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What’S At Steak? The Political Discourse Of Emissions Intensity And Implications Of Animal Agriculture, Kalyn Simon 2018 The University of San Francisco

What’S At Steak? The Political Discourse Of Emissions Intensity And Implications Of Animal Agriculture, Kalyn Simon

Master's Theses

This thesis analyzes the international discourse of greenhouse gas emissions in relation to livestock production. Specific government ministries, research institutes, and multilateral organizations are framing a new strategy to mitigate emissions by using emissions intensity metrics. Emissions intensity is a ratio comparing emissions produced per unit of animal product as oppose to measuring absolute emissions. This research is acknowledged as a win-win scenario which allows for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while continuing production more efficiently. This thesis outlines the emergence of this metric in international discourse and the implications this shift has on the livestock sector globally. Ultimately ...


Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz 2018 Utah State University

Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation research were to identify sites of genetic variation associated with mastitis resistance, and to define the contributions of the milk-secreting epithelial cells to mammary gland immune responses and mastitis resistance. Twenty seven regions ...


Evaluation Of Single Vs. Pair Housing Holstein Calves On Specific Antibody Concentrations To Klh, Chaney K. Morgan 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluation Of Single Vs. Pair Housing Holstein Calves On Specific Antibody Concentrations To Klh, Chaney K. Morgan

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Performance Of Chicks Subjected To Thermal Challenge, Patrícia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz, Tadayuki Yanagi Junior, Renato Ribeiro de Lima, Gabriel Araújo e Silva Ferraz, Hongwei Xin 2018 Universidade Federal de Lavras (Ufla)

Performance Of Chicks Subjected To Thermal Challenge, Patrícia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz, Tadayuki Yanagi Junior, Renato Ribeiro De Lima, Gabriel Araújo E Silva Ferraz, Hongwei Xin

Hongwei Xin

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of thermal challenge at different intensities and durations on the production responses of 3 to 21-day-old broiler chickens. Two hundred and ten Cobb chicks were subjected to dry-bulb temperatures (tdb) of 27, 30, 33, or 36°C for the duration of 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 days from the second day of life onwards. The experiment was carried out in four identical environmentally-controlled wind tunnels. Data on body mass (BM), feed intake (FI), and water intake (WI), all in grams, were monitored daily; and body weight gain (BWG), in ...


Sow Lying Behaviors Before, During And After Farrowing, F. Lao, T. M. Brown-Brandl, G. Teng, Kai Liu, Hongwei Xin 2018 China Agricultural University

Sow Lying Behaviors Before, During And After Farrowing, F. Lao, T. M. Brown-Brandl, G. Teng, Kai Liu, Hongwei Xin

Hongwei Xin

Piglet pre-weaning mortality remains a considerable challenge for the swine industry, representing one of the key areas where animal well-being and economical interest coincide. Sows and piglets carry out a complex series of behaviors during the farrowing/lactation period. These behaviors during the first few days after parturition are extremely important for piglet survival, and they can be greatly impacted by the farrowing system, environment, and/or management. The risk of sow crushing is much greater for piglets when the sow changes her postures. Limited studies have investigated the effects of environment on sow’s posture changes or basic understanding ...


Free Chlorine Loss During Spraying Of Membraneless Acidic Electrolyzed Water And Its Antimicrobial Effect On Airborne Bacteria From Poultry House, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Deiling Zhao, Weichao Zheng, Wei Tian, He Ma, Kai Liu, Hui Hu, Tong Wang, Michelle L. Soupir 2018 Iowa State University

Free Chlorine Loss During Spraying Of Membraneless Acidic Electrolyzed Water And Its Antimicrobial Effect On Airborne Bacteria From Poultry House, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Deiling Zhao, Weichao Zheng, Wei Tian, He Ma, Kai Liu, Hui Hu, Tong Wang, Michelle L. Soupir

Hongwei Xin

Spray-application of membraneless acidic electrolyzed water (MLAEW) is a novel technique for disinfection in livestock houses. This study investigated the loss of free chlorine (FC – the major germicidal component in MLAEW) over distance during spraying, as affected by air temperature and initial FC concentration. The anti-microbial effect of MLAEW on airborne bacteria from an aviary laying-hen house was examined. materials and methods. MLAEW was prepared at two FC concentrations: app. 15 and 60 mg L -1 , and sprayed at three air temperatures (18, 25, 32 °C). The original MLAEW solution and MLAEW aerosols collected at 0, 25, and 50 cm ...


Free Chlorine Loss During Spraying Of Membraneless Acidic Electrolyzed Water And Its Antimicrobial Effect On Airborne Bacteria From Poultry House, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Deiling Zhao, Weichao Zheng, Wei Tian, He Ma, Kai Liu, Hui Hu, Tong Wang, Michelle L. Soupir 2018 Iowa State University

Free Chlorine Loss During Spraying Of Membraneless Acidic Electrolyzed Water And Its Antimicrobial Effect On Airborne Bacteria From Poultry House, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Deiling Zhao, Weichao Zheng, Wei Tian, He Ma, Kai Liu, Hui Hu, Tong Wang, Michelle L. Soupir

Michelle L. Soupir

Spray-application of membraneless acidic electrolyzed water (MLAEW) is a novel technique for disinfection in livestock houses. This study investigated the loss of free chlorine (FC – the major germicidal component in MLAEW) over distance during spraying, as affected by air temperature and initial FC concentration. The anti-microbial effect of MLAEW on airborne bacteria from an aviary laying-hen house was examined. materials and methods. MLAEW was prepared at two FC concentrations: app. 15 and 60 mg L -1 , and sprayed at three air temperatures (18, 25, 32 °C). The original MLAEW solution and MLAEW aerosols collected at 0, 25, and 50 cm ...


Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul 2018 The University of Edinburgh

Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul

James S. Adelman

Background

A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody.

Methods

A direct ELISA approach was used to develop this system using two different coating ...


Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson 2018 Iowa State University

Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Six fluorescein-labeled peptide nucleic acid oligomers targeting Listeria-specific sequences on the 16S ribosomal subunit were evaluated for their abilities to hybridize to whole cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Four of these probes yielded weak or no fluorescent signals after hybridization and were not investigated further. The remaining two FISH-compatible probes, LisUn-3 and LisUn-11, were evaluated for their reactivities against 22 Listeria strains and 17 other bacterial strains belonging to 10 closely related genera. Hybridization with BacUni-1, a domain-specific eubacterial probe, was used as a positive control for target accessibility in both Listeria spp. and nontarget cells. RNase ...


Enhanced Destruction Of Salmonella Enterica In Carrot And Berry Juices By A Combination Of Cinnamaldehyde And High Pressure Processing, aura Darabe, Aubrey F. Mendonca, David Manu, James S. Dickson, Joseph G. Sebranek, Angela M. Shaw, Alan A. DiSpirito 2018 Iowa State University

Enhanced Destruction Of Salmonella Enterica In Carrot And Berry Juices By A Combination Of Cinnamaldehyde And High Pressure Processing, Aura Darabe, Aubrey F. Mendonca, David Manu, James S. Dickson, Joseph G. Sebranek, Angela M. Shaw, Alan A. Dispirito

Angela M. Shaw

Statement of the Problem: In recent years several disease outbreaks were linked to unpasteurized juices contaminated with human enteric pathogens such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CDC 2011; EFSA 2015). While heat pasteurization and canning can inactivate vegetative pathogens, such processes can destroy heat labile nutrients and negatively alter sensory characteristics of juices. Also growing consumer demands for foods which are nutritious, fresh-like, and devoid of synthetic preservatives, have forced juice manufacturers to explore non-thermal processes and natural antimicrobials for pathogen control in juices. The present study investigated the effect of low concentrations of cinnamaldehyde combined with ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson 2018 The Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Is There A Link Between Aging And Microbiome Diversity In Exceptional Mammalian Longevity?, Graham M. Hughes, John Leech, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Jose V. Lopez, Emma C. Teeling 2018 University College Dublin - Ireland

Is There A Link Between Aging And Microbiome Diversity In Exceptional Mammalian Longevity?, Graham M. Hughes, John Leech, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Jose V. Lopez, Emma C. Teeling

Biology Faculty Articles

A changing microbiome has been linked to biological aging in mice and humans, suggesting a possible role of gut flora in pathogenic aging phenotypes. Many bat species have exceptional longevity given their body size and some can live up to ten times longer than expected with little signs of aging. This study explores the anal microbiome of the exceptionally long-lived Myotis myotis bat, investigating bacterial composition in both adult and juvenile bats to determine if the microbiome changes with age in a wild, long-lived non-model organism, using non-lethal sampling. The anal microbiome was sequenced using metabarcoding in more than 50 ...


