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Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau 2017 The University of San Francisco

Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau

Master's Projects and Capstones

There is an under-recognized potential for cities to use urban green infrastructure to contribute to avian biodiversity conservation. At the global scale, climate change and growing urbanization are primary global drivers leading to decline and homogenization in world bird populations. Birds are fundamental and intricate species in ecosystems, and even in urban areas, act as indicator and regulator species contributing to healthy ecosystem function. While many cities have recognized the economic and social benefits associated with green spaces, such as the vast benefits ecosystem services provide to the urban dweller, the use of green spaces to concurrently contribute to avian ...


Dietary Modifications Designed To Affect Lipid Metabolism, Pilar A. Garcia, Constance Kies 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Dietary Modifications Designed To Affect Lipid Metabolism, Pilar A. Garcia, Constance Kies

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

At the time this study was planned, there was not yet a consensus about dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of heart disease. There was considerable controversy about the efficacy of moderate changes in dietary fat, and there was very little information about the responses of women to dietary change.

The NC-167 Regional Technical Committee includes scientists experienced with dietary studies with normal humans and with various animal models. It was deemed economical and efficient to have a human study conducted with analytic expertise contributed by all members of the committee. Thus, a direct comparison of the whole diet, rather ...


Inheritance Of Coat Coloration And Spotting Patterns Of Cattle: A Review, T. A. Olson, R. L. Willham 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Inheritance Of Coat Coloration And Spotting Patterns Of Cattle: A Review, T. A. Olson, R. L. Willham

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

An understanding of the inheritance of coat coloration and white markings in cattle is useful for several reasons. The first is its potential usefulness in the teaching of Mendelian principles to agricultural students. A second would be its usefulness in the development of composite breeds of cattle in which a uniform coat coloration may be desirable. A third is that there may be interest in determining which breeds could be used in crossbreeding programs to produce uniformly colored terminal cross calves. Also, Lauvergne (1966) discussed a review article by J. D. Findlay where it is concluded that pigmentation can affect ...


Egg Production Functions, Earl O. Heady, Joseph F. Guinan, S. L. Balloun 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Egg Production Functions, Earl O. Heady, Joseph F. Guinan, S. L. Balloun

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This study estimates egg production functions from experimental data The experimental feed variables were com and soybean meal. The experiment included the four protein levels of 12, 14, 16, and 18 percent and was initiated with 566 birds in 288 cages. Bird density per cage initially was included as a variable, but results were not significant and were dropped from the analysis.

Several algebraic forms were evaluated. For the overall data, a quadratic equation without an interaction term seemed most appropriate. It was used in estimating egg production, in both numbers and weights for the entire period of the experiment ...


Estimation And Analysis Of Beef Gain Roughage-Concentrate Production Functions, Shashanka Bhide, Francis Epplin, Earl O. Heady, Bryan E. Melton, M. Peter Hoffman 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Estimation And Analysis Of Beef Gain Roughage-Concentrate Production Functions, Shashanka Bhide, Francis Epplin, Earl O. Heady, Bryan E. Melton, M. Peter Hoffman

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Through the 1960s and early 1970s, many cattle feeders formulated feedlot rations composed primarily of grains. Rations high in grain were relatively inexpensive and economical. For example, Scott and Broadbent [20] constructed a programming model in 1972 that utilized the California net energy system as developed by Lofgreen and Garett [16] and adopted by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to estimate economical rations. They concluded, "In most feedlot operations, it appears that the maximum possible rate of gain w ill be most profitable under usual price relationships” [20, p. 24]. Although maximizing rate ...


