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Purification And Biochemical Characterization Of The Dna Binding Domain Of The Nitrogenase Transcriptional Activator Nifa From Gluconacetobacter Diazotrophicus, Heidi G. Standke, Lois Kim, Cedric P. Owens 2023 Chapman University

Purification And Biochemical Characterization Of The Dna Binding Domain Of The Nitrogenase Transcriptional Activator Nifa From Gluconacetobacter Diazotrophicus, Heidi G. Standke, Lois Kim, Cedric P. Owens

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

NifA is a σ54 activator that turns on bacterial nitrogen fixation under reducing conditions and when fixed cellular nitrogen levels are low. The redox sensing mechanism in NifA is poorly understood. In α- and β-proteobacteria, redox sensing involves two pairs of Cys residues within and immediately following the protein’s central AAA+ domain. In this work, we examine if an additional Cys pair that is part of a C(X)5 C motif and located immediately upstream of the DNA binding domain of NifA from the α-proteobacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (Gd) is involved in redox sensing. We hypothesize that the …


Investigating The Role Of Endothelial Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 2 In Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity, Berk U. Rasheed 2023 Western University

Investigating The Role Of Endothelial Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 2 In Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity, Berk U. Rasheed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Doxorubicin (Dox) is a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat various malignancies including breast and ovarian cancers. Accumulating evidence implicates cardiac impairments associated with Dox treatment. The Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 2 (BRCA2) functions to maintain genome-wide stability by promoting DNA-damage repair. Accordingly, cardiomyocyte damage is specifically regulated by contributors of DNA damage repair such as BRCA2. The endothelium, the innermost cells of every blood vessel, act to protect our tissues from noxious elements, however, recent evidence suggests that BRCA2 knockdown compromises endothelial cell function. A putative role of endothelial BRCA2 during Dox-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) remains unknown. We hypothesized that endothelial-specific …


Comparative Analysis Of The Effects Of Actual Versus Assumed Opioid Experience On The Regulation Of Ventral Striatal Opioid Receptor Gene Expression, Indu Mithra Madhuranthakam, Martin Job 2023 Rowan University

Comparative Analysis Of The Effects Of Actual Versus Assumed Opioid Experience On The Regulation Of Ventral Striatal Opioid Receptor Gene Expression, Indu Mithra Madhuranthakam, Martin Job

Stratford Campus Research Day

Rationale: We conducted experiments to assess the effect of prior opioid experience on gene expression changes. We compared the current experimenter-imposed short versus extended-access conditions of opioid self-administration and developed a new quantitative method to determine their effectiveness in identifying the role of opioid experience in regulating opioid receptor expression levels in the ventral striatum (VS) using an oxycodone self-administration/abstinence model.

Methods: In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36) were trained for 20 days to self-administer oxycodone at 0.1 mg/kg/infusion under short access (n=15, or saline as controls n=3, for 3h/day) or extended access (n=15, or saline as controls n=3, …


Identifying Co-Factors That Drive Tra-1 Activator Function, Jibran Imtiaz, Youngquan Shen, Ronald Ellis 2023 Rowan University

Identifying Co-Factors That Drive Tra-1 Activator Function, Jibran Imtiaz, Youngquan Shen, Ronald Ellis

Stratford Campus Research Day

Gli proteins are involved in cell fate determination, proliferation, and patterning in many species and are major effectors of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. There are three Gli proteins in humans, and mutations or errors in their regulation lead to a variety of developmental disorders or cancer. However, the mechanisms by which they interact with co-factors are poorly understood. We are analyzing co-factors of Gli proteins using TRA-1 in Caenorhabditis nematodes. The TRA-1 zinc fingers are structurally like those of other Gli proteins, and TRA-1 can be cleaved like other Gli proteins to form a repressor. However, its function has changed during …


