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Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie 2023 University of South Dakota

Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie

Dissertations and Theses

Offspring of diabetic and obese mothers (ODOM) have greater risks of heart disease at birth and later in life. However, prevention is hindered because underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mounting studies in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease field suggest that mitochondria play key roles in developmentally programmed heart disease similar to the roles they play in cardiomyopathy in adults with diabetes and obesity. However, whether mitochondria are responsible for the short[1]and long-term cardiac disease seen in ODOM remains unknown. Here, we sought to delineate the roles of mitochondria in the hearts of ODOM, determine whether mitochondria ...


Targeting Of The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway In Cancer Treatment, Andrew J. Hawes 2022 University of Louisville

Targeting Of The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway In Cancer Treatment, Andrew J. Hawes

The Cardinal Edge

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a developmental pathway that is highly conserved evolutionarily. While typically only displaying high activity during embryogenesis, overactivation of the Hh pathway in adults has been linked to multiple forms of cancer including acute myeloid leukemia, myelofibrosis, basal-cell carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adrenal carcinoma, and triple negative breast cancer. The prevalence of Hh activation in many different cancers has made it a prime target for inhibition of these cancers through novel therapies. This literature review sought to assess the current state of cancer treatment through inhibition of Hh signaling. Most current clinical trials involving the pathway ...


Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a family of 60 adhesion-like molecules forming a neural barcode. In vertebrate neurons, 60 Pcdhs are coded by a large gene cluster. Numerous axons in the cluster are coding for the different extracellular, transmembrane, variable portion of the cytoplasmic and constant cytoplasmic domains where their expression is controlled epigenetically. These proteins mediate interactions between axons, dendrites, and glial cells during neural development. Yet, Pcdhs are not strictly adhesion molecules. In the amacrine cells of the retina, Pcdhs promote avoidance of the same cell dendrites, where in the cortex Pcdhs promote interactions between dendrites and astrocytes. In ...


Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) gene is often mutated in cancer, with missense mutations found in the central DNA binding domain, and less often in the oligomerization domain (OD) and C-terminal domain (CTD). The OD and CTD have been found to be critical for the tumor suppressor functionality of wild-type p53 (wtp53). Specific missense mutations in the DNA binding domain have been found to confer new gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Mutations that destabilize tetramer formation, or deletion of key lysine residues within the CTD, downregulate the ability of wtp53 to transactivate (increase the rate of transcription of) its target genes. We ...


Gamma Protocadherin Synaptic Localization And Intracellular Trafficking Is Consistent With Distinct Adhesive And Anti-Adhesive Roles In Development, Nicole LaMassa 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Gamma Protocadherin Synaptic Localization And Intracellular Trafficking Is Consistent With Distinct Adhesive And Anti-Adhesive Roles In Development, Nicole Lamassa

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) constitute a family of cell adhesion molecules with approximately 60 Pcdh genes clustered in a 1 MB locus on chromosome 5q31 in humans. The Pcdh gene cluster is subdivided into α, β, and γ subclusters which encode related proteins. Individual neurons activate different subsets of Pcdh-α, Pcdh-β and Pcdh-γ genes by epigenetic mechanisms to generate distinct Pcdh adhesive units expressed by each neuron. This is thought to serve as a “surface barcode” for single-cell identity and synaptic recognition in the nervous system. The actual role for Pcdhs in neural development is still relatively unknown and different roles ...


Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Marks A Novel Population Of Adult Stem Cells In The Mouse Brain That Respond To Metabolic Interventions By Modulating Adult Brain Plasticity, Gabriel S. Jensen 2022 University of Maine

Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Marks A Novel Population Of Adult Stem Cells In The Mouse Brain That Respond To Metabolic Interventions By Modulating Adult Brain Plasticity, Gabriel S. Jensen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is expressed by quiescent adult stem cells (qASC) in numerous adult murine and human tissues but has never been explored in the adult brain. Here, these data demonstrate that TERT+ cells in the adult mouse brain represent a novel population of multipotent qASCs. TERT+ cells were localized to numerous classical neuro/gliogenic niches including the ventricular-subventricular zone, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb, as well as newly discovered regions of adult tissue plasticity such as the meninges and choroid plexus. TERT+ cells expressed neural stem cell markers such as Nestin and Sox2, but not markers of activated stem ...


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in ...


Establishing The Freestyle 293 Expression System As A Tool To Generate Recombinant Apolipoprotein E In Mammalian Cells, Michaela Cunningham 2022 Bridgewater State University

Establishing The Freestyle 293 Expression System As A Tool To Generate Recombinant Apolipoprotein E In Mammalian Cells, Michaela Cunningham

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating form of dementia with 5 million people suffering from the disease in the United States alone. Thus, there is a need to understand the cause of AD so that therapeutics can be developed to treat it. The greatest risk factor for AD is the APOE gene, which encodes the apolipoprotein Eprotein. Three predominant APOE alleles exist humans, which give rise to three isoforms, called apoE2, E3, and E4. Individuals with apoE4 are ten times more likely to develop AD. In contrast, the apoE2 isoform has a neuroprotective effect and is associated with a ...


Characterization Of Exosomes And Their Role In Cellular Migration In Chemosensitive And Chemoresistant Ovarian Cancer Cells, Courtney McEneaney 2022 Bridgewater State University

Characterization Of Exosomes And Their Role In Cellular Migration In Chemosensitive And Chemoresistant Ovarian Cancer Cells, Courtney Mceneaney

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Chemotherapy-resistant cells that remain after primary cancer treatment lead to recurrence and metastasis, resulting in a poor prognosis for patients. Chemoresistant cells were created by our collaborators using the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR8, by selection of cells that survived serial culture with cisplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic. The cisplatin-resistant cells (OVCAR8R) demonstrate a morphology unique from the original cisplatin-sensitive cells (OVCAR8) which could correlate with their difference in aggressiveness. My research goal is to isolate and characterize exosomes from the OVCAR8 and OVCAR8Rlines. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted from cells and contribute to the tumor microenvironment(TME). It has ...


The Role Of Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase (Mmp14) Expression On Apoptosis Sensitivity In Human Breast Cancer Cells, Roukayah Rifai 2022 Western University

The Role Of Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase (Mmp14) Expression On Apoptosis Sensitivity In Human Breast Cancer Cells, Roukayah Rifai

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A member of the matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP14) plays a crucial role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, as it possesses characteristics that aid in cell proliferation and differentiation. MMP14 domains can bind to FIH-1, which is a protein that can prevent apoptosis in cells when attached to BAX in the mitochondria. This study will investigate the varying expressions of MMP14 on FIH-1 and BAX, and their effects on apoptotic sensitivity. Three cell lines with varying levels of MMP14 expression will be used: C3 (~11 fold), ΔCD (~100 fold), and C2 (~500 fold). With the overexpression of MM14 on the cell ...


Constructing An In Vitro 3d Model Of The Human Placenta, Michael Zheng 2022 Western University

Constructing An In Vitro 3d Model Of The Human Placenta, Michael Zheng

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The placenta is critical for nurturing fetal growth and development, with dysregulated placentation associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The main fetal and maternal placental components consist of trophoblasts and modified endometrial stromal cells known as decidual cells, respectively. Since investigating in vivo placentas in humans through non-invasive methods is challenging, comprehensive in vitro placental models are needed for in-depth studies. However, in vitro 3D placental models that adequately represent and combine fetal and maternal components have been lacking. In this study, we achieved valuable progress in developing an in vitro 3D placental model inclusive of fetal and maternal constituents. We ...


Producing And Measuring Oscillatory Shear In A Novel Microfluidic Chip, Sanaz Lordfard, Daniel Lorusso, Tamie L. Poepping, Hristo N Nikolov, Kayla Soon, Stephen Sims, Jeffrey Dixon, David Holdsworth 2022 Western University

Producing And Measuring Oscillatory Shear In A Novel Microfluidic Chip, Sanaz Lordfard, Daniel Lorusso, Tamie L. Poepping, Hristo N Nikolov, Kayla Soon, Stephen Sims, Jeffrey Dixon, David Holdsworth

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Purpose: To demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel microfluidic device mimicking oscillatory blood flow, allowing cell biologists to examine how endothelial cells respond to a range of oscillatory shear stress levels.

Methods: The microfluidic chip consists of a circular-shaped reservoir, leading to a rectangular channel that is examined under a microscope. The plunger is connected to a speaker system and oscilloscope, allowing the plunger to apply a range of frequencies (5-60Hz) and voltages (5-10 V, leading to a variety in oscillation amplitudes) to the reservoir region. 1.1 um fluorescent particles diluted in distilled water were used for tracking. Processing ...


Subtype-Selective Positive Modulation Of KCa2.3 Channels Increases Cilia Length, Young-Woo Nam, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Denisse Laren-Henriquez, Farideh Amirrad, Grace Yang, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Razan Orfali, Myles Downey, Keykavous Parang, Surya M. Nauli, Miao Zhang 2022 Chapman University

Subtype-Selective Positive Modulation Of KCa2.3 Channels Increases Cilia Length, Young-Woo Nam, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Denisse Laren-Henriquez, Farideh Amirrad, Grace Yang, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Razan Orfali, Myles Downey, Keykavous Parang, Surya M. Nauli, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (KCa2.x) channels are gated exclusively by intracellular Ca2+. The activation of KCa2.3 channels induces hyperpolarization, which augments Ca2+ signaling in endothelial cells. Cilia are specialized Ca2+ signaling compartments. Here, we identified compound 4 that potentiates human KCa2.3 channels selectively. The subtype selectivity of compound 4 for human KCa2.3 over rat KCa2.2a channels relies on an isoleucine residue in the HA/HB helices. Positive modulation of KCa2.3 channels by compound 4 increased flow-induced Ca2 ...


Non-Photic Mechanisms Of Entrainment In Bmal1 Deficient Conditions, Jamie Tran 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Non-Photic Mechanisms Of Entrainment In Bmal1 Deficient Conditions, Jamie Tran

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Maintaining our internal circadian (i.e. 24 -hour) clock is imperative to our daily biological and mental well-being. Large epidemiological studies have shown that disruptions of our circadian rhythms can lead to poor mental health, metabolic diseases, and various types of cancer. Various external cues that have become a part of the modern times such as electricity, shift -work, rapid travel across various time zones, easier access to nutritionally unbalanced food items, and various rigid social demands have deleterious effects on our internal clock, and generally reduce robustness of the circadian clock. The two following projects aim to examine two ...


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME ...


Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Known to cause gas gangrene, Hathewaya histolytica secretes two sister collagenases, collagenase G (Col G) and collagenase H (Col H), to degrade the triple helical structure of collagen to further infection in a host. Individual domains of Col H have been crystalized in previous studies, but methods in x-ray crystallization of full-length Col H have been unsuccessful. Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) data, atomistic modeling was used to generate multiple conformations of Col H while accounting for flexibility between domains. Full-length Col H was found to adopt a two-state conformational model exhibiting a majority compact and a minority elongated ...


College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, July & August 2022, College Of Natural Sciences 2022 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, July & August 2022, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 3, Issue 5

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2 Awards & Recognition
Page 3 Resources for Student Success
Page 4 Welcome to New Faculty & Staff
Page 5 Summer Activities in CNS
Page 9 Celebrating the lives of those who touched the College
Page 10 Media Coverage of CNS
Page 12 Open PRAIRIE Data
Page 13 Snaps from he start of the semester
Page 14 Science as Art Competition




What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu

Doctoral Dissertations

Over the past decade, single-cell technologies evolved from profiling hundreds of cells to millions of cells, and emerged from a single modality of data to cover multiple views at single-cell resolution, including genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and so on. With advance of these single-cell technologies, the booming of multimodal single-cell data creates a valuable resource for us to understand cellular heterogeneity and molecular mechanism at a comprehensive level. However, the large-scale multimodal single-cell data also presents a huge computational challenge for insightful integrative analysis. Here, I will lay out problems in data integration that single-cell research community is interested in and ...


Neonatal Islet-1+ Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell-Derived Exosomes And Their Functional Ability To Regulate Proliferation, Lourdes Ceja 2022 California State University, San Bernardino

Neonatal Islet-1+ Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell-Derived Exosomes And Their Functional Ability To Regulate Proliferation, Lourdes Ceja

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Heart failure affects many people around the world and can lead to disease progression and death. Consequently, new stem and exosome-based therapies are needed to address this major health issue and to provide therapeutic options that will improve outcomes for the increasing number of patients with heart disease. Stem cell-derived exosomes have captivated researchers’ attention over the past couple of years based on their functional role in cellular signaling which highlights the vital component of the secretome of stem and progenitor cells. Since neonates have significantly enhanced regenerative ability, we hypothesized that exosomes isolated from Islet-1+ expressing neonatal human cardiovascular ...


Gaps In Patient Education On Safe Handling And Disposal Of Oral Chemotherapy Drugs: A Pilot Prospective Cohort Survey Study, Sun Yang, Priya Patel, Alexandra Corcoran, Eric Dobberpuhl, Samantha Isidro, Dustin Le, Analise Klassen, Jay Rho, David Tran, Richard Beuttler, Neda Noori Nassr, Katherine Gruenberg, Siu-Fun Wong 2022 Chapman University

Gaps In Patient Education On Safe Handling And Disposal Of Oral Chemotherapy Drugs: A Pilot Prospective Cohort Survey Study, Sun Yang, Priya Patel, Alexandra Corcoran, Eric Dobberpuhl, Samantha Isidro, Dustin Le, Analise Klassen, Jay Rho, David Tran, Richard Beuttler, Neda Noori Nassr, Katherine Gruenberg, Siu-Fun Wong

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Oral anticancer chemotherapy (OC) has been misperceived as being safer than intravenous chemotherapy, leading to its increased risk of improper handling and disposal. This survey study assessed the knowledge, practices and attitudes of pharmacists and patients regarding OC handling and disposal, gaps in knowledge and barriers to patient education. Methods

Surveys were developed based on literature review and pilot study validation results. Patients completed a 33-item paper or electronic survey whereas pharmacists completed a 38-item electronic survey. Descriptive statistics and Fisher’s exact test computed using the R Project were used for analyses. Results

Pharmacist group (16/25, 62 ...


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