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Dna Methylation-Based Age Prediction And Telomere Length In White Blood Cells And Cumulus Cells Of Infertile Women With Normal Or Poor Response To Ovarian Stimulation., Scott J. Morin, Xin Tao, Diego Marin, Yiping Zhan, Jessica Landis, Jenna Bedard, Richard T. Scott, Emre Seli 2018 IVIRMA New Jersey; Thomas Jefferson University

Dna Methylation-Based Age Prediction And Telomere Length In White Blood Cells And Cumulus Cells Of Infertile Women With Normal Or Poor Response To Ovarian Stimulation., Scott J. Morin, Xin Tao, Diego Marin, Yiping Zhan, Jessica Landis, Jenna Bedard, Richard T. Scott, Emre Seli

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

An algorithm assessing the methylation levels of 353 informative CpG sites in the human genome permits accurate prediction of the chronologic age of a subject. Interestingly, when there is discrepancy between the predicted age and chronologic age (age acceleration or "AgeAccel"), patients are at risk for morbidity and mortality. Identification of infertile patients at risk for accelerated reproductive senescence may permit preventative action. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the "epigenetic clock" concept in reproductive age women undergoing fertility treatment by applying the age prediction algorithm in peripheral (white blood cells [WBCs]) and follicular somatic cells (cumulus cells ...


Targeting The Colchicine Binding Site On Tubulin To Overcome Multidrug Resistance And Anticancer Efficacy Of Selective Survivin Inhibitors, Kinsle E. Arnst 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Targeting The Colchicine Binding Site On Tubulin To Overcome Multidrug Resistance And Anticancer Efficacy Of Selective Survivin Inhibitors, Kinsle E. Arnst

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Tubulin inhibitors are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents, and their successis attributed to their ability to target microtubule dynamics and disrupt critical cellular functions including cell signaling, motility, intracellular trafficking, and mitosis. Interference with microtubule dynamics consequently disrupts mitotic progression and ultimately leads to apoptosis, validating microtubule dynamics as an excellent target for anticancer agents. While this class of drug has proven to be effective against many cancer types, the clinical efficacy of current tubulin inhibitors is often limited by the development of multidrug resistance. The most common form of resistance to these agents arises from the overexpression of drug ...


The Role Of Exosomal Transport Of Viral Agents In Persistent Hiv Pathogenesis, Benjamin J. Patters 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

The Role Of Exosomal Transport Of Viral Agents In Persistent Hiv Pathogenesis, Benjamin J. Patters

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, despite great advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART), remains a lifelong affliction. Though current treatment regimens can effectively suppress viral load to undetectable levels and preserve healthy immune function, they cannot fully alleviate all symptoms caused by the presence of the virus, such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Exosomes are small vesicles that transport cellular proteins, RNA, and small molecules between cells as a mechanism of intercellular communication. Recent research has shown that HIV proteins and RNA can be packaged into exosomes and transported between cells, to pathogenic effect. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ...


Control Of Ccnd1 Ubiquitylation By The Catalytic Saga Subunit Usp22 Is Essential For Cell Cycle Progression Through G1 In Cancer Cells., Victoria J. Gennaro, Timothy J. Stanek, Amy R. Peck, Yunguang Sun, Feng Wang, Shuo Qie, Karen E. Knudsen, Hallgeir Rui, Tauseef Butt, J. Alan Diehl, Steven B. McMahon 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Control Of Ccnd1 Ubiquitylation By The Catalytic Saga Subunit Usp22 Is Essential For Cell Cycle Progression Through G1 In Cancer Cells., Victoria J. Gennaro, Timothy J. Stanek, Amy R. Peck, Yunguang Sun, Feng Wang, Shuo Qie, Karen E. Knudsen, Hallgeir Rui, Tauseef Butt, J. Alan Diehl, Steven B. Mcmahon

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Overexpression of the deubiquitylase ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (USP22) is a marker of aggressive cancer phenotypes like metastasis, therapy resistance, and poor survival. Functionally, this overexpression of USP22 actively contributes to tumorigenesis, as USP22 depletion blocks cancer cell cycle progression in vitro, and inhibits tumor progression in animal models of lung, breast, bladder, ovarian, and liver cancer, among others. Current models suggest that USP22 mediates these biological effects via its role in epigenetic regulation as a subunit of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) transcriptional cofactor complex. Challenging the dogma, we report here a nontranscriptional role for USP22 via a direct effect on the ...


