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Identifying Genetic Regulators Of Cancer Stem Cell Differentiation For Glioblastoma Therapy, Ann Chen, Yang Xiao, Rong Fan, Jiangbing Zhou 2019 Yale University

Identifying Genetic Regulators Of Cancer Stem Cell Differentiation For Glioblastoma Therapy, Ann Chen, Yang Xiao, Rong Fan, Jiangbing Zhou

Yale Day of Data

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain cancer. Even with treatment, GBM patients have a median survival rate of less than 15 months and a five-year survival rate of 2%. Poor therapeutic outcomes may be attributed to the presence of a subpopulation of cells within tumors, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are resistant to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. CSCs are capable of tumor initiation, sustained self-renewal, and differentiation into terminal cell types. These terminally differentiated cells make up the bulk of the tumor and are sensitive to GBM therapies. Therefore, CSC-directed therapies ...


Analyzing Neuronal Dendritic Trees With Convolutional Neural Networks, Olivier Trottier, Jonathon Howard 2019 Yale University

Analyzing Neuronal Dendritic Trees With Convolutional Neural Networks, Olivier Trottier, Jonathon Howard

Yale Day of Data

In the biological sciences, image analysis software are used to detect, segment or classify a variety of features encountered in living matter. However, the algorithms that accomplish these tasks are often designed for a specific dataset, making them hardly portable to accomplish the same tasks on images of different biological structures. Recently, convolutional neural networks have been used to perform complex image analysis on a multitude of datasets. While applications of these networks abound in the technology industry and computer science, use cases are not as common in the academic sciences. Motivated by the generalizability of neural networks, we aim ...


A Three State Model Can Explain The Dynamics Of Class Iv Drosophila Dendritic Tips, Sabyasachi Sutradhar 2019 Yale University

A Three State Model Can Explain The Dynamics Of Class Iv Drosophila Dendritic Tips, Sabyasachi Sutradhar

Yale Day of Data

No abstract provided.


Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp 2019 Yale School of Medicine

Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp

Yale Day of Data

This poster illustrates the differences between the IPF disease-specific variety of lung macrophages and the two varieties of macrophages known to reside in the normal human lung.


Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe 2019 Walden University

Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Breast cancer is a world health problem and is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. However, breast cancer risks were reported to be reduced through exposure to Vitamin D through its Receptors identified as the p53 target gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms knowledge/awareness and decisions to reduce breast cancer risks and likelihood of mammogram screening among women in Texas. Data from survey were used. Roy adaptation model was the theoretical framework that guided this quasi- experimental, quantitative research. The dependent variables were decisions ...


Hla-Do Modulates The Diversity Of The Mhc-Ii Self-Peptidome, Padma P. Nanaware, Mollie M. Jurewicz, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Lawrence J. Stern 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hla-Do Modulates The Diversity Of The Mhc-Ii Self-Peptidome, Padma P. Nanaware, Mollie M. Jurewicz, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Lawrence J. Stern

Open Access Articles

Presentation of antigenic peptides on MHC-II molecules is essential for tolerance to self and for initiation of immune responses against foreign antigens. DO (HLA-DO in humans, H2-O in mice) is a non-classical MHC-II protein that has been implicated in control of autoimmunity and regulation of neutralizing antibody responses to viruses. These effects likely are related to a role of DO in selecting MHC-II epitopes, but previous studies examining the effect of DO on presentation of selected CD4 T cell epitopes have been contradictory. To understand how DO modulates MHC-II antigen presentation, we characterized the full spectrum of peptides presented by ...


Dmk_Dissertation_11.19.18.Pdf, Dana King 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Dmk_Dissertation_11.19.18.Pdf, Dana King

Dana King

No abstract provided.


Dmk_Dissertation_11.19.18.Pdf, Dana King 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Dmk_Dissertation_11.19.18.Pdf, Dana King

Dana King

No abstract provided.


Manganese Influx And Expression Of Zip8 Is Essential In Primary Myoblasts And Contributes To Activation Of Sod2, Shellaina J. V. Gordon, Daniel E. Fenker, Katherine E. Vest, Teresita Padilla-Benavides 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Manganese Influx And Expression Of Zip8 Is Essential In Primary Myoblasts And Contributes To Activation Of Sod2, Shellaina J. V. Gordon, Daniel E. Fenker, Katherine E. Vest, Teresita Padilla-Benavides

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Trace elements such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) are enzyme cofactors and second messengers in cell signaling. Trace elements are emerging as key regulators of differentiation and development of mammalian tissues including blood, brain, and skeletal muscle. We previously reported an influx of Cu and dynamic expression of various metal transporters during differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. Here, we demonstrate that during differentiation of skeletal myoblasts an increase of additional trace elements such as Mn, Fe and Zn occurs. Interestingly the Mn increase is concomitant with increased Mn-dependent SOD2 levels. To better understand the Mn ...


The Effects Of Sugars On Lactobacillus Casei Growth, Alexis Felty, Sidney Gerkin, Taylor Kowalski, Parker Williams 2018 Marian University - Indianapolis

The Effects Of Sugars On Lactobacillus Casei Growth, Alexis Felty, Sidney Gerkin, Taylor Kowalski, Parker Williams

Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)

The Western culture tends to deem the Eastern culture as obese and unhealthy due to the large amounts of saturated fats and abundance of sugars that it consumes. Some studies argue that Lactobacillus casei can alter health and researchers are attempting to prove that different sugars, natural or artificial, have different effects on the growth of L. casei [1]. L. casei was chosen as the experimental model due to easily replicable growing conditions and the importance of the bacteria in the gut microbiome.

Sugar-bacteria solutions were created and their turbidities were taken to quantify the amount of bacteria growth after ...


Analyzing The Efficacy Of Natural Baby Soaps For The Elimination Of Bacterial Colonization On Bath Toys, Abigail Rost, Jacqueline Benitez, Mira Nicpon, Katelyn McLaughlin 2018 Marian University - Indianapolis

Analyzing The Efficacy Of Natural Baby Soaps For The Elimination Of Bacterial Colonization On Bath Toys, Abigail Rost, Jacqueline Benitez, Mira Nicpon, Katelyn Mclaughlin

Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)

Recent studies have discovered that water-retaining bath toys harbor a high amount of potential pathogens due to available nutrients in baby soaps. Unfortunately , these bath toys can be a source for infection or disease for the children playing with them. In order to investigate the efficacy of baby soaps on the elimination of bacteria on bath toys, rubber ducks were coated with E. coli and then were washed with an organic or non-organic baby soap. It was hypothesized that organic soap would be more efficient at eliminating bacteria due to its antibacterial properties. Through this experiment, it was found that ...


Vitamin E: A Possible Preventative Measure For Cte, Dylan Roth, Cameron Dargis 2018 Marian University - Indianapolis

Vitamin E: A Possible Preventative Measure For Cte, Dylan Roth, Cameron Dargis

Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)

Introduction

This experiment is aimed to aide all future athletes.

•The brain injury known as CTE can only be diagnosed after death and upon autopsy.

•Upon research, what causes this is non-heme Iron deposits in the brain cause radical oxygen species that damage the nerve cells.

•Causes many different mental and physical problems

•Research on Vitamin E showed that it can accept radical oxygen species and increase neurological health.

•We will be testing these affects on yeast samples

Hypothesis

If yeast is treated with Vitamin E before being exposed to radical oxygen species via non-heme iron, then it will have ...


Investigating The Impact Of Oxidative Stress On Tetrahymena Thermophila Sirtuin,Thd 18, Emmanuel Dubuisson 2018 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Investigating The Impact Of Oxidative Stress On Tetrahymena Thermophila Sirtuin,Thd 18, Emmanuel Dubuisson

Publications and Research

Sirtuins are a family of enzymes that fulfill various important biological functions. Investigators have looked for the implication of Sirtuin genes in cell signaling mechanisms, in the formation and silencing of heterochromatin, in the regulation of ion channels, and in the modulation of the cellular redox reactions[2]. Different model organisms have been previously used to conduct these studies; among them, there are yeasts, nematodes, and fruit flies. Each one has made some valuable contribution into the vast body of knowledge related to this field.

However, gaps in the understanding of Sirtuins functions still remain to be filled. In this ...


Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence

Open Access Articles

We previously demonstrated that an integrated XIST transgene can broadly repress one chromosome 21 in Down syndrome (DS) pluripotent cells. Here we address whether trisomy-silencing can normalize cell function and development sufficiently to correct cell pathogenesis, tested in an in vitro model of human fetal hematopoiesis, for which DS cellular phenotypes are best known. XIST induction in four transgenic clones reproducibly corrected over-production of megakaryocytes and erythrocytes, key to DS myeloproliferative disorder and leukemia. A contrasting increase in neural stem and iPS cells shows cell-type specificity, supporting this approach successfully rebalances the hematopoietic developmental program. Given this, we next used ...


Frost450, A Novel Microtubule Targeting Agent: Resistance And Cross-Resistance In An Ovarian Cancer Cell Line, Jonathan Chancellor Fox 2018 Brigham Young University

Frost450, A Novel Microtubule Targeting Agent: Resistance And Cross-Resistance In An Ovarian Cancer Cell Line, Jonathan Chancellor Fox

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drug resistance remains problematic for chemotherapy treatments. As primary treatment strategies tend to lose potency against cancer, there is a need for treatment options that overcome drug resistance mechanisms. FROST450, a novel microtubule destabilizing agent, has proven anticancer effects that overcome taxane and multidrug resistance. However, to better understand the clinical potential of FROST450, in this study we examine the mechanisms and implications of acquired FROST450 resistance in an A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Results indicate FROST450 resistance is associated with increased mitochondrial respiration and with changes in gene sequence or expression level of proteins associated with microtubules, and that ...


