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An Assessment Of South China Tiger Reintroduction Potential In Hupingshan And Houhe National Nature Reserves, China, Yiyuan Qin, Philip J. Nyhus, Courtney L. Larson, Charles J.W. Carroll, Jeff Muntifering, Thomas D. Dahmer, Lu Jun, Ronald L. Tilson 2015 Colby College

An Assessment Of South China Tiger Reintroduction Potential In Hupingshan And Houhe National Nature Reserves, China, Yiyuan Qin, Philip J. Nyhus, Courtney L. Larson, Charles J.W. Carroll, Jeff Muntifering, Thomas D. Dahmer, Lu Jun, Ronald L. Tilson

Philip J. Nyhus

Human-caused biodiversity loss is a global problem, large carnivores are particularly threatened, and the tiger (Panthera tigris) is among the world’s most endangered large carnivores. The South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) is the most critically endangered tiger subspecies and is considered functionally extinct in the wild. The government of China has expressed its intent to reintroduce a small population of South China tigers into a portion of their historic range as part of a larger goal to recover wild tiger populations in China. This would be the world’s first major tiger reintroduction program. A free-ranging population of ...


The Effects Of Lampricide 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol Toxicity On The Gills Of Larval Sea Lamprey And Non-Target Rainbow Trout And Lake Sturgeon, Lisa A. Sorensen 2015 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of Lampricide 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol Toxicity On The Gills Of Larval Sea Lamprey And Non-Target Rainbow Trout And Lake Sturgeon, Lisa A. Sorensen

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The pesticide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), is widely used in the Great Lakes to control invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) populations, but much about its sub-lethal effects remains unknown. A better understanding of its toxicity is needed to improve TFM effectiveness and to protect non-target organisms from its potential adverse effects. The objectives of this thesis were to test the following two hypotheses: (1) impairment of mitochondrial ATP production by TFM interferes with ATP-dependent ion-uptake by fish, leading to altered electrolyte balance, and (2) perturbations of gill function by TFM are exacerbated in soft, ion poor water (SW; 40 mg CaCO3 ...


Changes In Corn Residue Quality Throughout The Grazing Period And Effect Of Supplementation Of Calves Grazing Corn Residue, Amanda J. Burken 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Changes In Corn Residue Quality Throughout The Grazing Period And Effect Of Supplementation Of Calves Grazing Corn Residue, Amanda J. Burken

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Corn residue is an abundant feed source in Nebraska that can be utilized as an alternative winter feed. Calves were backgrounded on corn residue in order to determine gain and estimate forage intake when supplemented with distillers grains (DGS). Calves grazing the non-irrigated field gained more (1.03 kg/calf daily) when compared to those grazing the irrigated field (0.90 kg/calf daily; P < 0.01). In year 1, a quadratic effect for intake of DGS was present (P < 0.01) while year 2 observed a linear effect for increasing level of DGS (P < 0.01). The nutritional quality of corn residue was evaluated over time in order to determine changes in blade/sheath, cob, husk/shank and stem. Minimal changes in DM of the forage components occurred was grain reached 15.5% moisture. Digestibility of the blade/sheath declined linearly over time (P < 0.01) while the husk remained constant (P = 0.40). Cob digestibility decreased quadratically (P < 0.01) throughout the sampling period with few changes once grain reached 15.5% moisture. Differences observed in the digestibility of the blade/sheath were attributed to the effects of weathering. A third set of trials was conducted to evaluate the effects of by-product supplementation of calves grazing irrigated corn residue and supplemented with DGS or continuous access to lick tubs. The DGS treatment gained more (0.62 kg/calf daily) than the lick tub treatment (0.38 kg/calf daily; P < 0.01). Calves offered DGS consumed more supplement as a percentage of BW (0.52%) when compared with calves offered lick tubs (0.36%; P < 0.01) on a DM basis. Calves supplemented with DGS had a higher supplement efficiency (46.3% to 42.9%, DM basis) although no differences were present between treatments (P = 0.49). When analyzed on an OM basis, however, calves offered lick tubs had a numerically higher supplement efficiency (50.4 ...


New Approaches To Corn Silage Use In Beef Cattle Finishing Diets, Dirk Burken 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

New Approaches To Corn Silage Use In Beef Cattle Finishing Diets, Dirk Burken

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Cattle feeders are considering alternative feedstuffs to replace expensive corn grain and decrease rations costs. Feeding corn silage allows cattle feeders to take advantage of the entire corn plant at a time of maximum quality and tonnage as well as secure substantial quantities of roughage and grain inventory. Distiller’s grains have proven to be economical and are now a commonplace ingredient in feedlot finishing diets. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding increased concentrations of corn silage in replacement of corn grain in finishing diets containing distillers grains. Feedlot gains and gain:feed ratios were reduced as ...


