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Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson 2020 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


A Phosphoinositide-Based Model Of Actin Waves In Frustrated Phagocytosis, Marco A. Avila Ponce de Leon 2020 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

A Phosphoinositide-Based Model Of Actin Waves In Frustrated Phagocytosis, Marco A. Avila Ponce De Leon

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Dolphinnext: A Distributed Data Processing Platform For High Throughput Genomics, Onur Yukselen, Osman Turkyilmaz, Ahmet R. Ozturk, Manuel Garber, Alper Kucukural 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dolphinnext: A Distributed Data Processing Platform For High Throughput Genomics, Onur Yukselen, Osman Turkyilmaz, Ahmet R. Ozturk, Manuel Garber, Alper Kucukural

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The emergence of high throughput technologies that produce vast amounts of genomic data, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) is transforming biological research. The dramatic increase in the volume of data, the variety and continuous change of data processing tools, algorithms and databases make analysis the main bottleneck for scientific discovery. The processing of high throughput datasets typically involves many different computational programs, each of which performs a specific step in a pipeline. Given the wide range of applications and organizational infrastructures, there is a great need for highly parallel, flexible, portable, and reproducible data processing frameworks. Several platforms currently ...


Dugesia Japonica Is The Best Suited Of Three Planarian Species For High-Throughput Toxicology Screening, D. Ireland, Veronica Bochenek , '22, Daniel Chaiken , '20, C. Rabeler, Sumi Onoe , '21, Ameet Soni, Eva-Maria S. Collins 2020 Swarthmore College

Dugesia Japonica Is The Best Suited Of Three Planarian Species For High-Throughput Toxicology Screening, D. Ireland, Veronica Bochenek , '22, Daniel Chaiken , '20, C. Rabeler, Sumi Onoe , '21, Ameet Soni, Eva-Maria S. Collins

Biology Faculty Works

High-throughput screening (HTS) using new approach methods is revolutionizing toxicology. Asexual freshwater planarians are a promising invertebrate model for neurotoxicity HTS because their diverse behaviors can be used as quantitative readouts of neuronal function. Currently, three planarian species are commonly used in toxicology research: Dugesia japonica, Schmidtea mediterranea, and Girardia tigrina. However, only D. japonica has been demonstrated to be suitable for HTS. Here, we assess the two other species for HTS suitability by direct comparison with D. japonica. Through quantitative assessments of morphology and multiple behaviors, we assayed the effects of 4 common solvents (DMSO, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate ...


Detecting Chromatin Interactions Along And Between Sister Chromatids With Sisterc, Marlies E. Oomen, Adam K. Hedger, Jonathan K. Watts, Job Dekker 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Detecting Chromatin Interactions Along And Between Sister Chromatids With Sisterc, Marlies E. Oomen, Adam K. Hedger, Jonathan K. Watts, Job Dekker

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Accurate chromosome segregation requires chromosome compaction with concordant disentanglement of the two sister chromatids. This process has been studied extensively by microscopy but has remained a challenge for genomic methods, such as Hi-C, because sister chromatids have identical DNA sequences. Here we describe SisterC, a chromosome conformation capture assay that can distinguish interactions between and within sister chromatids. The assay is based on BrdU incorporation during S-phase, which labels the newly replicated strands of the sister chromatids. This is followed by Hi-C, e.g. during different stages of mitosis, and the selective destruction of BrdU containing strands by UV/Hoechst ...


The Cancer Microbiome: Distinguishing Direct And Indirect Effects Requires A Systemic View, Joao B. Xavier, Amir Mitchell 2020 Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

The Cancer Microbiome: Distinguishing Direct And Indirect Effects Requires A Systemic View, Joao B. Xavier, Amir Mitchell

Open Access Articles

The collection of microbes that live in and on the human body - the human microbiome - can impact on cancer initiation, progression, and response to therapy, including cancer immunotherapy. The mechanisms by which microbiomes impact on cancers can yield new diagnostics and treatments, but much remains unknown. The interactions between microbes, diet, host factors, drugs, and cell-cell interactions within the cancer itself likely involve intricate feedbacks, and no single component can explain all the behavior of the system. Understanding the role of host-associated microbial communities in cancer systems will require a multidisciplinary approach combining microbial ecology, immunology, cancer cell biology, and ...


