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Hundreds Of Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties Available For 2014, Gregory L. Tylka 2014 Iowa State University

Hundreds Of Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties Available For 2014, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a serious yield-reducing pathogen of soybeans. It is present in many fields throughout the Midwest, wherever soybeans are grown.

To produce profitable soybean yields in fields infested with SCN, farmers should grow SCN-resistant soybean varieties. SCN-resistant soybeans can produce high yields while keeping SCN population densities from increasing.


Evaluating Contaminants Of Emerging Concern In Commercial Biosolid-Based Fertilizers, John Hemmerling, Michael L. Mashtare, Linda S. Lee 2014 Purdue University

Evaluating Contaminants Of Emerging Concern In Commercial Biosolid-Based Fertilizers, John Hemmerling, Michael L. Mashtare, Linda S. Lee

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The production and popularity of commercially available biosolid-based fertilizers are increasing because of their economic, environmental, and plant nutrition benefits, particularly in urban and suburban areas. Because biosolid-based fertilizers are derived from waste water treatment plant residuals, we hypothesized that there is the potential for micropollutants to persist in these products. Their presence would be of particular concern due to their potential impact on human and ecological health and risk of bioaccumulation. This study involves quantifying contaminants of emerging concern in three biosolid-based fertilizers, and 2 non-biosolid-based fertilizers, a composted animal manure and an organic compost. Our extraction method employed ...


Regulation Of Mor By Different Abiotic Stresses In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Luke Stepan, Rucha Karve, Anjali Iyer-Pascuzzi 2014 Purdue University

Regulation Of Mor By Different Abiotic Stresses In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Luke Stepan, Rucha Karve, Anjali Iyer-Pascuzzi

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The climate is changing and as a consequence the environment is becoming hotter and drier. How different plants will react to these changes is unknown. Identification of genes involved in stress tolerance can help predict plant-environment interactions and lead to stress tolerant plants. The MOR gene (Modulator Of Root ROS, ROS = Reactive Oxygen Species) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a transcription factor that may regulate stress responses, as mor mutants are drought tolerant. We hypothesized that MOR expression changes in response to different abiotic stress stimuli. We tested MOR expression in response to salt (NaCl), abscisic acid (ABA ...


Using Stable Isotopes To Quantify Nitrogen Fates In Container Plants, Sam Raimann, Greg Michalski, Michael V. Mickelbart 2014 Purdue University

Using Stable Isotopes To Quantify Nitrogen Fates In Container Plants, Sam Raimann, Greg Michalski, Michael V. Mickelbart

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, in the agriculture field, it is not yet known the accurate amount of Nitrogen in fertilizer that plants take up. This statistic, known as the Nitrogen Use Efficiency is currently known to be within the 30-50% range (Lea-Cox and Ross, 2001). This is very important figure to know and it is a figure that can be improved, and therefore much time, energy, and resources can be saved. This research project will use concepts involving stable isotopes to examine red maple plant material and the soilless media that the plants were grown in. Three different isotope-labelled fertilizer treatments will be ...


Status Of The Endangered Scotts Valley Spineflower (Polygonaceae) In Coastal Central California, Christopher P. Kofron, Kathleen Lyons 2014 Occidental College

Status Of The Endangered Scotts Valley Spineflower (Polygonaceae) In Coastal Central California, Christopher P. Kofron, Kathleen Lyons

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Chorizanthe robusta var. hartwegii (Scotts Valley spineflower, Polygonaceae) is a narrow endemic plant restricted to a specialized microhabitat (exposed bedrock in California prairie) in Santa Cruz County, California. This taxon and the nominate variety were listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 1994. Three occurrences of C. robusta hartwegii exist on four properties in a recently urbanized area at the northern edge of the city of Scotts Valley. Ten of 80 known colonies are now likely extirpated. In 2014 the primary threats are habitat alteration due to adjacent land uses and developments, and invasive plant species ...


