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Articles 1 - 30 of 1037

Full-Text Articles in Medical Molecular Biology

Developing A Bacterial Panel For The Evaluation Of Novel Anti-Infective Compounds, Clare Euteneuer Mar 2023

Developing A Bacterial Panel For The Evaluation Of Novel Anti-Infective Compounds, Clare Euteneuer

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Antibiotic resistance is one of the leading causes of concern for the world health community. Drugs used to stop various infections for years are now becoming easier for bacteria to resist due to mutations and plasmids conferring resistance. To combat this problem, new drug can help alleviate this concern. We developed an assay that allows us to screen novel drug-like compounds against bacteria in an effort to identify promising new anti-infective compounds. Our assay was designed using known drugs against a panel of gram positive and negative bacilli and cocci including S. epidermidis, P. mirabilis, N. mucosa, and E. …


Role Of Ribosome Recycling Factor In Natural Termination And Translational Coupling As A Ribosome Releasing Factor, Yoshio Inokuchi, Fabio Quaglia, Akikazu Hirashima, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Hideko Kaji, Akira Kaji Feb 2023

Role Of Ribosome Recycling Factor In Natural Termination And Translational Coupling As A Ribosome Releasing Factor, Yoshio Inokuchi, Fabio Quaglia, Akikazu Hirashima, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Hideko Kaji, Akira Kaji

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The role of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) of E. coli was studied in vivo and in vitro. We used the translational coupling without the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of downstream ORF (d-ORF) as a model system of the RRF action in natural termination of protein synthesis. For the in vivo studies we used the translational coupling by the adjacent coat and lysis genes of RNA phage GA sharing the termination and initiation (UAAUG) and temperature sensitive RRF. The d-ORF translation was measured by the expression of the reporter lacZ gene connected to the 5'-terminal part of the lysis gene. The results showed …


Harnessing Transcriptionally Driven Chromosomal Instability Adaptation To Target Therapy-Refractory Lethal Prostate Cancer., Brittiny Dhital, Sandra Santasusagna, Perumalraja Kirthika, Michael Xu, Peiyao Li, Marc Carceles-Cordon, Rajesh K. Soni, Zhuoning Li, Ronald C. Hendrickson, Matthew J. Schiewer, William K. Kelly, Cora N. Sternberg, Jun Luo, Amaia Lujambio, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Monica Alvarez-Fernandez, Marcos Malumbres, Haojie Huang, Adam Ertel, Josep Domingo-Domenech, Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo Feb 2023

Harnessing Transcriptionally Driven Chromosomal Instability Adaptation To Target Therapy-Refractory Lethal Prostate Cancer., Brittiny Dhital, Sandra Santasusagna, Perumalraja Kirthika, Michael Xu, Peiyao Li, Marc Carceles-Cordon, Rajesh K. Soni, Zhuoning Li, Ronald C. Hendrickson, Matthew J. Schiewer, William K. Kelly, Cora N. Sternberg, Jun Luo, Amaia Lujambio, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Monica Alvarez-Fernandez, Marcos Malumbres, Haojie Huang, Adam Ertel, Josep Domingo-Domenech, Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo

Kimmel Cancer Center Papers, Presentations, and Grand Rounds

Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) inevitably acquires resistance to standard therapy preceding lethality. Here, we unveil a chromosomal instability (CIN) tolerance mechanism as a therapeutic vulnerability of therapy-refractory lethal PCa. Through genomic and transcriptomic analysis of patient datasets, we find that castration and chemotherapy-resistant tumors display the highest CIN and mitotic kinase levels. Functional genomics screening coupled with quantitative phosphoproteomics identify MASTL kinase as a survival vulnerability specific of chemotherapy-resistant PCa cells. Mechanistically, MASTL upregulation is driven by transcriptional rewiring mechanisms involving the non-canonical transcription factors androgen receptor splice variant 7 and E2F7 in a circuitry that restrains deleterious CIN and …


Semi-Quantitative Detection Of Pseudouridine Modifications And Type I/Ii I/Ii Hypermodifications In Human Mrnas Using Direct Long-Read Sequencing, Sepideh Tavakoli, Mohammad Nabizadeh, Amr Makhamreh, Howard Gamper, Caroline A Mccormick, Neda K Rezapour, Ya-Ming Hou, Meni Wanunu, Sara H Rouhanifard Jan 2023

