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Insect Developmental Plasticity: The Role In A Changing Environment, Lindsey A. Barnes 2021 University of Louisville

Insect Developmental Plasticity: The Role In A Changing Environment, Lindsey A. Barnes

The Cardinal Edge

Climate change has been recognized as a severe threat to biodiversity. In the rapidly growing collection of literature on the consequences of global change, researchers have recently noticed a dramatic decrease in insect populations in a wide range of habitats. Insects are extremely susceptible to climatic change, especially with regard to fluctuations in moisture and temperature. However, insects often exhibit phenotypic plasticity, where organisms will express different phenotypes when presented with a specific environmental stimulus. In developmental plasticity, environmental stimuli at the larval stage can determine adult phenotypes. This review focuses on case studies of developmental plasticity in insects, with ...


A Literature Review On The Development Of Upper Limbs In Humans, Anh T. Phan 2021 University of Louisville

A Literature Review On The Development Of Upper Limbs In Humans, Anh T. Phan

The Cardinal Edge

The development of tetrapod upper limbs shares an evolutionary origin and has been adapted and specialized for different functions for different species, such as flight in birds, swimming and balance in sea mammals, and coordination and grabbing objects in humans. The basis of tetrapod limb development has common developmental patterns, starting with the formation of the limb bud via Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, where later developmental steps are modified for specialized functions. This review covers the basic developmental patterns of mammalian tetrapod development seen in humans, beginning with the formation of the limb bud, to the axis development of the ...


Dentinogenesis Imperfecta: The Genetic Causes And Outcomes, Sydney P. Johnson Ms. 2021 University of Louisville

Dentinogenesis Imperfecta: The Genetic Causes And Outcomes, Sydney P. Johnson Ms.

The Cardinal Edge

Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) is a genetic disorder characterized by dentin discoloration, tooth development irregularities, and decreased tooth strength. This autosomal dominant disorder is identified in individuals of all ages. There are three classifications of dentinogenesis imperfecta, each with varying presentations and causes. This report covers normal tooth development (odontogenesis), DI development, DI classifications, and the genes involved in this genetic disorder.


Inner Ear Development And Advances In Inner Ear Organoid Formation, Paige Avery 2021 University of Louisville

Inner Ear Development And Advances In Inner Ear Organoid Formation, Paige Avery

The Cardinal Edge

The inner ear houses the cochlea which contains hair cells responsible for the transduction of sound waves. The process of forming these hair cells responsible for hearing is a complicated process consisting of many signaling factors that allow ectoderm to form into the otic placode, the otic vesicle, and finally prosensory cells such as hair cells (Schlosser, 2006). Loss of these hair cells contributes to deafness and hearing loss throughout life, and regeneration of these cells may serve as a therapeutic agent for those with irreversible damage. This review looks at the development of the otic placode and hair cells ...


Mechanisms Of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure On Causing Developmental Defects Associated With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders, Jordan M. Powell 2021 University of Louisville

Mechanisms Of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure On Causing Developmental Defects Associated With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders, Jordan M. Powell

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


Metamorphosis In Amphibians And The Role Of Thyroid Hormone, Hallie Maxwell 2021 University of Louisville

Metamorphosis In Amphibians And The Role Of Thyroid Hormone, Hallie Maxwell

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Alcohol On The Developing Drosophila Nervous System, Erica E. Hassoun, Erica E. Hassoun 2021 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Alcohol On The Developing Drosophila Nervous System, Erica E. Hassoun, Erica E. Hassoun

The Cardinal Edge

Ethanol is the most common human teratogen, contributing to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) when effects are the most severe. Key effects of fetal alcohol syndrome are observed in the nervous system. The high prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure necessitates novel treatment and prevention methods. However, ethical issues prevent researching humans in utero. For this reason, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a model organism for studying FAS. Because Drosophila is a small and non-placental organism, its environment can be easily controlled, allowing for specific doses and time periods of ethanol exposure to be studied. This review discusses findings ...


The Effects Of Ppal-1 In Arabidopsis Gamete Development, Amanda J White, Susana Perez-Martinez, Mark P. Running 2021 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Ppal-1 In Arabidopsis Gamete Development, Amanda J White, Susana Perez-Martinez, Mark P. Running

The Cardinal Edge

Prenylation is a type of post-translational modification in which a 15- or 20-carbon lipid is added to the carboxyl (C) terminus of the protein. Arabidopsis thaliana contains the PROTEIN PRENYLTRANSFERASE ALPHA SUBUNIT-LIKE (PPAL) gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the α-subunits of the three known prenylation enzymes, PFT, PGGT, and Rab-GGT. We previously identified two mutations in PPAL, one of which is ppal-1, which contains a T-DNA insertion in the fourth intron. We have previously observed that self-fertilizing heterozygous ppal-1 plants produce progeny in which homozygous ppal-1 is underrepresented. This project attempts to ascertain possible affects of ppal-1 ...


Proteoglycan-4 Is An Essential Regulator Of Synovial Macrophage Polarization And Inflammatory Macrophage Joint Infiltration, Marwa Qadri, Gregory D. Jay, Ling X. Zhang, Tannin A. Schmidt, Jennifer Totonchy, Khaled A. Elsaid 2021 Chapman University

Proteoglycan-4 Is An Essential Regulator Of Synovial Macrophage Polarization And Inflammatory Macrophage Joint Infiltration, Marwa Qadri, Gregory D. Jay, Ling X. Zhang, Tannin A. Schmidt, Jennifer Totonchy, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Synovial macrophages perform a multitude of functions that include clearance of cell debris and foreign bodies, tissue immune surveillance, and resolution of inflammation. The functional diversity of macrophages is enabled by distinct subpopulations that express unique surface markers. Proteoglycan-4 (PRG4) is an important regulator of synovial hyperplasia and fibrotic remodeling, and the involvement of macrophages in PRG4’s synovial role is yet to be defined. Our objectives were to study the PRG4’s importance to macrophage homeostatic regulation in the synovium and infiltration of pro-inflammatory macrophages in acute synovitis and investigate whether macrophages mediated synovial fibrosis in Prg4 gene-trap ...


Metabolic Control Of Stem Cell Ageing And Longevity Through Caloric Restriction, Valerie Navarrete 2021 Yale University

Metabolic Control Of Stem Cell Ageing And Longevity Through Caloric Restriction, Valerie Navarrete

The Yale Undergraduate Research Journal

While prior studies have identified recurring genetic patterns, gaps of knowledge still remain in existing aging mechanisms; where they originate, and how they offer insight to environmental disruptions that dictate health over time. Given the inescapability of age-related deterioration and pathology, stitching together current literature may help demystify the biological process common to all living mammals. The physiological disruption of aged tissue reflects a cellular dependence on environmental cues and historical wear. Retaining the capacity to differentiate into any cell type, a stem cell best parallels a call-and-response relationship between organ and cell. As the longest living proliferative cell in ...


The Role Of Tbx2 In Germ Layer Suppression And Dorsoventral Patterning During Early Vertebrate Development, Shoshana Reich 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Tbx2 In Germ Layer Suppression And Dorsoventral Patterning During Early Vertebrate Development, Shoshana Reich

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The differentiation of the three primary germ layers is precisely regulated by inductive cues, the intracellular networks through which these signals are transduced, and a broad array of nuclear proteins, such as transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers. Precise regulation of these various factors is crucial to proper development. Members of the T-box family of DNA-binding proteins play a prominent role in the differentiation of the three primary germ layers. VegT, Brachyury, and Eomesodermin function as transcriptional activators, are expressed in the presumptive mesendoderm and, in addition to directly activating the transcription of endoderm- and mesoderm-specific genes, serve variously as regulators ...


Identification Of Phenotypic Defects In The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Ztf-29, Trae Dunn 2021 Kennesaw State University

Identification Of Phenotypic Defects In The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Ztf-29, Trae Dunn

Symposium of Student Scholars

Aging and many aging-associated diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and cancer are characterized by a progressive decline in physiological functions and a decline in the ability to respond to stress. The underlying causes for many aging-associated diseases are unknown. Identifying genes that control normal aging will advance our understanding of the molecular changes that underlie the aging process and might help treat age-associated diseases. In order to get a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind these diseases, we utilize the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to examine defects in physiology and aging.

The human PRDM genes ...


Temperature Changes Seen In Lower Extremities After Cpn Local Anesthetic Block, Lora Asberry 2021 Kennesaw State University

Temperature Changes Seen In Lower Extremities After Cpn Local Anesthetic Block, Lora Asberry

Symposium of Student Scholars

Many older patients often suffer from walking issues such as Drop Foot. Drop Foot is caused by the malfunction of nerves in the foot, resulting in the loss of control of the front foot muscle. Within all of our patients, there has been a common fibular palsy, caused by the entrapment of the peroneal nerve. Due to this, they cannot lift up their foot. Some cases are permanent, while others are temporary. In the temporary cases, we have indicated a Phoenix Sign. The Phoenix Sign indicates that a nerve, presumed to be dead, has the capability to be recessed back ...


Complimenting A Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Mutation Using Cell Penetrating Peptides, Matthew McKenzie 2021 Kennesaw State University

Complimenting A Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Mutation Using Cell Penetrating Peptides, Matthew Mckenzie

Symposium of Student Scholars

Complimenting a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutation Using Cell Penetrating Peptides

Matthew McKenzie and Jennifer L. Cooper

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photosynthetic model organism most notable for its easily manipulatable genetics. C. reinhardtii uses flagella to swim and optimize its growth conditions in the light. We plan to use cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to compliment C. reinhardtii that is affected with the IFT46 mutation. Cell penetrating peptides are short peptides that can move across a cell membrane. The novel CPP that we are using is called TaT-CaM. It consists of the trans-activator of transcription (TaT) and the calmodulin domain (CaM) that binds ...


The Role Of Proneural Transcription Factor Ngn-1/Neurogenin During Caenorhabditis Elegans Embryonic Development, Michaela Diane Crego 2021 Kennesaw State University

The Role Of Proneural Transcription Factor Ngn-1/Neurogenin During Caenorhabditis Elegans Embryonic Development, Michaela Diane Crego

Symposium of Student Scholars

Accurate control of neuronal cell identification and movement is crucial to embryonic development. Defects in this process can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, creating an imperative for further study. The transcription factor neurogenin is required for multiple neurodevelopmental processes during vertebrate embryonic development and mutations in this gene underpin multiple human neurological disorders. Despite this, little is known about how this gene controls nervous system development and function. Neurogenin is deeply conserved across phyla. As such, we can investigate neurogenin function in simple systems such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has a close ortholog of neurogenin, ngn-1. Previous work in ...


Understanding Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Muscle Type Specificity, Geoffrey Andrews 2021 Kennesaw State University

Understanding Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Muscle Type Specificity, Geoffrey Andrews

Symposium of Student Scholars

Skeletal muscle is a compound tissue made of individual muscle fibers. To accommodate everyday activities, such as walking, running, jumping, etc., our muscles are composed of several types of fibers, each expressing a unique set of muscle genes. Interestingly, early in development all muscles in the body are made of the same fiber type, but later they acquire different properties. The mechanism of muscle fiber diversity is not clear, although it may be critical in treating muscle-related diseases or enhancing physical performance. The goal of my project is to identify critical genes and possible mechanisms that control the fate of ...


Determining Malignancy: Can Mammogram Results Help Predict The Diagnosis Of Breast Tumors?, Taylor Behrens 2021 Kennesaw State University

Determining Malignancy: Can Mammogram Results Help Predict The Diagnosis Of Breast Tumors?, Taylor Behrens

Symposium of Student Scholars

Even with advancements in treatment and preventative care, breast cancer remains an epidemic claiming more than 40,000 American male and female lives each year. The mammogram dataset that I am analyzing was initially complied in the early 1990s by a team from the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Past research diagnoses breast cancer from fine-needle aspirates. My research focuses on predicting whether we can determine breast cancer diagnoses without the use of invasive procedures and, in particular, whether we can predict breast cancer based on mammogram data. Do measures of gray-scale texture, radius, concavity, perimeter, compactness, area, and smoothness of ...


Epigenomics Of Post-Testicular Sperm Maturation, Carolina Galan 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Epigenomics Of Post-Testicular Sperm Maturation, Carolina Galan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Beyond the haploid genome, mammalian sperm carry a payload of epigenetic information with the potential to modulate offspring phenotype. Morphologically mature sperm exit the testes, but cannot swim or interact with the oocyte without extensive remodeling during epididymal transit; this includes modifications to the lipid composition of the sperm membrane, gain of necessary proteins, and a dramatic shift in sperm RNA content. Epididymal maturation has also been linked to changes in the sperm methylome suggesting that the epididymis might play a broader role in shaping the sperm epigenome. First, we characterized the genome-wide methylation landscape in seven germ cell populations ...


Numerical Simulation Of Adaptive Metabolic Response To Anti-Angiogenic Treatment In Renal Cell Carcinoma, Saranya Varakunan 2021 Western University

Numerical Simulation Of Adaptive Metabolic Response To Anti-Angiogenic Treatment In Renal Cell Carcinoma, Saranya Varakunan

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Renal cell carcinoma, a malignant kidney cancer, is often treated using anti-angiogenic drugs to prevent the growth of blood vessels within the tumour. Although tumours initially respond to this treatment, they eventually develop resistance. This resistance is hypothesized to be caused by a switch to a symbiotic metabolism that allows cells to survive even with a low blood supply.

This project seeks to computationally model the transport of oxygen, lactate, and glucose within a tumour in order to examine how cancer metabolism adapts to changes in blood vessels.


Tail-Anchored Protein Insertion Under Er Stress Conditions: Calcium Is Key, Matthew Jordan, Malaiyalam Mariappan 2021 Yale University

Tail-Anchored Protein Insertion Under Er Stress Conditions: Calcium Is Key, Matthew Jordan, Malaiyalam Mariappan

The Yale Undergraduate Research Journal

Tail-anchored (TA) membrane proteins are critical for protein translocation, intracellular trafficking, and programmed cell death. TA proteins contain hydrophobic transmembrane domains and traverse through the cytosol to post-translationally insert into cellular membranes. It is unclear how this post-translational insertion is affected by Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress. Here, we find that TA protein insertion is significantly reduced with ER stress inducer thapsigargin (Tg), a calcium pump inhibitor that blocks the import of calcium into the ER causing ER stress, but not when treated with other ER stress inducers. Interestingly, out data suggests that increased calcium in the cytosol may decrease TA ...


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