Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell and Developmental Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

4672 Full-Text Articles 10641 Authors 535047 Downloads 177 Institutions

All Articles in Cell and Developmental Biology

Faceted Search

4672 full-text articles. Page 1 of 167.

Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley 2017 George Washington University

Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley

Integrative Systems Biology Faculty Publications

Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM. By disruption of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2), mitofusins (Mfn1/2), and dynamin related protein 1 ...


Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The body size of an organism can be a crucial determinant of access to nutrition, reproductive success and overall survival in the wild. However, how body size of an individual is determined is incompletely understood. Body size is a complex trait determined by multiple pathways and genes, making it difficult to understand the role of individual genes and pathways in determining overall size. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a homolog of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) is a major regulator of body size; functional loss of DBL-1 leads to a small body size. Due to a drastic change in body size in dbl-1 ...


The P53 Independent Functions Of Estrogen-Activated Mdm2 In Cell Signaling And Mammary Architecture, Nandini Kundu 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The P53 Independent Functions Of Estrogen-Activated Mdm2 In Cell Signaling And Mammary Architecture, Nandini Kundu

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers often have MDM2 overexpression indicating a critical role for MDM2 in breast cancer tumorigenesis. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) found that increased MDM2 expression is one of the four pathways that correlate with all breast cancer subtypes. MDM2 is mainly known as the negative regulator of wild type p53. However, aggressive breast cancers often have MDM2 overexpression and mutant p53 (mtp53). We previously reported that MDM2 provides an estrogen-mediated proliferative advantage to MCF-7 breast cancer cells (ER+, MDM2 overexpression, wild type p53), independent of wild type p53 in both 2D and 3D culture conditions ...


Applied Drug Development And Combinatorial Strategies For Antimicrobial Treatment, Steven K. Lai Hing 2017 Texas A & M University - College Station

Applied Drug Development And Combinatorial Strategies For Antimicrobial Treatment, Steven K. Lai Hing

Andrews Research Conference

Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is a strain of bacteria which produces a lantibiotic product, named mutacin 1140. Mutacin 1140 has been shown to be effective at inhibiting Gram-positive bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mutacin 1140 is a ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotic that undergoes extensive posttranslational modifications (PTM). We have found that Mutacin 1140 and an aminoglycoside, Kanamycin, when combined together, act synergistically against Staphylococcus aureus. This was determined by performing serial kill curve dilution overlays on solid media, followed up with kill curve by microdilution plate, and most recently confirmed with kill curve CFU count plates on ...


Analysis For Science Librarians Of The 2016 Nobel Prize In Physiology Or Medicine: The Life And Work Of Yoshinori Ohsumi, Neyda Gilman 2017 Selected Works

Analysis For Science Librarians Of The 2016 Nobel Prize In Physiology Or Medicine: The Life And Work Of Yoshinori Ohsumi, Neyda Gilman

Neyda Gilman

Autophagy is a cellular process of destruction and recycling. Cellular materials are broken down and recycled as needed, providing the body a way to remove unwanted material while also providing the means to create new needed items. The importance of this process and its possible role in numerous diseases is why Yoshinori Ohsumi has been awarded a 2016 Noble Prize. Ohsumi has been awarded the 2016 Nobel in Physiology or Medicine for his “discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy and thus paving the way for the exciting field of autophagy research” (Nobelprize.org “Press release: The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology ...


Macrophages Are Necessary For Epimorphic Regeneration In African Spiny Mice, Jennifer Simkin, Thomas R. Gawriluk, John C. Gensel, Ashley W. Seifert 2017 University of Kentucky

Macrophages Are Necessary For Epimorphic Regeneration In African Spiny Mice, Jennifer Simkin, Thomas R. Gawriluk, John C. Gensel, Ashley W. Seifert

Biology Faculty Publications

How the immune system affects tissue regeneration is not well understood. In this study, we used an emerging mammalian model of epimorphic regeneration, the African spiny mouse, to examine cell-based inflammation and tested the hypothesis that macrophages are necessary for regeneration. By directly comparing inflammatory cell activation in a 4 mm ear injury during regeneration (Acomys cahirinus) and scarring (Mus musculus), we found that both species exhibited an acute inflammatory response, with scarring characterized by stronger myeloperoxidase activity. In contrast, ROS production was stronger and more persistent during regeneration. By depleting macrophages during injury, we demonstrate a functional requirement for ...


Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana 2017 Seton Hall University

Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The killer peptide sequence D-(KLAKLAK)2 has been originally designed and developed as an antibacterial agent. Despite having excellent cytotoxicity towards bacteria, this sequence maintains low cell cytotoxity in malignant mammalian cell types such as cancer. The chemical basis for its selectivity has been attributed to its poly(cationic) amphiphilic nature, which facilitates cell permeability across the negatively charged bacterial membrane, but with limited permeability across the zwitterionic membrane of mammalian cells. The positively charged D-(KLAKLAK)2 sequence has been found to accumulate on the surface of the mitochondria causing dissipation of the negatively charged mitochondrial membrane potential ...


