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Cancers Of Unknown Primary, Amanpreet Buttar, Laura A. Lambert, James Liebmann, Richard S. Pieters 2015 John Muir Medical Center

Cancers Of Unknown Primary, Amanpreet Buttar, Laura A. Lambert, James Liebmann, Richard S. Pieters

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

Cancers of unknown primary (CUP) are a heterogeneous group of histologically proven metastatic tumors whose primary site can't be determined after a standard diagnostic and pathologic work-up. This chapter in Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist presents provides an overview of cancers of unknown primary, including initial evaluation and principles of treatment.


Investigating Hox Protein Requirement For Tarsus Determination In Drosophila Melanogaster, Samantha Koot 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating Hox Protein Requirement For Tarsus Determination In Drosophila Melanogaster, Samantha Koot

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Generally, all bilaterans examined have similar conservation of HOX protein structure, function, expression, and requirement. However, at the level of being the same, it is unknown whether the HOX protein, Antennapedia, is required for tarsus determination in Drosophila melanogaster as in Tribolium casteneum, or whether the requirement of HOX proteins in determination of body parts diverges in insects. I proposed to use a heat shock-inducible nanobody (UAS- NSlmb-vhhGFP4 driven by hsp-GAL4) activated during the third larval stage in all cells to degrade thoracically expressed HOX proteins (Sex combs reduced, Antennapedia, and Ultrabithorax) tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP) derivatives; GFP ...


Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs Impacts Fetal-Placental Growth And Oxygenation, Alexander Elias 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs Impacts Fetal-Placental Growth And Oxygenation, Alexander Elias

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs results in placental structural abnormalities that reduce nutrient transport contributing to fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether fetal oxygenation is also reduced as a further mediator of altered growth and development remains unknown. Guinea pig sows were fed ad libitum (Controls) or 70% of the control diet pre-pregnant switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Animals were necropsied near term for fetal-placental growth measures, blood metabolites, and markers of tissue hypoxia and oxidative stress. MNR resulted in FGR with brains that are large and livers that are small relative to body weight which suggests ...


Purification Of Recombinant Proteins In Plants Using Small-Molecule Dependent Inteins Fused To Elp Or Hfbi, Kira Liu 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Purification Of Recombinant Proteins In Plants Using Small-Molecule Dependent Inteins Fused To Elp Or Hfbi, Kira Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) and hydrophobins (HFBI) are fusion tags which enhance the accumulation levels of recombinant proteins in plants and aid in the non-chromatographic purification of these proteins. An intein is inserted between the target protein and fusion tag to replace the protease cleavage site. In this study, transient expression of intein-GFP fused to ELP or HFBI in Nicotiana benthamiana yielded the full size fusion protein. The ELP-fused proteins were successfully purified using inverse transition cycling (ITC) with 1.0 M NH4(SO4)2 at room temperature. However, the purification using membrane ITC was unsuccessful due to clogged membrane pores ...


Investigations Into The Modification Of Dna By Doxorubicin Analogs, Hannah Kulm, Stephanie Torres, Chris Mallory, Kenneth Cornell (Mentor), Don Warner (Mentor) 2015 Boise State University

Investigations Into The Modification Of Dna By Doxorubicin Analogs, Hannah Kulm, Stephanie Torres, Chris Mallory, Kenneth Cornell (Mentor), Don Warner (Mentor)

Idaho Conference on Undergraduate Research

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline chemotherapeutic that has seen widespread use to treat numerous cancer types. Its mechanism of action is still unclear, but is thought to include the intercalation of DNA, halting transcription and inducing apoptosis. Although DOX has shown strong antitumor activity, its usage is limited due to a dose-dependent onset of cumulative and irreversible life-threatening cardiac damage. Consequently, the harmful side effects necessitate the need for the production of new, less harmful anthracycline chemotherapeutics with greater effectiveness for the treatment of cancer. Three analogs of DOX (P-DOX, GPX-150 and GPX-160) have been synthesized and determined to have ...


Investigation Of Pancreatic Β-Cell Insulin Receptor Regulation Of Β-Cell Growth, Function, And Survival Via A Temporal Conditional Knockout, Liangyi Zhou 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of Pancreatic Β-Cell Insulin Receptor Regulation Of Β-Cell Growth, Function, And Survival Via A Temporal Conditional Knockout, Liangyi Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The expression of insulin receptor (IR) in β-cells suggests an autocrine role for insulin signalling in β-cell function and regulation. Studies have demonstrated that β-cell Ir knockout (βIrKO) mice develop age-dependent glucose intolerance. We investigated the temporal role of β-cell IR signaling in pre- and postnatal islet development and function, and under high-fat diet stress, using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-recombinase Ir knockout mouse model.