Insights Into Teleost Sex Determination From The Seriola Dorsalis Genome Assembly, Catherine M. Purcell, Arun S. Seetharam, Owyn Snodgrass, Sofia Ortega-García, John R. Hyde, Andrew J. Severin 2018 National Marine Fisheries Service

Insights Into Teleost Sex Determination From The Seriola Dorsalis Genome Assembly, Catherine M. Purcell, Arun S. Seetharam, Owyn Snodgrass, Sofia Ortega-García, John R. Hyde, Andrew J. Severin

Office of Biotechnology Publications

Background: The assembly and annotation of a genome is a valuable resource for a species, with applications ranging from conservation genomics to gene discovery. Genomic resource development is especially important for species in culture, such as the California Yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis), the likely candidate for the establishment of commercial offshore aquaculture production in southern California. Genomic resource development for this species will improve the understanding of sex and other phenotypic traits, and allow for rapid increases in genetic improvement for and economic gain in culture production.

Results: We describe the assembly and annotation of the S. dorsalis genome, and present ...


Precision Livestock Farming In Egg Production, Hongwei Xin, Kai Liu 2018 Iowa State University

Precision Livestock Farming In Egg Production, Hongwei Xin, Kai Liu

Hongwei Xin

This article focuses on precision livestock farming (PLF) as it pertains to egg production. Specific contents include: (1) an overview of evolution in the egg industry that is reflective of what is now known as PLF and the new trend of egg production, (2) prominent characteristics of modern egg production systems that necessitate further development and adoption of PLF technologies, (3) some examples of PLF tools or technologies for establishment of science-based production guidelines or applications in field operations, and finally (4) outlook of PLF for egg production. For the fundamental principles and elements of PLF, readers can refer to ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard von Borell 2018 Martin Luther University

A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard Von Borell

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Object permanence is the notion that objects continue to exist even when they are out of observer’s sight. This ability is adaptive for free ranging animals who have to cope with a dangerous and highly changeable environment and allows them to be aware of predators sneaking in their proximity or to keep track of conspecifics or food sources, even when out of sight. Farm animals might also benefit from object permanence because the ability to follow the trajectory of hidden food or objects may lead to a higher predictability of subjects’ environment, which in turn might affect the level ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


Muskrats, James E. Miller 2018 Mississippi State University

Muskrats, James E. Miller

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) is a common, semi-aquatic rodent native to the United States (Figure 1). It spends its life in aquatic habitats and is well adapted for swimming.

Although muskrats are an important part of native ecosystems, their burrowing and foraging activities can damage agricultural crops, native marshes and water control systems, such as aquaculture and farm ponds and levees. Such damage can significantly impact agricultural crops like rice that rely on consistent water levels for growth.

Muskrats also cause damage by eating agricultural crops, other vegetation, and crayfish, mussels and other aquaculture products. Loss of vegetation from muskrat ...


Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim 2018 University of Kentucky

Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The effects of dietary ingredients on the proteome profile of postmortem beef longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle were evaluated. In the first experiment, the influence of dietary ractopamine on the whole-muscle proteome of beef LL was examined. Five proteins were differentially abundant between ractopamine-fed (RAC) and non-ractopamine fed (CON) groups. The differentially abundant proteins were over-abundant in RAC and were related to muscle structure development (F-actin-capping protein subunit beta-2 and PDZ and LIM domain protein-3), chaperone (heat shock protein beta-1), oxygen transportation (myoglobin), and glycolysis (L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain). These findings indicated that ractopamine influences the abundance of proteins associated with ...


Variation In Angler Distribution And Catch Rates Of Stocked Rainbow Trout In A Small Reservoir, Brian S. Harmon, Dustin R. Martin, Christopher J . Chizinski, K. L. Pope 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Variation In Angler Distribution And Catch Rates Of Stocked Rainbow Trout In A Small Reservoir, Brian S. Harmon, Dustin R. Martin, Christopher J . Chizinski, K. L. Pope

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship of catch rates and angler party location for two days following a publicly announced put-and-take stocking of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Catch rates declined with time since stocking and distance from stocking. We hypothesized that opportunity for high catch rates would cause anglers to fish near the stocking location and disperse with time, however distance between angler parties and stocking was highly variable at any given time. Spatially explicit differences in catch rates can affect fishing quality. Further research could investigate the variation between angler distribution and fish distribution within a waterbody.


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