The Second Record Of A Relict Akrav Israchanani Levy, 2007 (Scorpiones: Akravidae) From Levana Cave, Israel, Victor Fet, Michael E. Soleglad, Sergei L. Zonstein, Israel Naaman, Shlomi Lubaton, Boaz Langford, Amos Frumkin 2017 Marshall University

The Second Record Of A Relict Akrav Israchanani Levy, 2007 (Scorpiones: Akravidae) From Levana Cave, Israel, Victor Fet, Michael E. Soleglad, Sergei L. Zonstein, Israel Naaman, Shlomi Lubaton, Boaz Langford, Amos Frumkin

Euscorpius

We report the remnants of five new scorpion specimens discovered dead in Levana Cave in Israel in December 2015. We confirm that they belong to the relict scorpion Akrav israchanani Levy, 2007 (Akravidae), famously described from the neighboring Ayyalon Cave, also from dead specimens. The details of morphology of the new specimens are given; they match completely the characters of A. israchanani redescribed by Fet, Soleglad & Zonstein (2011). This second record indicates a wider distribution of this unique cave scorpion, which, however, is extinct in both caves. There is still no evidence that live populations of this species exist.


Some Factors Influencing Populations Of The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia Nubilalis (Hubner) In The North Central States: Resistance Of Corn, Time Of Planting And Weather Conditions Part Ii, 1958-1962, A. N. Sparks, H. C. Chiang, C. A. Triplehorn, W. D. Guthrie, T. A. Brindley 2017 U.S.D.A.

Some Factors Influencing Populations Of The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia Nubilalis (Hubner) In The North Central States: Resistance Of Corn, Time Of Planting And Weather Conditions Part Ii, 1958-1962, A. N. Sparks, H. C. Chiang, C. A. Triplehorn, W. D. Guthrie, T. A. Brindley

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

A cooperative project was conducted by the agricultural experiment stations of Iowa, Minnesota and Ohio and the U. S. Department of Agriculture to study the effects of weather, planting date and resistant hybrids as factors influencing populations of the European com borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). Identical studies were carried out at Ankeny, Iowa; Waseca, Minnesota; and Wooster, Ohio, during a 10-year period, 1953-1962.

The first 4 years of the study (1953-56) were reported by Everett et al. (1958). The work reported herein is a companion bulletin to the Everett et al. (1958) publication and deals with the results of experiments ...


Quantifying The Role Of Riparian Management To Control Non-Point Source Pollution Of Pasture And Cropland Streams, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, John Kovar, Daryl R. Strohbehn, John D. Lawrence, Mathew M. Haan, Shelly Lee Nellesen, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard Schultz 2017 Iowa State University

Quantifying The Role Of Riparian Management To Control Non-Point Source Pollution Of Pasture And Cropland Streams, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, John Kovar, Daryl R. Strohbehn, John D. Lawrence, Mathew M. Haan, Shelly Lee Nellesen, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard Schultz

Thomas M. Isenhart

Grazing management practices have the potential to mitigate some problems with sediment and phosphorus loading in pasture streams. The project demonstrated possible strategies to lessen grazing impacts on streams.


Effects Of Stocking Rate, Botanical Composition, And Stream Bank Erosion On The Physical Characteristics Of The Streamside Zones Of Pastures (Three-Year Progress Report), Douglas Allen Bear, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, Mustafa Tufekcioglu, Thomas M. Isenhart, John L. Kovar 2017 Iowa State University

Effects Of Stocking Rate, Botanical Composition, And Stream Bank Erosion On The Physical Characteristics Of The Streamside Zones Of Pastures (Three-Year Progress Report), Douglas Allen Bear, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, Mustafa Tufekcioglu, Thomas M. Isenhart, John L. Kovar

Thomas M. Isenhart

Grazing management practices that allow cattle to congregate near pasture streams may result in the loss of vegetative cover and promote accumulation of manure near the streams, increasing the risk of nonpoint source pollution of the stream


Unique Genetic Differences In Responses Of Chicken Immune Cells To An Inflammatory Stimulus And Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Anna Slawinska, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Unique Genetic Differences In Responses Of Chicken Immune Cells To An Inflammatory Stimulus And Heat Stress, Angelica Van Goor, Anna Slawinska, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Bone marrow antigen presenting cells (BM-APC), from Fayoumis (disease resistant and heat tolerant) and Leghorn (disease susceptible) chicken lines were evaluated for response to an inflammatory stimulus and heat stress. BM-APC from Fayoumis produced more nitric oxide (NO) and had higher Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II cell surface expression compared to those from Leghorn, indicating that BM-APC studied in vitro may be a useful tool to evaluate molecular effects of disease and/or heat tolerance in chickens.


Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University

Single Gene Consistently Associated With Heat Stress Response In Three Distinct Chicken Lines, Xi Lan, John C. F. Hsieh, Carl J. Schmidt, Qing Zhu, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Identification ofspecific geneor quantitative trait locus that responds to specific stimulus is an important goal for genetic improvementprograms. In a heat stress experiment with 3 distinct chicken lines, we found Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) to be differentially expressed in all 3 lines during acute and chronic heat stress.This outcome suggests the need to further exploreANGPTL4 as a potential candidate gene for selection to improve chicken response to heat stress.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Effects Of Diet And Genetics On Production Traits In Response To Repeated Exposure To Heat Stress In Pigs, Wendy Rauw, Johana Mayorga Lozano, Soi Lei, John Patience, Nicholas Gabler, Steven Lonergan, Jack Dekkers, Lance Baumgard 2017 Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria

Effects Of Diet And Genetics On Production Traits In Response To Repeated Exposure To Heat Stress In Pigs, Wendy Rauw, Johana Mayorga Lozano, Soi Lei, John Patience, Nicholas Gabler, Steven Lonergan, Jack Dekkers, Lance Baumgard

Steven M. Lonergan

Hot temperatures negatively impact global livestock production and are a serious financial burden to pig producers. Trends predict that global temperatures will continue toincrease, making this a pertinent issue now and in the future. Study objectives were to investigate the effects of genetics and dietary fiber content on growth,feed intake, and feed conversion efficiencyin response to repeated exposure to heat stress.Atotal of 103 finishing barrows from a contemporary commercial line and Yorkshire linesdivergently selected for high and low feed efficiency based on residual feed intake (RFI) were used in this experiment. All pigs were subjected three consecutivetimes to ...


Influence Of Feed Efficiency On Meat Tenderness Attributes Of Beef Steers, Christopher Blank, Jason Russell, Steven Lonergan, Stephanie Hansen 2017 Iowa State University

Influence Of Feed Efficiency On Meat Tenderness Attributes Of Beef Steers, Christopher Blank, Jason Russell, Steven Lonergan, Stephanie Hansen

Steven M. Lonergan

Meat tenderness was assessed on steaks from steers considered highly or lowly feed efficient (FE). Overall, minimal differences were noted for tenderness attributes. There was a tendency for greater calpastatin activity in steaks from steers classified as highly feed efficient (HFE). Despite a tendency for increased calpastatin activity in steaks from HFE steers, there were no differences in calpain 1 autolysis or d 2, or d 14 troponin-T degradation due to feed efficiency (FE) classification. Analysis of d 2 troponin-T degradation indicated no differences due to diet type; however, d 14 troponin-T degradation was greater in steaks from steers finished ...


Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finishing Beef Cattle Managed In A Bedded Hoop-Barn System, Mark S. Honeyman, W. D. Busby, Steven M. Lonergan, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Dallas L. Maxwell, Jay D. Harmon, Shawn C. Shouse 2017 Iowa State University

Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Finishing Beef Cattle Managed In A Bedded Hoop-Barn System, Mark S. Honeyman, W. D. Busby, Steven M. Lonergan, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Dallas L. Maxwell, Jay D. Harmon, Shawn C. Shouse

Steven M. Lonergan

The use of bedded hoop barns in finishing systems for beef cattle has not been widely researched. In this management system, beef cattle are confined to hoop barns throughout finishing, and bedding is used to absorb animal waste, which results in minimal effluent. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers (n = 1,428) managed in a bedded hoop-barn management system vs. an open-feedlot system with shelter. Six feeding trials were conducted over a 3-yr period. Three trials were conducted during summer-fall and 3 trials were conducted during winter-spring. Crossbred steers ...