Semi-Quantitative Detection Of Pseudouridine Modifications And Type I/Ii I/Ii Hypermodifications In Human Mrnas Using Direct Long-Read Sequencing, Sepideh Tavakoli, Mohammad Nabizadeh, Amr Makhamreh, Howard Gamper, Caroline A Mccormick, Neda K Rezapour, Ya-Ming Hou, Meni Wanunu, Sara H Rouhanifard

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Here, we develop and apply a semi-quantitative method for the high-confidence identification of pseudouridylated sites on mammalian mRNAs via direct long-read nanopore sequencing. A comparative analysis of a modification-free transcriptome reveals that the depth of coverage and specific k-mer sequences are critical parameters for accurate basecalling. By adjusting these parameters for high-confidence U-to-C basecalling errors, we identify many known sites of pseudouridylation and uncover previously unreported uridine-modified sites, many of which fall in k-mers that are known targets of pseudouridine synthases. Identified sites are validated using 1000-mer synthetic RNA controls bearing a single pseudouridine in the center position, demonstrating systematic …


Disruption Of The Interaction Between Mutationally Activated Gαq And Gβγ Attenuates Aberrant Signaling, Jenna L Aumiller, Philip B Wedegaertner Jan 2023

Disruption Of The Interaction Between Mutationally Activated Gαq And Gβγ Attenuates Aberrant Signaling, Jenna L Aumiller, Philip B Wedegaertner

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Heterotrimeric G protein stimulation via G protein-coupled receptors promotes downstream proliferative signaling. Mutations can occur in Gα proteins which prevent GTP hydrolysis; this allows the G proteins to signal independently of G protein-coupled receptors and can result in various cancers, such as uveal melanoma (UM). Most UM cases harbor Q209L, Q209P, or R183C mutations in Gαq/11 proteins, rendering the proteins constitutively active (CA). Although it is generally thought that active, GTP-bound Gα subunits are dissociated from and signal independently of Gβγ, accumulating evidence indicates that some CA Gα mutants, such as Gαq/11, retain binding to Gβγ, and this interaction is …


Differentiating Pc12 Cells To Evaluate Neurite Densities Through Live-Cell Imaging, Jordyn Karliner, Diane E Merry Jan 2023

Differentiating Pc12 Cells To Evaluate Neurite Densities Through Live-Cell Imaging, Jordyn Karliner, Diane E Merry

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Although PC12 cells are a valuable tool in neuroscience research, previously published PC12 cell differentiation techniques fail to consider the variability in differentiation rates between different PC12 cell strains and clonal variants. Here, we present a comprehensive protocol to differentiate PC12 cells into equivalent neurite densities through live-cell imaging for morphological, immunocytochemical, and biochemical analyses. We detail steps on optimized substrate coating, plating techniques, culture media, validation steps, and quantification techniques.


The Mucin Family Of Proteins: Candidates As Potential Biomarkers For Colon Cancer, Kristin E. Cox, Shanglei Liu, Thinzar M. Lwin, Robert M. Hoffman, Surinder K. Batra, Michael Bouvet Jan 2023

The Mucin Family Of Proteins: Candidates As Potential Biomarkers For Colon Cancer, Kristin E. Cox, Shanglei Liu, Thinzar M. Lwin, Robert M. Hoffman, Surinder K. Batra, Michael Bouvet

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Mucins (MUC1-MUC24) are a family of glycoproteins involved in cell signaling and barrier protection. They have been implicated in the progression of numerous malignancies including gastric, pancreatic, ovarian, breast, and lung cancer. Mucins have also been extensively studied with respect to colorectal cancer. They have been found to have diverse expression profiles amongst the normal colon, benign hyperplastic polyps, pre-malignant polyps, and colon cancers. Those expressed in the normal colon include MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC11, MUC12, MUC13, MUC15 (at low levels), and MUC21. Whereas MUC5, MUC6, MUC16, and MUC20 are absent from the normal colon and are expressed in colorectal …


