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An Analysis Of The Interaction Of Methylphenidate And Nicotine In Adolescent Rats: Effects On Bdnf, Elizabeth D. Freeman 2015 East Tennessee State University

An Analysis Of The Interaction Of Methylphenidate And Nicotine In Adolescent Rats: Effects On Bdnf, Elizabeth D. Freeman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This investigation was an analysis of the interaction of adolescent exposure to methylphenidate (MPH; trade name: Ritalin) on nicotine sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) in a rodent model and underlying mechanisms of this effect. Animals were treated IP with 1 mg/kg MPH or saline using a ―school day‖ regimen of five days on, two days off, from postnatal day (P) 28-50. During the final two weeks of MPH treatment, animals were either behaviorally sensitized to nicotine (0.5 mg/kg free base) or saline for 10 days, or conditioned to nicotine or saline using the CPP behavioral paradigm ...


Efficient In Vitro Development Of Photoreceptors From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Joseph C. Reynolds 2015 Dominican University of California

Efficient In Vitro Development Of Photoreceptors From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Joseph C. Reynolds

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Degeneration of the rod and cone photoreceptors in the human retina is among the most common causes of blindness. Replacing these damaged photoreceptors may help to restore vision. Repairing the damaged retina relies on the insertion of new, healthy cells. Embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are two possible sources of photoreceptors to restore vision. Previous data shows that human ES cells and iPS cells can be differentiated into photoreceptors and transplanted into the eye to restore some vision. However, this process is inefficient, and costly. Here, we show a new method for inducing photoreceptor production ...


Pathological Effects Of Repeated Concussive Tbi In Mouse Models: Periventricular Damage And Ventriculomegaly, Richard H. Wolferz Jr. 2015 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Pathological Effects Of Repeated Concussive Tbi In Mouse Models: Periventricular Damage And Ventriculomegaly, Richard H. Wolferz Jr.

Honors Scholar Theses

Repeated concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) is the most prominent form of head injury affecting the brain, with an estimated 1.7 million Americans affected each year (Kuhn 2012). Neurologists have been concerned about the danger of repeated head impacts since the 1920’s, but researchers have only begun to understand the long-term effects of rcTBI (McKee 2009). Although symptoms can be as mild as dizziness, current research suggests that multiple concussions can lead to a progressive degenerative brain disease known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) (Luo 2008, McKee 2009, Kane 2013). Research on the brain is just beginning to ...


The Development Of Skeletal Muscle In Young Horses: An Ultrasonography And Satellite Cell Approach, Emma K. LaVigne 2015 University of Connecticut - Storrs

The Development Of Skeletal Muscle In Young Horses: An Ultrasonography And Satellite Cell Approach, Emma K. Lavigne

Honors Scholar Theses

Muscle growth in young horses is characterized by an increase in muscle cross-sectional area, which can be accomplished through the activation and differentiation of satellite cells. Satellite cells can be stimulated or inhibited in response to different cytokines and growth factors and are key mediators of muscle hypertrophy and regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle in horses under 5 years of age and to obtain preliminary data on satellite cell behavior in foals. The area, width, height, and subcutaneous fat were measured using ultrasonography at 6-month increments over the ...


Cell Line Authentication And Contamination Assessment For Human Cell Cultures, Andrea Ormos B.S. 2015 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth

Cell Line Authentication And Contamination Assessment For Human Cell Cultures, Andrea Ormos B.S.

Theses and Dissertations

Cell line authentication is an essential step in ensuring the integrity and reproducibility of biomedical research. The major contaminants in cell cultures are fungi, viruses, bacteria and contamination from other cell lines of the same or different species. Contaminants alter the physiology and properties of cells, compromising the results of experiments. In this study, an improved multiplex assay was developed, detecting mycoplasma and mouse cell line contamination, while performing DNA typing.

The assay was tested on cell cultures, the reproducibility of the assay was verified, sample collection and procedures were optimized and limit of detection for contaminants were determined. A ...


Multilevel Deregulation Of Survival Mechanisms In Npm-Alk+ T-Cell Lymphoma, Deeksha Vishwamitra 2015 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Multilevel Deregulation Of Survival Mechanisms In Npm-Alk+ T-Cell Lymphoma, Deeksha Vishwamitra

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a single chain transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily. Other members of this superfamily include the insulin receptor (IR), type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR), and the leukocyte tyrosine kinase. The common structural finding among these tyrosine kinases is the YXXXYY motif present within their respective tyrosine kinase domains. Binding of its ligands causes ALK receptor homodimerization and protein kinase activation. ALK has been previously shown to play a significant role during early developmental stages. In human embryos, the expression of ALK is mainly seen in ...