Two Contrasting Classes Of Nucleolus-Associated Domains In Mouse Fibroblast Heterochromatin, Anastassiia Vertii, Jianhong Ou, Jun Yu, Aimin Yan, Hervé Pagès, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Paul D. Kaufman 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Two Contrasting Classes Of Nucleolus-Associated Domains In Mouse Fibroblast Heterochromatin, Anastassiia Vertii, Jianhong Ou, Jun Yu, Aimin Yan, Hervé Pagès, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Paul D. Kaufman

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In interphase eukaryotic cells, almost all heterochromatin is located adjacent to the nucleolus or to the nuclear lamina, thus defining Nucleolus Associated Domains (NADs) and Lamina Associated Domains (LADs), respectively. Here, we determined the first genome-scale map of murine NADs in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) via deep sequencing of chromatin associated with purified nucleoli. We developed a Bioconductor package called NADfinder and demonstrated that it identifies NADs more accurately than other peak-calling tools, due to its critical feature of chromosome-level local baseline correction. We detected two distinct classes of NADs. Type I NADs associate frequently with both the nucleolar periphery ...


Prioritizing Chemical Constituents In Tobacco Products And Smoke To Predict Developmental Osteotoxicity In Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Joseph Madrid 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Prioritizing Chemical Constituents In Tobacco Products And Smoke To Predict Developmental Osteotoxicity In Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Joseph Madrid

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Though it is well known that tobacco related products can cause prenatal maldevelopment, very little is known on how tobacco products affect bone tissue as it develops in the embryo. Identifying which chemicals can induce the greatest harm to the prenatal skeletal system is an improbable task as there are over 7,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke alone. We hypothesized that the Toxicological Priority Index (ToxPI) program can be used to rank osteogenic cytotoxicity potential to aid in the assessment of what chemicals out of the thousands can cause osteogenic differentiation inhibition. ToxPI aggregates information from various assays and incorporates ...


Role Of P300 Zz Domain In Chromatin Association And Histone Acetylation, Yongming Xue 2018 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Role Of P300 Zz Domain In Chromatin Association And Histone Acetylation, Yongming Xue

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Transcription is strictly regulated by numerous factors including transcription coactivators. The p300 protein and its close paralogue CREB-binding protein (CREBBP, aka CBP) are well-known transcriptional coactivators that have intrinsic lysine acetyltransferase activity. The functions of p300/CBP largely rely on their capabilities to bind to chromatin and to acetylate the histone substrates. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these processes are not fully understood.

Through combination of various biochemical, biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that the ZZ-type zinc finger (ZZ) domain of p300 functions as a histone reader that specifically binds the N-terminal tail of histone H3 ...


Il-12 Gene Electrotransfer Triggers A Change In Immune Response Within Mouse Tumors, Guilan Shi, Chelsea Edelblute, Sezgi Arpag, Cathryn Lundberg, Richard Heller 2018 Old Dominion University

Il-12 Gene Electrotransfer Triggers A Change In Immune Response Within Mouse Tumors, Guilan Shi, Chelsea Edelblute, Sezgi Arpag, Cathryn Lundberg, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with a relatively low survival rate. Immune-based therapies have shown promise in the treatment of melanoma, but overall complete response rates are still low. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential of plasmid IL-12 (pIL-12) delivered by gene electrotransfer (GET) to be an effective immunotherapy for melanoma. However, events occurring in the tumor microenvironment following delivery have not been delineated. Therefore, utilizing a B16F10 mouse melanoma model, we evaluated changes in the tumor microenvironment following delivery of pIL-12 using different GET parameters or injection of plasmid alone. The results revealed a unique immune cell ...


Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, Colten Z. Dillinger 2018 Missouri State University

Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, Colten Z. Dillinger

MSU Graduate Theses

Fetal serotonin levels are involved in the development of the serotonergic system in an autoregulatory manner as well as the organization and connectivity of non-serotonergic neurons. Insufficient serotonin levels during development result in improper neuronal maturation and decreased synaptogenesis. Conversely, excess developmental serotonin levels can alter the progression of serotonergic neurons, ultimately resulting in a chronic decrease of serotonin in the developed brain via a negative feedback mechanism. There is a known correlation between autistic patients and chronically decreased brain serotonin concentrations; this is potentially implicated in the impaired development of the autistic brain. Incomplete or delayed development of motor ...


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