The Non-Lethal Effects Of Climate Change On The Territoriality Of Lottia Gigantea, Tracey Gunanto, Christina Chavez, Jessica Martinez, William G. Wright 2014 Chapman University

The Non-Lethal Effects Of Climate Change On The Territoriality Of Lottia Gigantea, Tracey Gunanto, Christina Chavez, Jessica Martinez, William G. Wright

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The intertidal zone has been described as ground zero for global warming. Here, the owl limpet, Lottia gigantea, adapted to the cool ocean temperatures, must withstand a few hours of baking sun during day-time low tides. This hardship is predicted to increase in frequency and severity in the future as the globe warms. Our research hypothesized that heat events compromise territorial behavior of L. gigantea. All observations and experiments were performed at Inspiration Point near Newport Beach, California. We measured the natural radiant temperature of tagged limpets during day-time low tides using a field-calibrated infrared “thermogun”. We also experimentally amplified ...


The Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Feeding Habits Of Hermit Crabs, Natalie Kobayashi, Christopher S. Kim 2014 Chapman University

The Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Feeding Habits Of Hermit Crabs, Natalie Kobayashi, Christopher S. Kim

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Contaminants that affect marine ecosystems have origins from processes associated with mining and the burning of fossil fuels. This study examines the degree to which arsenic concentrations affect the feeding patterns of hermit crabs to suggest the extent of impact the substance has on a marine ecosystem. Exploring the relationship between the amounts of arsenic exposed to hermit crabs and the amount retained defines the bioavailability of arsenic. The study also aims to correlate the arsenic concentrations in the tissue and the mass of consumed pellet after two weeks of exposure. We hypothesize that when the hermit crabs are exposed ...


Biology Department Receives $111,253 Award For Migratory Birds Project, Barbara J. Pierce 2014 Sacred Heart University

Biology Department Receives $111,253 Award For Migratory Birds Project, Barbara J. Pierce

Barbara J. Pierce

Barbara Pierce, associate professor of biology at Sacred Heart University, has received a grant award of $111,253 from the National Science Foundation in support of her research project on migratory birds. Her area of specialization is physiological ecology, and her research project is titled “Collaborative Proposal: Fat Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Exercising Migratory Birds.” The NSF grant extends through August 31, 2017.


Biology Department Receives $111,253 Award For Migratory Birds Project, Biology Department 2014 Sacred Heart University

Biology Department Receives $111,253 Award For Migratory Birds Project, Biology Department

Biology Popular Press

Barbara Pierce, associate professor of biology at Sacred Heart University, has received a grant award of $111,253 from the National Science Foundation in support of her research project on migratory birds. Her area of specialization is physiological ecology, and her research project is titled “Collaborative Proposal: Fat Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Exercising Migratory Birds.” The NSF grant extends through August 31, 2017.


Low Temperature Tolerance Of Adult Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Ruth Jakobs 2014 Western University

Low Temperature Tolerance Of Adult Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Ruth Jakobs

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The crop pest Drosophila suzukii, native to Southeast Asia, has been found in Ontario since 2010. This raises concern with respect to it establishing permanent populations, however, little is known about its cold tolerance. I investigated the low-temperature tolerance, including phenotypic plasticity, of D. suzukii. While acclimation increased cold tolerance, there was no evidence of short-term cold-hardening. Chill coma occurs at -1.2 °C, which will limit winter activity. Cold shock decreased the reproductive output of females, but this negative effect may be mitigated by re-mating. Drosophila suzukii is chill-susceptible and 80 % of the flies die after exposure to -7 ...


Management Of Channel Catfish Ictalurus Punctatus In The Missouri River, Nebraska, Brandon L. Eder 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Management Of Channel Catfish Ictalurus Punctatus In The Missouri River, Nebraska, Brandon L. Eder

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The popularity of catfish Ictaluridae nationally as a sport fish is well documented and angling for catfish on the Missouri River in Nebraska (NMR) is especially popular. Catfish monitoring program by the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission (NGPC) began in 1974 and several short-term evaluations of Channel Catfish population dynamics have been performed. However, no long term analyses of population characteristics have been conducted since the early 1990s. The focus of this research was to summarize the status of Channel Catfish populations in the NMR and give recommendations for future management. I summarized population characteristics, modeled length limit regulations, and ...


The Effects Of Limestone Particle Size On Bone Health And Performance Of Pullets And Hens In Conventional Cage And Alternative Housing Systems, Pamela E. Eusebio Balcazar 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Effects Of Limestone Particle Size On Bone Health And Performance Of Pullets And Hens In Conventional Cage And Alternative Housing Systems, Pamela E. Eusebio Balcazar

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

One of the major welfare issues in cage-free housing systems is bone fracture. The goal of this research was to improve bone health in layers by building better pullet skeletons and to investigate limestone particle size (LPS) effects on bone health in conventional cages and cage-free housing systems. Study 1 was a preliminary study that compared conventional cages with litter floor pens in terms of performance, bone health, and eggshell quality from 33 to 47 wk of age. Caged hens had higher egg production and eggshell strength, and improved feed efficiency, but lower tibia bone mineral content compared to floor ...


