Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Laboratory and Basic Science Research Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

744 Full-Text Articles 1316 Authors 98702 Downloads 84 Institutions

All Articles in Laboratory and Basic Science Research

Faceted Search

744 full-text articles. Page 1 of 25.

Gc Verification Of The Spacecraft Atmosphere Monitor, Jessica S. Castro, Richard D. Kidd, Jeffrey D. Hein 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Gc Verification Of The Spacecraft Atmosphere Monitor, Jessica S. Castro, Richard D. Kidd, Jeffrey D. Hein

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

International Space Station crew members face the unique challenge of maintaining air quality due to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have the potential to accumulate at unsafe levels. The Spacecraft Atmosphere Monitor (SAM) is a miniature gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS) designed to measure major constituents (such as N2, O2 and CO2) and trace VOCs within the cabin of the spacecraft. The gas chromatograph is responsible for separating the sample into its components in order to be characterized. The oven of the gas chromatograph must reach a temperature of 150°C in order to heat constituents ...


Rethinking The Ethics Of Research Involving Nonhuman Animals: Introduction, Tom L. Beauchamp, Hope Ferdowsian, John P. Gluck 2016 Georgetown University

Rethinking The Ethics Of Research Involving Nonhuman Animals: Introduction, Tom L. Beauchamp, Hope Ferdowsian, John P. Gluck

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton 2016 Western Kentucky University

Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In transcription, a universal step in gene expression, information from a DNA sequence is copied into RNA. A key component in gene expression is the promoter sequence, a region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds during the initiation of transcription of downstream genes. Most bacterial promoters contain a -10 and a -35 sequence that are bound by the RNA polymerase. Some promoters also contain an Upstream Promoter (UP) element. UP elements have been shown to boost promoter activity. We recently identified a new promoter in a mutant bacteriophage that grows on a bacterial host that prevents antitermination of phage ...


Alzheimer Disease Research In The 21st Century: Past And Current Failures, New Perspectives And Funding Priorities, Francesca Pistollato, Elan L. Ohayon, Ann Lam, Gillian R. Langley, Thomas J. Novak, David Pamies, George Perry, Eugenia Trushina, Robin S.B. Williams, Alex E. Roher, Thomas Hartung, Stevan Harnad, Neal D. Barnard, Martha Clare Morris, Mei-Chun Lai, Ryan Merkley, P. Charukeshi Chandrasekera 2016 Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

Alzheimer Disease Research In The 21st Century: Past And Current Failures, New Perspectives And Funding Priorities, Francesca Pistollato, Elan L. Ohayon, Ann Lam, Gillian R. Langley, Thomas J. Novak, David Pamies, George Perry, Eugenia Trushina, Robin S.B. Williams, Alex E. Roher, Thomas Hartung, Stevan Harnad, Neal D. Barnard, Martha Clare Morris, Mei-Chun Lai, Ryan Merkley, P. Charukeshi Chandrasekera

Gill Langley, Ph.D.

Much of Alzheimer disease (AD) research has been traditionally based on the use of animals, which have been extensively applied in an effort to both improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and to test novel therapeutic approaches. However, decades of such research have not effectively translated into substantial therapeutic success for human patients. Here we critically discuss these issues in order to determine how existing human-based methods can be applied to study AD pathology and develop novel therapeutics. These methods, which include patient-derived cells, computational analysis and models, together with large-scale epidemiological studies represent novel and ...


Relationship Between Morphogenesis And Secretion In The Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Lakshmi Preethi Yerra 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Relationship Between Morphogenesis And Secretion In The Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Lakshmi Preethi Yerra

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Filamentous fungi have a long history in biotechnology for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and enzymes. The advancements made in recent years have earned filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus species a dominant place among microbial cell factories. Although the model fungus A. nidulans has been extensively studied, the genetic and regulatory networks that underlie morphogenesis and development have yet to be fully characterized. The Rho GTPases (Cdc42 and RacA) are one of the most important regulators of the morphogenetic processes among diverse eukaryotic organisms. Although the functions of these GTPases are relatively well-characterized, little is known about their downstream ...


Impact Of Luminance And Spatial Parameters On The Generation Of The Human Pattern Electroretinogram., Kate A. Godwin 2016 University of Louisville

Impact Of Luminance And Spatial Parameters On The Generation Of The Human Pattern Electroretinogram., Kate A. Godwin

UofL Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The current work assessed some of the key hypotheses behind the generation of the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) response. The first of these hypotheses states that the PERG response is the result of linear cancellation of simultaneous increment and decrement retinal responses, as generated by the retinal ON- and OFF-pathways. Experiment 1 evaluated the possibility of simulating the PERG by summing the ERG responses elicited by increment and decrement flashes, and found that it was indeed possible to simulate the PERG from these responses. However, only the steady-state PERG could be modeled consistently. The second hypothesis evaluated a theory that the ...