Refinement Of Saliva Microrna Biomarkers For Sports-Related Concussion, Steven D. Hicks, Cayce Onks, Raymond Y. Kim, Kevin J. Kim, Kevin J. Zhen, Jayson Loeffert, Andrea C. Loeffert, Robert P. Olympia, Gregory Fedorchak, Samantha DeVita, Zofia Gagnon, Callan McLoughlin, Miguel M. Madeira, Scott L. Zuckerman, Timothy Lee, Matthew Heller, Chuck Monteith, Thomas R. Campbell, Christopher Neville, Elise Fengler, Michael N. Dretsch 2023 Old Dominion University

Refinement Of Saliva Microrna Biomarkers For Sports-Related Concussion, Steven D. Hicks, Cayce Onks, Raymond Y. Kim, Kevin J. Kim, Kevin J. Zhen, Jayson Loeffert, Andrea C. Loeffert, Robert P. Olympia, Gregory Fedorchak, Samantha Devita, Zofia Gagnon, Callan Mcloughlin, Miguel M. Madeira, Scott L. Zuckerman, Timothy Lee, Matthew Heller, Chuck Monteith, Thomas R. Campbell, Christopher Neville, Elise Fengler, Michael N. Dretsch

Rehabilitation Sciences Faculty Publications

Purpose

Recognizing sport-related concussion (SRC) is challenging and relies heavily on subjective symptom reports. An objective, biological marker could improve recognition and understanding of SRC. There is emerging evidence that salivary micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) may serve as biomarkers of concussion; however, it remains unclear whether concussion-related miRNAs are impacted by exercise. We sought to determine whether 40 miRNAs previously implicated in concussion pathophysiology were affected by participation in a variety of contact and non-contact sports. Our goal was to refine a miRNA-based tool capable of identifying athletes with SRC without the confounding effects of exercise.

Methods

This case-control study harmonized …


Detecting Pathobiomes Using Machine Learning, Valerie Jackson, Valerie Jackson 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Detecting Pathobiomes Using Machine Learning, Valerie Jackson, Valerie Jackson

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Machine learning is a field with high growth potential due to the overall continuous progressions, developments, advancements, and improvements caused by the way it is used to help interpret and use large amounts of data [1]. One type of data that can be collected and analyzed by these machine learning models is data that is associated with DNA and information that the DNA gives. The research will be focusing specifically on using machine learning technology to detect pathobiomes indicative of salmonella pork. The pathobiome associated with salmonella is very similar to others, and this causes a problem for classification/detection with …


The Genetic Determinants Of Recurrent Somatic Mutations In 43,693 Blood Genomes, Joshua S. Weinstock, Cecelia A. Laurie, Jai G. Broome, Kent D. Taylor, Xiuqing Guo, Alan R. Shuldiner, Jeffrey R. O'Connell, Ravi Duggirala, Joanne E. Curran, John Blangero 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

The Genetic Determinants Of Recurrent Somatic Mutations In 43,693 Blood Genomes, Joshua S. Weinstock, Cecelia A. Laurie, Jai G. Broome, Kent D. Taylor, Xiuqing Guo, Alan R. Shuldiner, Jeffrey R. O'Connell, Ravi Duggirala, Joanne E. Curran, John Blangero

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Nononcogenic somatic mutations are thought to be uncommon and inconsequential. To test this, we analyzed 43,693 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine blood whole genomes from 37 cohorts and identified 7131 non-missense somatic mutations that are recurrently mutated in at least 50 individuals. These recurrent non-missense somatic mutations (RNMSMs) are not clearly explained by other clonal phenomena such as clonal hematopoiesis. RNMSM prevalence increased with age, with an average 50-year-old having 27 RNMSMs. Inherited germline variation associated with RNMSM acquisition. These variants were found in genes involved in adaptive immune function, proinflammatory cytokine production, and lymphoid …


Med13 Degradation Defines A New Receptor-Mediated Autophagy Pathway Activated By Nutrient Deprivation, Sara E. Hanley 2023 Rowan University

Med13 Degradation Defines A New Receptor-Mediated Autophagy Pathway Activated By Nutrient Deprivation, Sara E. Hanley

