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885 full-text articles. Page 6 of 36.

The Mitochondrial Protease Htra2 Restricts The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes., Ian Gaël Rodrigue-Gervais, Karine Doiron, Claudia Champagne, Lindsey Mayes, Gabriel André Leiva-Torres, Paulin Vanié, Todd Douglas, Silvia M. Vidal, Emad S. Alnemri, Maya Saleh 2018 McGill University; INRS-Institut Armand Frappier

The Mitochondrial Protease Htra2 Restricts The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes., Ian Gaël Rodrigue-Gervais, Karine Doiron, Claudia Champagne, Lindsey Mayes, Gabriel André Leiva-Torres, Paulin Vanié, Todd Douglas, Silvia M. Vidal, Emad S. Alnemri, Maya Saleh

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Activation of the inflammasome pathway is crucial for effective intracellular host defense. The mitochondrial network plays an important role in inflammasome regulation but the mechanisms linking mitochondrial homeostasis to attenuation of inflammasome activation are not fully understood. Here, we report that the Parkinson's disease-associated mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2 restricts the activation of ASC-dependent NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, in a protease activity-dependent manner. Consistently, disruption of the protease activity of HtrA2 results in exacerbated NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome responses in macrophages ex vivo and systemically in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that the HtrA2 protease activity regulates autophagy and controls the ...


Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Engineered Exosomes For Delivery Of Therapeutic Sirnas To Neurons, Reka A. Haraszti

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, transfer endogenous RNAs between neurons over short and long distances. We have explored EVs for siRNA delivery to brain. (1) We optimized siRNA chemical modifications and siRNA conjugation to lipids for EV-mediated delivery. (2) We developed a GMP-compatible, scalable method to manufacture active EVs in bulk. (3) We characterized lipid and protein content of EVs in detail. (4) We established how protein and lipid composition relates to siRNA delivering activity of EVs, and we reverse engineered natural exosomes (small EVs) into artificial exosomes based on these data.

We established that cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs passively associate ...


Till Death Do Us Part: The Marriage Of Autophagy And Apoptosis., Katrina F Cooper 2018 Rowan University

Till Death Do Us Part: The Marriage Of Autophagy And Apoptosis., Katrina F Cooper

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Autophagy is a widely conserved catabolic process that is necessary for maintaining cellular homeostasis under normal physiological conditions and driving the cell to switch back to this status quo under times of starvation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. The potential similarities and differences between basal autophagy and stimulus-induced autophagy are still largely unknown. Both act by clearing aberrant or unnecessary cytoplasmic material, such as misfolded proteins, supernumerary and defective organelles. The relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy is complex. Cellular ROS is predominantly derived from mitochondria. Autophagy is triggered by this event, and by clearing the defective organelles effectively ...


Abrogation Of Transforming Growth Factor-Β-Induced Tissue Fibrosis In Tbricacol1a2cre Transgenic Mice By The Second Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ski-606 (Bosutinib)., Peter J. Wermuth, Sergio A. Jimenez 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Abrogation Of Transforming Growth Factor-Β-Induced Tissue Fibrosis In Tbricacol1a2cre Transgenic Mice By The Second Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ski-606 (Bosutinib)., Peter J. Wermuth, Sergio A. Jimenez

Jefferson Institute of Molecular Medicine Papers and Presentations

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) and other fibrotic disorders. TGF-β-mediated c-Abl and Src kinase activation induces strong profibrotic cascade signaling. The purpose of this study was to test in vivo the antifibrotic activity of Bosutinib (SKI-606), a second generation c-Abl and Src kinase inhibitor, on TGF-β induced cutaneous and pulmonary fibrosis. For this purpose, we employed the TBRIcaCol1a2Cre transgenic mice expressing an inducible constitutively active TGF-β receptor 1 constitutively activated by Col1a promoter-mediated Cre recombinase. The mice were treated parenterally with 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg ...


Role Of Smarce1 And Bhlhe40 In Breast Cancer Metastasis, Aarti Sethuraman 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Role Of Smarce1 And Bhlhe40 In Breast Cancer Metastasis, Aarti Sethuraman

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

No abstract provided.