Excitatory Neurons Sculpt Gabaergic Neuronal Connectivity In The C. Elegans Motor Circuit, Belinda Barbagallo, Alison Philbrook, Denis Touroutine, Navonil Banerjee, Devyn Oliver, Christopher M. Lambert, Michael M. Francis 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Excitatory Neurons Sculpt Gabaergic Neuronal Connectivity In The C. Elegans Motor Circuit, Belinda Barbagallo, Alison Philbrook, Denis Touroutine, Navonil Banerjee, Devyn Oliver, Christopher M. Lambert, Michael M. Francis

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

Establishing and maintaining the appropriate number of GABA synapses is key for balancing excitation and inhibition in the nervous system, though we have only a limited understanding of the mechanisms controlling GABA circuit connectivity. Here, we show that disrupting cholinergic innervation of GABAergic neurons in the C. elegans motor circuit alters GABAergic neuron synaptic connectivity. These changes are accompanied by a reduced frequency and increased amplitude of GABAergic synaptic events. Acute genetic disruption in early development-during the integration of post-embryonic born GABAergic neurons into the circuit-produces irreversible effects on GABAergic synaptic connectivity that mimic those produced by chronic manipulations. In ...


The Regulation Of Rotavirus–Infected Ht29.F8 And Ma104 Cells Treated With Arachidin 1 Or Arachidin 3, Caleb M. Witcher 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

The Regulation Of Rotavirus–Infected Ht29.F8 And Ma104 Cells Treated With Arachidin 1 Or Arachidin 3, Caleb M. Witcher

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rotavirus (RV) infections cause severe life threatening diarrhea in young children and immunocompromised individuals. Several effective vaccines have been developed for young children but are not protective against all strains of RV, and there are no anti-RV therapeutics. Our laboratory has discovered a decrease in the number of infectious simian RV particles (SA114f) in human intestinal cell line, HT29.f8 cells with the addition of either of two stilbenoids, arachidin-1 (A1) or arachidin-3 (A3). This suggests effects on the host cell and RV replication. We examined the cellular effects of human RV strain (Wa) on a human intestinal cell line ...


Rna-Sequencing Reveals Direct Targets Of Tumor Suppressor Mir-203 In Human Mammary Epithelial Cells, Alexander P. Boardman, Victoria E. Pedanou, Tessa M. Simone, Michael R. Green 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rna-Sequencing Reveals Direct Targets Of Tumor Suppressor Mir-203 In Human Mammary Epithelial Cells, Alexander P. Boardman, Victoria E. Pedanou, Tessa M. Simone, Michael R. Green

Senior Scholars Program

Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Since a significant portion of cases present with or progress to metastatic disease, furthering our understanding of metastasis is critical to develop better treatments. Epithelial cells maintain contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) predominantly via integrin engagement, a process required for tissue integrity and barrier function. In non-transformed cells, loss of ECM adhesion promotes a specialized form of programmed cell death, anoikis. In order for efficient metastasis to occur, breast tumor cells must evade anoikis. miR-203, known to be down-regulated in several cancers, was found by our ...


Parp Inhibitor Upregulates Pd-L1 Expression And Enhances Cancer-Associated Immunosuppression, Shiping Jiao 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Parp Inhibitor Upregulates Pd-L1 Expression And Enhances Cancer-Associated Immunosuppression, Shiping Jiao

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

With recent approvals for therapeutic antibodies that block CTLA4, PD-1 and PD-L1, immune checkpoints have emerged as new targets in cancer therapy. In addition, there is accumulating evidence highlighting the role of cancer-associated immunity in patient response to cytotoxic anticancer agents. Inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have shown substantial cytotoxic effects against tumors with defects in DNA damage responses. However, whether a crosstalk between PARP inhibition and immune checkpoints exists remains unclear. Here, it has been shown that PARP inhibitors (PARPis) upregulate PD-L1 expression in multiple cancer cell lines, human xenograft tumors, and syngeneic mouse tumors. Mechanistically, PARPi inactivates ...


Characterization Of The Chea2 Chemotaxis Operon In Azospirillum Brasilense, Erin Lutz 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization Of The Chea2 Chemotaxis Operon In Azospirillum Brasilense, Erin Lutz

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Identification Of A General Targeting Motif Guiding Interaction Between Nuclear-Encoded Plastid Precursors And The Translocon Of The Plastid Outer Membrane, Erika N. Sanders 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Identification Of A General Targeting Motif Guiding Interaction Between Nuclear-Encoded Plastid Precursors And The Translocon Of The Plastid Outer Membrane, Erika N. Sanders

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Myosin Xi-I Works In Tandem With A Microtubule-Associated Mechanism To Position The Nucleus In Arabidopsis Root Hairs, Ian Andrew Windham 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Myosin Xi-I Works In Tandem With A Microtubule-Associated Mechanism To Position The Nucleus In Arabidopsis Root Hairs, Ian Andrew Windham

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Mechanism Of Lck Activation In Driving Leukemia Cell Proliferation, Hannah E. Dobson 2017 University of Rhode Island

Mechanism Of Lck Activation In Driving Leukemia Cell Proliferation, Hannah E. Dobson

Senior Honors Projects

Leukemia is a type of cancer that develops in blood-forming tissues of the immune system. These tissues can include the bone marrow or sites within the lymphatic system such as the lymph nodes. Leukemia progresses from a mutational event within a white blood cell. Often this mutation alters the cell’s normal life cycle, resulting in uninhibited cell division and growth. With this uncontrolled cell proliferation, mutated white blood cells accumulate and begin interfering with the functioning of healthy cells.