Effects Of Ocean Acidification On Chlorophyll Content, C. del Fierro, R. Lloyd, H. el-Askary 2014 Chapman University

Effects Of Ocean Acidification On Chlorophyll Content, C. Del Fierro, R. Lloyd, H. El-Askary

e-Research: A Journal of Undergraduate Work

Airborne pollutants contribute to ocean acidification and hence to the associated chlorophyll content level. Previous work showed that falling aerosols causing ocean acidification would in turn result in bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Chlorophyll content has been used as a measure of the concentration of the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll a (the most common "green" chlorophyll) in the ocean. In our work we have monitored the change in chlorophyll content obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board Terra/Aqua satellites from 2000-2009 over selected pilot areas. Moreover, we have used the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol ...


Selection And Genetic Drift In North American Maize, Collin Lamkey 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Selection And Genetic Drift In North American Maize, Collin Lamkey

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Characterizing the impact of selection and genetic drift in the formation of heterotic groups and patterns in maize can reveal important insights into the mechanism underlying adaptation, and the relative importance of each force in defining population structure. The objectives were to characterize the role selection for hybrid performance had in defining population structure in both a reciprocal full-sib selection (RFS) program and a large collection of historically important inbred lines.

The Illumina GoldenGate Assay was used to genotype the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Replicated Recurrent Selection (UNL-RpRS) program. Eight cycles of S1-progeny and RFS selection were conducted for an index ...


The Effect Of A Small Ruminant Farm Operation And Sustainable Farm Practices: Soil Quality And Run-Off At The University Hickory Hill Farm, Delaware, Gulnihal Ozbay Dr., Akida J. Ferguson, Raju Khatiwada, Lathadevi K. Chintapenta 2014 Tuskegee University

The Effect Of A Small Ruminant Farm Operation And Sustainable Farm Practices: Soil Quality And Run-Off At The University Hickory Hill Farm, Delaware, Gulnihal Ozbay Dr., Akida J. Ferguson, Raju Khatiwada, Lathadevi K. Chintapenta

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

This project was designed to evaluate the effect of ruminant grazing practices at Hickory Hill Farm on the surrounding environment by measuring soil nutrients and runoff chemistry. Three pastures on the farm (Goat, Cattle and Control) were selected for soil sampling and nutrient analyses were recorded. Physical water quality parameters were conducted on the runoff collected from the farm after Hurricane Sandy. The sites with animal activity had higher levels of sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, Mehlich 3 phosphorus and conductivity when compared to control site. However, the control site had slightly higher pH and chloride levels. Nitrogen and phosphorous levels were ...


Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona 2014 University of South Florida

Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona

International Journal of Speleology

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges ...


Chromosome Counts For Packera Paupercula Variety Gypsophila, Chad Larson 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Chromosome Counts For Packera Paupercula Variety Gypsophila, Chad Larson

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

New plant species develop when diploid plants (having two sets of chromosomes) spontaneously double their chromosomes and the resulting tetraploids (having four sets of chromosomes) are no longer able to back cross to diploid members of the population. The North American plant species Packera paupercula (balsam-leafed ragwort), is widespread and morphologically diverse. An isolated group of populations from the chalky soils of west-central Alabama was recently named Packera paupercula variety gypsophila (the chalk-loving balsam ragwort). The variety’s large diameter pollen grains suggest it may be tetraploid. This project attempts the first chromosome count for the variety by examining cells ...


Sustainable Service-Learning Projects In The Tropics: A Costa Rica Maymester, Kimberly Lutz 2014 Purdue University

Sustainable Service-Learning Projects In The Tropics: A Costa Rica Maymester, Kimberly Lutz

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

International service-learning projects extend textbook knowledge into practical, real-world applications while giving students an opportunity to engage in a different culture. In May 2012, a group of Purdue students from various majors in the College of Agriculture, led by a student leader and faculty member, traveled to Costa Rica to complete several service-learning projects. These projects included: (1) the construction and installation of water filtration systems, (2) creating an animal health care curricula for local schools, and (3) finalizing a guidebook of fl ora and fauna to benefit an emerging ecotourism site. Maymester students met for an 8-week course prior ...


Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae) Selection To Arabidopsis Thaliana, Huzefa Ratlamwala 2014 Western University

Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae) Selection To Arabidopsis Thaliana, Huzefa Ratlamwala

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Spider mite feeding on A. thaliana induces the production of indole glucosinolates (IGs), plant secondary metabolites that negatively affect mite performance. In this study I conducted selection experiments on A. thaliana with varying levels of IGs, to determine if mites could adapt to IGs and other defense compounds. After 12 months, mites reared on host with IGs performed significantly better on A. thaliana than mites maintained on beans. However, an adaptation cost was detected between selected mite lines and their ancestral host. The qRT-PCR data on different mite lines revealed that the detoxification genes previously identified may only be involved ...


Contrasting Metabolism In Perenniating Structures Of Upland And Lowland Switchgrass Plants Late In The Growing Season, Nathan Palmer, Aaron J. Saathoff, Christian M. Tobias, Paul Twigg, Yuannan Xia, Kenneth P. Vogel, Soundararajan Madhavan, Scott E. Sattler, Gautam Sarath 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Contrasting Metabolism In Perenniating Structures Of Upland And Lowland Switchgrass Plants Late In The Growing Season, Nathan Palmer, Aaron J. Saathoff, Christian M. Tobias, Paul Twigg, Yuannan Xia, Kenneth P. Vogel, Soundararajan Madhavan, Scott E. Sattler, Gautam Sarath

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is being developed as a bioenergy crop for many temperate regions of the world. One way to increase biomass yields is to move southern adapted lowland cultivars to more northern latitudes. However, many southerly adapted switchgrass germplasm can suffer significant winter kill in northerly climes.

Materials and Methods: Here, we have applied next-generation sequencing in combination with biochemical analyses to query the metabolism of crowns and rhizomes obtained from two contrasting switchgrass cultivars. Crowns and rhizomes from field-grown lowland (cv Kanlow) and upland (cv Summer) switchgrass cultivars were collected from three randomly selected post-flowering plants ...


Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Ethanol is becoming increasingly popular as a fossil fuel additive or substitute. However, current production of ethanol from corn impacts food prices and appears to have an overall low net yield. New sources need to be identified and new processes developed for ethanol production. Cellulosic ethanol is one such new source. Plant material contains a large amount of cellulose and other polysaccharides which are potential feed stocks for ethanol production. The purpose of this experiment was to characterize the polysaccharide, lignin, and ash content of fall leaves to estimate their potential for ethanol production. A slight modification of the NREL ...


Diversity Of Bacteria Carried By Pinewood Nematode In Usa And Phylogenetic Comparison With Isolates From Other Countries, Diogo Neves Proença, Luís Fonseca, Thomas Powers, Isabel M.O. Abrantes, Paula V. Morais 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Diversity Of Bacteria Carried By Pinewood Nematode In Usa And Phylogenetic Comparison With Isolates From Other Countries, Diogo Neves Proença, Luís Fonseca, Thomas Powers, Isabel M.O. Abrantes, Paula V. Morais

Papers in Plant Pathology

Pine wilt disease (PWD) is native to North America and has spread to Asia and Europe. Lately, mutualistic relationship has been suggested between the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus the causal nematode agent of PWD, and bacteria. In countries where PWN occurs, nematodes from diseased trees were reported to carry bacteria from several genera. However no data exists for the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial community carried by B. xylophilus, isolated from different Pinus spp. with PWD in Nebraska, United States. The bacteria carried by PWN belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (79 ...