Geographic Segregation And Evidence Of Density-Dependent Changes In Sex Ratios In An Abundant Colonial Waterbird, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Travis L. DeVault, Alban Guillaumet, Scott C. Barras 2014 SelectedWorks

Geographic Segregation And Evidence Of Density-Dependent Changes In Sex Ratios In An Abundant Colonial Waterbird, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Travis L. Devault, Alban Guillaumet, Scott C. Barras

Brian S Dorr

Demographic information, such as geographic segregation of sexes and sex ratio data, is needed to develop, model and evaluate conservation and management strategies for wildlife. A variety of physiological, behavioral and environmental factors can influence segregation of sexes and sex ratios, many of which originate with density- dependent processes. Departure from 50:50 sex ratios of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) collected during control efforts in breeding and wintering areas across their eastern range of the USA were evaluated using using a Z-test as well as Stouffer’s weighted Z-tests. In addition, a specifically-designed randomization test was used to evaluate density-dependent ...


Feedlot Manure Management Considerations Including Anaerobic Digestion Potential And Mineral Retention, Andrea K. Watson 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Feedlot Manure Management Considerations Including Anaerobic Digestion Potential And Mineral Retention, Andrea K. Watson

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Three anaerobic digestion trials were conducted to evaluate methane production from feedlot manure. As organic matter content of manure decreased, degradation of manure and methane production also linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.02). Quality, or organic matter content of manure, had a greater impact on anaerobic digestion than diet (with and without distillers grains) fed to cattle. Minerals are concentrated in effluent removed from anaerobic digesters.

Knowing mineral retention within cattle allows for more accurate calculation of mineral excretion in manure. Three serial slaughter trials measured mineral retention in growing and finishing cattle. During a growing phase, beef cattle gaining 1 ...


Genetic Parameter Estimates And Breed Effects For Calving Difficulty And Birth Weight In A Multi-Breed Population, Cashley Ahlberg 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Genetic Parameter Estimates And Breed Effects For Calving Difficulty And Birth Weight In A Multi-Breed Population, Cashley Ahlberg

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

There are multiple breeds of beef cattle available to utilize in breeding systems to maximize production and economics. Calving difficulty (dystocia) is a significant cost to beef production and is more prevalent in first-calf heifers. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and breed differences for calving difficulty and birth weight as a first step towards the development of across-breed adjustment factors for calving difficulty.

Two models were employed to analyze birth weight (BWT) and calving difficulty (CD) recorded on 4,579 first parity females from the Germplasm Evaluation program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research ...


Effects Of Stocking Rate On Forage Nutrient Composition Of Nebraska Sandhills Upland Range When Grazed In Early Summer And The Effects Of Grazing On Nebraska Sandhills Meadow Forage Nutrient Compostion, Jared V. Judy 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Stocking Rate On Forage Nutrient Composition Of Nebraska Sandhills Upland Range When Grazed In Early Summer And The Effects Of Grazing On Nebraska Sandhills Meadow Forage Nutrient Compostion, Jared V. Judy

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

The objectives of this research were to 1) evaluate the effects of stocking rate on forage nutrient quality 2) quantify the relative proportions of current vs. previous year growth being consumed in early summer upland range pastures and 3) determine how grazing effects forage nutrient quality in subirrigated meadows in the Nebraska Sandhills. Experiment 1 was a two year study conducted on the experimental upland range paddocks at Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory. Twelve 2-hectare paddocks were assigned one of three treatments stocked at 0 (control), 0.57 (light), and 0.85 (heavy) AUM/ha. Ten 0.25 m2 quadrats were ...


Effects Of Feeding Distillers Grains Throughout A Yearling Heifer Beef Production System On Meat Quality Attributes And Effects Of Omnigen – Af With Ractopamine Hydrochloride On Animal Performance And Beef Carcass Characteristics Of Feedlot Steers, Kelby M. Sudbeck 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Feeding Distillers Grains Throughout A Yearling Heifer Beef Production System On Meat Quality Attributes And Effects Of Omnigen – Af With Ractopamine Hydrochloride On Animal Performance And Beef Carcass Characteristics Of Feedlot Steers, Kelby M. Sudbeck

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Heifers (n = 229; 225 kg ± 2) were used in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial to determine the effects of longterm exposure to corn distillers grains plus solubles (DGS) on meat quality characteristics. Factors included supplementing 0.91 kg (LW) or 2.3 kg (HW) modified DGS (MDGS) while grazing corn stalks; 0.6% BW dry DGS (SS) daily or none (NS) during summer grazing; and finishing diet containing 40% wet corn gluten feed (CGF) or 40% MDGS (DGF) on a DM basis. An interaction was observed within CGF for discoloration, with SS increasing discoloration 30%; but no differences ...