Microrna-1 Attenuates The Growth And Metastasis Of Small Cell Lung Cancer Through Cxcr4/Foxm1/Rrm2 Axis, Parvez Khan, Jawed A. Siddiqui, Prakash Kshirsagar Dr., Ramakanth Chirravuri Venkata, Shailendra K. Maurya, Tamara Mirzapoiazova, Naveenkumar Perumal, Sanjib Chaudhary, Ranjana K. Kanchan, Mahek Fatima, Md Arafat Khan, Asad Ur Rehman, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Sidharth Mahapatra, Geoffrey A. Talmon, Prakash Kulkarni, Apar Kishor Ganti, Maneesh Jain, Ravi Salgia, Surinder K. Batra, Mohd W. Nasser Jan 2023

Microrna-1 Attenuates The Growth And Metastasis Of Small Cell Lung Cancer Through Cxcr4/Foxm1/Rrm2 Axis, Parvez Khan, Jawed A. Siddiqui, Prakash Kshirsagar Dr., Ramakanth Chirravuri Venkata, Shailendra K. Maurya, Tamara Mirzapoiazova, Naveenkumar Perumal, Sanjib Chaudhary, Ranjana K. Kanchan, Mahek Fatima, Md Arafat Khan, Asad Ur Rehman, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Sidharth Mahapatra, Geoffrey A. Talmon, Prakash Kulkarni, Apar Kishor Ganti, Maneesh Jain, Ravi Salgia, Surinder K. Batra, Mohd W. Nasser

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive lung cancer subtype that is associated with high recurrence and poor prognosis. Due to lack of potential drug targets, SCLC patients have few therapeutic options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) provide an interesting repertoire of therapeutic molecules; however, the identification of miRNAs regulating SCLC growth and metastasis and their precise regulatory mechanisms are not well understood.

METHODS: To identify novel miRNAs regulating SCLC, we performed miRNA-sequencing from donor/patient serum samples and analyzed the bulk RNA-sequencing data from the tumors of SCLC patients. Further, we developed a nanotechnology-based, highly sensitive method to detect microRNA-1 (miR-1, …


Elevated Paf1-Rad52 Axis Confers Chemoresistance To Human Cancers, Sanchita Rauth, Koelina Ganguly, Pranita Atri, Seema Parte, Rama Krishna Nimmakayala, Venkatesh Varadharaj, Palanisamy Nallasamy, Raghupathy Vengoji, Ayoola O. Ogunleye, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Ramakanth Chirravuri, Mika Bessho, Jesse L. Cox, Jason M. Foster, Geoffrey A. Talmon, Tadayoshi Bessho, Apar Kishor Ganti, Surinder K. Batra, Moorthy P. Ponnusamy Jan 2023

Elevated Paf1-Rad52 Axis Confers Chemoresistance To Human Cancers, Sanchita Rauth, Koelina Ganguly, Pranita Atri, Seema Parte, Rama Krishna Nimmakayala, Venkatesh Varadharaj, Palanisamy Nallasamy, Raghupathy Vengoji, Ayoola O. Ogunleye, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Ramakanth Chirravuri, Mika Bessho, Jesse L. Cox, Jason M. Foster, Geoffrey A. Talmon, Tadayoshi Bessho, Apar Kishor Ganti, Surinder K. Batra, Moorthy P. Ponnusamy

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Cisplatin- and gemcitabine-based chemotherapeutics represent a mainstay of cancer therapy for most solid tumors; however, resistance limits their curative potential. Here, we identify RNA polymerase II-associated factor 1 (PAF1) as a common driver of cisplatin and gemcitabine resistance in human cancers (ovarian, lung, and pancreas). Mechanistically, cisplatin- and gemcitabine-resistant cells show enhanced DNA repair, which is inhibited by PAF1 silencing. We demonstrate an increased interaction of PAF1 with RAD52 in resistant cells. Targeting the PAF1 and RAD52 axis combined with cisplatin or gemcitabine strongly diminishes the survival potential of resistant cells. Overall, this study shows clinical evidence that the expression …


Molecular Signaling Network And Therapeutic Developments In Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis, Mercilena Benjamin, Pushkar Malakar, Rohit Anthony Sinha, Mohd Wasim Nasser, Surinder K. Batra, Jawed A. Siddiqui, Bandana Chakravarti Jan 2023

Molecular Signaling Network And Therapeutic Developments In Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis, Mercilena Benjamin, Pushkar Malakar, Rohit Anthony Sinha, Mohd Wasim Nasser, Surinder K. Batra, Jawed A. Siddiqui, Bandana Chakravarti

