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Simulating Mars: Student Projects At Mars Desert Research Station (Mdrs), Ashley Hollis-Bussey, Lycourgos Manolopoulos, Marc Carofano, Hiroki Sugimoto, Cassandra Vella, John Herman 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Simulating Mars: Student Projects At Mars Desert Research Station (Mdrs), Ashley Hollis-Bussey, Lycourgos Manolopoulos, Marc Carofano, Hiroki Sugimoto, Cassandra Vella, John Herman

Human Factors and Applied Psychology Student Conference

No abstract provided.


Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta

UCARE Research Products

Amino acids are the building blocks of life. If DNA is the blueprint, amino acids are the lumber that proteins are built with. Proteins are built with left-handed, L- forms of amino acids. Bacteria have an essential cell wall component that happens to be an exception: peptidoglycan. Bacteria have enzymes called racemases that convert L- amino acid forms into right-handed, D- forms. Amino acids participate in many reactions with keto acids. Transaminases allow conversion between amino acids by transfer of an amino group.

Previous reports claimed there is no D-ala transaminase activity in mycobacteria and thus alr and murI genes ...


How Nebraska’S Eastern Saline Wetland Native Plant Species Grow In Response To Restoration Methods: Application Of Different Salinity Level Groundwater, Ellen Dolph, Keunyea Song, Amy Burgin, Trenton E. Franz 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

How Nebraska’S Eastern Saline Wetland Native Plant Species Grow In Response To Restoration Methods: Application Of Different Salinity Level Groundwater, Ellen Dolph, Keunyea Song, Amy Burgin, Trenton E. Franz

UCARE Research Products

Nebraska’s Eastern Saline Wetlands are unique ecosystems endemic to the Salt and Rock Creek waters in Lancaster and Saunders County.

They provide an ecosystem services as well as habitat for endangered species such as the state endangered saltwort (Salicornia rubra) and federally endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle (Cicindela nevadica lincolniana).

Over 80 % of the saline wetlands are highly degraded and in recent years, the Saline Wetland Conservation Partnership has formed to conserve and restore the remaining saline wetland fragments, but there is limited information about inland saline wetland restoration. Purpose: Investigate techniques to better conserve these saline wetlands and ...


Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams 2016 University of South Florida

Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams

William D. Kearns, PhD

Ambulation is defined by duration, distance traversed, number and size of directional changes and the interval separating successive movement episodes; more complex measures of ambulation can be created by aggregating these features. This review article of published findings defines random changes in direction during movement as “movement path tortuosity”, and relates tortuosity to the understanding of cognitive impairments of persons of all ages. Path tortuosity is quantified by subjecting tracking data to fractal analysis, specifically Fractal Dimension (Fractal D), which ranges from a value of 1 when the movement path is perfectly straight to a value of 2 when the ...


Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

We have frequently implemented crossover studies to evaluate new therapeutic interventions for genital herpes simplex virus infection. The outcome measured to assess the efficacy of interventions on herpes disease severity is the viral shedding rate, defined as the frequency of detection of HSV on the genital skin and mucosa. We performed a simulation study to ascertain whether our standard model, which we have used previously, was appropriately considering all the necessary features of the shedding data to provide correct inference. We simulated shedding data under our standard, validated assumptions and assessed the ability of 5 different models to reproduce the ...


Seasonal Evolution Of Active Layer Formation In Subarctic Peat Plateaux And Implications For Dissolved Organic Matter Composition And Transfer, Jennifer L. Hickman 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

Seasonal Evolution Of Active Layer Formation In Subarctic Peat Plateaux And Implications For Dissolved Organic Matter Composition And Transfer, Jennifer L. Hickman

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Peat-accumulating wetlands are ecosystems whose rate of photosynthetic production of organic matter is greater than that of its decomposition, resulting in a build up of soil organic matter that may take centuries to fully decompose. Carbon (C) stocks within these ecosystems are a function of inputs from photosynthesis, and losses from heterotrophic decomposition. Due to the short growing season and overall cold climate of boreal and tundra regions, C has been accumulating within these landscapes, mostly in soil organic matter, since the last glaciation. Climate change, predicted to result in rising temperatures and increased precipitation, has begun to degrade the ...


The Role Of The Ace2/Ang-(1-7)/Masr Axis In The Development Of Obesity-Hypertension In Male And Female Mice, Yu Wang 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of The Ace2/Ang-(1-7)/Masr Axis In The Development Of Obesity-Hypertension In Male And Female Mice, Yu Wang

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Obesity is strongly associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. An activated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has long been suggested as a critical contributor to elevated blood pressure with obesity. Angiotensin II (AngII), the main effector of an activated RAS, can be catabolized by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to form angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), which, acting through the mas receptor (MasR), has been shown to oppose the effects of an activated RAS. Therefore, further understanding of the mechanisms of this counter-regulatory arm, called the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis, may lead to new therapies for obesity-induced hypertension. Previously, we demonstrated that differences ...


Systematic Errors In Intro Lab Video Analysis, John Zwart, Kayt E. Frisch, Tim Martin 2016 Dordt College

Systematic Errors In Intro Lab Video Analysis, John Zwart, Kayt E. Frisch, Tim Martin

Faculty Work: Comprehensive List

In video analysis lab experiments, students frequently find large discrepancies between results based on self-filmed videos and expected values (e.g. for g determined by a fit to projectile motion data). These differences are frequently far larger than the uncertainty calculated from their fit. Using an inexpensive point-and-shoot camera with a 4x optical zoom to record video, we investigated two possible causes of this error: the effect of placing the reference meter stick at a different object-to-camera distance and the effect of the motion of interest being in a plane not perpendicular to the camera lens. When we observed these ...


Martinez-Agosta-2016-Jtb.Pdf, Eloy Martinez , Ph D., Salvatore J. Agosta Ph D. 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University

Martinez-Agosta-2016-Jtb.Pdf, Eloy Martinez , Ph D., Salvatore J. Agosta Ph D.

Eloy Martinez

We describe a partial redesign of the conventional air-conditioning system and apply it to the construction of a relatively large (1.87 m3 air mass), walk-in style temperature-controlled chamber (TCC) using parts easily obtained in most countries. We conducted several tests to demonstrate the performance of the TCC. Across the physiologically relevant range of 5-37 °C, the TCC took 26.5-50.0 min to reach the desired set point temperature. Once at set point, temperature inside the chamber was controlled with an accuracy of ±1.0 °C. User-entry effects on deviations from and return times to set point temperature ...


Compensatory Mechanisms And T Cell Migration In Mouse Models Of Dopaminergic Loss, Kristi M. Anderson 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Compensatory Mechanisms And T Cell Migration In Mouse Models Of Dopaminergic Loss, Kristi M. Anderson

Theses & Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and second most common neurodegenerative disorder. PD is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine neurotransmitter within the substantia nigra and termini in the striatum. Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons occurs over many years in PD, and by the time movement disorder symptoms manifest, up to 50-70% of dopaminergic neurons have been lost. Several aspects of PD pathology have been described in detail, but a better understanding of PD progression is needed to develop more efficient treatments.

Motor symptoms associated with PD do not manifest until ...


The Minimization Of Research Animal Distress And Pain: Conclusions And Recommendations, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew Rowan 2015 The Humane Society of the United States

The Minimization Of Research Animal Distress And Pain: Conclusions And Recommendations, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew Rowan

Kathleen Conlee

While the attention given to preventing, assessing, and alleviating pain in research animals has increased noticeably in recent decades, much remains to be done both in terms of implementing best practices and conducting studies to answer outstanding questions. In contrast, the attention to distress (particularly non-pain induced distress) has shown no comparable increase. There are many reasons for this discrepancy, including the conceptual untidiness of the distress concept, the paucity of pharmacological treatments for distress, and perceived lack of regulatory emphasis on distress. These are challenges that need to be addressed and overcome. This book is intended to help meet ...


Chimpanzees In Research: Past, Present, And Future, Kathleen Conlee, Sarah Boysen 2015 The Humane Society of the United States

Chimpanzees In Research: Past, Present, And Future, Kathleen Conlee, Sarah Boysen

Kathleen Conlee

Although the welfare of chimpanzees encompasses many issues, this chapter addresses their use in research, including their historical and current use in the United States, ethical and scientific concerns, public opinion, international legislation, and future directions.


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew Leach, Karl Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John Gluck, Andrew Rowan, Martin Stephens 2015 Tufts University

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew Leach, Karl Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John Gluck, Andrew Rowan, Martin Stephens

Kathleen Conlee

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


Carbon Dioxide For Euthanasia: Concerns Regarding Pain And Distress, With Special Reference To Mice And Rats, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew Rowan, Lesley King 2015 The Humane Society of the United States

Carbon Dioxide For Euthanasia: Concerns Regarding Pain And Distress, With Special Reference To Mice And Rats, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew Rowan, Lesley King

Kathleen Conlee

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most commonly used agent for euthanasia of laboratory rodents, used on an estimated tens of millions of laboratory rodents per year worldwide, yet there is a growing body of evidence indicating that exposure to CO2 causes more than momentary pain and distress in these and other animals. We reviewed the available literature on the use of CO2 for euthanasia (as well as anaesthesia) and also informally canvassed laboratory animal personnel for their opinions regarding this topic. Our review addresses key issues such as CO2 flow rate and final concentration, presence of oxygen, and prefilled chambers ...