The First Forty Years Of The Alternatives Approach: Refining, Reducing, And Replacing The Use Of Laboratory Animals, Martin L. Stephens, Alan M. Goldberg, Andrew N. Rowan 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

The First Forty Years Of The Alternatives Approach: Refining, Reducing, And Replacing The Use Of Laboratory Animals, Martin L. Stephens, Alan M. Goldberg, Andrew N. Rowan

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

The concept of the Three Rs— reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use in biomedical experimentation—stems from a project launched in 1954 by a British organization, the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW). UFAW commissioned William Russell and Rex Burch to analyze the status of humane experimental techniques involving animals. In 1959 these scientists published a book that set out the principles of the Three Rs, which came to be known as alternative methods. Initially, Russell and Burch’s book was largely ignored, but their ideas were gradually picked up by the animal protection community in the 1960s and ...


Consensus Report On The Future Of Animal-Free Systemic Toxicity Testing, Marcel Leist, Nina Hasiwa, Costanza Rovida, Mardas Daneshian, David Basketter, Ian Kimber, Harvey Clewell, Tilman Gocht, Alan Goldberg, Francois Busquet, Anna-Maria Rossi, Michael Schwarz, Martin Stephens, Rob Taalman, Thomas B. Knudsen, James McKim, Georgina Harris, David Pamies, Thomas Hartung 2016 University of Konstanz

Consensus Report On The Future Of Animal-Free Systemic Toxicity Testing, Marcel Leist, Nina Hasiwa, Costanza Rovida, Mardas Daneshian, David Basketter, Ian Kimber, Harvey Clewell, Tilman Gocht, Alan Goldberg, Francois Busquet, Anna-Maria Rossi, Michael Schwarz, Martin Stephens, Rob Taalman, Thomas B. Knudsen, James Mckim, Georgina Harris, David Pamies, Thomas Hartung

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council’s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in 2007. It is now possible to provide a more defined roadmap on how to implement this vision for the four principal areas ...


The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. van der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielman, Martin L. Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. van Zutphen 2016 European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. Van Der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielman, Martin L. Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. Van Zutphen

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

This is the report of the eleventh of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), which was established in 1991 by the European Commission. ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal ...


The Significance Of Alternative Techniques In Biomedical Research: An Analysis Of Nobel Prize Awards, Martin Stephens 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

The Significance Of Alternative Techniques In Biomedical Research: An Analysis Of Nobel Prize Awards, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

The "alternatives approach" consists of developing and employing methods specifically designed as alternatives. The aim of the approach is to determine the extent to which alternatives can replace traditional uses of animals. This aim has an ethical and compassionate appeal that is being bolstered by recent scientific advances in developing alternatives (Stephens 1986b).

The importance of alternative methods in the history of biomedical research can be inferred from Nobel Prize awards in medicine or physiology. These awards are generally believed to recognize research "of the highest caliber, the most enduring influence, and the most importance to biomedical science" according to ...


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens 2016 Tufts University

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


Toxicity Testing In The 21st Century: A Vision And A Strategy, Daniel Krewski, Daniel Acosta Jr, Melvin Anderson, Henry Anderson, John C. Bailar III, Kim Boekelheide, Robert Brent, Gail Charnley, Vivian G. Cheung, Sidney Green Jr, Karl T. Kelsey, Nancy I. Kerkvliet, Abby A. Li, Lawrence McCray, Otto Meyer, Reid D. Patterson, William Pennie, Robert A. Scala, Gina M. Solomon, Martin Stephens, James Yager, Lauren Zeise 2016 University of Ottawa

Toxicity Testing In The 21st Century: A Vision And A Strategy, Daniel Krewski, Daniel Acosta Jr, Melvin Anderson, Henry Anderson, John C. Bailar Iii, Kim Boekelheide, Robert Brent, Gail Charnley, Vivian G. Cheung, Sidney Green Jr, Karl T. Kelsey, Nancy I. Kerkvliet, Abby A. Li, Lawrence Mccray, Otto Meyer, Reid D. Patterson, William Pennie, Robert A. Scala, Gina M. Solomon, Martin Stephens, James Yager, Lauren Zeise

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal usage by transitioning from current expensive and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative endpoints to in vitro toxicity pathway assays on human cells or cell lines using robotic high-throughput screening with mechanistic quantitative parameters. Risk assessment in the exposed human population would focus on avoiding significant perturbations in these toxicity pathways. Computational ...


Report Of The Working Group On Animal Distress In The Laboratory, Marilyn Brown, Larry Carbone, Kathleen Conlee, Marian Dawkins, Ian J. Duncan, David Fraser, Gilly Griffin, Victoria A. Hampshire, Lesley A. Lambert, Joy A. Mench, David Morton, Jon Richmond, Bernard E. Rollin, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens, Hanno Würbel 2016 Charles River Laboratories Foundation

Report Of The Working Group On Animal Distress In The Laboratory, Marilyn Brown, Larry Carbone, Kathleen Conlee, Marian Dawkins, Ian J. Duncan, David Fraser, Gilly Griffin, Victoria A. Hampshire, Lesley A. Lambert, Joy A. Mench, David Morton, Jon Richmond, Bernard E. Rollin, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens, Hanno Würbel

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Finding ways to minimize pain and distress in research animals is a continuing goal in the laboratory animal research field. Pain and distress, however, are not synonymous, and often measures that alleviate one do not affect the other. Here, the authors provide a summary of a meeting held in February 2004 that focused on distress in laboratory animals. They discuss the difficulties associated with defining ‘distress,’ propose methods to aid in recognizing and alleviating distressful conditions, and provide recommendations for animal research conduct and oversight that would minimize distress experienced by laboratory animals.