Journal Articles: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in women worldwide. It has surpassed lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer-related death. Breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) is becoming a major clinical concern that is commonly associated with ER-ve and HER2+ve subtypes of BC patients. Metastatic lesions in the brain originate when the cancer cells detach from a primary breast tumor and establish metastatic lesions and infiltrate near and distant organs via systemic blood circulation by traversing the BBB. The colonization of BC cells in the brain involves a complex interplay in the tumor microenvironment (TME), …


Stabilized Core Gene And Pathway Election Uncovers Pan-Cancer Shared Pathways And A Cancer-Specific Driver, Pathum Kossinna, Weijia Cai, Xuewen Lu, Carrie S Shemanko, Qingrun Zhang Dec 2022

Stabilized Core Gene And Pathway Election Uncovers Pan-Cancer Shared Pathways And A Cancer-Specific Driver, Pathum Kossinna, Weijia Cai, Xuewen Lu, Carrie S Shemanko, Qingrun Zhang

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Approaches systematically characterizing interactions via transcriptomic data usually follow two systems: (i) coexpression network analyses focusing on correlations between genes and (ii) linear regressions (usually regularized) to select multiple genes jointly. Both suffer from the problem of stability: A slight change of parameterization or dataset could lead to marked alterations of outcomes. Here, we propose Stabilized COre gene and Pathway Election (SCOPE), a tool integrating bootstrapped least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and coexpression analysis, leading to robust outcomes insensitive to variations in data. By applying SCOPE to six cancer expression datasets (BRCA, COAD, KIRC, LUAD, PRAD, and THCA) in …


High-Resolution Cryo-Em Structure Of The Shigella Virus Sf6 Genome Delivery Tail Machine, Fenglin Li, Chun-Feng David Hou, Ruoyu Yang, Richard Whitehead, Carolyn M. Teschke, Gino Cingolani Dec 2022

High-Resolution Cryo-Em Structure Of The Shigella Virus Sf6 Genome Delivery Tail Machine, Fenglin Li, Chun-Feng David Hou, Ruoyu Yang, Richard Whitehead, Carolyn M. Teschke, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Sf6 is a bacterial virus that infects the human pathogen Shigella flexneri. Here, we describe the cryo–electron microscopy structure of the Sf6 tail machine before DNA ejection, which we determined at a 2.7-angstrom resolution. We built de novo structures of all tail components and resolved four symmetry-mismatched interfaces. Unexpectedly, we found that the tail exists in two conformations, rotated by ~6° with respect to the capsid. The two tail conformers are identical in structure but differ solely in how the portal and head-to-tail adaptor carboxyl termini bond with the capsid at the fivefold vertex, similar to a diamond held over …


In Silico Identification Of A Β2-Adrenoceptor Allosteric Site That Selectively Augments Canonical Β2ar-Gs Signaling And Function, Sushrut D Shah, Christoffer Lind, Francesco De Pascali, Raymond B Penn, Alexander D Mackerell, Deepak A Deshpande Dec 2022

In Silico Identification Of A Β2-Adrenoceptor Allosteric Site That Selectively Augments Canonical Β2ar-Gs Signaling And Function, Sushrut D Shah, Christoffer Lind, Francesco De Pascali, Raymond B Penn, Alexander D Mackerell, Deepak A Deshpande

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Activation of β2-adrenoceptors (β2ARs) causes airway smooth muscle (ASM) relaxation and bronchodilation, and β2AR agonists (β-agonists) are front-line treatments for asthma and other obstructive lung diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of β-agonists is limited by agonist-induced β2AR desensitization and noncanonical β2AR signaling involving β-arrestin that is shown to promote asthma pathophysiology. Accordingly, we undertook the identification of an allosteric site on β2AR that could modulate the activity of β-agonists to overcome these limitations. We employed the site identification by ligand competitive saturation (SILCS) computational method to comprehensively map the entire 3D structure of in silico-generated β2AR intermediate conformations and identified …


Investigating The Pi3k/Akt/Atm Pathway, Telomeric Dna Damage, T Cell Death, And Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing During Acute And Chronic Hiv Infection, Sushant Khanal Dec 2022

Investigating The Pi3k/Akt/Atm Pathway, Telomeric Dna Damage, T Cell Death, And Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing During Acute And Chronic Hiv Infection, Sushant Khanal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection initiates major metabolic and cell- survival complications. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is the current approach to suppress active HIV replication to a level of undetected viral load, but it is not a curative approach. Newer and sophisticated gene editing technologies could indeed be a potent antiviral therapy to achieve a clinical sterilization/cure of HIV infection. Chronic HIV patients, even under a successful ART regimen, exhibit a low-grade inflammation, immune senescence, premature aging, telomeric DNA attrition, T cell apoptosis, and cellular homeostasis. In this dissertation, we investigated CD4 T cell homeostasis, degree of T cell apoptosis, an …


Terminase Subunits From The Pseudomonas-Phage E217, Ravi K Lokareddy, Chun-Feng David Hou, Steven G Doll, Fenglin Li, Richard E Gillilan, Francesca Forti, David S Horner, Federica Briani, Gino Cingolani Oct 2022

Terminase Subunits From The Pseudomonas-Phage E217, Ravi K Lokareddy, Chun-Feng David Hou, Steven G Doll, Fenglin Li, Richard E Gillilan, Francesca Forti, David S Horner, Federica Briani, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Pseudomonas phages are increasingly important biomedicines for phage therapy, but little is known about how these viruses package DNA. This paper explores the terminase subunits from the Myoviridae E217, a Pseudomonas-phage used in an experimental cocktail to eradicate P. aeruginosa in vitro and in animal models. We identified the large (TerL) and small (TerS) terminase subunits in two genes ∼58 kbs away from each other in the E217 genome. TerL presents a classical two-domain architecture, consisting of an N-terminal ATPase and C-terminal nuclease domain arranged into a bean-shaped tertiary structure. A 2.05 Å crystal structure of the C-terminal domain revealed …


Structure Of The Pre-Mrna Leakage 39-Kda Protein Reveals A Single Domain Of Integrated Zf-C3hc And Rsm1 Modules, Hideharu Hashimoto, Daniel H. Ramirez, Ophélie Lautier, Natalie Pawlak, Günter Blobel, Benoît Palancade, Erik W. Debler Oct 2022

Structure Of The Pre-Mrna Leakage 39-Kda Protein Reveals A Single Domain Of Integrated Zf-C3hc And Rsm1 Modules, Hideharu Hashimoto, Daniel H. Ramirez, Ophélie Lautier, Natalie Pawlak, Günter Blobel, Benoît Palancade, Erik W. Debler

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the pre-mRNA leakage 39-kDa protein (ScPml39) was reported to retain unspliced pre-mRNA prior to export through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Pml39 homologs outside the Saccharomycetaceae family are currently unknown, and mechanistic insight into Pml39 function is lacking. Here we determined the crystal structure of ScPml39 at 2.5 Å resolution to facilitate the discovery of orthologs beyond Saccharomycetaceae, e.g. in Schizosaccharomyces pombe or human. The crystal structure revealed integrated zf-C3HC and Rsm1 modules, which are tightly associated through a hydrophobic interface to form a single domain. Both zf-C3HC and Rsm1 modules belong to the Zn-containing BIR (Baculovirus IAP …


Attenuation Of Relapsing Fever Neuroborreliosis In Mice By Il-17a Blockade, Meihui Cheng, Jingwen Xu, Kaiyun Ding, Jing Zhang, Wei Lu, Jiansheng Liu, Jiahong Gao, Kishore R Alugupalli, Hongqi Liu Oct 2022

Attenuation Of Relapsing Fever Neuroborreliosis In Mice By Il-17a Blockade, Meihui Cheng, Jingwen Xu, Kaiyun Ding, Jing Zhang, Wei Lu, Jiansheng Liu, Jiahong Gao, Kishore R Alugupalli, Hongqi Liu

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Relapsing fever due to Borrelia hermsiiis characterized by recurrent bacteremia episodes. However, infection of B. hermsii, if not treated early, can spread to various organs including the central nervous system (CNS). CNS disease manifestations are commonly referred to as relapsing fever neuroborreliosis (RFNB). In the mouse model of B. hermsiiinfection, we have previously shown that the development of RFNB requires innate immune cells as well as T cells. Here, we found that prior to the onset of RFNB, an increase in the systemic proinflammatory cytokine response followed by sustained levels of IP-10 concurrent with the CNS disease phase. RNA sequencing …


Viral Small Terminase: A Divergent Structural Framework For A Conserved Biological Function., Ravi K. Lokareddy, Chun-Feng David Hou, Fenglin Li, Ruoyu Yang, Gino Cingolani Oct 2022