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Cells are exposed to an enormous amount of diverse extracellular cues but have a limited arsenal of weapons for protecting and maintaining homeostasis. To overcome these restrictions, nature has engineered proteins that have multiple functions. The pleiotropy of using one protein to carry out a variety of functions allows cells to rapidly execute tailored responses to a diverse set of signals. The Cdk8 kinase module (CKM) is a conserved detachable unit of the Mediator complex predominantly known for its role in transcriptional regulation. The CKM is composed of four proteins, the scaffolding proteins Med13 and Med12, as well as the …


Graves' Disease And Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Ii: A Meta-Analysis Of Hla-Dq And Hla-Drb1, Dylan Thibaut, Connor Sweeney, Shannon South, Mohamed Hussein 2023 Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine- Bradenton; University of Central Florida

Graves' Disease And Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Ii: A Meta-Analysis Of Hla-Dq And Hla-Drb1, Dylan Thibaut, Connor Sweeney, Shannon South, Mohamed Hussein

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Background: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II has shown potential in determining prognosis, understanding medication reactions, and predicting onset of Graves’ disease. The aim of this study is to further investigate the association between Graves’ disease and HLA class II, specifically HLA-DQ and HLA-DR, via meta-analysis to find HLAs that can be further examined for prognostic reasons.

Methods: Statistical analysis was performed to determine if variants of HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, or HLA-DRB1 were associated with significantly altered odds of Graves’ disease. A minimum of three studies pertaining to a particular HLA was required for inclusion. Studies were excluded if …


Anterior And Posterior Tongue Regions And Taste Papillae: Distinct Roles And Regulatory Mechanisms With An Emphasis On Hedgehog Signaling And Antagonism., Archana Kumari, Charlotte M. Mistretta 2023 Rowan University

Anterior And Posterior Tongue Regions And Taste Papillae: Distinct Roles And Regulatory Mechanisms With An Emphasis On Hedgehog Signaling And Antagonism., Archana Kumari, Charlotte M. Mistretta

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Sensory receptors across the entire tongue are engaged during eating. However, the tongue has distinctive regions with taste (fungiform and circumvallate) and non-taste (filiform) organs that are composed of specialized epithelia, connective tissues, and innervation. The tissue regions and papillae are adapted in form and function for taste and somatosensation associated with eating. It follows that homeostasis and regeneration of distinctive papillae and taste buds with particular functional roles require tailored molecular pathways. Nonetheless, in the chemosensory field, generalizations are often made between mechanisms that regulate anterior tongue fungiform and posterior circumvallate taste papillae, without a clear distinction that highlights …


Differential Transcriptional Alterations In Detoxification Genes In Parkinson’S Disease In Egypt, Nourhan Shebl 2023 American University in Cairo

Differential Transcriptional Alterations In Detoxification Genes In Parkinson’S Disease In Egypt, Nourhan Shebl

Theses and Dissertations

PD is the most common motor neurodegenerative disease worldwide. The underlying cause of PD is still unknow, owingthis to the complexity of the disease. Often, genetics and environmental factors are collaborating in the initiation of the disease. Despite the diversity of its genetical and environmental profiles, the Egyptian population is one of the mostunderrepresented population in terms of PD research. In this study, we investigated PD through various perspectives tohighlight the complexity of the disease in Egypt, taking into consideration the diversity of the Egyptian population. We recruited PD patients and reference controls from 4 governorates: Cairo, Giza, Alexandria, and …


Multi-Ancestry Genome-Wide Association Analyses Improve Resolution Of Genes And Pathways Influencing Lung Function And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Risk, Nick Shrine, Abril G. Izquierdo, Jing Chen, Richard Packer, Robert J. Hall, Anna L. Guyatt, Chiara Batini, Rebecca J. Thompson, Chandan Puvuluri, Vidhi Malik, Brian D. Hobbs, Matthew Moll, Wonji Kim, Ruth Tal-Singer, Per Bakke, Katherine A. Fawcett, Catherine John, Kayesha Coley, Noemi Nicole Piga, Sinjini Sikdar, Martin D. Tobin, Et al. 2023 Old Dominion University

Multi-Ancestry Genome-Wide Association Analyses Improve Resolution Of Genes And Pathways Influencing Lung Function And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Risk, Nick Shrine, Abril G. Izquierdo, Jing Chen, Richard Packer, Robert J. Hall, Anna L. Guyatt, Chiara Batini, Rebecca J. Thompson, Chandan Puvuluri, Vidhi Malik, Brian D. Hobbs, Matthew Moll, Wonji Kim, Ruth Tal-Singer, Per Bakke, Katherine A. Fawcett, Catherine John, Kayesha Coley, Noemi Nicole Piga, Sinjini Sikdar, Martin D. Tobin, Et Al.

