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Utilizing Fluorescence Microscopy To Characterize The Subcellular Distribution Of The Novel Protein Acheron, Varun Sheel 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Utilizing Fluorescence Microscopy To Characterize The Subcellular Distribution Of The Novel Protein Acheron, Varun Sheel

Masters Theses

All cells carry the genetic machinery required to commit cell suicide; a process known as programmed cell death (PCD). While the ability to initiate PCD serves a number of useful purposes during development and homeostasis, misregulation of PCD is the underlying basis of most human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity disorders and neurodegeneration. Using the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta as a model organism, the Schwartz lab at UMass has demonstrated that PCD requires de novo gene expression and has cloned many death-associated genes. One of these genes encodes a novel protein that was named Acheron after one of the rivers of ...


Insect Developmental Plasticity: The Role In A Changing Environment, Lindsey A. Barnes 2021 University of Louisville

Insect Developmental Plasticity: The Role In A Changing Environment, Lindsey A. Barnes

The Cardinal Edge

Climate change has been recognized as a severe threat to biodiversity. In the rapidly growing collection of literature on the consequences of global change, researchers have recently noticed a dramatic decrease in insect populations in a wide range of habitats. Insects are extremely susceptible to climatic change, especially with regard to fluctuations in moisture and temperature. However, insects often exhibit phenotypic plasticity, where organisms will express different phenotypes when presented with a specific environmental stimulus. In developmental plasticity, environmental stimuli at the larval stage can determine adult phenotypes. This review focuses on case studies of developmental plasticity in insects, with ...


A Literature Review On The Development Of Upper Limbs In Humans, Anh T. Phan 2021 University of Louisville

A Literature Review On The Development Of Upper Limbs In Humans, Anh T. Phan

The Cardinal Edge

The development of tetrapod upper limbs shares an evolutionary origin and has been adapted and specialized for different functions for different species, such as flight in birds, swimming and balance in sea mammals, and coordination and grabbing objects in humans. The basis of tetrapod limb development has common developmental patterns, starting with the formation of the limb bud via Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, where later developmental steps are modified for specialized functions. This review covers the basic developmental patterns of mammalian tetrapod development seen in humans, beginning with the formation of the limb bud, to the axis development of the ...


Dentinogenesis Imperfecta: The Genetic Causes And Outcomes, Sydney P. Johnson Ms. 2021 University of Louisville

Dentinogenesis Imperfecta: The Genetic Causes And Outcomes, Sydney P. Johnson Ms.

The Cardinal Edge

Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) is a genetic disorder characterized by dentin discoloration, tooth development irregularities, and decreased tooth strength. This autosomal dominant disorder is identified in individuals of all ages. There are three classifications of dentinogenesis imperfecta, each with varying presentations and causes. This report covers normal tooth development (odontogenesis), DI development, DI classifications, and the genes involved in this genetic disorder.


Inner Ear Development And Advances In Inner Ear Organoid Formation, Paige Avery 2021 University of Louisville

Inner Ear Development And Advances In Inner Ear Organoid Formation, Paige Avery

The Cardinal Edge

The inner ear houses the cochlea which contains hair cells responsible for the transduction of sound waves. The process of forming these hair cells responsible for hearing is a complicated process consisting of many signaling factors that allow ectoderm to form into the otic placode, the otic vesicle, and finally prosensory cells such as hair cells (Schlosser, 2006). Loss of these hair cells contributes to deafness and hearing loss throughout life, and regeneration of these cells may serve as a therapeutic agent for those with irreversible damage. This review looks at the development of the otic placode and hair cells ...


Mechanisms Of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure On Causing Developmental Defects Associated With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders, Jordan M. Powell 2021 University of Louisville

Mechanisms Of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure On Causing Developmental Defects Associated With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders, Jordan M. Powell

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


Metamorphosis In Amphibians And The Role Of Thyroid Hormone, Hallie Maxwell 2021 University of Louisville

Metamorphosis In Amphibians And The Role Of Thyroid Hormone, Hallie Maxwell

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Alcohol On The Developing Drosophila Nervous System, Erica E. Hassoun, Erica E. Hassoun 2021 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Alcohol On The Developing Drosophila Nervous System, Erica E. Hassoun, Erica E. Hassoun

The Cardinal Edge

Ethanol is the most common human teratogen, contributing to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) when effects are the most severe. Key effects of fetal alcohol syndrome are observed in the nervous system. The high prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure necessitates novel treatment and prevention methods. However, ethical issues prevent researching humans in utero. For this reason, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a model organism for studying FAS. Because Drosophila is a small and non-placental organism, its environment can be easily controlled, allowing for specific doses and time periods of ethanol exposure to be studied. This review discusses findings ...


The Effects Of Ppal-1 In Arabidopsis Gamete Development, Amanda J White, Susana Perez-Martinez, Mark P. Running 2021 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Ppal-1 In Arabidopsis Gamete Development, Amanda J White, Susana Perez-Martinez, Mark P. Running

The Cardinal Edge

Prenylation is a type of post-translational modification in which a 15- or 20-carbon lipid is added to the carboxyl (C) terminus of the protein. Arabidopsis thaliana contains the PROTEIN PRENYLTRANSFERASE ALPHA SUBUNIT-LIKE (PPAL) gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the α-subunits of the three known prenylation enzymes, PFT, PGGT, and Rab-GGT. We previously identified two mutations in PPAL, one of which is ppal-1, which contains a T-DNA insertion in the fourth intron. We have previously observed that self-fertilizing heterozygous ppal-1 plants produce progeny in which homozygous ppal-1 is underrepresented. This project attempts to ascertain possible affects of ppal-1 ...


Gaps In Public Awareness About Brca And Genetic Testing In Prostate Cancer: Social Media Landscape Analysis, Stacy Loeb, Philip Massey, Amy Leader, Sameer Thakker, Emily Falge, Sabina Taneja, Nataliya Byrne, Meredith Rose, Matthew Joy, Dawn Walter, Matthew S Katz, Risa L Wong, Preethi Selvan, Scott W Keith, Veda N. Giri 2021 New York University School of Medicine

Gaps In Public Awareness About Brca And Genetic Testing In Prostate Cancer: Social Media Landscape Analysis, Stacy Loeb, Philip Massey, Amy Leader, Sameer Thakker, Emily Falge, Sabina Taneja, Nataliya Byrne, Meredith Rose, Matthew Joy, Dawn Walter, Matthew S Katz, Risa L Wong, Preethi Selvan, Scott W Keith, Veda N. Giri

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing, particularly for BRCA1/2, is increasingly important in prostate cancer (PCa) care, with impact on PCa management and hereditary cancer risk. However, the extent of public awareness and online discourse on social media is unknown, and presents opportunities to identify gaps and enhance population awareness and uptake of advances in PCa precision medicine.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize activity and engagement across multiple social media platforms (Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube) regarding BRCA and genetic testing for PCa compared with breast cancer, which has a long history of public awareness, advocacy, and prominent social ...


Proteoglycan-4 Is An Essential Regulator Of Synovial Macrophage Polarization And Inflammatory Macrophage Joint Infiltration, Marwa Qadri, Gregory D. Jay, Ling X. Zhang, Tannin A. Schmidt, Jennifer Totonchy, Khaled A. Elsaid 2021 Chapman University

Proteoglycan-4 Is An Essential Regulator Of Synovial Macrophage Polarization And Inflammatory Macrophage Joint Infiltration, Marwa Qadri, Gregory D. Jay, Ling X. Zhang, Tannin A. Schmidt, Jennifer Totonchy, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Synovial macrophages perform a multitude of functions that include clearance of cell debris and foreign bodies, tissue immune surveillance, and resolution of inflammation. The functional diversity of macrophages is enabled by distinct subpopulations that express unique surface markers. Proteoglycan-4 (PRG4) is an important regulator of synovial hyperplasia and fibrotic remodeling, and the involvement of macrophages in PRG4’s synovial role is yet to be defined. Our objectives were to study the PRG4’s importance to macrophage homeostatic regulation in the synovium and infiltration of pro-inflammatory macrophages in acute synovitis and investigate whether macrophages mediated synovial fibrosis in Prg4 gene-trap ...


Metabolic Control Of Stem Cell Ageing And Longevity Through Caloric Restriction, Valerie Navarrete 2021 Yale University

Metabolic Control Of Stem Cell Ageing And Longevity Through Caloric Restriction, Valerie Navarrete

The Yale Undergraduate Research Journal

While prior studies have identified recurring genetic patterns, gaps of knowledge still remain in existing aging mechanisms; where they originate, and how they offer insight to environmental disruptions that dictate health over time. Given the inescapability of age-related deterioration and pathology, stitching together current literature may help demystify the biological process common to all living mammals. The physiological disruption of aged tissue reflects a cellular dependence on environmental cues and historical wear. Retaining the capacity to differentiate into any cell type, a stem cell best parallels a call-and-response relationship between organ and cell. As the longest living proliferative cell in ...


College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, September 2021, College Of Natural Sciences 2021 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, September 2021, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 2, Issue 9.

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2 Awards and Recognition
Page 3 Student Clubs in Natural Science
Page 4 Media Coverage of CNS
Page 5 Hobo Day Festivities
Page 6 Open PRAIRIE Data; Grants Awarded in CNS
Page 7 One Day for State Recap


Study Of The Gain-Of-Function Mutant P53 And Parp1 In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Devon Lundine 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Study Of The Gain-Of-Function Mutant P53 And Parp1 In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Devon Lundine

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cancer cells often lose expression of the p53 protein or express mutant forms of p53. Some of these mutant p53 proteins, called gain-of-function mutant p53, have gained oncogenic functions. Previously, our group observed mutant p53 R273H interacts with replicating DNA and upregulates the chromatin localization of several DNA replication factors including PCNA, MCM2-7, and PARP1 (termed the mtp53-PARP-MCM axis). In this thesis, we explore the contribution of mutant p53 and PARP1 in castration-resistant prostate cancer (mutant p53 P223L and V274F) and triple-negative breast cancer (mutant p53 R273H). In the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line DU145, we examine two mutant p53 ...


The Role Of Tbx2 In Germ Layer Suppression And Dorsoventral Patterning During Early Vertebrate Development, Shoshana Reich 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Tbx2 In Germ Layer Suppression And Dorsoventral Patterning During Early Vertebrate Development, Shoshana Reich

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The differentiation of the three primary germ layers is precisely regulated by inductive cues, the intracellular networks through which these signals are transduced, and a broad array of nuclear proteins, such as transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers. Precise regulation of these various factors is crucial to proper development. Members of the T-box family of DNA-binding proteins play a prominent role in the differentiation of the three primary germ layers. VegT, Brachyury, and Eomesodermin function as transcriptional activators, are expressed in the presumptive mesendoderm and, in addition to directly activating the transcription of endoderm- and mesoderm-specific genes, serve variously as regulators ...


Identification Of Phenotypic Defects In The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Ztf-29, Trae Dunn 2021 Kennesaw State University

Identification Of Phenotypic Defects In The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Ztf-29, Trae Dunn

Symposium of Student Scholars

Aging and many aging-associated diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and cancer are characterized by a progressive decline in physiological functions and a decline in the ability to respond to stress. The underlying causes for many aging-associated diseases are unknown. Identifying genes that control normal aging will advance our understanding of the molecular changes that underlie the aging process and might help treat age-associated diseases. In order to get a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind these diseases, we utilize the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to examine defects in physiology and aging.

The human PRDM genes ...


Temperature Changes Seen In Lower Extremities After Cpn Local Anesthetic Block, Lora Asberry 2021 Kennesaw State University

Temperature Changes Seen In Lower Extremities After Cpn Local Anesthetic Block, Lora Asberry

Symposium of Student Scholars

Many older patients often suffer from walking issues such as Drop Foot. Drop Foot is caused by the malfunction of nerves in the foot, resulting in the loss of control of the front foot muscle. Within all of our patients, there has been a common fibular palsy, caused by the entrapment of the peroneal nerve. Due to this, they cannot lift up their foot. Some cases are permanent, while others are temporary. In the temporary cases, we have indicated a Phoenix Sign. The Phoenix Sign indicates that a nerve, presumed to be dead, has the capability to be recessed back ...


Complimenting A Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Mutation Using Cell Penetrating Peptides, Matthew McKenzie 2021 Kennesaw State University

Complimenting A Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Mutation Using Cell Penetrating Peptides, Matthew Mckenzie

Symposium of Student Scholars

Complimenting a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutation Using Cell Penetrating Peptides

Matthew McKenzie and Jennifer L. Cooper

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photosynthetic model organism most notable for its easily manipulatable genetics. C. reinhardtii uses flagella to swim and optimize its growth conditions in the light. We plan to use cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to compliment C. reinhardtii that is affected with the IFT46 mutation. Cell penetrating peptides are short peptides that can move across a cell membrane. The novel CPP that we are using is called TaT-CaM. It consists of the trans-activator of transcription (TaT) and the calmodulin domain (CaM) that binds ...


The Role Of Proneural Transcription Factor Ngn-1/Neurogenin During Caenorhabditis Elegans Embryonic Development, Michaela Diane Crego 2021 Kennesaw State University

The Role Of Proneural Transcription Factor Ngn-1/Neurogenin During Caenorhabditis Elegans Embryonic Development, Michaela Diane Crego

Symposium of Student Scholars

Accurate control of neuronal cell identification and movement is crucial to embryonic development. Defects in this process can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, creating an imperative for further study. The transcription factor neurogenin is required for multiple neurodevelopmental processes during vertebrate embryonic development and mutations in this gene underpin multiple human neurological disorders. Despite this, little is known about how this gene controls nervous system development and function. Neurogenin is deeply conserved across phyla. As such, we can investigate neurogenin function in simple systems such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has a close ortholog of neurogenin, ngn-1. Previous work in ...


Understanding Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Muscle Type Specificity, Geoffrey Andrews 2021 Kennesaw State University

Understanding Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Muscle Type Specificity, Geoffrey Andrews

Symposium of Student Scholars

Skeletal muscle is a compound tissue made of individual muscle fibers. To accommodate everyday activities, such as walking, running, jumping, etc., our muscles are composed of several types of fibers, each expressing a unique set of muscle genes. Interestingly, early in development all muscles in the body are made of the same fiber type, but later they acquire different properties. The mechanism of muscle fiber diversity is not clear, although it may be critical in treating muscle-related diseases or enhancing physical performance. The goal of my project is to identify critical genes and possible mechanisms that control the fate of ...


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