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Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan 2016 University of Texas at El Paso

Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are
increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions
before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological,
genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of
an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods
for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical
data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain
diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between
structure and function, and revealed constraints ...


Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan 2016 University of Texas at El Paso

Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are
increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions
before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological,
genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of
an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods
for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical
data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain
diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between
structure and function, and revealed constraints ...


The Effects Of The Environmental Estrogens Cadmium And Arsenite On Phosphorylation Of Erk1/2 Via Gpr30 In Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells, Katarzyna Krauss 2016 Bellarmine University

The Effects Of The Environmental Estrogens Cadmium And Arsenite On Phosphorylation Of Erk1/2 Via Gpr30 In Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells, Katarzyna Krauss

Undergraduate Theses

Nanomolar concentrations of both cadmium and arsenite, two environmental estrogens present in cigarette smoke, have been documented in rapidly phosphorylating ERK1/2, a type of MAPK, in the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) line NHI-1793 in a manner similar to that of estrogen. Pretreatment of cells with a general, nonspecific estrogen receptor antagonist reduced the levels of phosphorylated MAPK, indicating that this phosphorylation event is achieved through use of an estrogen signaling pathway. The specific estrogen receptor involved in this process, however, is currently unknown. To determine whether GPR30, one of the three types of estrogen receptors, is necessary ...


Ocean Acidification And Predator-Prey Relations: Correlating Disruption Of Predator Avoidance With Chemosensory Deficits, Alexandra FW Sidun 2016 Chapman University

Ocean Acidification And Predator-Prey Relations: Correlating Disruption Of Predator Avoidance With Chemosensory Deficits, Alexandra Fw Sidun

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

One of the most destructive effects of global climate change is the increased carbon sequestering and consequential acidification of our world’s oceans. The impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms are still relatively unknown, especially effects on behavioral ecology. Avoiding predation has emerged from recent behavioral ecology literature as a critical feature in the life history of a wide array of animal species; experiments on marine fishes suggest acidic water compromises their predator-avoidance abilities. Recent assays in our lab suggest predator-induced behavior is reduced by weakly acidic water. These experiments do not address the potential factor of generalized malaise ...


Hepatitis B Virus Subgenotypes D1 And D3 Are Prevalent In Pakistan, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, Saeeda Baig, Runu Chakravarty Runu Chakravarty, Tariq Moatter 2016 Aga Khan University

Hepatitis B Virus Subgenotypes D1 And D3 Are Prevalent In Pakistan, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, Saeeda Baig, Runu Chakravarty Runu Chakravarty, Tariq Moatter

Anwar Ali Siddiqui

Background:

As the hepatitis B genotyping is important for assessing its clinical implications and geographical distribution, the sub-genotypes have been found useful for determination of specific genomic markers related to hepatocarcinogenesis. In Pakistan, there is no reported data on molecular evolutionary analysis of HBV. A study was, therefore, much needed to evaluate the spectra of mutations present in the strains prevalent here.

Findings:

To confirm specificity of PCR typing, phylogenetic analysis of the pre-S1 region and the divergence was studied through 13 sequences of 362 bp (accession number EF432765 – EF432777). A total of 315 serum samples, selected from HBsAg positive ...


The Beginning Of The End For Chimpanzee Experiments?, Andrew Knight 2016 Animal Consultants International

The Beginning Of The End For Chimpanzee Experiments?, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, BSc (Vet Biol), BVMS, MANZCVS, DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MRCVS, SFHEA

The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild – as many older research chimpanzees once were – and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has made toward medical advancements. However, a recent large-scale systematic review indicates that invasive chimpanzee experiments rarely provide benefits in excess of their profound animal welfare, bioethical and financial costs. The approval of large numbers of ...


Reviewing Existing Knowledge Prior To Conducting Animal Studies, Andrew Knight 2016 Animal Consultants International

Reviewing Existing Knowledge Prior To Conducting Animal Studies, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, BSc (Vet Biol), BVMS, MANZCVS, DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MRCVS, SFHEA

Highly polarised viewpoints about animal experimentation have often prevented agreement. However, important common ground between advocates and opponents was demonstrated within a discussion forum hosted at www.research-methodology.org.uk in July–August 2008, by the independent charity, SABRE Research UK. Agreement existed that many animal studies have methodological flaws — such as inappropriate sample sizes, lack of randomised treatments, and unblinded outcome assessments — that may introduce bias and limit statistical validity. There was also agreement that systematic reviews of the human utility of animal models yield the highest quality of evidence, as their reliance on methodical and impartial methods to ...