Inhibition Of Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation By Diarylthiourea Analog, Sl1-18, Maryam Fallatah 2015 Dominican University of California

Inhibition Of Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation By Diarylthiourea Analog, Sl1-18, Maryam Fallatah

Scholarly and Creative Works Conference

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy that occurs in women in the US and has the second highest cancer-associated mortality rate. Depending on the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα), breast cancer can be classified as ER positive or negative. Current drugs used to treat ER+ cancers include selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and selective estrogen receptor down-regulators (SERDs). Unfortunately, prolonged exposure to these drugs often leads to the development of acquired resistance. Consequently, there is a great need to develop alternative therapeutic options. Flexible heteroarotinoids (Flex-Hets) are groups of compounds that are derived from retinoids. Flex-Hets have been ...


Resolution Of Telomere Fragility In Mammalian Celss, Mai R. Nguyen 2015 Washington University in St Louis

Resolution Of Telomere Fragility In Mammalian Celss, Mai R. Nguyen

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters & Abstracts

Genomic stability is vital for the survival of cells and organisms. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein complexes capping the ends of linear chromosomes, prevent loss of genetic information and play an important role in the regulation of cell division. Due to their repetitive sequence and ability to form secondary structures, telomeres are especially sensitive to mutations or deletions of DNA replication and repair proteins. Telomere fragility, a phenotype in which multiple telomere signals or aberrant signals are observed on metaphase chromosomes stained by fluorescent in situ hybridization, is induced when cells experience replication stress. Although telomere fragility has been observed in many ...


Mcnamara 2014 Mmb1075 - Low Magnification Confocal Microscopy Of Tumor Angiogenesis, George McNamara 2015 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Mcnamara 2014 Mmb1075 - Low Magnification Confocal Microscopy Of Tumor Angiogenesis, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 2014 MMB1075 - Low Magnification Confocal Microscopy of Tumor Angiogenesis

Book chapter from Paddock 2014 Confocal Microscopy

Book is online at http://www.springer.com/us/book/9781588293510


Investigating Notch Signaling And Sequential Segmentation In The Fairy Shrimp, Thamnocephalus Platyurus, Sara Izzat Khalil 2015 Trinity College

Investigating Notch Signaling And Sequential Segmentation In The Fairy Shrimp, Thamnocephalus Platyurus, Sara Izzat Khalil

Senior Theses and Projects

Segmentation is a key feature of arthropod diversity and evolution. In the standard model for arthropod development, Drosophila melanogaster, segments develop simultaneously by a progressive subdivision of the embryo. By contrast, most arthropods add segments sequentially from a posterior region called the growth zone and in a manner similar to vertebrates.

Recent work, mainly focused on insects, suggests that Notch signaling might play a role in arthropods that segment sequentially. These studies document a potential regulatory similarity between sequentially segmenting arthropods and vertebrates. In vertebrates, somite formation involves a molecular oscillator that functions as a pacemaker, driving periodic expression of ...


Microbial Communities Of The Providence River, Jacqueline Kratch 2015 Bryant University

Microbial Communities Of The Providence River, Jacqueline Kratch

Honors Projects in Science and Technology

The Providence River has been industrialized for over one-hundred years. Industries such as oil storage and metal recycling facilities have left high levels of pollutant metals, including lead (Pb), in the soil and water. The elevated Pb concentrations in these environments influence the selection of Pb resistance mechanisms in the bacterial community1. One mechanism of heavy metal resistance is the Pb efflux pump, consisting of proteins in the cell membrane that aid in the transport of Pb out of the cell2. In this study we investigated the co-occurrence of Pb efflux pumps and antibiotic efflux pumps in bacteria from Pb ...


Evaluation Of The Developmental Toxicity Of Lead In The Danio Rerio Body, Nicole M. Roy, Sarah DeWolf, Bruno Carneiro 2015 Sacred Heart University

Evaluation Of The Developmental Toxicity Of Lead In The Danio Rerio Body, Nicole M. Roy, Sarah Dewolf, Bruno Carneiro

Biology Faculty Publications

Lead has been utilized throughout history and is widely distributed and mobilized globally. Although lead in the environment has been somewhat mitigated, the nature of lead and its extensive uses in the past prohibit it from being completely absent from our environment and exposure to lead is still a public health concern. Most studies regarding lead toxicity have focused on the brain. However, little is found in the literature on the effects of lead in other tissues. Here, we utilize the zebrafish model system to investigate effects of lead exposure during early developmental time windows at 24, 48 and 72 ...


Estimates Of Persistent Inward Current In Human Motor Neurons During Postural Sway, Ryan Foley, Jayne M. Kalmar Dr. 2015 Wilfrid Laurier University

Estimates Of Persistent Inward Current In Human Motor Neurons During Postural Sway, Ryan Foley, Jayne M. Kalmar Dr.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Persistent inward current (PIC) is a membrane property critical for increasing gain of motor neuron output. In humans, most estimates of PIC are made from plantarflexor or dorsiflexor motor units with the participant in a seated position with the knee flexed. This seated and static posture neglects the task-dependent nature of the monoaminergic drive that modulates PIC activation. Seated estimates may drastically underestimate the amount of PIC that occurs in human motor neurons during functional movement. The current study estimated PIC using the conventional paired motor unit technique which uses the difference between reference unit firing frequency at test unit ...