Viral Small Terminase: A Divergent Structural Framework For A Conserved Biological Function., Ravi K. Lokareddy, Chun-Feng David Hou, Fenglin Li, Ruoyu Yang, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The genome packaging motor of bacteriophages and herpesviruses is built by two terminase subunits, known as large (TerL) and small (TerS), both essential for viral genome packaging. TerL structure, composition, and assembly to an empty capsid, as well as the mechanisms of ATP-dependent DNA packaging, have been studied in depth, shedding light on the chemo-mechanical coupling between ATP hydrolysis and DNA translocation. Instead, significantly less is known about the small terminase subunit, TerS, which is dispensable or even inhibitory in vitro, but essential in vivo. By taking advantage of the recent revolution in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and building upon a …


The Role Of Ubiquitination In Spinal And Bulbar Muscular Atrophy, Medha Sengupta, Anna Pluciennik, Diane E. Merry Oct 2022

The Role Of Ubiquitination In Spinal And Bulbar Muscular Atrophy, Medha Sengupta, Anna Pluciennik, Diane E. Merry

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neurodegenerative and neuromuscular genetic disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine-encoding CAG tract in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The AR is an important transcriptional regulator of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily; its levels are regulated in many ways including by ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification (PTM) which plays a key role in both AR transcriptional activity and its degradation. Moreover, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a fundamental component of cellular functioning and has been implicated in diseases of protein misfolding and aggregation, including polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion diseases …


Young Transposable Elements Rewired Gene Regulatory Networks In Human And Chimpanzee Hippocampal Intermediate Progenitors, Sruti Patoori, Samantha M Barnada, Christopher Large, John I Murray, Marco Trizzino Oct 2022

Young Transposable Elements Rewired Gene Regulatory Networks In Human And Chimpanzee Hippocampal Intermediate Progenitors, Sruti Patoori, Samantha M Barnada, Christopher Large, John I Murray, Marco Trizzino

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The hippocampus is associated with essential brain functions, such as learning and memory. Human hippocampal volume is significantly greater than expected compared with that of non-human apes, suggesting a recent expansion. Intermediate progenitors, which are able to undergo multiple rounds of proliferative division before a final neurogenic division, may have played a role in evolutionary hippocampal expansion. To investigate the evolution of gene regulatory networks underpinning hippocampal neurogenesis in apes, we leveraged the differentiation of human and chimpanzee induced pluripotent stem cells into TBR2 (or EOMES)-positive hippocampal intermediate progenitor cells (hpIPCs). We found that the gene networks active in hpIPCs …


D121 Located Within The Dry Motif Of P2y12 Is Essential For P2y12-Mediated Platelet Function., Carol Dangelmaier, Benjamin Mauri, Akruti Patel, Satya P Kunapuli, John C Kostyak Sep 2022

D121 Located Within The Dry Motif Of P2y12 Is Essential For P2y12-Mediated Platelet Function., Carol Dangelmaier, Benjamin Mauri, Akruti Patel, Satya P Kunapuli, John C Kostyak

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Platelets are anucleate cells that mediate hemostasis. This occurs via a primary signal that is reinforced by secreted products such as ADP that bind purinergic receptors (P2Y1 and P2Y12) on the platelet surface. We recently identified a human subject, whom we termed platelet defect subject 25 (PDS25) with a platelet functional disorder associated with the P2Y12 receptor. PDS25 has normal blood cell counts and no history of bleeding diathesis. However, platelets from PDS25 have virtually no response to 2-MeSADP (a stable analogue of ADP). Genetic analysis of P2Y12 from PDS25 revealed a heterozygous mutation of D121N within the DRY motif. …


Association Of Hypomagnesemia And Liver Injury, Role Of Gut-Barrier Dysfunction And Inflammation: Efficacy Of Abstinence, And 2-Week Medical Management In Alcohol Use Disorder Patients., Evan J. Winrich, Khushboo S. Gala, Abhas Rajhans, Christian D. Rios-Perez, Amor J. Royer, Zarlakhta Zamani, Ranganathan Parthasarathy, Luis S. Marsano-Obando, Ashutosh J. Barve, Melanie L. Schwandt, Vatsalya Vatsalya Sep 2022