Non-Animal Methodologies Within Biomedical Research And Toxicity Testing, Andrew Knight 2016 Animal Consultants International

Non-Animal Methodologies Within Biomedical Research And Toxicity Testing, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, BSc (Vet Biol), BVMS, MANZCVS, DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MRCVS, SFHEA

Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked – and in some cases, prohibitive – logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders ...


Cancerous Contradictions: The Mis-Regulation Of Human Carcinogens Based On Animal Data, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe 2016 Animal Consultants International

Cancerous Contradictions: The Mis-Regulation Of Human Carcinogens Based On Animal Data, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Andrew Knight, BSc (Vet Biol), BVMS, MANZCVS, DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MRCVS, SFHEA

The regulation of human exposures to potential carcinogens constitutes society’s most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. However, for environmental contaminants of greatest U.S. concern, we found that in most cases (58.1%; 93/160) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered the animal data inadequate to support a classification of probable human carcinogen or noncarcinogen.

The World Health Organisation’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is a leading international authority on carcinogenicity assessments. For chemicals lacking human exposure data (the great majority), IARC classifications of identical chemicals were significantly more conservative than EPA classifications ...


Systematic Reviews Of Animal Experiments Demonstrate Poor Contributions To Human Healthcare, Andrew Knight 2016 Animal Consultants International

Systematic Reviews Of Animal Experiments Demonstrate Poor Contributions To Human Healthcare, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, BSc (Vet Biol), BVMS, MANZCVS, DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MRCVS, SFHEA

Widespread reliance on animal models during preclinical research and toxicity testing assumes their reasonable predictivity for human outcomes. However, of 20 published systematic reviews examining human clinical utility located during a comprehensive literature search, animal models demonstrated significant potential to contribute toward clinical interventions in only two cases, one of which was contentious. Included were experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and chimpanzee experiments—the species most generally predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to demonstrate utility in reliably predicting human toxicological outcomes such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity ...


The Poor Contribution Of Chimpanzee Experiments To Biomedical Progress, Andrew Knight 2016 Animal Consultants International

The Poor Contribution Of Chimpanzee Experiments To Biomedical Progress, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, BSc (Vet Biol), BVMS, MANZCVS, DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MRCVS, SFHEA

Biomedical research on captive chimpanzees incurs substantial nonhuman animal welfare, ethical, and financial costs that advocates claim result in substantial advancements in biomedical knowledge. However, demonstrating minimal contribution toward the advancement of biomedical knowledge generally, subsequent papers did not cite 49.5% (47/95), of 95 experiments randomly selected from a population of 749 published worldwide between 1995 and 2004. Only 14.7% (14/95) were cited by 27 papers that abstracts indicated described well-developed methods for combating human diseases. However, detailed examination of these medical papers revealed that in vitro studies, human clinical and epidemiological studies, molecular assays and ...


Assessing The Necessity Of Chimpanzee Experimentation, Andrew Knight 2016 Animal Consultants International

Assessing The Necessity Of Chimpanzee Experimentation, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, BSc (Vet Biol), BVMS, MANZCVS, DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MRCVS, SFHEA

No abstract provided.


Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: 3. Alternatives To The Bioassay, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe 2016 Animal Consultants International

Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: 3. Alternatives To The Bioassay, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Andrew Knight, BSc (Vet Biol), BVMS, MANZCVS, DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MRCVS, SFHEA

Conventional animal carcinogenicity tests take around three years to design, conduct and interpret. Consequently, only a tiny fraction of the thousands of industrial chemicals currently in use have been tested for carcinogenicity. Despite the costs of hundreds of millions of dollars and millions of skilled personnel hours, as well as millions of animal lives, several investigations have revealed that animal carcinogenicity data lack human specificity (i.e. the ability to identify human non-carcinogens), which severely limits the human predictivity of the bioassay. This is due to the scientific inadequacies of many carcinogenicity bioassays, and numerous serious biological obstacles, which render ...


127 Million Non-Human Vertebrates Used Worldwide For Scientific Purposes In 2005, Andrew Knight 2016 Animal Consultants International

127 Million Non-Human Vertebrates Used Worldwide For Scientific Purposes In 2005, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, BSc (Vet Biol), BVMS, MANZCVS, DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MRCVS, SFHEA

No abstract provided.


Simulating Mars: Student Projects At Mars Desert Research Station (Mdrs), Ashley Hollis-Bussey, Lycourgos Manolopoulos, Marc Carofano, Hiroki Sugimoto, Cassandra Vella, John Herman 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Simulating Mars: Student Projects At Mars Desert Research Station (Mdrs), Ashley Hollis-Bussey, Lycourgos Manolopoulos, Marc Carofano, Hiroki Sugimoto, Cassandra Vella, John Herman

Human Factors and Applied Psychology Student Conference

No abstract provided.


Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta

UCARE Research Products

Amino acids are the building blocks of life. If DNA is the blueprint, amino acids are the lumber that proteins are built with. Proteins are built with left-handed, L- forms of amino acids. Bacteria have an essential cell wall component that happens to be an exception: peptidoglycan. Bacteria have enzymes called racemases that convert L- amino acid forms into right-handed, D- forms. Amino acids participate in many reactions with keto acids. Transaminases allow conversion between amino acids by transfer of an amino group.

Previous reports claimed there is no D-ala transaminase activity in mycobacteria and thus alr and murI genes ...


How Nebraska’S Eastern Saline Wetland Native Plant Species Grow In Response To Restoration Methods: Application Of Different Salinity Level Groundwater, Ellen Dolph, Keunyea Song, Amy Burgin, Trenton E. Franz 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

How Nebraska’S Eastern Saline Wetland Native Plant Species Grow In Response To Restoration Methods: Application Of Different Salinity Level Groundwater, Ellen Dolph, Keunyea Song, Amy Burgin, Trenton E. Franz

UCARE Research Products

Nebraska’s Eastern Saline Wetlands are unique ecosystems endemic to the Salt and Rock Creek waters in Lancaster and Saunders County.

They provide an ecosystem services as well as habitat for endangered species such as the state endangered saltwort (Salicornia rubra) and federally endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle (Cicindela nevadica lincolniana).

Over 80 % of the saline wetlands are highly degraded and in recent years, the Saline Wetland Conservation Partnership has formed to conserve and restore the remaining saline wetland fragments, but there is limited information about inland saline wetland restoration. Purpose: Investigate techniques to better conserve these saline wetlands and ...


Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams 2016 University of South Florida

Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams

William D. Kearns, PhD

Ambulation is defined by duration, distance traversed, number and size of directional changes and the interval separating successive movement episodes; more complex measures of ambulation can be created by aggregating these features. This review article of published findings defines random changes in direction during movement as “movement path tortuosity”, and relates tortuosity to the understanding of cognitive impairments of persons of all ages. Path tortuosity is quantified by subjecting tracking data to fractal analysis, specifically Fractal Dimension (Fractal D), which ranges from a value of 1 when the movement path is perfectly straight to a value of 2 when the ...


Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

We have frequently implemented crossover studies to evaluate new therapeutic interventions for genital herpes simplex virus infection. The outcome measured to assess the efficacy of interventions on herpes disease severity is the viral shedding rate, defined as the frequency of detection of HSV on the genital skin and mucosa. We performed a simulation study to ascertain whether our standard model, which we have used previously, was appropriately considering all the necessary features of the shedding data to provide correct inference. We simulated shedding data under our standard, validated assumptions and assessed the ability of 5 different models to reproduce the ...


The Role Of The Ace2/Ang-(1-7)/Masr Axis In The Development Of Obesity-Hypertension In Male And Female Mice, Yu Wang 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of The Ace2/Ang-(1-7)/Masr Axis In The Development Of Obesity-Hypertension In Male And Female Mice, Yu Wang

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Obesity is strongly associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. An activated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has long been suggested as a critical contributor to elevated blood pressure with obesity. Angiotensin II (AngII), the main effector of an activated RAS, can be catabolized by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to form angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), which, acting through the mas receptor (MasR), has been shown to oppose the effects of an activated RAS. Therefore, further understanding of the mechanisms of this counter-regulatory arm, called the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis, may lead to new therapies for obesity-induced hypertension. Previously, we demonstrated that differences ...


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