Food For Thought … Mechanistic Validation, Thomas Hartung, Sebastian Hoffman, Martin Stephens 2016 Johns Hopkins University

Food For Thought … Mechanistic Validation, Thomas Hartung, Sebastian Hoffman, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Validation of new approaches in regulatory toxicology is commonly defined as the independent assessment of the reproducibility and relevance (the scientific basis and predictive capacity) of a test for a particular purpose. In large ring trials, the emphasis to date has been mainly on reproducibility and predictive capacity (comparison to the traditional test) with less attention given to the scientific or mechanistic basis. Assessing predictive capacity is difficult for novel approaches (which are based on mechanism), such as pathways of toxicity or the complex networks within the organism (systems toxicology). This is highly relevant for implementing Toxicology for the 21st ...


Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

While most people recognize that biomedical scientists are searching for knowledge that will improve the health of humans and animals, the image of someone deliberately causing harm to an animal in order to produce data that may lead to some future benefit has always prompted an uncomfortable reaction outside the laboratory. However, proponents of animal research have usually justified the practice by reference to greater benefits (new knowledge and medical treatments) over lesser costs (in animal suffering and death). Given that one of the costs of animal research is the suffering experienced by the animals, the goal of eliminating distress ...


Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens 2016 Humane Society International

Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Conventional toxicological testing methods are often decades old, costly and low-throughput, with questionable relevance to the human condition. Several of these factors have contributed to a backlog of chemicals that have been inadequately assessed for toxicity. Some authorities have responded to this challenge by implementing large-scale testing programmes. Others have concluded that a paradigm shift in toxicology is warranted. One such call came in 2007 from the United States National Research Council (NRC), which articulated a vision of ‘‘21st century toxicology” based predominantly on non-animal techniques. Potential advantages of such an approach include the capacity to examine a far greater ...


Possibilities For Refinement And Reduction: Future Improvements Within Regulatory Testing, Martin L. Stephens, Kathleen Conlee, Gina Alvino, Andrew N. Rowan 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

Possibilities For Refinement And Reduction: Future Improvements Within Regulatory Testing, Martin L. Stephens, Kathleen Conlee, Gina Alvino, Andrew N. Rowan

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Approaches and challenges to refining and reducing animal use in regulatory testing are reviewed. Regulatory testing accounts for the majority of animals reported in the most painful and/or distressful categories in the United States and Canada. Refinements in testing, including the use of humane endpoints, are of increasing concern. Traditional approaches to reduction (e.g., improving experimental design) are being supplemented with complementary approaches, such as the use of tier testing to eliminate some chemicals prior to in vivo testing. Technological advances in telemetry and noninvasive techniques will help decrease either the demand for animals in testing or animal ...


Ld50 Testing Of Botulinum Toxin For Use As A Cosmetic, Martin L. Stephens, Michael Balls 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

Ld50 Testing Of Botulinum Toxin For Use As A Cosmetic, Martin L. Stephens, Michael Balls

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

In 2003, the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME) revealed that the potency of botulinum toxin for use as a popular wrinkle treatment is assessed by using the LD50 Test. The endpoint in this mouse-based testing is death through suffocation. In 2004, The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) sought to work with Allergan, the US-based manufacturer of Botox® Cosmetic, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), on ways to refine, reduce, and replace this LD50 testing. This article summarises The HSUS’s campaign in the United States and provides an update on ...


The Usefulness Of Systematic Reviews Of Animal Experiments For The Design Of Preclinical And Clinical Studies, Rob B.M. de Vries, Kimberley E. Weaver, Marc T. Avey, Martin Stephens, Emily S. Sena, Marlies Leenaars 2016 Radboud University

The Usefulness Of Systematic Reviews Of Animal Experiments For The Design Of Preclinical And Clinical Studies, Rob B.M. De Vries, Kimberley E. Weaver, Marc T. Avey, Martin Stephens, Emily S. Sena, Marlies Leenaars

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also amoral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews of previously performed animal experiments. We discuss how the design, conduct, and analysis of future (animal and human) experiments may be optimized through such systematic ...


The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch 2016 Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET)

The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

The Expert Meeting on alternative methods for Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) potency testing was held at the BfR as the result of a decree from the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), after it was informed by German state authorities about an increase in animal numbers being used in the LD50 potency test in mice for the purposes of BoNT potency testing. Ethical concerns have been raised in both Europe and the United States about the animal suffering involved in this type of testing, especially in the context of BoNT’s aesthetic applications. There had been increased ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress