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Identification Of Microorganisms Isolated From Mars-Bound Spacecraft Using Maldi-Tof, Melanie K. Phillips 2016 Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo

Identification Of Microorganisms Isolated From Mars-Bound Spacecraft Using Maldi-Tof, Melanie K. Phillips

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

The primary goal of the Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group (BPPG) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to prevent microbial contamination between Earth and other planetary bodies. This helps preserve the ability to study other worlds as they exist in their natural states and protects our biosphere from extraterrestrial life. The process for identifying microbes located on space-bound hardware in JPL can be more efficient and precise by using the technique called matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Once this identification technique is fully implemented, the process time will be reduced from two weeks to one ...


Modeling And Analysis Of Germ Layer Formations Using Finite Dynamical Systems, Alexander Garza, Megan Eberle, Eric A. Eager 2016 University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Modeling And Analysis Of Germ Layer Formations Using Finite Dynamical Systems, Alexander Garza, Megan Eberle, Eric A. Eager

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

The development of an embryo from a fertilised egg to a multicellular organism proceeds through numerous steps, with the formation of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) being one of the first. In this paper we study the mesendoderm (the tissue that collectively gives rise to both mesoderm and endoderm) gene regulatory network for two species, \textit{Xenopus laevis} and the axolotl (\textit{Ambystoma mexicanum}) using Boolean networks. We find that previously-established bistability found in these networks can be reproduced using this Boolean framework, provided that some assumptions used in previously-published differential equations models are relaxed. We conclude by ...


Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PDZ (PSD95/Disc Large/Zona Occludens) domain-containing proteins are scaffolding proteins that play important roles in regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors. Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 (CRFR1) and Serotonin 2A Receptor (5-HT2AR) are two GPCRs that are commonly associated with mental disorders. Both receptors also contain a class I PDZ-binding motif at the carboxyl terminal tail. In the first chapter, we investigate the effects of CAL (CFTR-associated ligand) on regulating the trafficking and signaling of CRFR1. We demonstrate a role for CAL in inhibiting CRFR1 endocytosis, cell surface expression, and CRF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling via the ...


Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton 2016 Western Kentucky University

Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In transcription, a universal step in gene expression, information from a DNA sequence is copied into RNA. A key component in gene expression is the promoter sequence, a region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds during the initiation of transcription of downstream genes. Most bacterial promoters contain a -10 and a -35 sequence that are bound by the RNA polymerase. Some promoters also contain an Upstream Promoter (UP) element. UP elements have been shown to boost promoter activity. We recently identified a new promoter in a mutant bacteriophage that grows on a bacterial host that prevents antitermination of phage ...


Identifying The Effects Of Unprocessed Let-7a-1 And Let-7a-3 In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Hana Kubo, Phillip J. McCown, Andrea L. Kasinski 2016 Purdue University

Identifying The Effects Of Unprocessed Let-7a-1 And Let-7a-3 In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Hana Kubo, Phillip J. Mccown, Andrea L. Kasinski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate protein levels typically by interacting with the 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) of target messenger RNA (mRNAs) and are often aberrantly expressed in cancer. The let-7 miRNA family members are commonly regarded as cancer suppressors, by down-regulating the expression of oncoproteins such as RAS, HMGA2, and MYC. However, prior work indicates that unprocessed let-7 RNAs may be positively correlated with cancer phenotypes in lung cancer cell lines. Our study aims to identify the effects of unprocessed let-7a-1 and let-7a-3 in non-small cell lung cancer, by transfecting plasmids that express unprocessed let-7a-1 and ...


Nanobubbles Provide Theranostic Relief To Cancer Hypoxia, Christopher M. Long, Pushpak N. Bhandari, Joseph Irudayaraj 2016 Purdue University

Nanobubbles Provide Theranostic Relief To Cancer Hypoxia, Christopher M. Long, Pushpak N. Bhandari, Joseph Irudayaraj

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hypoxia is a common motif among tumors, contributing to metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular epigenetic abnormality, and resistance to cancer therapy. Hypoxia also plays a pivotal role in oncological studies, where it can be used as a principal target for new anti-cancer therapeutic methods. Oxygen nanobubbles were designed in an effort to target the hypoxic tumor regions, thus interrupting the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) regulatory pathway and inhibiting tumor progression. At less than 100nm, oxygen nanobubbles act as a vehicle for site-specific oxygen delivery, while also serving as an ultrasound contrast agent for advanced imaging purposes. Through in vitro and in vivo studies ...


Assembly Of Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoparticles By Gas-Liquid Segmented Flow Microfluidics, Matthew L. Capek, Ross VerHeul, David H. Thompson 2016 Purdue University

Assembly Of Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoparticles By Gas-Liquid Segmented Flow Microfluidics, Matthew L. Capek, Ross Verheul, David H. Thompson

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The development of novel and efficient mixing methods is important for optimizing the efficiency of many biological and chemical processes. Tuning the physical and performance properties of nucleic acid-based nanoparticles is one such example known to be strongly affected by mixing efficiency. The characteristics of DNA nanoparticles (such as size, polydispersity, ζ-potential, and gel shift) are important to ensure their therapeutic potency, and new methods to optimize these characteristics are of significant importance to achieve the highest efficacy. In the present study, a simple segmented flow microfluidics system has been developed to augment mixing of pDNA/bPEI nanoparticles. This DNA ...


P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A. Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A. Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Autocrine VEGF signaling is critical for sustaining prostate and other cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is a potential therapeutic target, but we observed that CSCs isolated from prostate tumors are resistant to anti-VEGF (bevacizumab) and anti-VEGFR (sunitinib) therapy. Intriguingly, resistance is mediated by VEGF/neuropilin signaling, which is not inhibited by bevacizumab and sunitinib, and it involves the induction of P-Rex1, a Rac GEF, and consequent Rac1-mediated ERK activation. This induction of P-Rex1 is dependent on Myc. CSCs isolated from the PTEN(pc-/-) transgenic model of prostate cancer exhibit Rac1-dependent resistance to bevacizumab. Rac1 inhibition or P-Rex1 downregulation increases ...


Alcoholic Hepatitis Accelerates Early Hepatobiliary Cancer By Increasing Stemness And Mir-122-Mediated Hif-1alpha Activation, Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Alcoholic Hepatitis Accelerates Early Hepatobiliary Cancer By Increasing Stemness And Mir-122-Mediated Hif-1alpha Activation, Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops with advanced alcoholic liver disease and liver fibrosis. Using adult mice, we evaluate the effect of alcoholic steatohepatitis on early hepatobiliary carcinoma after initiation by diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN). Here we show that alcohol-fed DEN-injected mice have higher ALT and liver-to-body weight ratio compared to pair-fed DEN-injected mice. Alcohol feeding results in steatohepatitis indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic genes. MRI and liver histology of alcohol+DEN mice shows hepatobiliary cysts, early hepatic neoplasia and increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein. Proliferation makers (BrdU, cyclin D1, p53) and cancer stem cell markers (CD133 and nanog) are significantly up-regulated ...


Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and disease in the world. Considerable resources are spent to study and understand cancer, with the hope of developing new treatments and eventually cures that will help millions of people. Efforts to understand cancer are hindered by its inherent complexity and instability. Nonetheless, understanding the basics of tumor development and progression are the key to focused on studying the role of ΔNp63 in cancer, a p53 family member known to be involved in epithelial development, microRNA biogenesis, and stem cell maintenance. Using the strength of in vivo mouse models, we found ...


Blimp-1–Mediated Cd4 T Cell Exhaustion Causes Cd8 T Cell Dysfunction During Chronic Toxoplasmosis, Sujin Hwang, Dustin A. Cobb, Rajarshi Bhadra, Ben Youngblood, Imtiaz A. Khan 2016 George Washington University

Blimp-1–Mediated Cd4 T Cell Exhaustion Causes Cd8 T Cell Dysfunction During Chronic Toxoplasmosis, Sujin Hwang, Dustin A. Cobb, Rajarshi Bhadra, Ben Youngblood, Imtiaz A. Khan

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

CD8, but not CD4, T cells are considered critical for control of chronic toxoplasmosis. Although CD8 exhaustion has been previously reported inToxoplasma encephalitis (TE)–susceptible model, our current work demonstrates that CD4 not only become exhausted during chronic toxoplasmosis but this dysfunction is more pronounced than CD8 T cells. Exhausted CD4 population expressed elevated levels of multiple inhibitory receptors concomitant with the reduced functionality and up-regulation of Blimp-1, a transcription factor. Our data demonstrates for the first time that Blimp-1 is a critical regulator for CD4 T cell exhaustion especially in the CD4 central memory cell subset. Using a ...


High-Sensitivity Mass Spectrometry For Probing Gene Translation In Single Embryonic Cells In The Early Frog (Xenopus) Embryo, Camille Lombard-Banek, Sally Ann Moody, Peter Nemes 2016 George Washington University

High-Sensitivity Mass Spectrometry For Probing Gene Translation In Single Embryonic Cells In The Early Frog (Xenopus) Embryo, Camille Lombard-Banek, Sally Ann Moody, Peter Nemes

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Direct measurement of protein expression with single-cell resolution promises to deepen the understanding of basic molecular processes during normal and impaired development. High-resolution mass spectrometry provides detailed coverage of the proteomic composition of large numbers of cells. Here we discuss recent mass spectrometry developments based on single-cell capillary electrophoresis that extend discovery proteomics to sufficient sensitivity to enable the measurement of proteins in single cells. The single-cell mass spectrometry system is used to detect a large number of proteins in single embryonic cells in blastomeres in the 16-cell embryo of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) that give rise ...


The Overexpression Of Basigin-3 In Glioblastoma, Samantha M. Wightman 2016 Northern Michigan University

The Overexpression Of Basigin-3 In Glioblastoma, Samantha M. Wightman

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive forms of brain tumor. With the current standard of care, survival prognosis for GBM patients is 15 months with a five-year survival rate of less than 3%. An increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cell growth and survival of GBMs may result in novel treatments to target and eradicate the disease. The protein Basigin-2 (aka EMMPRIN) induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes, and its expression level is positively correlated with GBM tumor grade. In 2011, Liao et al. reported that a splice variant of the basigin gene, called ...


Isolation Of Egfr-Containing Early Endosomes., Julie A. Gosney 2016 University of Louisville

Isolation Of Egfr-Containing Early Endosomes., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This spatial regulation of the receptor is an important regulator of receptor expression as it mediates its degradation. Endocytosis also has implications on EGFR downstream signaling, though the details are not fully understood. The goal of this thesis is to develop a method to isolate early endosomes in order to study downstream effectors associated with activated EGFR in this compartment. HeLa cells were used to test various ...


Inhibition Of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Enhances The Tumor Growth Of Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Derived From A Low-Grade Papillary Serous Carcinoma In P53-Independent Pathway, Xue Xiao, Gong Yang, Peng Bai, Shunping Gui, Tri M. Bui Nguyen, +8 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Inhibition Of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Enhances The Tumor Growth Of Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Derived From A Low-Grade Papillary Serous Carcinoma In P53-Independent Pathway, Xue Xiao, Gong Yang, Peng Bai, Shunping Gui, Tri M. Bui Nguyen, +8 Additional Authors

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: NF-kB can function as an oncogene or tumor suppressor depending on cancer types. The role of NF-kB in low-grade serous ovarian cancer, however, has never been tested. We sought to elucidate the function of NF-kB in the low-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Methods: The ovarian cancer cell line, HOC-7, derived from a low-grade papillary serous carcinoma. Introduction of a dominant negative mutant, IkBαM, which resulted in decrease of NF-kB function in ovarian cancer cell lines. The transcription ability, tumorigenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed in derivative cell lines in comparison with parental cells.

Results: Western blot analysis indicated increased ...


Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy

Jay Reddy Publications

Background: We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were reported. Therefore, to characterize its biological and medical significance, we sought to determine and analyze the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911.

Results: Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacers, phenotypic microarray, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-offlight mass spectrometry, we propose that this ...


The Histone H3k9 Demethylase Kdm3a Promotes Anoikis By Transcriptionally Activating Pro-Apoptotic Genes Bnip3 And Bnip3l, Victoria E. Pedanou, Stephane Gobeil, Sebastien Tabaries, Tessa M. Simone, Lihua Julie Zhu, Peter M. Siegel, Michael R. Green 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Histone H3k9 Demethylase Kdm3a Promotes Anoikis By Transcriptionally Activating Pro-Apoptotic Genes Bnip3 And Bnip3l, Victoria E. Pedanou, Stephane Gobeil, Sebastien Tabaries, Tessa M. Simone, Lihua Julie Zhu, Peter M. Siegel, Michael R. Green

Open Access Articles

Epithelial cells that lose attachment to the extracellular matrix undergo a specialized form of apoptosis called anoikis. Here, using large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screening, we find that KDM3A, a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) mono- and di-demethylase, plays a pivotal role in anoikis induction. In attached breast epithelial cells, KDM3A expression is maintained at low levels by integrin signaling. Following detachment, integrin signaling is decreased resulting in increased KDM3A expression. RNAi-mediated knockdown of KDM3A substantially reduces apoptosis following detachment and, conversely, ectopic expression of KDM3A induces cell death in attached cells. We find that KDM3A promotes anoikis through transcriptional activation ...


Cell And Molecular Biology : What We Know & How We Found It (Second Edition, An Annotated Itext), Gerald Bergtrom 2016 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Cell And Molecular Biology : What We Know & How We Found It (Second Edition, An Annotated Itext), Gerald Bergtrom

Cell and Molecular Biology 2e i-Text

No abstract provided.


Cell And Molecular Biology : What We Know & How We Found Out (Second Edition, Sample Chapter), Gerald Bergtrom 2016 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Cell And Molecular Biology : What We Know & How We Found Out (Second Edition, Sample Chapter), Gerald Bergtrom

Cell and Molecular Biology 2e i-Text

No abstract provided.


Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr. 2016 Rockhurst University

Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr.

Journal of Evolution and Health

As rates of overweight and obesity have risen in the US, the public has sought effective strategies for weight loss through dietary modification. A proliferation of processed foods and changing governmental nutrition guidelines have both impacted dietary intake patterns. While physicians are considered respectable sources of weight-loss information, increasingly the public has turned to the media, particularly magazines, for weight loss advice. This study investigated the dietary recommendations found in the five leading US health-related magazines and compared those recommendations to ancestral diets. With a couple notable exceptions, leading health magazines present consistent recommendations for dietary modifications to promote weight ...


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