Scientists are unsure of the exact mechanisms required for leukemia development. However, recently scientists identified four characteristic mutations in the ...


Thoughts On Similarities Between Artists And Scientists And The Benefits Of Studying Visual Art In The Healthcare Field, Logan Weihe 2017 Murray State University

Thoughts On Similarities Between Artists And Scientists And The Benefits Of Studying Visual Art In The Healthcare Field, Logan Weihe

Honors College Theses

This study assesses the many ways that artists and scientists have similar methods of abstract thinking, intuitive and experimental processes and societal impacts. The exploration of intersections between art and science led to research on how their combination may provide a more fulfilling educational experience for medical students. Furthermore, the use of visuals in healthcare, often created by medical illustrators, ties into the inspiration for my senior art exhibition, “Beloved Microcosm” demonstrating my synthesis of visual art and biological study.


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Maternally Provisioned Cues For Phenotypic Plasticity In The Annual Killifish, Austrofundulus Limnaeus, Amie L. Romney, Jason E. Podrabsky 2017 Portland State University

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Maternally Provisioned Cues For Phenotypic Plasticity In The Annual Killifish, Austrofundulus Limnaeus, Amie L. Romney, Jason E. Podrabsky

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Genotype and environment can interact during development to produce novel adaptive traits that support life in extreme conditions. The development of the annual killifsh Austrofundulus limnaeus is unique among vertebrates because the embryos have distinct cell movements that separate epiboly from axis formation during early development, can enter into a state of metabolic dormancy known as diapause and can survive extreme environmental conditions. The ability to enter into diapause can be maternally programmed, with young females producing embryos that do not enter into diapause. Alternately, embryos can be programmed to “escape” from diapause and develop directly by both maternal ...


Cerebral Lactate Metabolism And Memory: Implications For Alzheimer's Disease, Richard Andrew Harris 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Cerebral Lactate Metabolism And Memory: Implications For Alzheimer's Disease, Richard Andrew Harris

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid plaques that are comprised of aggregated amyloid-beta peptides. These toxic proteins promote mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death. A shift in metabolism away from oxidative phosphorylation and toward aerobic glycolysis, with the concomitant production of lactate, affords neurons a survival advantage against amyloid-beta toxicity. Recent evidence now suggests that aerobic glycolysis in the brain plays a critical role in supporting synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. However, the role of aerobic glycolysis and lactate metabolism in AD-mediated cognitive decline is unknown. My objective was to test the hypotheses that aerobic ...


Identification Of Novel Interactors Of Sec6 Via Genetic Suppressor Screen Using A Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genomic Dna Library, Y. Ellen France PhD, Emily Parrish, Raira Ank, Tristan Peterman, Sarah Mork, Billie Mills, Lindsey Duke, Jyoti Lama 2017 Georgia college and state university

Identification Of Novel Interactors Of Sec6 Via Genetic Suppressor Screen Using A Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genomic Dna Library, Y. Ellen France Phd, Emily Parrish, Raira Ank, Tristan Peterman, Sarah Mork, Billie Mills, Lindsey Duke, Jyoti Lama

Georgia College Student Research Events

Polarized protein secretion is a fundamental process for all organisms, from yeast to higher eukaryotes. The secretory pathway in eukaryotes includes many steps mediated by hundreds of essential proteins. Our interest lies on Sec6, which is an 88kDa protein subunit of the tethering complex named exocyst, which is known to play diverse roles in recognition, tethering, and SNARE-mediated fusion of secretory vesicles. Previous work on Sec6 done by Munson and Songer (2009) explored phenotypes of two novel SEC6 mutant proteins, whose conserved surface amino acids had been altered. Both sec6-49 and sec6-54 mutant alleles displayed severe temperature sensitive growth and ...


Immunolocalization Of A Netrin-3 Like Peptide In Tetrahymena Thermophila Using Antibodies Against The N- And C-Terminus Of The Protein, Bethany C. Khol, Katelyn R. Malik, Heather G. Kuruvilla 2017 Cedarville University

Immunolocalization Of A Netrin-3 Like Peptide In Tetrahymena Thermophila Using Antibodies Against The N- And C-Terminus Of The Protein, Bethany C. Khol, Katelyn R. Malik, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Tetrahymena thermophila are free-living, unicellular, eukaryotic protozoans that live in a variety of aquatic environments. These organisms interact with their environment by responding to chemorepellents and chemoattractants which direct them toward favorable stimuli, such as food, and away from unfavorable stimuli, such as predators. We have previously described two netrin-like proteins, a netrin-1 like protein, and a netrin-3 like protein, which are secreted from Tetrahymena. Both of these proteins act as chemorepellents, and may allow cells to communicate with each other regarding population density, preventing them from outgrowing the available environmental resources. In our current study, we used antibodies against ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress