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Examining Patterns In Nest Predation Using Artificial Nests, Victoria L. Simonsen 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examining Patterns In Nest Predation Using Artificial Nests, Victoria L. Simonsen

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The use of artificial nests to study the predation of avian nests has faced disregard by ecologists due to inconsistencies found between the survival rates of real and artificial nests across studies and reviews. The negative perception of artificial nests providing an inconsistent assessment of survival has thus fostered the perception that artificial nests are a secondary option to be used to overcome logistical hurdles associated with achieving sufficient sample sizes in systems where study species are rare or elusive, or as merely a preliminary method to study predation across gradients. We argue that the greatest mistake ecologists have made ...


Using Canalization For The Control Of Discrete Networks, David Murrugarra 2018 University of Kentucky

Using Canalization For The Control Of Discrete Networks, David Murrugarra

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Tumor-Stroma Interactions Differentially Alter Drug Sensitivity Based On The Origin Of Stromal Cells, Benjamin D. Landry, Thomas Leete, Ryan Richards, Peter Cruz-Gordillo, Hannah R. Schwartz, Megan E. Honeywell, Gary Ren, Alyssa D. Schwartz, Shelly R. Peyton, Michael J. Lee 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Tumor-Stroma Interactions Differentially Alter Drug Sensitivity Based On The Origin Of Stromal Cells, Benjamin D. Landry, Thomas Leete, Ryan Richards, Peter Cruz-Gordillo, Hannah R. Schwartz, Megan E. Honeywell, Gary Ren, Alyssa D. Schwartz, Shelly R. Peyton, Michael J. Lee

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

Due to tumor heterogeneity, most believe that effective treatments should be tailored to the features of an individual tumor or tumor subclass. It is still unclear, however, what information should be considered for optimal disease stratification, and most prior work focuses on tumor genomics. Here, we focus on the tumor microenvironment. Using a large-scale coculture assay optimized to measure drug-induced cell death, we identify tumor-stroma interactions that modulate drug sensitivity. Our data show that the chemo-insensitivity typically associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer is not observed if these cells are grown in 2D or 3D monoculture, but is manifested ...


A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Persistence detection is a mechanism that ensures a physiological output is only executed when the relevant input is sustained. Gene regulatory network circuits known as coherent type 1 feed forward loops (FFLs) with an AND-logic gate have been proposed to generate persistence detection. In such circuits two transcription factors (TFs) are both required to activate target genes and one of the two TFs activates the other. While numerous FFLs have been identified, examples of actual persistence detectors have only been described for bacteria. Here, we discover a transcriptional persistence detector in Caenorhabditis elegans involving the nuclear hormone receptors nhr-10 and ...


Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle 2018 University of Louisville

Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can additionally hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. NAT1 expression varies inter-individually and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Additionally, multiple studies have shown the knockdown of NAT1, by both small molecule inhibition and siRNA methods, in breast cancer cells leads to decreased invasive ability and proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. Additionally, consequences ...


Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor 2018 University of Louisville

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...


Computational Analysis Of Genomic Variants Affecting Predicted Microrna:Target Interactions In Prostate Cancer., Angélica Paola Hernández Pérez 2018 Keck Graduate Institute, KGI

Computational Analysis Of Genomic Variants Affecting Predicted Microrna:Target Interactions In Prostate Cancer., Angélica Paola Hernández Pérez

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer of men in the United States and is third only to lung and colon as a cause of cancer death. Clinical behavior of the disease is variable and the combination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and Gleason score staging are currently the best available molecular and pathology tools to predict outcomes. Cancer biology research establishes microRNAs (miRNAs) as key molecular components in both normal and pathological states. Thus, elucidating miRNAs perturbed by genomic alterations will expand our understanding of the molecular taxonomy of PCa with the aim to complement current practices in ...


Drosophila Species Learn Dialects Through Communal Living, Balint Z. Kacsoh, Julianna Bozler, Giovanni Bosco 2018 Dartmouth College

Drosophila Species Learn Dialects Through Communal Living, Balint Z. Kacsoh, Julianna Bozler, Giovanni Bosco

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Many species are able to share information about their environment by communicating through auditory, visual, and olfactory cues. In Drosophila melanogaster, exposure to para- sitoid wasps leads to a decline in egg laying, and exposed females communicate this threat to naïve flies, which also depress egg laying. We find that species across the genus Drosophila respond to wasps by egg laying reduction, activate cleaved caspase in oocytes, and communicate the presence of wasps to naïve individuals. Communication within a species and between closely related species is efficient, while more distantly related species exhibit partial communication. Remarkably, partial communication between some ...


Elimination Of Pcr Duplicates In Rna-Seq And Small Rna-Seq Using Unique Molecular Identifiers, Yu Fu, Pei-Hsuan Wu, Timothy J. Beane, Phillip D. Zamore, Zhiping Weng 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Elimination Of Pcr Duplicates In Rna-Seq And Small Rna-Seq Using Unique Molecular Identifiers, Yu Fu, Pei-Hsuan Wu, Timothy J. Beane, Phillip D. Zamore, Zhiping Weng

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: RNA-seq and small RNA-seq are powerful, quantitative tools to study gene regulation and function. Common high-throughput sequencing methods rely on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to expand the starting material, but not every molecule amplifies equally, causing some to be overrepresented. Unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) can be used to distinguish undesirable PCR duplicates derived from a single molecule and identical but biologically meaningful reads from different molecules.

