. pestis YopM, may block inflammasome activation. Here we show that YopM prevents Y. pestis induced activation of the Pyrin inflammasome induced ...


Environmental Signaling Through The Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (Torc1) And The Regulation Of Epigenetic Mechanisms, Jason J. Workman 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Environmental Signaling Through The Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (Torc1) And The Regulation Of Epigenetic Mechanisms, Jason J. Workman

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The gene expression profile of a eukaryotic cell is responsive to a variety of extracellular stimuli, including nutrient availability, which allows cells to toggle between anabolism and catabolism based on the favorability of their environment. Much of this information is relayed through signaling complexes, such as the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1), to downstream chromatin modifying enzymes. These enzymes impact the gene regulatory process through altered histone post-translation modifications, changes in chromatin structure, and docking of chromatin regulatory complexes. Yet, despite preliminary studies suggesting that TORC1 affects epigenetic mechanisms, including histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac), almost nothing is ...


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