Somatic Mutation Detection In Leukemia-Derived Circulating Dna: Utility In Monitoring Clonal Dynamics And Disease Response In Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Sarah Hisham Abdelaziz Youssef 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Somatic Mutation Detection In Leukemia-Derived Circulating Dna: Utility In Monitoring Clonal Dynamics And Disease Response In Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Sarah Hisham Abdelaziz Youssef

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Despite the improved outcome associated with current treatment strategies ofpediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), relapse still represents a major challenge. Pediatric ALL demonstrates branched evolution in response to selective pressure exerted by therapy; relapse founder clones emerge from pre-leukemic clones or minor subclones present at diagnosis. It is hence crucial to develop biomarkers capable of tracking subclones throughout therapy. Current practices for monitoring disease response in leukemia rely on the analysis of BM biopsy sample at specific time points throughout therapy. Not only the invasiveness of the BM biopsy hinders the sequential sampling, but also, the currently implied techniques are ...


Different Methodologies To Characterize And Diagnose Sickle Cell Disease In Both Developed And Developing Nations, Mohammed AlHarbi 2018 Dominican University of California

Different Methodologies To Characterize And Diagnose Sickle Cell Disease In Both Developed And Developing Nations, Mohammed Alharbi

Graduate Master's Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that causes the RBC to become sickle shaped due to a mutation in the β-globin gene encoding the protein hemoglobin. This disease causes reduced oxygen carrying capacity of RBC resulting in painful crisis, hemolytic anemia, and infection susceptibility. SCD affects around 100,000 individuals in USA alone and 14 million people globally. SCD affected individuals have high mortality rates. Early detection and constant monitoring of this disease is essential. The following review focuses on various methodologies that have emerged in the diagnosis of SCD. Also, low cost methods that can be ...


Human Cancer And Platelet Interaction, A Potential Therapeutic Target, Shike Wang, Zhenyu Li, Ren Xu 2018 University of Kentucky

Human Cancer And Platelet Interaction, A Potential Therapeutic Target, Shike Wang, Zhenyu Li, Ren Xu

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Cancer patients experience a four-fold increase in thrombosis risk, indicating that cancer development and progression are associated with platelet activation. Xenograft experiments and transgenic mouse models further demonstrate that platelet activation and platelet-cancer cell interaction are crucial for cancer metastasis. Direct or indirect interaction of platelets induces cancer cell plasticity and enhances survival and extravasation of circulating cancer cells during dissemination. In vivo and in vitro experiments also demonstrate that cancer cells induce platelet aggregation, suggesting that platelet-cancer interaction is bidirectional. Therefore, understanding how platelets crosstalk with cancer cells may identify potential strategies to inhibit cancer metastasis and to reduce ...


Comparison Of Serum And Cervical Cytokine Levels Throughout Pregnancy Between Preterm And Term Births, Kristin Ashford, Niraj R. Chavan, Amanda T. Wiggins, Molly Malany Sayre, Andrea McCubbin, Agatha S. Critchfield, John O'Brien 2018 University of Kentucky

Comparison Of Serum And Cervical Cytokine Levels Throughout Pregnancy Between Preterm And Term Births, Kristin Ashford, Niraj R. Chavan, Amanda T. Wiggins, Molly Malany Sayre, Andrea Mccubbin, Agatha S. Critchfield, John O'Brien

Nursing Faculty Publications

Objective To assess differences in cytokine levels in cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) and serum across trimesters between women with preterm births (PTBs) and full-term births.

Study Design This multicenter study enrolled 302 women with a singleton gestation. CVF and serum cytokines, interleukin 1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, were measured. Women with at least one cytokine assessment and noted PTB status in their medical record were retained in the study (N = 272). Data were analyzed using mixed modeling (main effects of PTBs and time/trimester).

Results For the ...


Inhibition Of Dna Methyltransferase Leads To Increased Genomic 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Levels In Hematopoietic Cells., Borbála Vető, Pál Szabó, Caroline Bacquet, Anna Apró, Edit Hathy, Judit Kiss, János M. Réthelyi, Flóra Szeri, Dávid Szüts, Tamás Arányi 2018 Semmelweis University; RCNS, HAS

Inhibition Of Dna Methyltransferase Leads To Increased Genomic 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Levels In Hematopoietic Cells., Borbála Vető, Pál Szabó, Caroline Bacquet, Anna Apró, Edit Hathy, Judit Kiss, János M. Réthelyi, Flóra Szeri, Dávid Szüts, Tamás Arányi

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Faculty Papers

5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is produced from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by Ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases. The epigenetic modification 5hmC has crucial roles in both cellular development and differentiation. The 5hmC level is particularly high in the brain. While 5mC is generally associated with gene silencing/reduced expression, 5hmC is a more permissive epigenetic mark. To understand its physiological function, an easy and accurate quantification method is required. Here, we have developed a novel LC-MS/MS-based approach to quantify both genomic 5mC and 5hmC contents. The method is based on the liberation of nucleobases by formic acid. Applying this method, we characterized the levels ...


Sab Concentration Determines The Chemotherapeutic Efficacy In Gynecological Cancer, Iru Paudel 2018 Florida International University

Sab Concentration Determines The Chemotherapeutic Efficacy In Gynecological Cancer, Iru Paudel

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The American Cancer Society predicts there will be 110,070 new cases and 32,120 deaths due to gynecological malignancies in 2018. A major contributing factor to the high mortality associated with gynecological cancers is the recurrence of treatment-resistant tumors. Ovarian cancer (OC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy, yet the mechanisms responsible for regulating tumor resistance and vulnerability are largely unknown or undruggable. Therefore, the goal of this research is to identify mechanisms responsible for therapeutic resistance in gynecological cancers and discover innovative approaches to circumvent these molecular alterations. Our efforts began in OC where secondary analysis of gene ...


Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

We report here the first whole-genome sequences for 3 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (112N, 113N, and 114N) isolated in Africa. Samples of this opportunistic pathogen were collected from nasal swabs obtained from healthy carrier dogs in Botswana. The sequence information will facilitate spatial phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.


A Lin28b Tumor-Specific Transcript In Cancer, Weijie Guo, Zhixiang Hu, Yichao Bao, Yuchen Li, Shengli Li, Qiupeng Zheng, Dongbin Lyu, Di Chen, Tao Yu, Yan Li, Xiaodong Zhu, Jie Ding, Yingjun Zhao, Xianghuo He, Shenglin Huang 2018 University of Kentucky

A Lin28b Tumor-Specific Transcript In Cancer, Weijie Guo, Zhixiang Hu, Yichao Bao, Yuchen Li, Shengli Li, Qiupeng Zheng, Dongbin Lyu, Di Chen, Tao Yu, Yan Li, Xiaodong Zhu, Jie Ding, Yingjun Zhao, Xianghuo He, Shenglin Huang

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

The diversity and complexity of the cancer transcriptome may contain transcripts unique to the tumor environment. Here, we report a LIN28B variant, LIN28B-TST, which is specifically expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and many other cancer types. Expression of LIN28B-TST is associated with significantly poor prognosis in HCC patients. LIN28B-TST initiates from a de novo alternative transcription initiation site that harbors a strong promoter regulated by NFYA but not c-Myc. Demethylation of the LIN28B-TST promoter might be a prerequisite for its transcription and transcriptional regulation. LIN28B-TST encodes a protein isoform with additional N-terminal amino acids and is critical for cancer cell ...


Breaking Symmetry In Viral Icosahedral Capsids As Seen Through The Lenses Of X-Ray Crystallography And Cryo-Electron Microscopy., Kristin N. Parent, Jason R. Schrad, Gino Cingolani 2018 Michigan State University

Breaking Symmetry In Viral Icosahedral Capsids As Seen Through The Lenses Of X-Ray Crystallography And Cryo-Electron Microscopy., Kristin N. Parent, Jason R. Schrad, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The majority of viruses on Earth form capsids built by multiple copies of one or more types of a coat protein arranged with 532 symmetry, generating an icosahedral shell. This highly repetitive structure is ideal to closely pack identical protein subunits and to enclose the nucleic acid genomes. However, the icosahedral capsid is not merely a passive cage but undergoes dynamic events to promote packaging, maturation and the transfer of the viral genome into the host. These essential processes are often mediated by proteinaceous complexes that interrupt the shell's icosahedral symmetry, providing a gateway through the capsid. In this ...


Microrna 1207-3p In Prostate Cancer, Dibash Das 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Microrna 1207-3p In Prostate Cancer, Dibash Das

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed male cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in progression from the asymptomatic androgen-dependent PCa to the lethal castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a major challenge. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), are known to be dysregulated in PCa. MicroRNA-1207-3p (miR-1207-3p) is encoded by the non-protein coding gene locus PVT1 on the 8q24 human chromosomal region, an established PCa susceptibility locus. However, the role of miR-1207-3p in PCa is unclear. We have discovered that miR-1207-3p is significantly underexpressed in PCa cell lines ...


Adropin: An Endocrine Link Between The Biological Clock And Cholesterol Homeostasis, Sarbani Ghoshal, Joseph R. Stevens, Cyrielle Billon, Clemence Girardet, Sadichha Sitaula, Arthur S. Leon, D.C. Rao, James S. Skinner, Tuomo Rankinen, Claude Bouchard, Marinelle V. Nuñez, Kimber L. Stanhope, Deborah A. Howatt, Alan Daugherty, Jinsong Zhang, Matthew Schuelke, Edward P. Weiss, Alisha R. Coffey, Brian J. Bennett, Praveen Sethupathy, Thomas P. Burris, Peter J. Havel, Andrew A. Butler 2018 Saint Louis University

Adropin: An Endocrine Link Between The Biological Clock And Cholesterol Homeostasis, Sarbani Ghoshal, Joseph R. Stevens, Cyrielle Billon, Clemence Girardet, Sadichha Sitaula, Arthur S. Leon, D.C. Rao, James S. Skinner, Tuomo Rankinen, Claude Bouchard, Marinelle V. Nuñez, Kimber L. Stanhope, Deborah A. Howatt, Alan Daugherty, Jinsong Zhang, Matthew Schuelke, Edward P. Weiss, Alisha R. Coffey, Brian J. Bennett, Praveen Sethupathy, Thomas P. Burris, Peter J. Havel, Andrew A. Butler

Physiology Faculty Publications

Objective

Identify determinants of plasma adropin concentrations, a secreted peptide translated from the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene linked to metabolic control and vascular function.

Methods

Associations between plasma adropin concentrations, demographics (sex, age, BMI) and circulating biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed in plasma obtained after an overnight fast in humans. The regulation of adropin expression was then assessed in silico, in cultured human cells, and in animal models.

Results

In humans, plasma adropin concentrations are inversely related to atherogenic LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in men (n = 349), but not in women (n = 401). Analysis of hepatic Enho ...


V-Atpase Roles In Prostate Cancer, Yamhilette Licon Munoz 2018 University of New Mexico

V-Atpase Roles In Prostate Cancer, Yamhilette Licon Munoz

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is responsible for maintaining the acidic pH of the endomembrane system in eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase active transport of protons generates the differential luminal pH in lysosomes, endosomes, and the Golgi. In addition to intracellular V-ATPase, cancer cells have V-ATPase at the plasma membrane. Plasmalemmal V-ATPase acidifies the extracellular milieu and enhances cell motility and invasion, evidence that V-ATPase contributes to tumorigenic phenotypes. We studied V-ATPase cellular functions in prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer for men in the United States. V-ATPase inhibitors decreased invasion and migration of PCa cells. In aggressive PCa cell lines, C4-2B ...


Metabolic And Expression Changes Associated With A Mouse Model Of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr), Bethany N. Radford 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Metabolic And Expression Changes Associated With A Mouse Model Of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr), Bethany N. Radford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pregnancy condition where fetal growth is suboptimal, resulting in an infant born small for gestational age (<10th percentile) and is associated with metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes in adulthood. This study aims to understand tissue-specific adaptations to fetal undernutrition which predispose the individual to metabolic disorders in adulthood. A model of growth restriction in mice was established using 70% of maternal ad libitum total food (g) (E6.5-birth). At weaning, male offspring received standard chow or a HFHS diet. Body weight and random blood glucose levels were measured at 6 months. To assess metabolism at 6 or 7 months, glucose tolerance, pyruvate challenge and hepatic portal vein insulin challenge tests were administered and serum peptide markers for obesity and diabetes were measured. Metabolic cages were also used at 2 and 7 months to measure activity, food intake and respiratory exchange ratios (RERs). Adult liver, adipose and skeletal muscle and fetal liver was collected for RNA sequencing. Maternal nutrient restricted (MNR) offspring were growth restricted with disproportionately smaller fetal livers. 19% of standard chow-fed MNR offspring became glucose intolerant. On an isocaloric high-fat high-sugar diet no differences in MNR growth or glucose metabolism were detected. However, RERs were reduced at all timepoints in MNR on a HFHS relative to MNR on standard chow. Differences in transcription of genes involved in hypoxia signalling were detected and HIF-2a and HIF-3a proteins were increased in fetal liver of MNR offspring. Genes differentially expressed in the fetus were not differentially expressed at 6 months. Gene expression of metabolically regulatory transcripts in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle did not differ in all MNR and glucose intolerant MNR relative to controls. This model results in a susceptible and non-susceptible population of maternal nutrient restricted offspring and supports the concept of hypoxia signalling contributing to fetal adaptations. Understanding adaptations in hepatic hypoxia signalling in response to fetal undernutrition and how they vary in susceptible and unsusceptible populations will provide insight into how fetal nutrition can influence adult metabolism.


Beta-Catenin Cleavage Enhances Transcriptional Activation, Tatiana Goretsky, Emily M. Bradford, Qing Ye, Olivia F. Lamping, Tomas Vanagunas, Mary Pat Moyer, Patrick C. Keller, Preetika Sinh, Josep M. Llovet, Tianyan Gao, Qing-Bai She, Linheng Li, Terrence A. Barrett 2018 University of Kentucky

Beta-Catenin Cleavage Enhances Transcriptional Activation, Tatiana Goretsky, Emily M. Bradford, Qing Ye, Olivia F. Lamping, Tomas Vanagunas, Mary Pat Moyer, Patrick C. Keller, Preetika Sinh, Josep M. Llovet, Tianyan Gao, Qing-Bai She, Linheng Li, Terrence A. Barrett

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Nuclear activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for cell proliferation in inflammation and cancer. Studies from our group indicate that β-catenin activation in colitis and colorectal cancer (CRC) correlates with increased nuclear levels of β-catenin phosphorylated at serine 552 (pβ-Cat552). Biochemical analysis of nuclear extracts from cancer biopsies revealed the existence of low molecular weight (LMW) pβ-Cat552, increased to the exclusion of full size (FS) forms of β-catenin. LMW β-catenin lacks both termini, leaving residues in the armadillo repeat intact. Further experiments showed that TCF4 predominantly binds LMW pβ-Cat552 in the nucleus of inflamed and cancerous ...


Exploring The Regulatory Mechanism Of The Notch Ligand Receptor Jagged1 Via The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor In Breast Cancer, Sean Alan Piwarski 2018 Marshall University

Exploring The Regulatory Mechanism Of The Notch Ligand Receptor Jagged1 Via The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor In Breast Cancer, Sean Alan Piwarski

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that binds pollutants, therapeutic drugs and endogenous ligands. AHR is of particular interest in cancer and has been shown to play roles in both tumor progression and tumor suppression. As a result, it has received growing attention as a possible chemotherapeutic target. AHR is expressed in all breast cancer subtypes and can promote or inhibit breast cancer depending on the ligand it binds. The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved evolutionary pathway that plays extremely vital roles during development by regulating cell fate and differentiation. Notch signaling has increasingly ...


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