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The Role Of The Pleckstrin Homology Domain-Containing Protein Ckip-1 In Activation Of P21-Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), Yong-Bae Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Adhiraj Roy, Jeong-Ho Kim 2015 George Washington University

The Role Of The Pleckstrin Homology Domain-Containing Protein Ckip-1 In Activation Of P21-Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), Yong-Bae Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Adhiraj Roy, Jeong-Ho Kim

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Upon growth factor stimulation, PAK1 is recruited to the plasma membrane and activated by a mechanism that requires its phosphorylation at S223 by the protein kinase CK2. However, the upstream signaling molecules that regulate this phosphorylation event are not clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate a major role of the CK2α-interacting protein CKIP-1 in activation of PAK1. CK2α, CKIP-1 and PAK1 are translocated to membrane ruffles in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF), where CKIP-1 mediates the interaction between CK2α, and PAK1 in a PI3K-dependent manner. Consistently, we observe that PAK1 mediates phosphorylation and modulation of the activity of p41-Arc ...


The Role Of The Pleckstrin Homology Domain-Containing Protein Ckip-1 In Activation Of P21-Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), Yong-Bae Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Adhiraj Roy, Jeong-Ho Kim 2015 Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University

The Role Of The Pleckstrin Homology Domain-Containing Protein Ckip-1 In Activation Of P21-Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), Yong-Bae Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Adhiraj Roy, Jeong-Ho Kim

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Upon growth factor stimulation, PAK1 is recruited to the plasma membrane and activated by a mechanism that requires its phosphorylation at S223 by the protein kinase CK2. However, the upstream signaling molecules that regulate this phosphorylation event are not clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate a major role of the CK2a-interacting protein CKIP-1 in activation of PAK1. CK2a, CKIP-1 and PAK1 are translocated to membrane ruffles in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF), where CKIP-1 mediates the interaction between CK2a and PAK1 in a PI3K-dependent manner. Consistently, we observe that PAK1 mediates phosphorylation and modulation of the activity of p41-Arc ...


Cationic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Are Potent Furin Inhibitors, Bruno Ramos-Molina, Adam N. Lick, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Donghoon Oh, Rakesh Tiwari, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Keykavous Parang, Iris Lindberg 2015 University of Maryland-Baltimore

Cationic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Are Potent Furin Inhibitors, Bruno Ramos-Molina, Adam N. Lick, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Donghoon Oh, Rakesh Tiwari, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Keykavous Parang, Iris Lindberg

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Cationic cell-penetrating peptides have been widely used to enhance the intracellular delivery of various types of cargoes, such as drugs and proteins. These reagents are chemically similar to the multi-basic peptides that are known to be potent proprotein convertase inhibitors. Here, we report that both HIV-1 TAT47-57 peptide and the Chariot reagent are micromolar inhibitors of furin activity in vitro. In agreement, HIV-1 TAT47-57 reduced HT1080 cell migration, thought to be mediated by proprotein convertases, by 25%. In addition, cyclic polyarginine peptides containing hydrophobic moieties which have been previously used as transfection reagents also exhibited potent furin inhibition in vitro ...


Mcnamara 2010 Metamatters Newletter Series - Rogers Pmn The Chase And Temporal Area Maps, George McNamara 2015 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Mcnamara 2010 Metamatters Newletter Series - Rogers Pmn The Chase And Temporal Area Maps, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

My four 2010 MetaMorph MetaMatters newsletter articles on "The Chase" (video available for download here on my bepress site) and history / use of temporal area maps.


Characterization Of The Role That Alternative Ribonucleotide Reductases Play In Restoring Replication In The Presence Of Hydroxyurea In Escherichia Coli, Michael Sadek 2015 Portland State University

Characterization Of The Role That Alternative Ribonucleotide Reductases Play In Restoring Replication In The Presence Of Hydroxyurea In Escherichia Coli, Michael Sadek

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

DNA replication is essential for cells to grow and divide. Ribonucleotide reductase is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the formation of deoxyribonucleotides that are used in DNA synthesis during replication. Hydroxyurea is a chemotherapeutic agent that is thought to work by specifically inhibiting the ribonuceotide reductase to prevent replication. However, recent studies in E. coli have shown that following an initial period of inhibition, DNA synthesis then recovers in the presence of hydroxyurea, suggesting that the mode of death and cellular response to hydroxyurea is more complex than originally proposed. The E.coli genome encodes three ribonucleotide reductases ...


Role Of Metabolic Shifts In Protection From Mutation Damage: Characterizing Mitochondrial Membrane Potential In C. Elegans Gas-1 Mutants, Lauren S. Muñoz-Tremblay 2015 Portland State University

Role Of Metabolic Shifts In Protection From Mutation Damage: Characterizing Mitochondrial Membrane Potential In C. Elegans Gas-1 Mutants, Lauren S. Muñoz-Tremblay

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Many terminal human diseases are caused by mutations affecting mitochondrial functioning. Mitochondria are essential organelles responsible for producing cellular energy, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) at mitochondrial electron transport chains (ETC). Proper ETC functioning relies on maintenance of the electrochemical gradient essential for energy production, known as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM). The inner mitochondrial membrane is the site of the ETC and is most closely in contact with the enzymatic processes occurring within the mitochondrial matrix. Mutations affecting protein components of the ETC are especially troublesome for organelle health. ETC mutants commonly express altered ΔψM, as well as ...


Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane 2015 DePaul University

Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane

DePaul Discoveries

Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide5,6. It is estimated that roughly 80% of those infected suffer from persistent infection with the virus; this persistence of infection is progressive, and over time can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma7. Chronic inflammation and apoptotic deregulation are both hallmarks of chronic HCV infection, and many molecular pathways are initiated in both the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection with this viral pathogen. The aim of this review was to survey some of the major molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of chronic ...


Investigating The Fibroblastic Origin Of Skin-Derived Precursors And The Role Of Ccn2 As A Mediator Of Myofibroblastic Differentiation, Matthew Tsang 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Fibroblastic Origin Of Skin-Derived Precursors And The Role Of Ccn2 As A Mediator Of Myofibroblastic Differentiation, Matthew Tsang

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are defined as multipotent spheroid-forming cells cultured from the dermis that express markers of neural crest origin. Recent evidence suggests that tissue fibrosis can occur through the differentiation of progenitor cells into smooth muscle-like myofibroblasts. CCN2, a marker and mediator of fibrosis, is highly expressed during myofibroblast differentiation and is required for skin fibrogenesis. Here, I clarify the cellular origin of SKPs, and the molecular contribution of CCN2 in the myofibroblastic differentiation of SKPs. Using lineage tracing, I show that SKPs originate primarily from Col1a2-expressing dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, I show that differentiation of SKPs into myofibroblasts requires ...


Light Microscopy Reflection Focusing Cells And Coverglass, George McNamara 2015 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Light Microscopy Reflection Focusing Cells And Coverglass, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Light Microscopy Reflection Focusing Cells and Coverglass 20150520Wed

Many light microscopes have the capability of using camera based brightfield, phase contrast, or fluorescence to find the most contrasty specimen focus. When I worked for UIC (1992-1997) we offered this with a combination of Ludl MAC2000 controller, Z-drive, video card thingy, and video camera (most customers at the time used analog video cameras).

Many automated light microscopes now have clever -- and pricey -- autofocus systems based on an NIR LED structured illumination reflecting light off the bottom of the coverglass.

I encourage a simpler approach - my hardware details are in the text ...


Epigenetic Silencing Of Id4 In Prostate Cancer: Mechanistic Insight, Swathi Chinaranagari 2015 Clark Atlanta University

Epigenetic Silencing Of Id4 In Prostate Cancer: Mechanistic Insight, Swathi Chinaranagari

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation protein 4 (ID4) is a dominant negative regulator of basic helix loop helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. ID4 shares the homology of HLH domain with other ID proteins (ID1, ID2, and ID3) and lack the basic DNA binding region. Evidence suggested that unlike ID1, ID2 and ID3, ID4 acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer by attenuating cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Consistent with these observations ID4 is epigenetically silenced in DU145 prostate cancer cell line. In this study we investigated whether ID4 is also epigenetically silenced in prostate cancer. We also examined ...


Environmental Stimuli And Intragenerational Epigenetics, Nicholas J. Napier 2015 Wofford College

Environmental Stimuli And Intragenerational Epigenetics, Nicholas J. Napier

Student Scholarship

Epigenetics is the study of any change in gene expression that is not mediated by DNA sequence. The effects of environmental stimuli on epigenetic changes have been studied extensively in recent years. Multiple reviews have provided comprehensive summations of the effects of environmental stimuli on transgenerational epigenetic changes, but few reviews have focused upon environment-induced intragenerational epigenetic changes. This review will summarize current knowledge of the intragenerational epigenetic changes that are induced by two groups of well-studied environmental stimuli: nutritional deficiencies and carcinogens. This survey of intragenerational epigenetic changes will focus upon the mechanisms behind them, the disorders associated with ...


Exploring Egr-1 As A Master Regulator Of Prostate Field Cancerization, Kristin Gabriel, Marco Bisoffi 2015 Chapman University

Exploring Egr-1 As A Master Regulator Of Prostate Field Cancerization, Kristin Gabriel, Marco Bisoffi

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Field cancerization denotes the presence of molecular aberrations (genetic, epigenetic, biochemical) in structurally intact cells residing in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Markers of field cancerization in prostate tissues have the potential to improve the clinical management of this malignancy through their potential to act as indicators of early disease and to serve as molecular targets for early intervention. However, for this, a detailed understanding of the functional pathways underlying field cancerization is necessary. We have recently identified four protein markers of prostate field cancerization, i.e. the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1), the lipogenic enzyme ...


Prostate Field Cancerization – Thinking Outside The Tumor, Dor Shoshan 2015 Chapman University

Prostate Field Cancerization – Thinking Outside The Tumor, Dor Shoshan

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Analysis of tumor adjacent tissue is assumed to reveal a temporal record of molecular pathways that define oncogenesis. The present study determines expression of the key transcription factor and potential marker of field cancerization early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in human prostate tissues derived from prostatectomies and biopsies. Expression was detected using immunofluorescence and quantified using ImageJ software. Accordingly, EGR-1 expression was similar in cancerous and in histologically normal adjacent tissues from prostatectomy and biopsy specimens. EGR-1 could be exploited as pre-surgical disease indicator in false negative biopsies, identify areas of repeat biopsy, and add molecular information to surgical margins.


Effect Of Curcumin Analog Ca27 On Androgen Receptor Translocation In Prostate Cancer Cells, Lijah Vann Gardner 2015 Chapman University

Effect Of Curcumin Analog Ca27 On Androgen Receptor Translocation In Prostate Cancer Cells, Lijah Vann Gardner

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in promoting the development and progression of metastatic prostate cancer and represents an important molecular target for therapeutic intervention. We have recently described a series of synthetic analogs of the natural product diferuloylmethane (curcumin), some of which induce the down-regulation of AR expression in prostate cancer cells by an as yet largely unknown mechanism of action. While such analogs may in the long term be lead structures for the development of therapeutic drugs, we hypothesize here that they represent ideal molecular probes to identify the mechanism(s) of action for AR down-regulation ...


Analyzation Of Metabolic Reprogramming In Drug-Resistant Mcf-7 Cells, Derick Han, Ho Leung, Andrew Vo 2015 Keck Graduate Institute

Analyzation Of Metabolic Reprogramming In Drug-Resistant Mcf-7 Cells, Derick Han, Ho Leung, Andrew Vo

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The Warburg effect states that cancer cells mainly receive their energy from anaerobic glycolysis. Thus, mitochondria play a different role in the metabolism of cancer cells as opposed to normal, healthy cells. In chemotherapy, there is always a chance of the cancer regressing. Making drug-resistant cancer cells to analyze their metabolism may change how cancer is treated. This study aimed to create drug-resistant MCF-7 cell lines with doxorubicin in order to determine the metabolic changes that have occurred in the process of becoming resistant to drug treatments.


Il-15 Induces Irisin Expression In Skeletal Muscle, James Krolopp, Shantae M. Thornton, Marcia J. Abbott 2015 Chapman University

Il-15 Induces Irisin Expression In Skeletal Muscle, James Krolopp, Shantae M. Thornton, Marcia J. Abbott

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

With the rising rate of obesity, brown adipose tissue(BAT) biology has become an area of interest. BAT is unique because it contains many mitochondria that require more energy than white adipose tissue. Increasing the amount of BAT can create a larger caloric need that can positively affect body composition. IL-15, a myokine, has been shown to activate mitochondrial activity resulting in decreases in fat mass and possibly increase BAT. The purpose of this study was to determine if IL-15 is involved in mediating genes positively associated with BAT. A skeletal muscle cell line was used in these studies and ...


Clinical Applications Of A Combination Chemotherapy Using 8-Chloro Camp And 8-Chloro Adenosine, Erik Munoz, Andrea Saich, Andrew Cox, Yu-An Peter Chang 2015 Chapman University

Clinical Applications Of A Combination Chemotherapy Using 8-Chloro Camp And 8-Chloro Adenosine, Erik Munoz, Andrea Saich, Andrew Cox, Yu-An Peter Chang

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Dr. Cho-Chung from the NIH first thought to use halogenated cAMP derivatives as competitive inhibitors of cAMP to slow down cancer cell mitosis. While the iodine and bromine substituted versions showed very little therapeutic actions, 8-Chloro cAMP has been shown to have strong anti-cancer effects. This has been shown in the phase II clinical trials this drug has undergone. However, these trials have had issues with solubility and toxicity. The drug is similar to vitamin C and is excreted quickly. Scientists tried to overcome this by using a peristaltic pump to give patients a continuous dosage, but this proved too ...


Reverse Gyrase Is Not Necessary For Survival Of Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus Furiosus, Farshid Taghizadeh, Michael S. Bartlett 2015 Portland State University

Reverse Gyrase Is Not Necessary For Survival Of Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus Furiosus, Farshid Taghizadeh, Michael S. Bartlett

Student Research Symposium

Reverse gyrase is the only known topoisomerase enzyme with positive supercoiling activity on covalently-closed DNA. This positive supercoiling is required to prevent DNA from denaturation at high temperatures. The gene that codes for this protein is present in all hyperthermophiles and absent from all mesophilic and thermophilic genomes, suggesting that this enzyme is the only hyperthermophile-specific protein. To investigate if this protein is vital for the cells, we knocked out its gene from the genome of living organism Pyrococcus furiosus. Pyrococcus furiosus is a hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows between 70°C to 103°C with an optimum growth temperature of ...


Deciphering The Functional Collaboration Of Mid And Bric-A-Brac 2 As Potential Regulators Of Cellular Proliferation Within Adult Drosophila Ovaries, Petra Visic 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

Deciphering The Functional Collaboration Of Mid And Bric-A-Brac 2 As Potential Regulators Of Cellular Proliferation Within Adult Drosophila Ovaries, Petra Visic

Master's Theses

Stem cell niches are highly organized and specialized microenvironments located within specific tissues of both vertebrate and invertebrate organisms [1]. In Drosophila melanogaster, three distinct stem cell niches have been identified within the ovary including the germline stem cell (GSC), follicle stem cell (FSC), and escort stem cell (ESC) niche. Recently, Fregoso-Lomas et al. [2] reported that Gurken/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling is modulated within posterior ovarian follicle cells by Midline (Mid). The mid gene encodes a T-box transcription factor protein that specifies cell fates in the developing heart [3][4], central nervous system [5][6], epidermis [7 ...


Effect Of Cmvil-10 On Exosome Production By Human Breast Cancer Cells, Susanna N. Basappa 2015 University of San Francisco

Effect Of Cmvil-10 On Exosome Production By Human Breast Cancer Cells, Susanna N. Basappa

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that infects 70-90% of the general population, primarily the immunocompromised, but has been implicated in several forms of cancer, including breast cancer. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in women in North America, usually from metastasis. Exosomes are 30-100nm vesicles produced by most cells which carry protein and RNA to cells in their microenvironment. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of HCMV-infection of a secreted viral cytokine, cmvIL-10, on exosome production by highly metastatic breast cancer cells.

MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in vitro, and ...


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