Prenatal βIrKO mice exhibited increased mean islet area, β-cell area, and islet area percentage. Additionally, there was upregulation of insulin-like growth factor-2 levels, increased Akt activity, and increased proliferation in islets. Postnatally-induced βIrKO mice did not exhibit ...


Microengineering The Neural Tube, Christopher Demers 2015 University of Maine - Main

Microengineering The Neural Tube, Christopher Demers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Early embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated orchestra of instructive cues that collectively guide naïve stem cells towards progressively more specialized fates. In the neural tube, the precursor structure to the brain and spinal cord, these signals emanate from ‘organizing centers’ surrounding the neural tube. These organizing centers send out soluble cues or morphogens that diffuse tens to hundreds of microns to recipient cells residing in the neural tube. Re-creating this dynamic landscape of cues in vitro is impossible using standard cell culture tools and techniques. However, microfluidics is perfectly suited to fill this gap, allowing precise control ...


Beyond Bivariate Correlations: Three-Block Partial Least Squares Illustrated With Vegetation, Soil, And Topography, Daehyun Kim, Thomas J. DeWitt, César S. B. Costa, John A. Kupfer, Ryan W. McEwan, J. Anthony Stallins 2015 University of Kentucky

Beyond Bivariate Correlations: Three-Block Partial Least Squares Illustrated With Vegetation, Soil, And Topography, Daehyun Kim, Thomas J. Dewitt, César S. B. Costa, John A. Kupfer, Ryan W. Mcewan, J. Anthony Stallins

Biology Faculty Publications

Ecologists, particularly those engaged in biogeomorphic studies, often seek to connect data from three or more domains. Using three-block partial least squares regression, we present a procedure to quantify and define bi-variance and tri-variance of data blocks related to plant communities, their soil parameters, and topography. Bi-variance indicates the total amount of covariation between these three domains taken in pairs, whereas tri-variance refers to the common variance shared by all domains. We characterized relationships among three domains (plant communities, soil properties, topography) for a salt marsh, four coastal dunes, and two temperate forests spanning several regions in the world. We ...


Characterization Of Putative Wnt3a-Inducible Enhancers, Katelynn C. Lee, Nicholas Hum, Aimy Sebastian, Gabriela Loots 2015 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Characterization Of Putative Wnt3a-Inducible Enhancers, Katelynn C. Lee, Nicholas Hum, Aimy Sebastian, Gabriela Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

The Wnt signaling pathway has been previously shown to play a major role in regulating bone metabolism and it is emerging as a target for the therapeutic intervention of bone thinning disorders such as osteoporosis. Several Wnt proteins have been shown to be expressed in bone and mutations in Wnt pathway members such as Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and Wnt inhibitor Sost have been shown to be associated with low or high bone mass disorders, however, very little is known about specific roles played by different Wnt ligands in bone development, repair and remodeling. To identify downstream targets of Wnt signaling ...


Chemical Oxygen Demand Reduction Using The Algae Dunaliella Primolecta And Chlorella Vulgaris, Angeles L. Mora, Alejandro Hernandez, Alejandro Calderón-Urrea 2015 California State University - Fresno

Chemical Oxygen Demand Reduction Using The Algae Dunaliella Primolecta And Chlorella Vulgaris, Angeles L. Mora, Alejandro Hernandez, Alejandro Calderón-Urrea

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Farm industry wastewater is characterized by high organic materials and by high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Farms with large livestock and poultry operations can be a major source of wastewater thus a major concern for effective environmental and industrial management. Effective environmental and industrial management are high in cost therefor biofuels produced from plants have a potential of replacing a portion of fossil fuel consumption with a renewable efficient alternative. Due to California’s water crisis in the recent years, it is questioned if a biological treatment system that uses algal growth to create renewable energy in the form of ...