Expression Of 9/13 Hydroperoxide Lyase In Cucumber Leaves, Samee Ranginwala 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Expression Of 9/13 Hydroperoxide Lyase In Cucumber Leaves, Samee Ranginwala

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Fatty Acid 9/13-Hydroperoxide Lyase (9/13-HPL) in the cucumber plant is an enzyme that cleaves either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form volatile C9 or C6 aldehydes respectively. Since these aldehydes may play a role in the plant’s defenses against pathogens (K. Matsui, et. al. Phytochemistry 67 (2006) 649-657), the enzyme is stress induced during vulnerable times such as when the plant is injured. In order to better understand how this enzyme is induced, we have developed a Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method to quantitate levels of 9/13-HPL mRNA. In initial experiments, the ...


Evaluation Of Pretreatment Methods In The Production Of Ethanol From Cattail Leaves, Kristen Krahmer, Elijah Wreh 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Evaluation Of Pretreatment Methods In The Production Of Ethanol From Cattail Leaves, Kristen Krahmer, Elijah Wreh

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Previous research in this lab indicated that cattails are a potential source of biomass for the production of cellulosic ethanol since their carbohydrate composition is comparable to that of other plants being considered for biofuel production. To further test their viability, we tested various pretreatment methods on dried cattail leaves. Before polysaccharides in plants can be enzymatically hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars, the plant material must be pretreated to render the polysaccharides accessible to the enzymes. The purpose of this project has been to compare the efficiency of sulfuric acid and ammonia pretreatment methods in preparing cattail biomass for ethanol production ...


Panicum Mosaic Virus Complex And Biofuels Switchgrass, Catherine Louise Stewart 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Panicum Mosaic Virus Complex And Biofuels Switchgrass, Catherine Louise Stewart

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

New switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars are being developed for use as a biofuel pyrolysis feedstock. Viral pathogens have been reported in switchgrass, but their importance in biofuel cultivars is not well known. In 2012 surveys of five switchgrass breeding nurseries in Nebraska, plants with mottling and stunting— symptoms associated with virus infection—had an incidence of symptomatic plants within fields as high as 59%. Leaves from 120 symptomatic plants were analyzed by ELISA for Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) and four other viruses known to infect switchgrass. Most samples (87%) were positive for PMV, and fewer than 8% for the ...


Phenotypic Diversity In Lysobacter Enzymogenes In Relations To Biological Control, Ya Li 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Phenotypic Diversity In Lysobacter Enzymogenes In Relations To Biological Control, Ya Li

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Strains of the bacterium Lysobacter enzymogenes have been isolated from various regions of the world and reported to have potential as biological control agents against plant pathogens. Previous research revealed many ecological traits and mechanisms important to biological control by L. enzymogenes. Much of the previous research, however, was conducted on individual strains with little direct comparison of different strains. In this study, L. enzymogenes strains isolated from different locations and source materials (soil, roots, leaves) were compared for biocontrol-related phenotypic traits in vitro, epiphytic and endophytic colonization of leaves, and biocontrol of Bipolaris leaf spot on tall fescue. The ...


Effects Of Culture Media And Plant Growth Regulators On Micropropagation Of Willow (Salix Matsudana ‘Golden Spiral’) And Hazelnut (Corylus Colurna ‘Te Terra Red), Dongxue Shi 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Culture Media And Plant Growth Regulators On Micropropagation Of Willow (Salix Matsudana ‘Golden Spiral’) And Hazelnut (Corylus Colurna ‘Te Terra Red), Dongxue Shi

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The branches and leaves of Salix matsudana ‘Golden Spiral’ , willow, grow in a twisted manner, which makes it an important bonsai plant. Its mature stems have potential for the woody cut floral industry. Corylus colurna ‘ Te Terra Red’, hazelnut, distinguished by red or purple leaves in the spring, has potential ornamental value in the horticulture industry for landscape use. Micropropagation of these two plants could provide more and healthier plantlets for rapid commercial scale-up by the nursery industry. Nas and Read Medium (NRM) is a newer medium developed specifically for hazelnut species by Nas and Read based on the composition ...


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