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

Lung-function impairment underlies chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and predicts mortality. In the largest multi-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of lung function to date, comprising 580,869 participants, we identified 1,020 independent association signals implicating 559 genes supported by ≥2 criteria from a systematic variant-to-gene mapping framework. These genes were enriched in 29 pathways. Individual variants showed heterogeneity across ancestries, age and smoking groups, and collectively as a genetic risk score showed strong association with COPD across ancestry groups. We undertook phenome-wide association studies for selected associated variants as well as trait and pathway-specific genetic risk scores to infer possible consequences of …


Review On Molecular Genetic Basis Of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Derek Pok Him Lee 2023 Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong

Review On Molecular Genetic Basis Of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Derek Pok Him Lee

Journal of the Hong Kong College of Cardiology

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common types of inherited cardiomyopathy with a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from subtle myocardial hypertrophy to debilitating heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. We reviewed the literature on the latest knowledge regarding the pathophysiology and molecular genetic basis of HCM. This will include laboratory studies on animal models and human pluripotent stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes and the theory of proximal mechanisms involving calcium handling and energy expenditure underlying HCM. The current review will also illustrate the pathogenicity of various associated genetic variants, genotype-phenotype correlation and the optimal approach to …


Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman 2022 Old Dominion University

Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Human subtelomeric DNA regulates the length and stability of adjacent telomeres that are critical for cellular function, and contains many gene/pseudogene families. Large evolutionarily recent segmental duplications and associated structural variation in human subtelomeres has made complete sequencing and assembly of these regions difficult to impossible for many loci, complicating or precluding a wide range of genetic analyses to investigate their function.

Results: We present a hybrid assembly method, NanoPore Guided REgional Assembly Tool (NPGREAT), which combines Linked-Read data with mapped ultralong nanopore reads spanning subtelomeric segmental duplications to potentially overcome these difficulties. Linked-Read sets of DNA sequences identified …


Bayesian Methods For Graphical Models With Neighborhood Selection., Sagnik Bhadury 2022 University of Louisville

Bayesian Methods For Graphical Models With Neighborhood Selection., Sagnik Bhadury

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Graphical models determine associations between variables through the notion of conditional independence. Gaussian graphical models are a widely used class of such models, where the relationships are formalized by non-null entries of the precision matrix. However, in high-dimensional cases, covariance estimates are typically unstable. Moreover, it is natural to expect only a few significant associations to be present in many realistic applications. This necessitates the injection of sparsity techniques into the estimation method. Classical frequentist methods, like GLASSO, use penalization techniques for this purpose. Fully Bayesian methods, on the contrary, are slow because they require iteratively sampling over a quadratic …


A Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Pdpk1 As A Target To Enhance The Efficacy Of Mek1/2 Inhibitors, Weijia Cai, Nicole A. Wilski, Timothy J. Purwin, Megane Vernon, Manoela Tiago, Andrew E. Aplin 2022 Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

A Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Pdpk1 As A Target To Enhance The Efficacy Of Mek1/2 Inhibitors, Weijia Cai, Nicole A. Wilski, Timothy J. Purwin, Megane Vernon, Manoela Tiago, Andrew E. Aplin

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Melanomas frequently harbor activating NRAS mutations. However, limited advance has been made in developing targeted therapy options for NRAS mutant melanoma patients. MEK inhibitors (MEKi) show modest efficacy in the clinic and their actions need to be optimized. In this study, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9-based screen and demonstrated that loss of Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDPK1) enhances the efficacy of MEKi. The synergistic effects of PDPK1 loss and MEKi was validated in NRAS mutant melanoma cell lines using pharmacological and molecular approaches. Combined PDPK1 inhibitors (PDPK1i) with MEKi suppressed NRAS mutant xenograft growth and induced gasdermin E-associated pyroptosis. In an immune-competent …


Induced Cytotoxicity In Crebbp/Ep300mut Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Thomaia Pamplin 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Induced Cytotoxicity In Crebbp/Ep300mut Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Thomaia Pamplin

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

INDUCED CYOTOXICTY IN CREBBP/EP300mut HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

Thomaia Pamplin

Advisor: Curtis Pickering, Ph.D.

Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma HNSCC is the most common malignancy in the head and neck. Most cases are found in advanced stages and depending on the location can be treated with surgical resection and/or radiation (XRT), chemotherapy, or chemoradiation. Our lab groups have identified that HNSCC with a mutation in its CREBBP/EP300 genes can be sensitized to XRT when the histone acetyltransferase activity of CREBBP/EP300 is inhibited. This radiosensitization manifests in the form of increased cell death for …


Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease And Depression: Evidence For Genotype × Environment Interaction In Mexican Americans, Eron G. Manusov, Vincent P. Diego, Khalid Sheikh, Sandra Laston, John Blangero, Sarah Williams-Blangero 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease And Depression: Evidence For Genotype × Environment Interaction In Mexican Americans, Eron G. Manusov, Vincent P. Diego, Khalid Sheikh, Sandra Laston, John Blangero, Sarah Williams-Blangero

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

This study examines the impact of G × E interaction effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among Mexican Americans in the Rio Grande Valley (RGV) of South Texas. We examined potential G × E interaction using variance components models and likelihood-based statistical inference in the phenotypic expression of NAFLD, including hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis (identified using vibration controlled transient elastography and controlled attenuation parameter measured by the FibroScan Device). We screened for depression using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). We identified significant G × E interactions for hepatic fibrosis × BDI-II. These findings provide evidence that genetic factors …


Identification Of Healthspan-Promoting Genes In Caenorhabditis Elegans Based On A Human Gwas Study, Nadine Saul, Ineke Dhondt, Mikko Kuokkanen, Markus Perola, Clara Verschuuren, Brecht Wouters, Henrik von Chrzanowski, Winnok H. De Vos, Liesbet Temmerman, Walter Luyten 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Identification Of Healthspan-Promoting Genes In Caenorhabditis Elegans Based On A Human Gwas Study, Nadine Saul, Ineke Dhondt, Mikko Kuokkanen, Markus Perola, Clara Verschuuren, Brecht Wouters, Henrik Von Chrzanowski, Winnok H. De Vos, Liesbet Temmerman, Walter Luyten

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

To find drivers of healthy ageing, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in healthy and unhealthy older individuals. Healthy individuals were defined as free from cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart failure, major adverse cardiovascular event, diabetes, dementia, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, rheumatism, Crohn’s disease, malabsorption or kidney disease. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with unknown function associated with ten human genes were identified as candidate healthspan markers. Thirteen homologous or closely related genes were selected in the model organism C. elegans for evaluating healthspan after targeted RNAi-mediated knockdown using pathogen resistance, muscle integrity, chemotaxis index and the …


Modeling The Role Of Cyclin C In Connecting Stress-Induced Mitochondrial Fission To Apoptosis, Steven J. Doyle, Randy Strich 2022 Rowan University

Modeling The Role Of Cyclin C In Connecting Stress-Induced Mitochondrial Fission To Apoptosis, Steven J. Doyle, Randy Strich

Stratford Campus Research Day

For normal cell function, exogenous signals must be correctly interpreted, and the proper response executed. The mitochondria are key regulatory nodes of cellular fate. For example, mitochondria undergo fission and fusion cycles depending on the energetic needs of the cell. Additionally, regulated cell death pathways also function at the mitochondria. Cyclin C is a transcriptional regulator of stress response and growth control genes. Following stress, a portion of cyclin C translocates to the cytoplasm, where it interacts with both the mitochondrial fission and apoptotic machinery. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that Cyclin C represents a key mediator linking transcription …


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