Association Of Hypomagnesemia And Liver Injury, Role Of Gut-Barrier Dysfunction And Inflammation: Efficacy Of Abstinence, And 2-Week Medical Management In Alcohol Use Disorder Patients., Evan J. Winrich, Khushboo S. Gala, Abhas Rajhans, Christian D. Rios-Perez, Amor J. Royer, Zarlakhta Zamani, Ranganathan Parthasarathy, Luis S. Marsano-Obando, Ashutosh J. Barve, Melanie L. Schwandt, Vatsalya Vatsalya

Faculty Scholarship

(1) We investigated the involvement of serum magnesium level in early alcoholic liver disease (ALD), gut barrier dysfunction, and inflammation in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients; and lastly, the efficacy of 2-week abstinence and medical management to alleviate hypomagnesemia. (2) Forty-eight heavy drinking AUD patients (34 males (M)/14 females (F)) participated in this study. Patients were grouped by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (a marker of liver injury) as group 1 (Group 1 (Gr.1); ALT ≤ 40 U/L, 7M/8F, without any indication of early-stage ALD) and group 2 (Group 2 (Gr.2); ALT > 40 U/L, 27M/6F or early-stage ALD). These patients …


Isc10, An Inhibitor Of The Smk1 Mapk, Prevents Activation Loop Autophosphorylation And Substrate Phosphorylation Through Separate Mechanisms, Abhimannyu Rimal, Thomas M Swayne, Zeal P Kamdar, Madison A Tewey, Edward Winter Sep 2022

Isc10, An Inhibitor Of The Smk1 Mapk, Prevents Activation Loop Autophosphorylation And Substrate Phosphorylation Through Separate Mechanisms, Abhimannyu Rimal, Thomas M Swayne, Zeal P Kamdar, Madison A Tewey, Edward Winter

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Many eukaryotic protein kinases are activated by the intramolecular autophosphorylation of activation loop residues. Smk1 is a meiosis-specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in yeast that autophosphorylates its activation loop tyrosine and thereby upregulates catalytic output. This reaction is controlled by an inhibitor, Isc10, that binds the MAPK during meiosis I and an activator, Ssp2, that binds Smk1/Isc10 during meiosis II. Upon completion of the meiotic divisions, Isc10 is degraded, and Smk1 undergoes autophosphorylation to generate the high activity form of the MAPK that controls spore formation. How Isc10 inhibits Smk1 is not clear. Here, we use a bacterial coexpression/reconstitution system …


Association Of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Rs1801133 Genetic Variants With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetic Nephropathy, Aysegul Bayramoglu, Gokhan Bayramoglu, Halil Ibrahım Guler, Nezaket Coban, Mustafa Çagatay Korkmaz Aug 2022

Association Of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Rs1801133 Genetic Variants With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetic Nephropathy, Aysegul Bayramoglu, Gokhan Bayramoglu, Halil Ibrahım Guler, Nezaket Coban, Mustafa Çagatay Korkmaz

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease with a genetic predisposition. Methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR) gene is one of the candidate genes associated with T2DM and diabetic nephropathy (DN). This research was carried out to determine the frequency of the C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the MTHFR gene and examine the role of rs1801133 polymorphism in T2DM and DN development.

Methods: DNA was obtained from peripheral blood samples (273 samples) using a DNA isolation kit. MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and electrophoresis. PCR products were cut by …


Healthy Exosomes And Their Effects On Diabetic Cardiomyocytes, Miguel A. Garza, Genaro A. Ramírez-Correa, Maria Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez, Andres J. Medina Aug 2022

Healthy Exosomes And Their Effects On Diabetic Cardiomyocytes, Miguel A. Garza, Genaro A. Ramírez-Correa, Maria Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez, Andres J. Medina

MEDI 9331 Scholarly Activities Clinical Years

Extracellular Vesicles, and more specifically, exosomes, are essential for effective cell-to-cell communication in a wide variety of tissues. In the last couple of decades, these nanovesicles have been proven to be active participants and regulators in many disease processes; therefore, their therapeutic effects have been widely studied and proven in various cardiovascular diseases both, in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this study aims at assessing the effects of running healthy mice exosomes on cardiomyocyte and cardiac tissue samples obtained from diabetic mice. Here, we successfully extract exosomes from mice plasma and detect their presence through the use of anti-CD9 and …


G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 6 (Grk6) Regulates Insulin Processing And Secretion Via Effects On Proinsulin Conversion To Insulin, Matthew J Varney, Wouter Steyaert, Paul J Coucke, Joris R Delanghe, David E Uehling, Babu Joseph, Richard Marcellus, Rima Al-Awar, Jeffrey L Benovic Aug 2022

G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 6 (Grk6) Regulates Insulin Processing And Secretion Via Effects On Proinsulin Conversion To Insulin, Matthew J Varney, Wouter Steyaert, Paul J Coucke, Joris R Delanghe, David E Uehling, Babu Joseph, Richard Marcellus, Rima Al-Awar, Jeffrey L Benovic

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Recent studies identified a missense mutation in the gene coding for G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) that segregates with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To better understand how GRK6 might be involved in T2D, we used pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown in the mouse β-cell line, MIN6, to determine whether GRK6 regulates insulin dynamics. We show inhibition of GRK5 and GRK6 increased insulin secretion but reduced insulin processing while GRK6 knockdown revealed these same processing defects with reduced levels of cellular insulin. GRK6 knockdown cells also had attenuated insulin secretion but enhanced proinsulin secretion consistent with decreased processing. In support …


Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib Aug 2022

Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Translation, or the production of protein from an mRNA blueprint, is among the most fundamental processes to life as we know it. tRNAs are essential to accurate translation, as they decode the codons of mRNA and recruit corresponding amino acids. Variant tRNAs with anticodon mutations can decrease translational fidelity by recruiting the incorrect amino acid, an aberrant process known as mistranslation. When proteins are produced with incorrect amino acid sequences, they may misfold. The heat shock response functions to alleviate cellular stress caused by misfolded proteins, either by refolding or targeting misfolded proteins for degradation. Hsf1 acts as a transcriptional …


The Effect Of Type 1 Diabetes On The Metabolic Response To Exercise, Theres Tijo Aug 2022

The Effect Of Type 1 Diabetes On The Metabolic Response To Exercise, Theres Tijo

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder that results in insufficient endogenous insulin production. Regular exercise has numerous health benefits for individuals with T1DM, however, most insulin-dependent diabetics avoid physical activity due to the fear of exercise-induced hypoglycemia (low blood glucose/BG).

The risk of hypoglycemia in this population may be partly due to lower liver glycogen stores which is a major source of blood glucose during exercise. However, the mechanism that leads to lower glycogen stores in T1DM is unknown.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise …


Neuromuscular Junction Pathology Is Correlated With Differential Motor Unit Vulnerability In Spinal And Bulbar Muscular Atrophy, Elana Molotsky, Y Liu, Andrew P Lieberman, Diane E Merry Jul 2022

Neuromuscular Junction Pathology Is Correlated With Differential Motor Unit Vulnerability In Spinal And Bulbar Muscular Atrophy, Elana Molotsky, Y Liu, Andrew P Lieberman, Diane E Merry

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked, neuromuscular neurodegenerative disease for which there is no cure. The disease is characterized by a selective decrease in fast-muscle power (e.g., tongue pressure, grip strength) accompanied by a selective loss of fast-twitch muscle fibers. However, the relationship between neuromuscular junction (NMJ) pathology and fast-twitch motor unit vulnerability has yet to be explored. In this study, we used a cross-model comparison of two mouse models of SBMA to evaluate neuromuscular junction pathology, glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type switching, and cytoskeletal alterations in pre- and postsynaptic termini of tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius, and soleus hindlimb muscles. …


Regulating Phase Transition In Neurodegenerative Diseases By Nuclear Import Receptors, Amandeep Girdhar, Lin Guo Jul 2022

Regulating Phase Transition In Neurodegenerative Diseases By Nuclear Import Receptors, Amandeep Girdhar, Lin Guo

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with a low-complexity prion-like domain (PLD) can undergo aberrant phase transitions and have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS and FTD. Several nuclear RBPs mislocalize to cytoplasmic inclusions in disease conditions. Impairment in nucleocytoplasmic transport is another major event observed in ageing and in neurodegenerative disorders. Nuclear import receptors (NIRs) regulate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of different RBPs bearing a nuclear localization signal by restoring their nuclear localization. NIRs can also specifically dissolve or prevent the aggregation and liquid–liquid phase separation of wild-type or disease-linked mutant RBPs, due to their chaperoning activity. This review focuses on …