Report Of The Working Group On Animal Distress In The Laboratory, Marilyn Brown, Larry Carbone, Kathleen Conlee, Marian Dawkins, Ian Duncan, David Fraser, Gilly Griffin, Victoria Hampshire, Lesley Lambert, Joy Mench, David Morton, Jon Richmond, Bernard Rollin, Andrew Rowan, Martin Stephens, Hanno Würbel 2015 Charles River Laboratories Foundation

Report Of The Working Group On Animal Distress In The Laboratory, Marilyn Brown, Larry Carbone, Kathleen Conlee, Marian Dawkins, Ian Duncan, David Fraser, Gilly Griffin, Victoria Hampshire, Lesley Lambert, Joy Mench, David Morton, Jon Richmond, Bernard Rollin, Andrew Rowan, Martin Stephens, Hanno Würbel

Kathleen Conlee

Finding ways to minimize pain and distress in research animals is a continuing goal in the laboratory animal research field. Pain and distress, however, are not synonymous, and often measures that alleviate one do not affect the other. Here, the authors provide a summary of a meeting held in February 2004 that focused on distress in laboratory animals. They discuss the difficulties associated with defining ‘distress,’ propose methods to aid in recognizing and alleviating distressful conditions, and provide recommendations for animal research conduct and oversight that would minimize distress experienced by laboratory animals.


Possibilities For Refinement And Reduction: Future Improvements Within Regulatory Testing, Martin Stephens, Kathleen Conlee, Gina Alvino, Andrew Rowan 2015 The Humane Society of the United States

Possibilities For Refinement And Reduction: Future Improvements Within Regulatory Testing, Martin Stephens, Kathleen Conlee, Gina Alvino, Andrew Rowan

Kathleen Conlee

Approaches and challenges to refining and reducing animal use in regulatory testing are reviewed. Regulatory testing accounts for the majority of animals reported in the most painful and/or distressful categories in the United States and Canada. Refinements in testing, including the use of humane endpoints, are of increasing concern. Traditional approaches to reduction (e.g., improving experimental design) are being supplemented with complementary approaches, such as the use of tier testing to eliminate some chemicals prior to in vivo testing. Technological advances in telemetry and noninvasive techniques will help decrease either the demand for animals in testing or animal ...


Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew Rowan 2015 The Humane Society of the United States

Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew Rowan

Kathleen Conlee

While most people recognize that biomedical scientists are searching for knowledge that will improve the health of humans and animals, the image of someone deliberately causing harm to an animal in order to produce data that may lead to some future benefit has always prompted an uncomfortable reaction outside the laboratory. However, proponents of animal research have usually justified the practice by reference to greater benefits (new knowledge and medical treatments) over lesser costs (in animal suffering and death). Given that one of the costs of animal research is the suffering experienced by the animals, the goal of eliminating distress ...


Construction And Characterization Of An Expressed Sequenced Tag Library For The Mosquito Vector Armigeres Subalbatus, George Mayhew, Lyric Bartholomay, Hang-Yen Kou, Thomas Rocheleau, Jeremy Fuchs, Matthew Aliota, I-Yu Tsao, Chiung-Yen Huang, Tze-Tze Liu, Kwang-Jen Hsiao, Shih-Feng Tsai, Ueng-Cheng Yang, Nicole Perna, Wen-Long Cho, Bruce Christensen, Cheng-Chen Chen 2015 University of Wisconsin–Madison

Construction And Characterization Of An Expressed Sequenced Tag Library For The Mosquito Vector Armigeres Subalbatus, George Mayhew, Lyric Bartholomay, Hang-Yen Kou, Thomas Rocheleau, Jeremy Fuchs, Matthew Aliota, I-Yu Tsao, Chiung-Yen Huang, Tze-Tze Liu, Kwang-Jen Hsiao, Shih-Feng Tsai, Ueng-Cheng Yang, Nicole Perna, Wen-Long Cho, Bruce Christensen, Cheng-Chen Chen

Lyric C. Bartholomay

Background The mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus, mounts a distinctively robust innate immune response when infected with the nematode Brugia malayi, a causative agent of lymphatic filariasis. In order to mine the transcriptome for new insight into the cascade of events that takes place in response to infection in this mosquito, 6 cDNA libraries were generated from tissues of adult female mosquitoes subjected to immune-response activation treatments that lead to well-characterized responses, and from aging, naïve mosquitoes. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from each library were produced, annotated, and subjected to comparative analyses. Results Six libraries were constructed and used to generate 44 ...


But What Is It That You Actually Do? (What It's Really Like Working In The Lab), Michael Reagan 2015 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

But What Is It That You Actually Do? (What It's Really Like Working In The Lab), Michael Reagan

Michael S. Reagan

No abstract provided.


Psychology's Use Of Animals: Current Practices And Attitudes, Kenneth Shapiro 2015 Animals and Society Institute

Psychology's Use Of Animals: Current Practices And Attitudes, Kenneth Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, Ph.D.

In this chapter, I present a psychology primer for the uninitiated, with special emphasis on psychology's uses of animals. After sketching the scope of the field generally, I review available data on present numbers and species of animals used in psychological research, level of suffering induced and current trends. I also provide several concrete examples of psychological research involving animals. Finally, the chapter concludes with a presentation of attitudes of psychologists toward animals and these practices.


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