Proteolysis Influences Tenderness Of Aged Pork Loins, Kelsey Carlson, Kenneth Prusa, Chris Fedler, Ed Steadham, Amanda Outhouse, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven Lonergan 2017 Iowa State University

Proteolysis Influences Tenderness Of Aged Pork Loins, Kelsey Carlson, Kenneth Prusa, Chris Fedler, Ed Steadham, Amanda Outhouse, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven Lonergan

Steven M. Lonergan

Aged pork loins were selected to have similar ultimate pH, color, lipid content, and purge. The star probe values (kg) obtained from these loins were evaluated and loins were sorted into either a low star probe (LSP) group or a high star probe (HSP) group. Loins were evaluated for autolysis of calpain-1 and degradation of troponin-T, desmin, and titin. Results showed calpain-1 was completely autolyzed in all samples. LSP pork loins exhibited more degradation of troponin-T, desmin, and titin, demonstrating proteolysis influences measured tenderness in aged pork.


Desmin And Peroxiredoxin-2 Are Potential Biomarkers For Pork Tenderness, Kelsey Carlson, Kenneth Prusa, Chris Fedler, Ed Steadham, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven Lonergan 2017 Iowa State University

Desmin And Peroxiredoxin-2 Are Potential Biomarkers For Pork Tenderness, Kelsey Carlson, Kenneth Prusa, Chris Fedler, Ed Steadham, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven Lonergan

Steven M. Lonergan

Aged pork loins were selected to have similar ultimate pH, color, lipid content, and purge. The star probe values (kg) obtained from these loins were evaluated and loins were sorted into either a low star probe (LSP) group or a high star probe (HSP) group. Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to identify differences insarcoplasmic proteomes between LSP and HSP groups. Metabolic, stress response, structural, and regulatory protein spots were identified to be significantly different between classification groups. The structural protein desmin was identified to be more abundant in LSP samples and the stress response protein peroxiredoxin-2 was ...


Degradation Of Filamin In Aged Pork Loins Classified By High And Low Star Probe Values, Amanda C. Outhouse, Kelsey B. Carlson, Chris A. Fedler, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Kenneth J. Prusa, Steven M. Lonergan 2017 Iowa State University

Degradation Of Filamin In Aged Pork Loins Classified By High And Low Star Probe Values, Amanda C. Outhouse, Kelsey B. Carlson, Chris A. Fedler, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Kenneth J. Prusa, Steven M. Lonergan

Steven M. Lonergan

Filamin is necessary to maintain the integrity of muscle structure. Postmortem degradation of filamin results in loss of organizational structure at the Z-disk and improves meat tenderness. Intact and degraded filamin was successfully identified in aged pork loin. The removal of amino acids to form this degradation product is likely the first cleavage of intact filamin observed in postmortem muscle. A significant decrease in abundance of intact filamin in low star probe (SP) value samples demonstrates that degradation of filamin varies when aging period and pH are similar. Filamin degradation was significantly different in SP groups, suggesting that filamin proteolysis ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Steven M. Lonergan

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


A Study Of The Factors That Influence Consumer Attitudes Towards Beef Products Using The Conjoint Market Analysis Tool, Brian E. Mennecke, Anthony M. Townsend, Dermot J. Hayes, Steven M. Lonergan 2017 Iowa State University

A Study Of The Factors That Influence Consumer Attitudes Towards Beef Products Using The Conjoint Market Analysis Tool, Brian E. Mennecke, Anthony M. Townsend, Dermot J. Hayes, Steven M. Lonergan

Steven M. Lonergan

Beef producers looking for a competitive edge in today's markets need information about the qualities that consumers consider most important. Using conjoint marketing analysis allowed the investigators to sort out the most relevant characteristics for meat purchasers.


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