RESULTS: We have incorporated UMIs into RNA-seq and small RNA-seq protocols and developed tools to analyze the resulting data. Our UMIs contain stretches of random nucleotides whose lengths sufficiently capture diverse molecule species ...


Pirscan: A Webserver To Predict Pirna Targeting Sites And To Avoid Transgene Silencing In C. Elegans, Wei-Sheng Wu, Wei-Che Huang, Jordan S. Brown, Donglei Zhang, Xiaoyan Song, Hao Chen, Shikui Tu, Zhiping Weng, Heng-Chi Lee 2018 National Cheng Kung University

Pirscan: A Webserver To Predict Pirna Targeting Sites And To Avoid Transgene Silencing In C. Elegans, Wei-Sheng Wu, Wei-Che Huang, Jordan S. Brown, Donglei Zhang, Xiaoyan Song, Hao Chen, Shikui Tu, Zhiping Weng, Heng-Chi Lee

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

pirScan is a web-based tool for identifying C. elegans piRNA-targeting sites within a given mRNA or spliced DNA sequence. The purpose of our tool is to allow C. elegans researchers to predict piRNA targeting sites and to avoid the persistent germline silencing of transgenes that has rendered many constructs unusable. pirScan fulfills this purpose by first enumerating the predicted piRNA-targeting sites present in an input sequence. This prediction can be exported in a tabular or graphical format. Subsequently, pirScan suggests silent mutations that can be introduced to the input sequence that would allow the modified transgene to avoid piRNA targeting ...


Studying Egfr Signaling Through Single Molecule Imaging And Computational Modeling, Emanuel Salazar Cavazos 2018 University of New Mexico

Studying Egfr Signaling Through Single Molecule Imaging And Computational Modeling, Emanuel Salazar Cavazos

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Signaling through the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in both physiological and cancer-related processes. In this work, single-molecule microscopy measurements and computational modeling were closely integrated to better understand the mechanisms that regulate EGFR signaling. Technical improvements were made over the previously described Single-Molecule Pull-down (SiMPull) assay to facilitate direct detection of the phosphorylation state of thousands of individual receptors, and thereby estimate both the fraction of receptors phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues and the frequency of multisite phosphorylation. These improvements enabled the first direct detection of multisite phosphorylation on full-length Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR ...


Sources And Fates Of Carbamyl Phosphate: A Labile Energy-Rich Molecule With Multiple Facets., Dashuang Shi, Ljubica Caldovic, Mendel Tuchman 2018 George Washington University

Sources And Fates Of Carbamyl Phosphate: A Labile Energy-Rich Molecule With Multiple Facets., Dashuang Shi, Ljubica Caldovic, Mendel Tuchman

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Carbamyl phosphate (CP) is well-known as an essential intermediate of pyrimidine and arginine/urea biosynthesis. Chemically, CP can be easily synthesized from dihydrogen phosphate and cyanate. Enzymatically, CP can be synthesized using three different classes of enzymes: (1) ATP-grasp fold protein based carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS); (2) Amino-acid kinase fold carbamate kinase (CK)-like CPS (anabolic CK or aCK); and (3) Catabolic transcarbamylase. The first class of CPS can be further divided into three different types of CPS as CPS I, CPS II, and CPS III depending on the usage of ammonium or glutamine as its nitrogen source, and whether


Obat Aborsi Penajam 081901222272 Jual Obat Cytotec Asli Di Penajam, Apotik Cytotec 2018 Bryant University

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Generation Of Nonlinear-Differential-Equations System From A Model Of Boolean Relationships In Arabidopsis Salt Stress Network, Renee Dale 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Generation Of Nonlinear-Differential-Equations System From A Model Of Boolean Relationships In Arabidopsis Salt Stress Network, Renee Dale

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Among Skeletal Muscle Tissues, Erin E. Terry, Xiping Zhang, Christy Hoffmann, Laura D. Hughes, Scott A. Lewis, Jiajia Li, Matthew J. Wallace, Lance A. Riley, Collin M. Douglas, Miguel A. Gutierrez-Monreal, Nicholas F. Lahens, Ming C. Gong, Francisco H. Andrade, Karyn A. Esser, Michael E. Hughes 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Among Skeletal Muscle Tissues, Erin E. Terry, Xiping Zhang, Christy Hoffmann, Laura D. Hughes, Scott A. Lewis, Jiajia Li, Matthew J. Wallace, Lance A. Riley, Collin M. Douglas, Miguel A. Gutierrez-Monreal, Nicholas F. Lahens, Ming C. Gong, Francisco H. Andrade, Karyn A. Esser, Michael E. Hughes

Physiology Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle comprises a family of diverse tissues with highly specialized functions. Many acquired diseases, including HIV and COPD, affect specific muscles while sparing others. Even monogenic muscular dystrophies selectively affect certain muscle groups. These observations suggest that factors intrinsic to muscle tissues influence their resistance to disease. Nevertheless, most studies have not addressed transcriptional diversity among skeletal muscles. Here we use RNAseq to profile mRNA expression in skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissues from mice and rats. Our data set, MuscleDB, reveals extensive transcriptional diversity, with greater than 50% of transcripts differentially expressed among skeletal muscle tissues. We detect ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Studying Planarian Regeneration Aboard The International Space Station Within The Student Space Flight Experimental Program, Vista SSEP Mission 11 Team, D. Hagstrom, C. Bartee, Eva-Maria S. Collins 2018 Swarthmore College

Studying Planarian Regeneration Aboard The International Space Station Within The Student Space Flight Experimental Program, Vista Ssep Mission 11 Team, D. Hagstrom, C. Bartee, Eva-Maria S. Collins

Biology Faculty Works

The growing possibilities of space travel are quickly moving from science fiction to reality. However, to realize the dream of long-term space travel, we must understand how these conditions affect biological and physiological processes. Planarians are master regenerators, famous for their ability to regenerate from very small parts of the original animal. Understanding how this self-repair works may inspire regenerative therapies in humans. Two studies conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS) showed that planarian regeneration is possible in microgravity. One study reported no regenerative defects, whereas the other study reported behavioral and microbiome alterations post-space travel and found that ...


Modeling And Analyzing An Optogenetic System For Photoactivatable Protein Dissociation, Anvin Thomas, James Schaff 2018 University of Connecticut

Modeling And Analyzing An Optogenetic System For Photoactivatable Protein Dissociation, Anvin Thomas, James Schaff

Honors Scholar Theses

Computational modeling of cell-cell interactions can grant clues and can answer questions about an experiment, especially for observations about binding interactions and kinetics. This approach was used to investigate an interaction between a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain and an engineered protein called Zdark (Zdk). The LOV domain is membrane-bound while Zdk is cytosolic. The LOV domain and Zdk bind strongly in dark (Kd 26.2 nM), and weakly upon exposure to blue light (Kd > 4 μM). Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) images are acquired of Zdk, the fluorescent species bound to a mCherry tag, and the loss of fluorescence ...


Exploiting Glycan Topography For Computational Design Of Env Glycoprotein Antigenicity, Wen-Han Yu, Peng Zhao, Monia Draghi, Claudia Arevalo, Christina B. Karsten, Todd J. Suscovich, Bronwyn Gunn, Hendrik Streeck, Abraham L. Brass, Michael Tiemeyer, Michael Seaman, John R. Mascola, Lance Wells, Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Galit Alter 2018 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Exploiting Glycan Topography For Computational Design Of Env Glycoprotein Antigenicity, Wen-Han Yu, Peng Zhao, Monia Draghi, Claudia Arevalo, Christina B. Karsten, Todd J. Suscovich, Bronwyn Gunn, Hendrik Streeck, Abraham L. Brass, Michael Tiemeyer, Michael Seaman, John R. Mascola, Lance Wells, Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Galit Alter

Open Access Articles

Mounting evidence suggests that glycans, rather than merely serving as a "shield", contribute critically to antigenicity of the HIV envelope (Env) glycoprotein, representing critical antigenic determinants for many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). While many studies have focused on defining the role of individual glycans or groups of proximal glycans in bNAb binding, little is known about the effects of changes in the overall glycan landscape in modulating antibody access and Env antigenicity. Here we developed a systems glycobiology approach to reverse engineer the complexity of HIV glycan heterogeneity to guide antigenicity-based de novo glycoprotein design. bNAb binding was assessed against ...


Skeletal, Cardiac, And Respiratory Muscle Function And Histopathology In The P448lneo- Mouse Model Of Fkrp-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy., Qing Yu, Melissa Morales, Ning Li, Alexander G Fritz, Ren Ruobing, Anthony Blaeser, Ershia Francois, Qi-Long Lu, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Christopher F Spurney 2018 George Washington University

Skeletal, Cardiac, And Respiratory Muscle Function And Histopathology In The P448lneo- Mouse Model Of Fkrp-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy., Qing Yu, Melissa Morales, Ning Li, Alexander G Fritz, Ren Ruobing, Anthony Blaeser, Ershia Francois, Qi-Long Lu, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Christopher F Spurney

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) mutations are the most common cause of dystroglycanopathies known to cause both limb girdle and congenital muscular dystrophy. The P448Lneo- mouse model has a knock-in mutation in the FKRP gene and develops skeletal, respiratory, and cardiac muscle disease.

METHODS: We studied the natural history of the P448Lneo- mouse model over 9 months and the effects of twice weekly treadmill running. Forelimb and hindlimb grip strength (Columbus Instruments) and overall activity (Omnitech Electronics) assessed skeletal muscle function. Echocardiography was performed using VisualSonics Vevo 770 (FujiFilm VisualSonics). Plethysmography was performed using whole body system (ADInstruments). Histological evaluations included ...


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