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Ultrafine Carbon Nanoparticles Activate Inflammasome Signaling And Cell Death In Murine Macrophages, Alexander Soloniuk, Hadley Lamascus, Jay Brewster, John Mann 2019 Pepperdine University

Ultrafine Carbon Nanoparticles Activate Inflammasome Signaling And Cell Death In Murine Macrophages, Alexander Soloniuk, Hadley Lamascus, Jay Brewster, John Mann

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Carbon black (CB) is the primary nanoparticulate component of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion. This work examines the cellular impact of ultrafine carbon (carbon black, CB) nanoparticles, that range in size down to 30 nm, upon murine macrophages. The size analysis of the carbon black nanoparticles was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. RAW246.7 macrophage cells were exposed to CB doses ranging from 50 – 200 ug/ml in complete media. Analysis of cell survival over time revealed elevated rates of significant nuclear degradation and cell lifting after 48 hours of exposure, and ...


Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm 2019 Pepperdine University

Arterial Distribution Of The Human Aorta: An Examination Of The Evolutionary, Developmental, And Physiological Bases Of Asymmetry., Brandon Oddo, Cooker Storm

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The study of anatomy contends that “form follows function”; a disciplinary theme purporting that anatomical structures (i.e., cells, tissues, and organs) have a shape that serves its proper function. With this in mind, it is unclear why human arterial distribution off the aortic arch is asymmetrical, while the corresponding venous anatomy is symmetrical. We investigated the evolutionary, developmental, and physiological bases for the asymmetry of aortic arch branches in humans. First, we investigated the cardiovascular anatomy of ancestral species to determine if, and at what level, anatomical divergence (from aortic symmetry to asymmetry) occurs. Second, we examined the formation ...


Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 3 (Rip3) Regulates Ipscs Generation Through Modulating Cell Cycle Progression Genes, Ahmad Al-Moujahed, Bo Tian, Nikolaos E. Efstathiou, Eleni K. Konstantinou, Mien Hoang, Haijiang Lin, Joan W. Miller, Demetrios G. Vavvas 2019 Harvard Medical School

Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 3 (Rip3) Regulates Ipscs Generation Through Modulating Cell Cycle Progression Genes, Ahmad Al-Moujahed, Bo Tian, Nikolaos E. Efstathiou, Eleni K. Konstantinou, Mien Hoang, Haijiang Lin, Joan W. Miller, Demetrios G. Vavvas

Open Access Articles

The molecular mechanisms involved in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation are poorly understood. The cell death machinery of apoptosis-inducing caspases have been shown to facilitate the process of iPSCs reprogramming. However, the effect of other cell death processes, such as programmed necrosis (necroptosis), on iPSCs induction has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the role of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3), an essential regulator of necroptosis, in reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) into iPSCs. RIP3 was found to be upregulated in iPSCs compared to MEFs. Deletion of RIP3 dramatically suppressed the reprogramming of iPSCs (~82%). RNA-seq ...


Small Peptide Ligands For Targeting Egfr In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Hanieh Hossein-Nejad-Ariani, Emad Althagafi, Kamaljit Kaur 2019 Chapman University

Small Peptide Ligands For Targeting Egfr In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Hanieh Hossein-Nejad-Ariani, Emad Althagafi, Kamaljit Kaur

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The efficacy of chemotherapy for cancer treatment can be increased by targeted drug delivery to the cancer cells. This is particularly important for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) for which chemotherapy is a major form of treatment. Here we designed and screened a library of 30 peptides starting with a previously reported epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting peptide GE11 (YHWYGYTPQNVI). A direct peptide array-whole cell binding assay, where the peptides are conjugated to a cellulose membrane, was used to identify four peptides with enhanced binding to TNBC cells. Next, the four peptides were synthesized as FITC-labelled soluble peptides to ...


Synder: Inferring Genomic Orthologs From Synteny Maps, Zebulun Arendsee, Andrew Wilkey, Urminder Singh, Jing Li, Manhoi Hur, Eve Syrkin Wurtele 2019 Iowa State University

Synder: Inferring Genomic Orthologs From Synteny Maps, Zebulun Arendsee, Andrew Wilkey, Urminder Singh, Jing Li, Manhoi Hur, Eve Syrkin Wurtele

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Ortholog inference is a key step in understanding the evolution and function of a gene or other genomic feature. Yet often no similar sequence can be identified, or the true ortholog is hidden among false positives. A solution is to consider the sequence's genomic context. We present the generic program, synder, for tracing features of interest between genomes based on a synteny map. This approach narrows genomic search-space independently of the sequence of the feature of interest. We illustrate the utility of synder by finding orthologs for the Arabidopsis thaliana 13-member gene family of Nuclear Factor YC transcription factor ...


Huntingtin Associates With The Actin Cytoskeleton And Alpha-Actinin Isoforms To Influence Stimulus Dependent Morphology Changes, Adelaide Tousley, Maria Iuliano, Elizabeth Weisman, Ellen Sapp, Heather Richardson, Petr Vodicka, Jonathan Alexander, Neil Aronin, Marian DiFiglia, Kimberly B. Kegel-Gleason 2019 Massachusetts General Hospital

Huntingtin Associates With The Actin Cytoskeleton And Alpha-Actinin Isoforms To Influence Stimulus Dependent Morphology Changes, Adelaide Tousley, Maria Iuliano, Elizabeth Weisman, Ellen Sapp, Heather Richardson, Petr Vodicka, Jonathan Alexander, Neil Aronin, Marian Difiglia, Kimberly B. Kegel-Gleason

Open Access Articles

One response of cells to growth factor stimulus involves changes in morphology driven by the actin cytoskeleton and actin associated proteins which regulate functions such as cell adhesion, motility and in neurons, synaptic plasticity. Previous studies suggest that Huntingtin may be involved in regulating morphology however, there has been limited evidence linking endogenous Huntingtin localization or function with cytoplasmic actin in cells. We found that depletion of Huntingtin in human fibroblasts reduced adhesion and altered morphology and these phenotypes were made worse with growth factor stimulation, whereas the presence of the Huntington's Disease mutation inhibited growth factor induced changes ...


Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity Is Caused By Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Michael G. Tauro 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity Is Caused By Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Michael G. Tauro

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting roughly 1% of the population over the age of sixty years. Alpha-synuclein (aSyn) is a protein implicated in both familial and idiopathic forms of PD, yet despite the wealth of data implicating aSyn as a causative agent in PD, the mechanisms underlying its toxicity remain mostly unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major hallmark of PD, yet there is only limited evidence linking aSyn toxicity to mitochondrial dysfunction. My study establishes a novel aSyn model in respiring yeast cells, which allows me to explore how aSyn affects mitochondrial homeostasis ...


Multiple Variables At The Leukocyte Cell Surface Impact Fc Γ Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms, Kashyap R. Patel, Jacob T. Roberts, Adam W. Barb 2019 Iowa State University

Multiple Variables At The Leukocyte Cell Surface Impact Fc Γ Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms, Kashyap R. Patel, Jacob T. Roberts, Adam W. Barb

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Fc γ receptors (FcγR) expressed on the surface of human leukocytes bind clusters of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to induce a variety of responses. Many therapeutic antibodies and vaccine-elicited antibodies prevent or treat infectious diseases, cancers and autoimmune disorders by binding FcγRs, thus there is a need to fully define the variables that impact antibody-induced mechanisms to properly evaluate candidate therapies and design new intervention strategies. A multitude of factors influence the IgG-FcγR interaction; one well-described factor is the differential affinity of the six distinct FcγRs for the four human IgG subclasses. However, there are several other recently described factors that ...


Identification And Characterization Of Barrier Insulator Activity In The T-Cell Receptor Alpha Locus Control Region, Gayathri Devi Raghupathy 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Identification And Characterization Of Barrier Insulator Activity In The T-Cell Receptor Alpha Locus Control Region, Gayathri Devi Raghupathy

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Genes of different spatiotemporal expression profiles are often juxtaposed in the genome. This organization raises risks of cross-regulatory influences from neighboring genes; for instance heterochromatin can spread over euchromatin or long-range acting enhancers can inappropriately activate genes. Gene regulatory elements such as Locus Control Regions (LCR) and Insulators prevent such cross-communications and allow for normal gene expression patterns. In transgenic systems, LCRs limit influences from surrounding chromatin by providing site-of-integration independent and specific spatiotemporal expression upon a linked transgene. The field’s understanding of the ability of an LCR to overcome chromatin influences and allow site-of-integration independent expression is minimal ...


Geneweld: A Method For Efficient Targeted Integration Directed By Short Homology, Wesley A. Wierson, Jordan M. Welker, Maira P. Almeida, Carla A. Mann, Dennis A. Webster, Melanie E. Torrie, Trevor J. Weiss, Macy K. Vollbrecht, Merrina Lan, Kenna C. McKeighan, Zhitao MIng, Alec Wehmeier, Christopher S. Mikelson, Jeffrey A. Haltom, Kristen M. Kwan, Chi-­Bin Chien, Darius Balciunas, Stephen C. Ekker, Karl J. Clark, Beau R. Webber, Branden Moriarity, Staci L. Solin, Daniel F. Carlson, Drena L. Dobbs, Maura McGrail, Jeffrey J. Essner 2019 Iowa State University

Geneweld: A Method For Efficient Targeted Integration Directed By Short Homology, Wesley A. Wierson, Jordan M. Welker, Maira P. Almeida, Carla A. Mann, Dennis A. Webster, Melanie E. Torrie, Trevor J. Weiss, Macy K. Vollbrecht, Merrina Lan, Kenna C. Mckeighan, Zhitao Ming, Alec Wehmeier, Christopher S. Mikelson, Jeffrey A. Haltom, Kristen M. Kwan, Chi-­Bin Chien, Darius Balciunas, Stephen C. Ekker, Karl J. Clark, Beau R. Webber, Branden Moriarity, Staci L. Solin, Daniel F. Carlson, Drena L. Dobbs, Maura Mcgrail, Jeffrey J. Essner

Maura McGrail

Choices for genome engineering and integration involve high efficiency with little or no target specificity or high specificity with low activity. Here, we describe a targeted integration strategy, called GeneWeld, and a vector series for gene tagging, pGTag (plasmids for Gene Tagging), which promote highly efficient and precise targeted integration in zebrafish embryos, pig fibroblasts, and human cells utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Our work demonstrates that in vivo targeting of a genomic locus of interest with CRISPR/Cas9 and a donor vector containing as little as 24 to 48 base pairs of homology directs precise and efficient knock-in when ...


Epigenetic Regulators Rbbp4 And Hdac1 Are Overexpressed In A Zebrafish Model Of Rb1 Embryonal Brain Tumor, And Are Required For Neural Progenitor Survival And Proliferation, Laura E. Schultz, Jeffrey A. Haltom, Maira P. Almeida, Wesley A. Wierson, Staci L. Solin, Trevor J. Weiss, Jordan A. Helmer, Elizabeth J. Sandquist, Heather R. Shive, Maura McGrail 2019 Iowa State University

Epigenetic Regulators Rbbp4 And Hdac1 Are Overexpressed In A Zebrafish Model Of Rb1 Embryonal Brain Tumor, And Are Required For Neural Progenitor Survival And Proliferation, Laura E. Schultz, Jeffrey A. Haltom, Maira P. Almeida, Wesley A. Wierson, Staci L. Solin, Trevor J. Weiss, Jordan A. Helmer, Elizabeth J. Sandquist, Heather R. Shive, Maura Mcgrail

Maura McGrail

In this study, we used comparative genomics and developmental genetics to identify epigenetic regulators driving oncogenesis in a zebrafish retinoblastoma 1 (rb1) somatic-targeting model of RB1 mutant embryonal brain tumors. Zebrafish rb1 brain tumors caused by TALEN or CRISPR targeting are histologically similar to human central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS-PNETs). Like the human oligoneural OLIG2+/SOX10+ CNS-PNET subtype, zebrafish rb1 tumors show elevated expression of neural progenitor transcription factors olig2, sox10, sox8b and the receptor tyrosine kinase erbb3a oncogene. Comparison of rb1 tumor and rb1/rb1 germline mutant larval transcriptomes shows that the altered oligoneural precursor signature is ...


Identifying Genetic Regulators Of Cancer Stem Cell Differentiation For Glioblastoma Therapy, Ann Chen, Yang Xiao, Rong Fan, Jiangbing Zhou 2019 Yale University

Identifying Genetic Regulators Of Cancer Stem Cell Differentiation For Glioblastoma Therapy, Ann Chen, Yang Xiao, Rong Fan, Jiangbing Zhou

Yale Day of Data

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain cancer. Even with treatment, GBM patients have a median survival rate of less than 15 months and a five-year survival rate of 2%. Poor therapeutic outcomes may be attributed to the presence of a subpopulation of cells within tumors, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are resistant to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. CSCs are capable of tumor initiation, sustained self-renewal, and differentiation into terminal cell types. These terminally differentiated cells make up the bulk of the tumor and are sensitive to GBM therapies. Therefore, CSC-directed therapies ...


Analyzing Neuronal Dendritic Trees With Convolutional Neural Networks, Olivier Trottier, Jonathon Howard 2019 Yale University

Analyzing Neuronal Dendritic Trees With Convolutional Neural Networks, Olivier Trottier, Jonathon Howard

Yale Day of Data

In the biological sciences, image analysis software are used to detect, segment or classify a variety of features encountered in living matter. However, the algorithms that accomplish these tasks are often designed for a specific dataset, making them hardly portable to accomplish the same tasks on images of different biological structures. Recently, convolutional neural networks have been used to perform complex image analysis on a multitude of datasets. While applications of these networks abound in the technology industry and computer science, use cases are not as common in the academic sciences. Motivated by the generalizability of neural networks, we aim ...


A Three State Model Can Explain The Dynamics Of Class Iv Drosophila Dendritic Tips, Sabyasachi Sutradhar 2019 Yale University

A Three State Model Can Explain The Dynamics Of Class Iv Drosophila Dendritic Tips, Sabyasachi Sutradhar

Yale Day of Data

No abstract provided.


Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp 2019 Yale School of Medicine

Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp

Yale Day of Data

This poster illustrates the differences between the IPF disease-specific variety of lung macrophages and the two varieties of macrophages known to reside in the normal human lung.


The Role Of Serum Histones In Canine Heat Stroke, Jenna Acutt 2019 Claremont Colleges

The Role Of Serum Histones In Canine Heat Stroke, Jenna Acutt

Scripps Senior Theses

Rising temperatures all over the world has correlated with more frequent heat stroke related injuries and death. This statistic not only applies to humans, but to canines as well, who have similar body temperature thresholds. Recent studies have demonstrated that serum histones, released after cell death from heat stroke, play a role in heat stroke related injuries and death. This proposal aims to determine the severity of the effects caused by serum histone release after heat stroke by exposing selected canine cell lines to cell lysate and purified histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, which have been found to be ...


Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe 2019 Walden University

Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Breast cancer is a world health problem and is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. However, breast cancer risks were reported to be reduced through exposure to Vitamin D through its Receptors identified as the p53 target gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms knowledge/awareness and decisions to reduce breast cancer risks and likelihood of mammogram screening among women in Texas. Data from survey were used. Roy adaptation model was the theoretical framework that guided this quasi- experimental, quantitative research. The dependent variables were decisions ...


Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori 2019 Old Dominion University

Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Accumulating data indicates that some cancer treatments can restore anticancer immunosurveillance through the induction of tumor immunogenic cell death (ICD). Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) have been shown to efficiently ablate melanoma tumors. In this study we investigated the mechanisms and immunogenicity of nsPEF-induced cell death in B16F10 melanoma tumors. Our data show that in vitro nsPEF (20-200, 200-ns pulses, 7 kV/cm, 2 Hz) caused a rapid dose-dependent cell death which was not accompanied by caspase activation or PARP cleavage. The lack of nsPEF-induced apoptosis was confirmed in vivo in B16F10 tumors. NsPEF also failed to trigger ICD-linked responses ...


Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling 2019 Tulane National Primate Research Center

Persistent Viral Reservoirs In Lymphoid Tissues In Siv-Infected Rhesus Macaques Of Chinese-Origin On Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy, Summer Siddiqui, Stefanie Perez, Yong Gao, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Brian T. Foley, Qingsheng Li, Binhua Ling

Virology Papers

Understanding HIV latent reservoirs in tissues is essential for the development of new strategies targeting these sites for eradication. Here, we assessed the size of latent reservoirs and the source of residual viruses in multiple lymphoid tissues of SIV-infected and fully suppressed rhesus macaques of Chinese-origin (cRMs). Eight cRMs were infected with SIVmac251 and treated with tenofovir and emtricitabine daily for 24 weeks initiated 4 weeks post-infection. Four of the eight animals reached sustained full viral suppression with undetectable viremia. The levels of cell-associated SIV DNA varied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and multiple lymphoid tissues, but with higher ...


Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome, Hiv Status, And Precancerous Lesions, Cameron Klein, Daniela Gonzalez, Kandali Samwel, Crispin Kahesa, Julius Mwaiselage, Nirosh Aluthge, Samodha Fernando, John T. West, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti

Virology Papers

Nearly all cervical cancers are causally associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). The burden of HPV-associated dysplasias in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by HIV. To investigate the role of the bacterial microbiome in cervical dysplasia, cytobrush samples were collected directly from cervical lesions of 144 Tanzanian women. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and deep sequenced. Alpha diversity metrics (Chao1, PD whole tree, and operational taxonomic unit [OTU] estimates) displayed significantly higher bacterial richness in HIV-positive patients (P = 0.01) than in HIV-negative patients. In HIV-positive patients, there was higher bacterial richness in patients with high-grade ...


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