Effects Of A Particular Heptapeptide On The Ifn-Α-Sensitive Cml Cells, Fulan Yang, Fangzhi Chen, Xinxing Wan, Xi Zhou, Meijuan Zhou, Hanchun Chen, Junjiang Fu, Dianzheng Zhang 2015 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Effects Of A Particular Heptapeptide On The Ifn-Α-Sensitive Cml Cells, Fulan Yang, Fangzhi Chen, Xinxing Wan, Xi Zhou, Meijuan Zhou, Hanchun Chen, Junjiang Fu, Dianzheng Zhang

PCOM Scholarly Papers

Abstract: Using the phage display biopanning technique, we have previously identified a heptapeptide KLWVIPQ which specifically bind to the surface of the IFN-α sensitive but not the IFN-α-resistant CML cells. The effects of this heptapeptide to the IFN-α-sensitive CML cells were investigated in the present study. IFN-α-sensitive KT-1/A3 and IFN-α-resistant KT-1/A3R CML cells were transfected by pEGFP KLWVIPQ expression vector and/or induced by IFN-α. WST-1 cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry and western blotting were performed to determine the effects of this heptapeptide and/or IFN-α on CML cells. The viability of the KT-1/A3 cells w as ...


The Role Of The Pleckstrin Homology Domain-Containing Protein Ckip-1 In Activation Of P21-Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), Yong-Bae Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Adhiraj Roy, Jeong-Ho Kim 2015 George Washington University

The Role Of The Pleckstrin Homology Domain-Containing Protein Ckip-1 In Activation Of P21-Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), Yong-Bae Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Adhiraj Roy, Jeong-Ho Kim

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Upon growth factor stimulation, PAK1 is recruited to the plasma membrane and activated by a mechanism that requires its phosphorylation at S223 by the protein kinase CK2. However, the upstream signaling molecules that regulate this phosphorylation event are not clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate a major role of the CK2α-interacting protein CKIP-1 in activation of PAK1. CK2α, CKIP-1 and PAK1 are translocated to membrane ruffles in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF), where CKIP-1 mediates the interaction between CK2α, and PAK1 in a PI3K-dependent manner. Consistently, we observe that PAK1 mediates phosphorylation and modulation of the activity of p41-Arc ...


Cationic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Are Potent Furin Inhibitors, Bruno Ramos-Molina, Adam N. Lick, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Donghoon Oh, Rakesh Tiwari, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Keykavous Parang, Iris Lindberg 2015 University of Maryland-Baltimore

Cationic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Are Potent Furin Inhibitors, Bruno Ramos-Molina, Adam N. Lick, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Donghoon Oh, Rakesh Tiwari, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Keykavous Parang, Iris Lindberg

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Cationic cell-penetrating peptides have been widely used to enhance the intracellular delivery of various types of cargoes, such as drugs and proteins. These reagents are chemically similar to the multi-basic peptides that are known to be potent proprotein convertase inhibitors. Here, we report that both HIV-1 TAT47-57 peptide and the Chariot reagent are micromolar inhibitors of furin activity in vitro. In agreement, HIV-1 TAT47-57 reduced HT1080 cell migration, thought to be mediated by proprotein convertases, by 25%. In addition, cyclic polyarginine peptides containing hydrophobic moieties which have been previously used as transfection reagents also exhibited potent furin inhibition in vitro ...


Mcnamara 2010 Metamatters Newletter Series - Rogers Pmn The Chase And Temporal Area Maps, George McNamara 2015 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Mcnamara 2010 Metamatters Newletter Series - Rogers Pmn The Chase And Temporal Area Maps, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

My four 2010 MetaMorph MetaMatters newsletter articles on "The Chase" (video available for download here on my bepress site) and history / use of temporal area maps.


Characterization Of The Role That Alternative Ribonucleotide Reductases Play In Restoring Replication In The Presence Of Hydroxyurea In Escherichia Coli, Michael Sadek 2015 Portland State University

Characterization Of The Role That Alternative Ribonucleotide Reductases Play In Restoring Replication In The Presence Of Hydroxyurea In Escherichia Coli, Michael Sadek

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

DNA replication is essential for cells to grow and divide. Ribonucleotide reductase is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the formation of deoxyribonucleotides that are used in DNA synthesis during replication. Hydroxyurea is a chemotherapeutic agent that is thought to work by specifically inhibiting the ribonuceotide reductase to prevent replication. However, recent studies in E. coli have shown that following an initial period of inhibition, DNA synthesis then recovers in the presence of hydroxyurea, suggesting that the mode of death and cellular response to hydroxyurea is more complex than originally proposed. The E.coli genome encodes three ribonucleotide reductases ...