Regulation Of Pancreatic Β-Cell Function By The Renin-Angiotensin System In Type 2 Diabetes, Robin C. Shoemaker 2015 University of Kentucky

Regulation Of Pancreatic Β-Cell Function By The Renin-Angiotensin System In Type 2 Diabetes, Robin C. Shoemaker

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Diet-induced obesity promotes type 2 diabetes (T2D). Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have been demonstrated in clinical trials to decrease the onset of T2D. Previously, we demonstrated that mice made obese from chronic consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet have marked elevations in systemic concentrations of angiotensin II (AngII). Pancreatic islets have been reported to possess components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1aR), the primary receptor for AngII, and angiotensin converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2), which negatively regulates the RAS by catabolizing AngII to angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)). These two opposing proteins have been implicated ...


Potencial Impacts Of Ecosystem Degradation On The Reproductive Biology And Behavior Of Malawian Cichlids, Michael Abel 2015 University of Colorado, Boulder

Potencial Impacts Of Ecosystem Degradation On The Reproductive Biology And Behavior Of Malawian Cichlids, Michael Abel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Rift Valley is a tropical region of eastern Africa characterized by its complex geological makeup consisting of tectonic plates that have driven the formation of some of the largest lakes in the world being Lake Malawi, Victoria, and Tanganyika. In turn, the formation of these amazing freshwater ecosystems has enabled the evolution, and radiation of thousands of species of fish from the family Cichlidae, which constitutes the most diverse group of vertebrates on the globe. However, because these ecosystems are also in regions with a high prevalence of anthropogenic activities they are threatened by biodiversity loss. In particular, Lake ...


Mouse Polyomavirus T Antigens: Directors Of Cell Cycle Signaling, Catherine Nicholas 2015 University of Colorado, Boulder

Mouse Polyomavirus T Antigens: Directors Of Cell Cycle Signaling, Catherine Nicholas

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Polyomaviruses (PyV) efficiently replicate by disrupting host cell signaling pathways. Disruption of the cell cycle is implicated in nearly all tumor formation. Studies of cellular transformation by primate PyV, SV40, and mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) have led to numerous findings concerning tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulation pathways (Das D. and Imperiale 2009, Dahl et. al. 2005). Expression of PyV T Antigens (TAg) modifies signaling pathways and cell cycle checkpoints to the virus’ advantage. Expected modifications include inhibiting checkpoint proteins between G1 and S phases as well as promoting kinases with downstream signaling effects that result in progression to S ...


Expectations For Methodology And Translation Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis 2015 University of Alberta

Expectations For Methodology And Translation Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

Background: Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans.

Methods: After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs ...


The Role Of The Extracellular Matrix In Mediating Muscle Soreness, Karen L. Riska 2015 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

The Role Of The Extracellular Matrix In Mediating Muscle Soreness, Karen L. Riska

Doctoral Dissertations 2014-current

The goal of this dissertation was to examine the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in muscle soreness. Study 1 examined how the disruption of the ECM from a minor surgery (e.g. muscle biopsy) affected muscle soreness. Study 1 showed that soreness levels increased at 24 h post-biopsy compared to baseline and resolved within 96 h. However, the level of muscle soreness at 24 h post-biopsy (20 mm) was lower than that reported for performing a strenuous and naïve exercise (40–80 mm). These results will help review boards at institutions where muscle biopsies are performed understand how a ...


Food Fish Identification From Dna Extraction Through Sequence Analysis, Heather E. Hallen-Adams 2015 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Food Fish Identification From Dna Extraction Through Sequence Analysis, Heather E. Hallen-Adams

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

This experiment exposed third and fourth year undergraduates and graduate students taking a course in advanced food analysis to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequence analysis. Students provided their own fish sample, purchased from local grocery stores, and the class as a whole extracted DNA, which was then subjected to PCR, gel electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing. Students retrieved their sequences and identified their fish using the NCBI BLAST nucleotide database. Slightly more than half of the samples yielded sequences identical or close to expected (based on the identification of the fish on the packaging); some other samples ...


Investigating The Binding Potential And Downstream Effects Of Ferrocene/ Ruthenium (Iii) Complexes With Rna, Mildred Apollo Kissai 2015 Bard College

Investigating The Binding Potential And Downstream Effects Of Ferrocene/ Ruthenium (Iii) Complexes With Rna, Mildred Apollo Kissai

Senior Projects Spring 2015

Cisplatin, one of the most popular chemotherapeutic drugs on the market today, battles cancer by binding to DNA, and causing kinks which obstruct DNA replication and transcription. As a result, cisplatin halts cell proliferation of not only fast-dividing cancerous cells but healthy cells as well. To circumvent the shortcomings of cisplatin, the Anderson lab has synthesized a class of ruthenium (III)/ ferrocene compounds, named the RuLX series. These new hetero- multinuclear complexes may have greater selectivity between cancerous and healthy cells through a proposed synergistic mechanism of their metal centers. Previous work on these novel complexes has demonstrated that they ...


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