Yeast Copper Proteins And Reactive Oxygen Species In Effecting Lifespan, Megan Bestwick 2020 Linfield College

Yeast Copper Proteins And Reactive Oxygen Species In Effecting Lifespan, Megan Bestwick

Post-Grant Reports

Mitochondria are essential organelles in most eukaryotic cells because of their role in metabolism and the production of ATP by the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway, as well as other key cellular processes. Metal cofactors, such as copper (Cu) and iron (Fe), are incorporated into OXPHOS protein complexes of yeast located within the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Misincorporation or modulation of these available metals in mitochondrial enzymes leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are reactive molecules containing oxygen such as peroxides, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals. Yeast are a good model for studying aging and the effect ...


Micom: Metagenome-Scale Modeling To Infer Metabolic Interactions In The Gut Microbiota., Christian Diener, Sean M Gibbons, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio 2020 Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Micom: Metagenome-Scale Modeling To Infer Metabolic Interactions In The Gut Microbiota., Christian Diener, Sean M Gibbons, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Compositional changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with a variety of medical conditions such as obesity, Crohn's disease, and diabetes. However, connecting microbial community composition to ecosystem function remains a challenge. Here, we introduce MICOM, a customizable metabolic model of the human gut microbiome. By using a heuristic optimization approach based on L2 regularization, we were able to obtain a unique set of realistic growth rates that corresponded well with observed replication rates. We integrated adjustable dietary and taxon abundance constraints to generate personalized metabolic models for individual metagenomic samples. We applied MICOM to a balanced cohort ...


The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr. 2020 Southern Methodist University

The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr.

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Abstract –

E. E. Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in cell biology, and he is perhaps the pioneer in study of egg cell fertilization. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general biology and evolutionary bioethics.

Within Just’s published contributions to observational cell biology, there are substantial fragments of his theory of ethical behavior, a theory with roots in cell biology. In addition to such previously available fragments, Just’s fully developed theory is now available. This recently discovered unpublished book-length manuscript argues for the biological origins of ethical behavior (evolving from cells to humans, within ...


Larval Performance Of A Major Forest Pest On Novel Hosts And The Effect Of Stressors, Donnie Lee Peterson, Don Cipollini 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Larval Performance Of A Major Forest Pest On Novel Hosts And The Effect Of Stressors, Donnie Lee Peterson, Don Cipollini

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Novel hosts lacking a coevolutionary history with herbivores can often support improved larval performance over historic hosts; e.g., emerald ash borer [Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) Coleoptera: Buprestidae] on North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Whether trees are novel or ancestral, stress on plants increases emerald ash borer preference and performance. White fringetree [Chionanthus virginicus (L.) Lamiales: Oleaceae] and olive [Olea europaea (L.) Lamiales: Oleaceae] are closely related non-ash hosts that support development of emerald ash borer to adulthood, but their relative suitability as hosts and the impact of plant stress on larval success has not been well studied. In a ...


Biogeographic Variation In Resistance Of The Invasive Plant, Alliaria Petiolata, To A Powdery Mildew Fungus And Effect Of Resistance On Competitive Dynamics, Don Cipollini, Sam Davisd, Deah Lieurance, Kendra Cipollini, Volker Bahn 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus

Biogeographic Variation In Resistance Of The Invasive Plant, Alliaria Petiolata, To A Powdery Mildew Fungus And Effect Of Resistance On Competitive Dynamics, Don Cipollini, Sam Davisd, Deah Lieurance, Kendra Cipollini, Volker Bahn

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Garlic mustard is an invasive Eurasian biennial that has spread throughout the eastern United States and southern Canada. Populations of this plant vary in their susceptibility to Erysiphe cruciferarum, a causal agent of powdery mildew disease in Brassicaceous plants. We examined whether there were biogeographic patterns in the distribution of resistance in invasive North American and native European populations of this plant. We grew plants from 78 invasive and 20 native populations and screened them for powdery mildew resistance in the greenhouse. We found that populations were mostly monomorphic for either resistance or susceptibility but that some polymorphic populations were ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley 2020 U.S. Geological Survey

Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

This study utilized native chaparral and sage scrub shrubs to evaluate the impact of light summer irrigation on live fuel moisture content (LFMC) and predicted fire behavior. As to be expected LFMC varied markedly throughout the year being over 100% in winter in all species and treatments but differed markedly by treatment in the summer and fall. For most species lightly irrigated plants had the highest LFMC in the summer and fall, followed by thinned treatments and controls. These differences in moisture content coupled with structural differences in the vegetation contributed to expected differences in flame length and rate of ...


Covers, 2020 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans PhD 2020 West Virginia University

The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans Phd

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nanotechnology takes advantage of cellular biology’s natural nanoscale operations by interacting with biomolecules differently than soluble or bulk materials, often altering normal cellular processes such as metabolism or growth. To gain a better understanding of how copper nanoparticles hybridized on cellulose fibers called carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) affected growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mechanisms of toxicity were explored. Multiple methodologies covering genetics, proteomics, metallomics, and metabolomics were used during this investigation. The work that lead to this dissertation discovered that these cellulosic copper nanoparticles had a unique toxicity compared to copper. Further investigation suggested a possible ionic or molecular mimicry ...


Pharmacological Or Genetic Targeting Of Transient Receptor Potential (Trp) Channels Can Disrupt The Planarian Escape Response, Ziad Sabry , '21, A. Ho, D. Ireland, C. Rabeler, O. Cochet-Escartin, Eva-Maria S. Collins 2019 Swarthmore College

Pharmacological Or Genetic Targeting Of Transient Receptor Potential (Trp) Channels Can Disrupt The Planarian Escape Response, Ziad Sabry , '21, A. Ho, D. Ireland, C. Rabeler, O. Cochet-Escartin, Eva-Maria S. Collins

Biology Faculty Works

In response to noxious stimuli, planarians cease their typical ciliary gliding and exhibit an oscillatory type of locomotion called scrunching. We have previously characterized the biomechanics of scrunching and shown that it is induced by specific stimuli, such as amputation, noxious heat, and extreme pH. Because these specific inducers are known to activate Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in other systems, we hypothesized that TRP channels control scrunching. We found that chemicals known to activate TRPA1 (allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and hydrogen peroxide) and TRPV (capsaicin and anandamide) in other systems induce scrunching in the planarian species Dugesia japonica and, except ...


Regulatory Asymmetry In The Negative Single-Input Module Network Motif: Role Of Network Size, Growth Rate And Binding Affinity, Zulfikar Ali, Vinuselvi Parisutham, Sandeep Choubey, Robert C. Brewster 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Regulatory Asymmetry In The Negative Single-Input Module Network Motif: Role Of Network Size, Growth Rate And Binding Affinity, Zulfikar Ali, Vinuselvi Parisutham, Sandeep Choubey, Robert C. Brewster

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The single-input module (SIM) is a regulatory motif capable of coordinating gene expression across functionally related genes. We explore the relationship between regulation of the central autoregulated TF in a negatively regulated SIM and the target genes using a synthetic biology approach paired with stochastic simulations. Surprisingly, we find a fundamental asymmetry in the level of regulation experienced by the TF gene and its targets, even if they have identical regulatory DNA; the TF gene experiences stronger repression than its targets. This asymmetry is not predicted from deterministic modeling of the system but is revealed from corresponding stochastic simulations. The ...


A Minimal Crispr-Cas3 System For Genome Engineering, Bálint Csörgő, Lina M. León, Ilea J. Chau-Ly, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Joel D. Berry, Caroline Mahendra, Emily D. Crawford, Jennifer D. Lewis, Joseph Bondy-Denomy 2019 University of California, San Francisco

A Minimal Crispr-Cas3 System For Genome Engineering, Bálint Csörgő, Lina M. León, Ilea J. Chau-Ly, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Joel D. Berry, Caroline Mahendra, Emily D. Crawford, Jennifer D. Lewis, Joseph Bondy-Denomy

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

CRISPR-Cas technologies have provided programmable gene editing tools that have revolutionized research. The leading CRISPR-Cas9 and Cas12a enzymes are ideal for programmed genetic manipulation, however, they are limited for genome-scale interventions. Here, we utilized a Cas3-based system featuring a processive nuclease, expressed endogenously or heterologously, for genome engineering purposes. Using an optimized and minimal CRISPR-Cas3 system (Type I-C) programmed with a single crRNA, large deletions ranging from 7 - 424 kb were generated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa with high efficiency and speed. By comparison, Cas9 yielded small deletions and point mutations. Cas3-generated deletion boundaries were variable in the absence of a homology-directed ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson 2019 The Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

The Mayfly Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera


Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold

Doctoral Dissertations

Soils serve as massive carbon sinks, but their ability to continue this ecological service is contingent on how the resident soil microbial community will respond to the ongoing climate crisis. One key dimension of the microbial response to warming is its carbon use efficiency (CUE), or the fraction of carbon taken up by an organism which is allocated to growth rather than respiration. However, the scientific community is still in the early stages of understanding the drivers, consequences - and even accurate measurements of - CUE. In this dissertation, I first quantified the variability of CUE and its responsiveness to temperature and ...


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