Role Of Metabolic Shifts In Protection From Mutation Damage: Characterizing Mitochondrial Membrane Potential In C. Elegans Gas-1 Mutants, Lauren S. Muñoz-Tremblay 2015 Portland State University

Role Of Metabolic Shifts In Protection From Mutation Damage: Characterizing Mitochondrial Membrane Potential In C. Elegans Gas-1 Mutants, Lauren S. Muñoz-Tremblay

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Many terminal human diseases are caused by mutations affecting mitochondrial functioning. Mitochondria are essential organelles responsible for producing cellular energy, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) at mitochondrial electron transport chains (ETC). Proper ETC functioning relies on maintenance of the electrochemical gradient essential for energy production, known as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM). The inner mitochondrial membrane is the site of the ETC and is most closely in contact with the enzymatic processes occurring within the mitochondrial matrix. Mutations affecting protein components of the ETC are especially troublesome for organelle health. ETC mutants commonly express altered ΔψM, as well as ...


Studies Of Oc-Stamp In Osteoclast Fusion: A New Knockout Mouse Model, Rescue Of Cell Fusion, And Transmembrane Topology, Hanna Witwicka, Sung-Yong Hwang, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Hong Jia, Paul E. Odgren, Leah Rae Donahue, Mark J. Birnbaum, Paul R. Odgren 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Studies Of Oc-Stamp In Osteoclast Fusion: A New Knockout Mouse Model, Rescue Of Cell Fusion, And Transmembrane Topology, Hanna Witwicka, Sung-Yong Hwang, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Hong Jia, Paul E. Odgren, Leah Rae Donahue, Mark J. Birnbaum, Paul R. Odgren

Open Access Articles

The fusion of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells into fully active, multinucleated, bone resorbing osteoclasts is a complex cell biological phenomenon that utilizes specialized proteins. OC-STAMP, a multi-pass transmembrane protein, has been shown to be required for pre-osteoclast fusion and for optimal bone resorption activity. A previously reported knockout mouse model had only mononuclear osteoclasts with markedly reduced resorption activity in vitro, but with paradoxically normal skeletal micro-CT parameters. To further explore this and related questions, we used mouse ES cells carrying a gene trap allele to generate a second OC-STAMP null mouse strain. Bone histology showed overall normal bone form ...


Differential Receptors For Advanced Glycation End-Products (Rage) Expression In Preeclampsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction And Gestational Diabetes, Kristen Lena Alexander 2015 Brigham Young University

Differential Receptors For Advanced Glycation End-Products (Rage) Expression In Preeclampsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction And Gestational Diabetes, Kristen Lena Alexander

All Theses and Dissertations

Preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and gestational diabetes (GDM) increase the risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The roles of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) are already well documented concerning inflammation, hypoxia and oxidative stress. AGEs bind to its receptor, Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE), and activate an inflammatory pathway. This pathway alters the efficacy of invasive trophoblast cells and in the placenta and can result in placental dysfunction. We hypothesized that the placental dysfunction found in PE, IUGR, and GDM resulted from an over activation of the RAGE-mediated inflammatory pathway. Using human placental samples, we found ...


The Effects Of Inhibiting Wnt Secretion And Activity On Cranial And Neural Development, Julie Louise Hulet 2015 Brigham Young University - Provo

The Effects Of Inhibiting Wnt Secretion And Activity On Cranial And Neural Development, Julie Louise Hulet

All Theses and Dissertations

Wnt signaling has been shown to have several roles in the development of sensory neurons, particularly in the ophthalmic portion of the trigeminal nerve. Many of these studies have relied on the conclusion that Wnt is necessary but not sufficient for the induction and maintenance of the neural precursor cells that develop in the ophthalmic placode. Wnt had been inhibited in the ophthalmic placode using a dominant negative t-cell factor (TCF) and resulted in the loss of Pax3 expression (indicative of undifferentiated placode cells) in all targeted cells, suggesting a loss of specification/commitment of these cells to the sensory ...


Cigarette Smoke Increases Cardiomyocyte Ceramide Accumulation And Inhibits Mitochondrial Respiration, Trevor Stanley Tippetts 2015 Brigham Young University - Provo

Cigarette Smoke Increases Cardiomyocyte Ceramide Accumulation And Inhibits Mitochondrial Respiration, Trevor Stanley Tippetts

All Theses and Dissertations

Cigarette smoking is a common and lethal worldwide habit, with considerable mortality stemming from its deleterious effects on heart function. While current theories posit altered blood lipids and fibrinogen metabolism as likely mediators, none have explored the role of the sphingolipid ceramide in exacerbating heart function with smoke exposure. Ceramide production is a consequence of cigarette smoke in the lung, and considering ceramide's harmful effects on mitochondrial function, we sought to elucidate the role of ceramide in mediating smoke-induced altered heart mitochondrial respiration. Lung cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract and heart cells were exposed to the lung-cell ...


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