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Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville 2022 University of South Alabama

Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville

Theses and Dissertations

High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are malignant, highly metabolically active brain tumors. HGGs are associated with poor patient outcome, attributed to resistance to current therapies, with a survival rate between 12 to 15 months. Gliomas are highly complex tumors, making targeted therapy difficult, highlighting the need for novel approaches and new treatment options. In addition, a large percentage of HGGs are comprised of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that further contribute to therapeutic resistance. Notable characteristics of GSCs are a heightened DNA damage response (DDR) and elevated replication stress that could provide opportunities for therapeutic targeting. A notable feature of many glioma tumors …


Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman 2022 Old Dominion University

Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Human subtelomeric DNA regulates the length and stability of adjacent telomeres that are critical for cellular function, and contains many gene/pseudogene families. Large evolutionarily recent segmental duplications and associated structural variation in human subtelomeres has made complete sequencing and assembly of these regions difficult to impossible for many loci, complicating or precluding a wide range of genetic analyses to investigate their function.

Results: We present a hybrid assembly method, NanoPore Guided REgional Assembly Tool (NPGREAT), which combines Linked-Read data with mapped ultralong nanopore reads spanning subtelomeric segmental duplications to potentially overcome these difficulties. Linked-Read sets of DNA sequences identified …


Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease And Depression: Evidence For Genotype × Environment Interaction In Mexican Americans, Eron G. Manusov, Vincent P. Diego, Khalid Sheikh, Sandra Laston, John Blangero, Sarah Williams-Blangero 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease And Depression: Evidence For Genotype × Environment Interaction In Mexican Americans, Eron G. Manusov, Vincent P. Diego, Khalid Sheikh, Sandra Laston, John Blangero, Sarah Williams-Blangero

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

This study examines the impact of G × E interaction effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among Mexican Americans in the Rio Grande Valley (RGV) of South Texas. We examined potential G × E interaction using variance components models and likelihood-based statistical inference in the phenotypic expression of NAFLD, including hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis (identified using vibration controlled transient elastography and controlled attenuation parameter measured by the FibroScan Device). We screened for depression using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). We identified significant G × E interactions for hepatic fibrosis × BDI-II. These findings provide evidence that genetic factors …


Identification Of Healthspan-Promoting Genes In Caenorhabditis Elegans Based On A Human Gwas Study, Nadine Saul, Ineke Dhondt, Mikko Kuokkanen, Markus Perola, Clara Verschuuren, Brecht Wouters, Henrik von Chrzanowski, Winnok H. De Vos, Liesbet Temmerman, Walter Luyten 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Identification Of Healthspan-Promoting Genes In Caenorhabditis Elegans Based On A Human Gwas Study, Nadine Saul, Ineke Dhondt, Mikko Kuokkanen, Markus Perola, Clara Verschuuren, Brecht Wouters, Henrik Von Chrzanowski, Winnok H. De Vos, Liesbet Temmerman, Walter Luyten

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

To find drivers of healthy ageing, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in healthy and unhealthy older individuals. Healthy individuals were defined as free from cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart failure, major adverse cardiovascular event, diabetes, dementia, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, rheumatism, Crohn’s disease, malabsorption or kidney disease. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with unknown function associated with ten human genes were identified as candidate healthspan markers. Thirteen homologous or closely related genes were selected in the model organism C. elegans for evaluating healthspan after targeted RNAi-mediated knockdown using pathogen resistance, muscle integrity, chemotaxis index and the …


Modeling The Role Of Cyclin C In Connecting Stress-Induced Mitochondrial Fission To Apoptosis, Steven J. Doyle, Randy Strich 2022 Rowan University

Modeling The Role Of Cyclin C In Connecting Stress-Induced Mitochondrial Fission To Apoptosis, Steven J. Doyle, Randy Strich

Stratford Campus Research Day

For normal cell function, exogenous signals must be correctly interpreted, and the proper response executed. The mitochondria are key regulatory nodes of cellular fate. For example, mitochondria undergo fission and fusion cycles depending on the energetic needs of the cell. Additionally, regulated cell death pathways also function at the mitochondria. Cyclin C is a transcriptional regulator of stress response and growth control genes. Following stress, a portion of cyclin C translocates to the cytoplasm, where it interacts with both the mitochondrial fission and apoptotic machinery. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that Cyclin C represents a key mediator linking transcription …


Ung2 And Rpa Activity On Ssdna-Dsdna Junctions, Kathy Chen, Sharon Greenwood, Brian P. Weiser 2022 Rowan University

Ung2 And Rpa Activity On Ssdna-Dsdna Junctions, Kathy Chen, Sharon Greenwood, Brian P. Weiser

Stratford Campus Research Day

Uracil DNA glycosylase, or UNG2, is an enzyme that is involved in DNA repair. Its primary job is to eliminate harmful uracil bases from DNA strands. To do this, the enzyme is assisted by replication protein A (RPA). RPA helps UNG2 in the identification of uracil bases by targeting UNG2 activity near ssDNA-dsDNA junctions (1-3). The results from assays presented here agree with published findings that showed UNG2 is heavily targeted by RPA to uracil bases that are close to ssDNA-dsDNA junctions (for example, uracil located 9 bps from the junction as opposed to 33 bps) (1,2). However, these previous …


Substrate-Specific Effect On Sirtuin Conformation And Oligomerization, Jie Yang, Shannon L. Dwyer, Nathan I. Nicely, Brian P. Weiser 2022 Rowan University

Substrate-Specific Effect On Sirtuin Conformation And Oligomerization, Jie Yang, Shannon L. Dwyer, Nathan I. Nicely, Brian P. Weiser

Stratford Campus Research Day

Human sirtuins are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +)-dependent enzymes that are responsible for removing acyl modifications from lysine residues. Sirtuins are involved in the formation and proliferation of cancers and are thought to regulate the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Although sirtuins can be pharmacologically targeted by small molecules, it is not easy to modulate the substrate selectivity of sirtuins despite the chemical diversity of their substrates. Here, we report substrate-specific effects on sirtuin conformation and oligomerization that regulate enzyme deacylase activity. We used fluorescent acyl peptide probes to study substrate interactions with two sirtuin isoforms: SIRT2 and …


Conservation And Divergence In The Heterochronic Pathway Of C. Elegans And C. Briggsae, Maria Ivanova, Eric G. Moss 2022 Rowan University

Conservation And Divergence In The Heterochronic Pathway Of C. Elegans And C. Briggsae, Maria Ivanova, Eric G. Moss

Stratford Campus Research Day

The heterochronic pathway of Caenorhabditis elegans is exemplary as a mechanism of developmental timing: mutations in genes of this pathway alter the relative timing of diverse developmental events independent of spatial or cell type specific regulation. It is the most thoroughly characterized developmental timing pathway known. Most of the heterochronic genes are conserved across great evolutionary time, and a few homologs seem to have developmental timing roles in certain contexts. The degree to which other organisms have explicit developmental timing mechanisms, and what factors comprise those mechanisms, isn’t generally known.

Developmental pathways evolve even if the resulting morphology remains the …


Mendelian Randomization Supports Bidirectional Causality Between Telomere Length And Clonal Hematopoiesis Of Indeterminate Potential, Tetsushi Nakao, Alexander G. Bick, Margaret A. Taub, Seyedeh M. Zekavat, Md M. Uddin, Abhishek Niroula, Juan M. Peralta, Joanne E. Curran, John Blangero 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Mendelian Randomization Supports Bidirectional Causality Between Telomere Length And Clonal Hematopoiesis Of Indeterminate Potential, Tetsushi Nakao, Alexander G. Bick, Margaret A. Taub, Seyedeh M. Zekavat, Md M. Uddin, Abhishek Niroula, Juan M. Peralta, Joanne E. Curran, John Blangero

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Human genetic studies support an inverse causal relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but directionally mixed effects for LTL and diverse malignancies. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), characterized by expansion of hematopoietic cells bearing leukemogenic mutations, predisposes both hematologic malignancy and CAD. TERT (which encodes telomerase reverse transcriptase) is the most significantly associated germline locus for CHIP in genome-wide association studies. Here, we investigated the relationship between CHIP, LTL, and CAD in the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program (n = 63,302) and UK Biobank (n = 47,080). Bidirectional Mendelian randomization studies …


Assessing Identification Of Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients For Referral To Genetic Counseling, Corinne Marie Locke 2022 University of South Carolina

Assessing Identification Of Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients For Referral To Genetic Counseling, Corinne Marie Locke

Theses and Dissertations

Since 1998, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines have specified clinical indications for genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility genes, but retrospective studies have shown that, despite meeting the NCCN criteria, patients are not always advised of the option of genetic testing. Further compounding this issue, studies have shown that cancer family history intake and documented family history can be incomplete even when taken by oncology providers. At this study site and other cancer centers in the country, patients with a new diagnosis of breast cancer are referred for genetic counseling by their cancer care team if they are …


Evaluation Of Interactions Of Covid Nonstructural Proteins 3, 5, And 6 With Human Proteins And Potentially Therapeutic Molecules, Jessica Huitsing 2022 University of Central Florida

Evaluation Of Interactions Of Covid Nonstructural Proteins 3, 5, And 6 With Human Proteins And Potentially Therapeutic Molecules, Jessica Huitsing

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2, has been ongoing for over two years. The virus spreads easily and is more unpredictable than well-known viruses like the flu, making it important to have reliable combative measures before we fully drop non-vaccine preventive actions, like mask-wearing.Therefore, we used computational protein modeling to investigate the interactions of three nonstructural proteins (abbreviated Nsp) encoded in the viral RNA genome– Nsp3, Nsp5, and Nsp6 – which are involved in the viral life cycle, with human P-type polyamine transporting ATPases ATP13A2 and ATP13A3, whose disease symptoms when mutated mimic …


Gene Electrotransfer Of Fgf2 Enhances Collagen Scaffold Biocompatibility, Carly Boye, Kyle Cristensen, Kamal Asadipour, Scott DeClemente, Michael Francis, Anna Bulysheva 2022 Old Dominion University

Gene Electrotransfer Of Fgf2 Enhances Collagen Scaffold Biocompatibility, Carly Boye, Kyle Cristensen, Kamal Asadipour, Scott Declemente, Michael Francis, Anna Bulysheva

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Tendon injuries are a common athletic injury that have been increasing in prevalence. While there are current clinical treatments for tendon injuries, they have relatively long recovery times and often do not restore native function of the tendon. In the current study, gene electrotransfer (GET) parameters for delivery to the skin were optimized with monophasic and biphasic pulses with reporter and effector genes towards optimizing underlying tendon healing. Tissue twitching and damage, as well as gene expression and distribution were evaluated. Bioprinted collagen scaffolds, mimicking healthy tendon structure were then implanted subcutaneously for biocompatibility and angiogenesis analyses when combined with …


The Significance Of Cell-Surface Α2,3-Linked Sialic Acid In Osteoclasts, Christopher S. Harding 2022 Eastern Washington University

The Significance Of Cell-Surface Α2,3-Linked Sialic Acid In Osteoclasts, Christopher S. Harding

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

Osteoclasts are giant, multinucleated cells that, alongside osteoblasts, are central to maintaining physiologically healthy bone. The functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts-degrading and depositing bone matrix, respectively-are paired in healthy bone tissue, thereby yielding no net bone loss or deposition. When these functions become imbalanced, it results in net bone loss or gain, depending on which cell type is being outcompeted. Osteoporosis is one of the most common pathologies stemming from such an imbalance, and predominantly affects postmenopausal women, as the ablation of circulating estrogen-a pro-death signal for osteoclasts-causes a prolongation of osteoclast lifespan and consequent lengthening of their resorptive activity. …


Identifying The Molecular Cause Of Extreme Endoplasmic Reticulum Dilation In Pediatric Osteosarcoma And Its Relationship To The Disease, Rachael Wood 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Identifying The Molecular Cause Of Extreme Endoplasmic Reticulum Dilation In Pediatric Osteosarcoma And Its Relationship To The Disease, Rachael Wood

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Pediatric osteosarcoma tumors are characterized by an unusual abundance of grossly dilated endoplasmic reticulum and an immense genomic instability that has complicated identifying new effective molecular therapeutic targets. Here we report a novel molecular signature that encompasses the majority of 108 patient tumor samples, PDXs and osteosarcoma cell lines. These tumors exhibit reduced expression of four critical COPII vesicle proteins that has resulted in the accumulation of procollagen-I protein within ‘hallmark’ dilated ER. Using CRISPR activation technology, increased expression of only SAR1A and SEC24D to physiologically normal levels was sufficient to restore both collagen-I secretion and resolve dilated ER morphology …


The Onset Of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia And Individual Differences In Inappropriate Arginine Vasopressin Excretion: A Review Of Proposed Mechanisms, Michelle Stehman, Stephen A. Maris 2021 Springfield College

The Onset Of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia And Individual Differences In Inappropriate Arginine Vasopressin Excretion: A Review Of Proposed Mechanisms, Michelle Stehman, Stephen A. Maris

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology Volume 2: Issue 1, Article 10, 2021. Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) has been reported to develop during endurance events such as triathlons and marathons. As these events become more popular, the incidence of developing EAH also increases. The development of EAH is commonly associated with the overconsumption of hypotonic fluids such as water and tends to be more prevalent in females. There is also evidence to suggest the inappropriate secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) leading to water retention may predispose an individual for developing EAH, especially when coupled with the overconsumption of fluids. Recent research …


Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Of Platelet Traits In The Nhlbi Trans-Omics For Precision Medicine Initiative, Amarise Little, Yao Hu, Quan Sun, Deepti Jain, Jai G. Broome, Ming-Huei Chen, Florian Thibord, Caitlin McHugh, John Blangero, Joanne E. Curran 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Of Platelet Traits In The Nhlbi Trans-Omics For Precision Medicine Initiative, Amarise Little, Yao Hu, Quan Sun, Deepti Jain, Jai G. Broome, Ming-Huei Chen, Florian Thibord, Caitlin Mchugh, John Blangero, Joanne E. Curran

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are highly heritable quantitative traits, with hundreds of genetic signals previously identified, mostly in European ancestry populations. We here utilize whole genome sequencing from NHLBI's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Initiative (TOPMed) in a large multi-ethnic sample to further explore common and rare variation contributing to PLT (n = 61 200) and MPV (n = 23 485). We identified and replicated secondary signals at MPL (rs532784633) and PECAM1 (rs73345162), both more common in African ancestry populations. We also observed rare variation in Mendelian platelet …


Whole Genome Sequence Data From Captive Baboons Implicate Rbfox1 In Epileptic Seizure Risk, Mark Z. Kos, Melanie A. Carless, Lucy Blondell, M. Michelle Leland, Koyle D. Knape, Harald HH Goring, Charles A. Szabo 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Whole Genome Sequence Data From Captive Baboons Implicate Rbfox1 In Epileptic Seizure Risk, Mark Z. Kos, Melanie A. Carless, Lucy Blondell, M. Michelle Leland, Koyle D. Knape, Harald Hh Goring, Charles A. Szabo

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

In this study, we investigate the genetic determinants that underlie epilepsy in a captive baboon pedigree and evaluate the potential suitability of this non-human primate model for understanding the genetic etiology of human epilepsy. Archived whole-genome sequence data were analyzed using both a candidate gene approach that targeted variants in baboon homologs of 19 genes (n = 20,881 SNPs) previously implicated in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) and a more agnostic approach that examined protein-altering mutations genome-wide as assessed by snpEff (n = 36,169). Measured genotype association tests for baboon cases of epileptic seizure were performed using SOLAR, as …


Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser Syndrome: A Case Of Mullerian Agenesis, Anu Baby, Simi Kurian, Rani Jose 2021 Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust ,United Kingdom.

Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser Syndrome: A Case Of Mullerian Agenesis, Anu Baby, Simi Kurian, Rani Jose

Manipal Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences

Developmental anomalies of the Mullerian duct are one of the fascinating congenital disorders encountered in which Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser syndrome (MRKH) is one of the wide variety of malformations. The most common presentation in MRKH syndrome is primary amenorrhea with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and normal female karyotype (46, XX). The ovaries and fallopian tubes are usually functional, but the uterus and upper two-third vagina are either underdeveloped or absent. MRKH syndrome can either be an isolated utero-vaginal aplasia (Type I) or associated with extragenital anomalies (Type II). A case of Type I MRKH syndrome is reported …


Predicting Synchronized Gene Coexpression Patterns From Fibration Symmetries In Gene Regulatory Networks In Bacteria, Ian Leifer, Mishael Sánchez‑Pérez, Cecilia Ishida, Hernán A. Makse 2021 CUNY City College

Predicting Synchronized Gene Coexpression Patterns From Fibration Symmetries In Gene Regulatory Networks In Bacteria, Ian Leifer, Mishael Sánchez‑Pérez, Cecilia Ishida, Hernán A. Makse

Publications and Research

Background: Gene regulatory networks coordinate the expression of genes across physiological states and ensure a synchronized expression of genes in cellular subsystems, critical for the coherent functioning of cells. Here we address the question whether it is possible to predict gene synchronization from network structure alone. We have recently shown that synchronized gene expression can be predicted from symmetries in the gene regulatory networks described by the concept of symmetry fibrations. We showed that symmetry fibrations partition the genes into groups called fibers based on the symmetries of their ’input trees’, the set of paths in the network through which …


Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ 2021 Chapman University

Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Despite extensive efforts to repurpose approved drugs, discover new small molecules, and develop vaccines, COVID-19 pandemic is still claiming victims around the world. The current arsenal of antiviral compounds did not perform well in the past viral infections (e.g., SARS), which casts a shadow of doubt for use against the new SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines should offer the ultimate protection; however, there is limited information about the longevity of the generated immunity and the protection against possible mutations. This study uses Human Coronavirus 229E as a model coronavirus to test the hypothesis that effective delivery of virus-specific siRNAs to infected cells will …


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