Cysteine Residues Contribute To The Dimerization And Enzymatic Activity Of Human Nuclear Dutp Nucleotidohydrolase (Ndut)., Shawna M Rotoli, Julia L Jones, Salvatore J Caradonna 2018 Rowan University

Cysteine Residues Contribute To The Dimerization And Enzymatic Activity Of Human Nuclear Dutp Nucleotidohydrolase (Ndut)., Shawna M Rotoli, Julia L Jones, Salvatore J Caradonna

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

dUTPase is an enzyme found in all organisms that have thymine as a constituent of DNA. Through evolution, humans have two major isoforms of dUTPase: a mitochondrial (mDut) and a nuclear (nDut) isoform. The nuclear isoform of dUTPase is a 164-amino-acids-long protein containing three cysteine residues. nDut's starting methionine is post-translationally cleaved, leaving four unique amino acids on its amino-terminus including one cysteine residue (C3). These are not present in the mitochondrial isoform (mDut). Using mass spectrometry analyses of recombinant dUTPase constructs, we have discovered an intermolecular disulfide bridge between cysteine-3 of each nDut monomer. We have found that ...


Editorial: Ion Channel Trafficking And Cardiac Arrhythmias, Marcel A. G. van der Heyden, Brian P. Delisle, Hugues Abriel 2018 University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands

Editorial: Ion Channel Trafficking And Cardiac Arrhythmias, Marcel A. G. Van Der Heyden, Brian P. Delisle, Hugues Abriel

Physiology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Extracellular Interactions Between Fibulins And Transforming Growth Factor (Tgf)-Β In Physiological And Pathological Conditions., Takeshi Tsuda 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Extracellular Interactions Between Fibulins And Transforming Growth Factor (Tgf)-Β In Physiological And Pathological Conditions., Takeshi Tsuda

Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a multifunctional peptide growth factor that has a vital role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, inflammation, and repair in a variety of tissues, and its dysregulation mediates a number of pathological conditions including fibrotic disorders, chronic inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer progression. Regulation of TGF-β signaling is multifold, but one critical site of regulation is via interaction with certain extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments, as TGF-β is primarily secreted as a biologically inactive form sequestrated into ECM. Several ECM proteins are known to modulate TGF-β signaling via cell⁻matrix interactions, including thrombospondins, SPARC ...


The Effect Of Wild Blueberry Bioactives On Endothelial Cell Migration And Angiogenesis: An In Vitro Mechanistic, Genomic And Proteomic Approach, Panagiotis Tsakiroglou 2018 University of Maine

The Effect Of Wild Blueberry Bioactives On Endothelial Cell Migration And Angiogenesis: An In Vitro Mechanistic, Genomic And Proteomic Approach, Panagiotis Tsakiroglou

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of wild blueberry fractions (Anthocyanins and Phenolic acids) on vascular function and physiology. More specifically the potential effects of the above fractions and their combination in physiological concentrations on endothelial cell migration, angiogenesis, gene expression and proteins synthesis of markers related to the above processes. The objectives are to study whether anthocyanins, phenolic acids and their combinations (ACNs:PAs) affect: a) cell proliferation, b) speed of endothelial cell migration, c) angiogenesis, d) gene expression of genes critical for cell migration and angiogenesis such as RAC1, RHOA, AKT1, eNOS and VEGF ...


Interfering With Dna Decondensation As A Strategy Against Mycobacteria, Enzo M. Scutigliani, Edwin R. Scholl, Anita E. Grootemaat, Sadhana Khanal, Jakub A. Kochan, Przemek M. Krawczyk, Eric A. Reits, Atefeh Garzan, Huy X. Ngo, Keith D. Green, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Jan M. Ruijter, Henk A. van Veen, Nicole N. van der Wel 2018 University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

Interfering With Dna Decondensation As A Strategy Against Mycobacteria, Enzo M. Scutigliani, Edwin R. Scholl, Anita E. Grootemaat, Sadhana Khanal, Jakub A. Kochan, Przemek M. Krawczyk, Eric A. Reits, Atefeh Garzan, Huy X. Ngo, Keith D. Green, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Jan M. Ruijter, Henk A. Van Veen, Nicole N. Van Der Wel

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Tuberculosis is once again a major global threat, leading to more than 1 million deaths each year. Treatment options for tuberculosis patients are limited, expensive and characterized by severe side effects, especially in the case of multidrug-resistant forms. Uncovering novel vulnerabilities of the pathogen is crucial to generate new therapeutic strategies. Using high resolution microscopy techniques, we discovered one such vulnerability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We demonstrate that the DNA of M. tuberculosis can condense under stressful conditions such as starvation and antibiotic treatment. The DNA condensation is reversible and specific for viable bacteria. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that ...


Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor 2018 University of Louisville

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...


Coupling Of Smoothened To Inhibitory G Proteins Reduces Voltage-Gated K, Lan Cheng, Moza Al-Owais, Manuel Covarrubias, Walter J. Koch, David R. Manning, Chris Peers, Natalia A Riobo-Del Galdo 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Coupling Of Smoothened To Inhibitory G Proteins Reduces Voltage-Gated K, Lan Cheng, Moza Al-Owais, Manuel Covarrubias, Walter J. Koch, David R. Manning, Chris Peers, Natalia A Riobo-Del Galdo

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

SMO (Smoothened), the central transducer of Hedgehog signaling, is coupled to heterotrimeric Gi proteins in many cell types, including cardiomyocytes. In this study, we report that activation of SMO with SHH (Sonic Hedgehog) or a small agonist, purmorphamine, rapidly causes a prolongation of the action potential duration that is sensitive to a SMO inhibitor. In contrast, neither of the SMO agonists prolonged the action potential in cardiomyocytes from transgenic GiCT/TTA mice, in which Gi signaling is impaired, suggesting that the effect of SMO is mediated by Gi proteins. Investigation of the mechanism underlying the ...


Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick

Masters Theses

Obesity has reached an epidemic level in the United States. A number of epidemiological studies have established obesity as a critical risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (post-BC), whereas a reverse association holds prior to menopause. A significant scientific gap exists in understanding the mechanism(s) underpinning this epidemiological phenomenon, particularly the reverse association between obesity and premenopausal breast cancer (pre-BC). This study aimed to understand how folate metabolism and DNA methylation informs the association between obesity and pre-BC. Fifty normal breast tissue samples were collected from premenopausal women who underwent reduction mammoplasty. We developed and measured the breast tissue ...


Identifying Kif Subtype That Mediates Axonal Targeting Of Kv7 Channels, Allison Houghton, Jennifer Walters, Mary Hong, Dhruv Joshi, Hee Jung Chung 2018 St. Charles Community College

Identifying Kif Subtype That Mediates Axonal Targeting Of Kv7 Channels, Allison Houghton, Jennifer Walters, Mary Hong, Dhruv Joshi, Hee Jung Chung

PRECS 2018

Early-onset Benign Familial Neonatal Epilepsy (BFNE) and Epileptic Encephalopathy (EE), are associated with mutations in neuronal KCNQ/Kv7 channel subunits Kv7.2 and Kv7.3. Kv7 channels are voltage-dependent potassium channels. Enriched at the axonal plasma membrane, they pump potassium ions out of the neurons and inhibit repetitive or burst firing of action potentials. A single neuronal Kv7 channel is a heterotetramer composed of two Kv7.2 and two Kv7.3 subunits. BFNE and EE mutations in Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 lead to decreased surface expression along the axon, which means less potassium ions are moved across the axonal ...


Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre 2018 Philippine Science High School

Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Mutations in the coding DNA of KRAS, which encodes for an active protein in the Ras signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation and growth, may be critical in the development of lung and colorectal cancer in humans. Clinical tests and therapies for cancer specifically target mutations, some of which may cause erroneous prognosis and prescription of cancer therapy posing more danger for patients with unique mutations. Therefore, characterization of non-hotspot mutations is becoming more important, where, KRAS R164L is an existing uncharacterized mutation identified through the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC). The project aimed to clone a pTarget overexpression ...


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre 2018 Philippine Science High School

Cloning Of An Overexpression Vector For The Rare And Uncharacterized Kras Mutant R164l, Julliane Jeanne Negre

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Mutations in the coding DNA of KRAS, which encodes for an active protein in the Ras signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation and growth, may be critical in the development of lung and colorectal cancer in humans. Clinical tests and therapies for cancer specifically target mutations, some of which may cause erroneous prognosis and prescription of cancer therapy posing more danger for patients with unique mutations. Therefore, characterization of non-hotspot mutations is becoming more important, where, KRAS R164L is an existing uncharacterized mutation identified through the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC). The project aimed to clone a pTarget overexpression ...


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Acetic Acid Induces Sch9p-Dependent Translocation Of Isc1p From The Endoplasmic Reticulum Into Mitochondria, António Rego, Katrina F Cooper, Justin Snider, Yusuf A Hannun, Vítor Costa, Manuela Côrte-Real, Susana R Chaves 2018 Universidade do Minho (Portugal)

Acetic Acid Induces Sch9p-Dependent Translocation Of Isc1p From The Endoplasmic Reticulum Into Mitochondria, António Rego, Katrina F Cooper, Justin Snider, Yusuf A Hannun, Vítor Costa, Manuela Côrte-Real, Susana R Chaves

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Changes in sphingolipid metabolism have been linked to modulation of cell fate in both yeast and mammalian cells. We previously assessed the role of sphingolipids in cell death regulation using a well characterized yeast model of acetic acid-induced regulated cell death, finding that Isc1p, inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C, plays a pro-death role in this process. Indeed, isc1∆ mutants exhibited a higher resistance to acetic acid associated with reduced mitochondrial alterations. Here, we show that Isc1p is regulated by Sch9p under acetic acid stress, since both single and double mutants lacking Isc1p or/and Sch9p have the same resistant phenotype, and ...


Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...


The Mitochondrial Protease Htra2 Restricts The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes., Ian Gaël Rodrigue-Gervais, Karine Doiron, Claudia Champagne, Lindsey Mayes, Gabriel André Leiva-Torres, Paulin Vanié, Todd Douglas, Silvia M. Vidal, Emad S. Alnemri, Maya Saleh 2018 McGill University; INRS-Institut Armand Frappier

The Mitochondrial Protease Htra2 Restricts The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes., Ian Gaël Rodrigue-Gervais, Karine Doiron, Claudia Champagne, Lindsey Mayes, Gabriel André Leiva-Torres, Paulin Vanié, Todd Douglas, Silvia M. Vidal, Emad S. Alnemri, Maya Saleh

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Activation of the inflammasome pathway is crucial for effective intracellular host defense. The mitochondrial network plays an important role in inflammasome regulation but the mechanisms linking mitochondrial homeostasis to attenuation of inflammasome activation are not fully understood. Here, we report that the Parkinson's disease-associated mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2 restricts the activation of ASC-dependent NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, in a protease activity-dependent manner. Consistently, disruption of the protease activity of HtrA2 results in exacerbated NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome responses in macrophages ex vivo and systemically in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that the HtrA2 protease activity regulates autophagy and controls the ...


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