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Poly(Arginine) Derived Cancer-Targeting Peptides For The Development Of A Cancer-Targeted Gene Therapy Approach In Hepg2 Liver Cancer Cells, Stesha C. Joseph 2014 Seton Hall University

Poly(Arginine) Derived Cancer-Targeting Peptides For The Development Of A Cancer-Targeted Gene Therapy Approach In Hepg2 Liver Cancer Cells, Stesha C. Joseph

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer is a disease that has eluded medicinal approaches for many years and as a result new and improved therapeutic approaches are in constant demand. Although chemotherapy and radiation treatments have assisted in suppressing the growth of tumors, their poor selectivity and efficacy are major limitations for effective therapy en route towards the development of a cure for the cancer epidemic. With the mission of conquering cancer at heart, researchers have pursued a new form of cancer therapy, aptly named, a cancer targeting approach. This method revolves around the selection of a suitable biomarker, typically a cell surface receptor overexpressed ...


Role Of Msaa Gene In Regulation Of The Msaabcr Operon And Biofilm Development In Staphylococcus Aureus, Ahmed Alzuway 2014 The University of Southern Mississippi

Role Of Msaa Gene In Regulation Of The Msaabcr Operon And Biofilm Development In Staphylococcus Aureus, Ahmed Alzuway

Master's Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes wide variety of diseases ranging from chronic biofilm associated infection to acute life threatening infection such as bacteremia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, or endocarditis, despite the progress with antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections. Furthermore, increased use of prosthetic and indwelling devices in modern medical practices has led to increased infections due to S. aureus. Treating S. aureus infections have become difficult owing to its ability to resist most of the antibiotics; this problem is further exacerbated by ability of MRSA strains to form biofilms. Emergence of community-acquired methicillin resistance staphylococcus ...


Identification And Characterization Of Msab Gene Involved In Biofilm Formation And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Amelsaad Elbarasi 2014 The University of Southern Mississippi

Identification And Characterization Of Msab Gene Involved In Biofilm Formation And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Amelsaad Elbarasi

Master's Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes a wide variety of life-threatening infections ranging from minor skin and oral infections to severe infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, or endocarditis due to the presence and secretion of a large number of virulence factors that are controlled by global virulence regulators in complex networks. Furthermore, S. aureus infections have become a threat to public health because of their high potential to form biofilm, and their ability to resist a wide range of antibiotics has exacerbated further. Therefore, understanding the regulatory networks and developing a drug targeting these networks has ...


Detection Of Microbial Catecholamines In A Model Wound Environment, Ryan F. Wasurick 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Detection Of Microbial Catecholamines In A Model Wound Environment, Ryan F. Wasurick

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Chronic wounds are defined as an injury that does not heal in a predictable pattern or time frame. The healing process is composed of specific stages and chronic wounds have been interrupted in one or more stages of this process. This project focuses on the bacterial component of an infected wound, specifically on the catecholamines influencing the bacteria in the wound site. The assay developed in this experiment is designed to optimally grow bacteria in a simulated eukaryotic wound environment, and evaluate biofilm expression and catecholamine production of the bacteria. Bacteria used in this study are Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas ...


Ngn3 Expression In Definitive Endoderm Progenitors Specifies Pancreatic Endocrine Precursors, Ahmed Shah 2014 Western University

Ngn3 Expression In Definitive Endoderm Progenitors Specifies Pancreatic Endocrine Precursors, Ahmed Shah

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Our lab previously demonstrated that expression of the lineage-determining transcription factor SOX17 in human embryonic stem cells was sufficient to specify stable definitive endoderm progenitors (DEPs). The current study was aimed at generating pancreatic precursors from SOX17-DEPs through controlled expression of the transcription factor NGN3. We generated hESC lines with inducible SOX17 and NGN3 and compared the effects of high and low levels of NGN3 expression. NGN3 expression in DEPs induced markers of pancreatic differentiation (PAX4, PAX6, NKX6.1, ISL1). While high NGN3 expression induced the β cell marker PDX1, low NGN3 expression induced the δ cell markers (CCKB ...


Principles Of Multidisciplinary Management, Richard S. Pieters, James Liebmann 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Principles Of Multidisciplinary Management, Richard S. Pieters, James Liebmann

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

This chapter in the Cancer Concepts textbook describes the principles of multi-disciplinary management, meaning multi-specialty physician management of malignancies. Tumor Boards are the model for multi-disciplinary management. They may be site specific or include the entire spectrum of malignancy. At Tumor Boards, staging workup and treatment recommendations are made collectively, and then the treatments are delivered by the respective modality specialists and their individual teams. Improved clinical decision making leading to superior survival for patients with some diseases and better quality of life has been documented with multi-disciplinary management. Just like curative patients, palliative patients require multi-disciplinary management.


The Role Of C-Kit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase In Beta-Cell Proliferation, Function And Survival, Zhi Chao Feng 2014 Western University

The Role Of C-Kit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase In Beta-Cell Proliferation, Function And Survival, Zhi Chao Feng

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, interacts with Stem Cell Factor (SCF), mediating cell differentiation, function, and survival. c-Kit is critical for the development and maintenance of beta-cell function in both rodents and humans. The mutation of c-Kit at W locus (c-KitWv/+) in mice results in an early onset of diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms by which c-Kit deficiency leads to beta-cell failure are unknown. Therefore, studying SCF/c-Kit downstream signaling pathways is essential to understanding the precise mechanism by which c-Kit regulates beta-cell survival and function in vivo.

We identified that dysregulated Akt/Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (Gsk3β)/cyclin ...


Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Posttranslational Responses To Aneuploidy In Yeast, Noah Dephoure, Sunyoung Hwang, Ciara O'Sullivan, Stacie E. Dodgson, Steven P. Gygi, Angelika Amon, Eduardo M. Torres 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Posttranslational Responses To Aneuploidy In Yeast, Noah Dephoure, Sunyoung Hwang, Ciara O'Sullivan, Stacie E. Dodgson, Steven P. Gygi, Angelika Amon, Eduardo M. Torres

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

Aneuploidy causes severe developmental defects and is a near universal feature of tumor cells. Despite its profound effects, the cellular processes affected by aneuploidy are not well characterized. Here, we examined the consequences of aneuploidy on the proteome of aneuploid budding yeast strains. We show that although protein levels largely scale with gene copy number, subunits of multi-protein complexes are notable exceptions. Posttranslational mechanisms attenuate their expression when their encoding genes are in excess. Our proteomic analyses further revealed a novel aneuploidy-associated protein expression signature characteristic of altered metabolism and redox homeostasis. Indeed aneuploid cells harbor increased levels of reactive ...


Synergistic Tumor Suppression By Combined Inhibition Of Telomerase And Cdkn1a, Romi Gupta, Yuying Dong, Peter D. Solomon, Hiromi I. Wettersten, Christopher J. Cheng, JIn-Na Min, Jeremy Henson, Shaillay Kumar Dogra, Sung H. Hwang, Bruce D. Hammock, Lihua Julie Zhu, Roger R. Reddel, W. Mark Saltzman, Robert H. Weiss, Sandy Chang, Michael R. Green, Narendra Wajapeyee 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Synergistic Tumor Suppression By Combined Inhibition Of Telomerase And Cdkn1a, Romi Gupta, Yuying Dong, Peter D. Solomon, Hiromi I. Wettersten, Christopher J. Cheng, Jin-Na Min, Jeremy Henson, Shaillay Kumar Dogra, Sung H. Hwang, Bruce D. Hammock, Lihua Julie Zhu, Roger R. Reddel, W. Mark Saltzman, Robert H. Weiss, Sandy Chang, Michael R. Green, Narendra Wajapeyee

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

Tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in mediating growth inhibition upon telomere dysfunction. Here, we show that loss of the p53 target gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A, also known as p21WAF1/CIP1) increases apoptosis induction following telomerase inhibition in a variety of cancer cell lines and mouse xenografts. This effect is highly specific to p21, as loss of other checkpoint proteins and CDK inhibitors did not affect apoptosis. In telomerase, inhibited cell loss of p21 leads to E2F1- and p53-mediated transcriptional activation of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis, resulting in increased apoptosis. Combined genetic or pharmacological inhibition of telomerase ...


Gpu Deconvolution Bad Result On 2048x2048x32 Plane Z-Series, George McNamara 2014 The University of Texas

Gpu Deconvolution Bad Result On 2048x2048x32 Plane Z-Series, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Update 20140814Thur:

This page and download

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/55/

has new results, where I padded the Z-stack to 36 planes with black (intensity level zero) for the first two and last two new planes (easy to do with Add Planes to Stack in MetaMorph). See "56" for the original data (without padding), http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/56/

I exchanged emails with Dr. Marc Bruce, coinventor of the GPU deconvolution software, with respect to my 'results bug'. Marc quickly wrote back:

". If the first several planes are bad but it's otherwise fine, then NVIDIA's FFT ...


The Influence Of Aging On Oocyte Quality And The Importance Of Mitochondria, Krystal Trull 2014 Northeastern University

The Influence Of Aging On Oocyte Quality And The Importance Of Mitochondria, Krystal Trull

Biology Master's Theses

Female fertility peaks at 25 years of age, yet many women put off having children until much later in life (Nybo Andersen et al. 2000; Hook 1981; Hamilton et al. 2013). Age is a major determining factor in pregnancy outcomes and increased maternal age is correlated with increased chances of aneuploidy and miscarriage (Robinson et al. 2001; Benadiva et al. 1996; Battaglia et al. 1996). When older women encounter difficulties with having a successful pregnancy, it is often due to poor oocyte quality as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction (Eichenlaub-Ritter et al. 2011; Bentov et al. 2010; Jansen & Burton 2004). Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles of the cell and are important in producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to meet the high energy demands of the oocyte. Mitochondria have their own DNA (mtDNA) inherited maternally that encodes proteins necessary for oxidative phosphorylation and subsequent ATP production. Along with ATP, mitochondria also produce harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) at a low, but significant rate (Takeo et al. 2013; Parsons et ...


Experimental Demonstration Of Bindingless Signal Delivery In Human Cells Via Microfluidics, Fang-Tzu Chuang 2014 SelectedWorks

Experimental Demonstration Of Bindingless Signal Delivery In Human Cells Via Microfluidics, Fang-Tzu Chuang

Fang-Tzu Chuang

The cellular signal transduction is commonly believed to rely on the direct “contact” or “binding” of the participating molecule reaction that depends positively on the corresponding molecule concentrations. In living systems, however, it is somewhat difficult to precisely match the corresponding rapid “binding,” depending on the probability of molecular collision, existing in the cellular receptor-ligand interactions. Thus, a question arises that if there is another mechanism (i.e., bindingless) that could promote this signal communication. According to this hypothesis, we report a cellular model based on the examination of intracellular calcium concentration to explore whether the unidentified signal delivery in ...


Drosophila Sirt2/Mammalian Sirt3 Deacetylates Atp Synthase Beta And Regulates Complex V Activity, Motiur Rahman, Niraj K. Nirala, Alka Singh, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kaori Taguchi, Takeshi Bamba, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Leslie M. Shaw, David G. Lambright, Jairaj K. Acharya, Usha R. Acharya 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Drosophila Sirt2/Mammalian Sirt3 Deacetylates Atp Synthase Beta And Regulates Complex V Activity, Motiur Rahman, Niraj K. Nirala, Alka Singh, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kaori Taguchi, Takeshi Bamba, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Leslie M. Shaw, David G. Lambright, Jairaj K. Acharya, Usha R. Acharya

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase beta, the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial complex V, synthesizes ATP. We show that ATP synthase beta is deacetylated by a human nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent protein deacetylase, sirtuin 3, and its Drosophila melanogaster homologue, dSirt2. dsirt2 mutant flies displayed increased acetylation of specific Lys residues in ATP synthase beta and decreased complex V activity. Overexpression of dSirt2 increased complex V activity. Substitution of Lys 259 and Lys 480 with Arg in human ATP synthase beta, mimicking deacetylation, increased complex V activity, whereas substitution with Gln, mimicking acetylation, decreased activity. Mass spectrometry and proteomic experiments from ...


Timelapse Data - Gm Imaging Cytometer Needs Stitching Part 1 Of 2, George McNamara 2014 The University of Texas

Timelapse Data - Gm Imaging Cytometer Needs Stitching Part 1 Of 2, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Timelapse data - GM imaging cytometer needs stitching part 1 of 2

Imaging challenge: align multiple time series over time to overcome "stage slop" in the imaging cytometer used in this experiment.

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/53 (this)

and

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/54 (next)

are zip files containing 8-bit stacks (MetaMorph multiplane TIFF files) acquired on an imaging cytometer.

"53" is the brightfield data, raw and automatic aligned stacks in MetaMorph (Apps menu, MM7.8.6).

"54" is GFP fluorescence, raw and automatic aligned stacks in MetaMorph (Apps menu, MM7.8.6). The GFP fluorescence decreases over time ...


Timelapse Data - Gm Imaging Cytometer Needs Stitching Part 2 Of 2, George McNamara 2014 The University of Texas

Timelapse Data - Gm Imaging Cytometer Needs Stitching Part 2 Of 2, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Timelapse data - GM imaging cytometer needs stitching part 2 of 2

Imaging challenge: align multiple time series over time to overcome "stage slop" in the imaging cytometer used in this experiment.

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/53 (previous) and http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/54 (this)

are zip files containing 8-bit stacks (MetaMorph multiplane TIFF files) acquired on an imaging cytometer.

"53" is the brightfield data, raw and automatic aligned stacks in MetaMorph (Apps menu, MM7.8.6). "54" is GFP fluorescence, raw and automatic aligned stacks in MetaMorph (Apps menu, MM7.8.6). The GFP fluorescence decreases over time ...


Rapid Prototyping Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds With Hydration-Induced Self-Fixation Behavior, Artem B. Kutikov, Anvesh Gurijala, Jie Song 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rapid Prototyping Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds With Hydration-Induced Self-Fixation Behavior, Artem B. Kutikov, Anvesh Gurijala, Jie Song

GSBS Student Publications

Two major factors hampering the broad use of rapid prototyped biomaterials for tissue engineering applications are the requirement for custom-designed or expensive research-grade three-dimensional (3-D) printers and the limited selection of suitable thermoplastic biomaterials exhibiting physical characteristics desired for facile surgical handling and biological properties encouraging tissue integration. Properly designed thermoplastic biodegradable amphiphilic polymers can exhibit hydration-dependent hydrophilicity changes and stiffening behavior, which may be exploited to facilitate the surgical delivery/self-fixation of the scaffold within a physiological tissue environment. Compared to conventional hydrophobic polyesters, they also present significant advantages in blending with hydrophilic osteoconductive minerals with improved interfacial adhesion ...


Phosphatidic Acid Phospholipase A1 Mediates Er-Golgi Transit Of A Family Of G Protein-Coupled Receptors, Govind Kunduri, Changqing Yuan, Velayoudame Parthibane, Katherine M. Nyswaner, Ritu Kanwar, Kunio Nagashima, Steven G. Britt, Nickita Mehta, Varshika Kotu, Mindy Porterfield, Michael Tiemeyer, Patrick J. Dolph, Usha Acharya, Jairaj K. Acharya 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Phosphatidic Acid Phospholipase A1 Mediates Er-Golgi Transit Of A Family Of G Protein-Coupled Receptors, Govind Kunduri, Changqing Yuan, Velayoudame Parthibane, Katherine M. Nyswaner, Ritu Kanwar, Kunio Nagashima, Steven G. Britt, Nickita Mehta, Varshika Kotu, Mindy Porterfield, Michael Tiemeyer, Patrick J. Dolph, Usha Acharya, Jairaj K. Acharya

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

The coat protein II (COPII)-coated vesicular system transports newly synthesized secretory and membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. Recruitment of cargo into COPII vesicles requires an interaction of COPII proteins either with the cargo molecules directly or with cargo receptors for anterograde trafficking. We show that cytosolic phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 (PAPLA1) interacts with COPII protein family members and is required for the transport of Rh1 (rhodopsin 1), an N-glycosylated G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), from the ER to the Golgi complex. In papla1 mutants, in the absence of transport to the Golgi, Rh1 is ...


Rictor/Mtorc2 Loss In The Myf5 Lineage Reprograms Brown Fat Metabolism And Protects Mice Against Obesity And Metabolic Disease, Chien-Min Hung, Camila Martinez Calejman, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Huawei Li, Clary B. Clish, Simone Hettmer, Amy J. Wagers, David A. Guertin 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rictor/Mtorc2 Loss In The Myf5 Lineage Reprograms Brown Fat Metabolism And Protects Mice Against Obesity And Metabolic Disease, Chien-Min Hung, Camila Martinez Calejman, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Huawei Li, Clary B. Clish, Simone Hettmer, Amy J. Wagers, David A. Guertin

GSBS Student Publications

The in vivo functions of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and the signaling mechanisms that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) fuel utilization and activity are not well understood. Here, by conditionally deleting Rictor in the Myf5 lineage, we provide in vivo evidence that mTORC2 is dispensable for skeletal muscle development and regeneration but essential for BAT growth. Furthermore, deleting Rictor in Myf5 precursors shifts BAT metabolism to a more oxidative and less lipogenic state and protects mice from obesity and metabolic disease at thermoneutrality. We additionally find that Rictor is required for brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro and ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


The Role Of The N-Terminus On The Enzymatic Activity Of Dutpase From Dictyostelium Discoideum, Kyle C. Varon 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Role Of The N-Terminus On The Enzymatic Activity Of Dutpase From Dictyostelium Discoideum, Kyle C. Varon

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The enzyme deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) (EC 3.6.1.23) converts dUTP to dUMP, thus shifting the dUTP to dUMP ratio in the cell. The molecule dUTP is subject to mis-incorporation into DNA due to lack of distinguishing by DNA polymerase. Uracil incorporation can be repaired with base excision repair mechanisms but may create overwhelming DNA strand breaks proving to be detrimental to the cell. Most dUTPases of eukaryotes are homotrimeric and contain five highly conserved motifs responsible for catalysis and substrate binding. Many dUTPases of eukaryotes possess a leading and core region in their sequence. The core region is ...


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