Wintering Ecology Of Adult North American Ospreys, Brian E. Washburn, Charles J. Henny, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard, Brian S. Dorr, Thomas J. Olexa 2014 SelectedWorks

Wintering Ecology Of Adult North American Ospreys, Brian E. Washburn, Charles J. Henny, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard, Brian S. Dorr, Thomas J. Olexa

Brian S Dorr

North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than ...


Comparative Genomics Reveals Insights Into Avian Genome Evolution And Adaptation, Guojie Zhang, Cai Li, Qiye Li, Bo Li, Dennis M. Larkin, Chul Lee, Jay F. Storz, Agostinho Antunes, Matthew J. Greenwold, Robert W. Meredith, Anders Ödeen, Jie Cui, Qi Zhou, Luohao Xu, Hailin Pan, Zongji Wang, Lijun Jin, Pei Zhang, Haofu Hu, Wei Yang, Jiang Hu, Jin Xiao, Zhikai Yang, Yang Liu, Qiaolin Xie, Hao Yu, Jinmin Lian, Ping Wen, Fang Zhang, Hui Li, Yongli Zeng, Zijun Xiong, Shiping Liu, Long Zhou, Zhiyong Huang, Na An, Jie Wang, Quimei Zheng, Yingqi Xiong, Guangbiao Wang, Bo Wang, Jingjing Wang, Yu Fan, Rute R. da Fonseca, Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez, Mikkel Schubert, Ludovic Orlando, Tobias Mourier, Jason T. Howard, Ganeshkumar Ganapathy, Andreas Pfenning, Osceola Whitney, Miriam V. Rivas, Erina Hara, Julia Smith, Marta Farré, Jitendra Narayan, Gancho Slavov, Michael N. Romanov, Rui Borges, João Paulo Machado, Imran Khan, Mark S. Springer, John Gatesy, Federico G. Hoffmann, Juan C. Opazo, Olle Håstad, Roger H. Sawyer, Heebal Kim, Kyu-Won Kim, Hyeon Jeong Kim, Seoae Cho, Ning Li, Yinhua Huang, Michael W. Bruford, Xiangjiang Zhan, Andrew Dixon, Mads F. Bertelsen, Elizabeth Derryberry, Wesley Warren, Richard K. Wilson, Shengbin Li, David A. Ray, Richard E. Green, Stephen J. O'Brien, Darren Griffin, Warren E. Johnson, David Haussler, Oliver A. Ryder, Eske Willerslev, Gary R. Graves, Per Alström, Jon Fjeldså, David P. Mindell, Scott V. Edwards, Edward L. Braun, Carsten Rahbek, David W. Burt, Peter Houde, Yong Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Avian Genome Consortium, Erich D. Jarvis, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Jun Wang 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Comparative Genomics Reveals Insights Into Avian Genome Evolution And Adaptation, Guojie Zhang, Cai Li, Qiye Li, Bo Li, Dennis M. Larkin, Chul Lee, Jay F. Storz, Agostinho Antunes, Matthew J. Greenwold, Robert W. Meredith, Anders Ödeen, Jie Cui, Qi Zhou, Luohao Xu, Hailin Pan, Zongji Wang, Lijun Jin, Pei Zhang, Haofu Hu, Wei Yang, Jiang Hu, Jin Xiao, Zhikai Yang, Yang Liu, Qiaolin Xie, Hao Yu, Jinmin Lian, Ping Wen, Fang Zhang, Hui Li, Yongli Zeng, Zijun Xiong, Shiping Liu, Long Zhou, Zhiyong Huang, Na An, Jie Wang, Quimei Zheng, Yingqi Xiong, Guangbiao Wang, Bo Wang, Jingjing Wang, Yu Fan, Rute R. Da Fonseca, Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez, Mikkel Schubert, Ludovic Orlando, Tobias Mourier, Jason T. Howard, Ganeshkumar Ganapathy, Andreas Pfenning, Osceola Whitney, Miriam V. Rivas, Erina Hara, Julia Smith, Marta Farré, Jitendra Narayan, Gancho Slavov, Michael N. Romanov, Rui Borges, João Paulo Machado, Imran Khan, Mark S. Springer, John Gatesy, Federico G. Hoffmann, Juan C. Opazo, Olle Håstad, Roger H. Sawyer, Heebal Kim, Kyu-Won Kim, Hyeon Jeong Kim, Seoae Cho, Ning Li, Yinhua Huang, Michael W. Bruford, Xiangjiang Zhan, Andrew Dixon, Mads F. Bertelsen, Elizabeth Derryberry, Wesley Warren, Richard K. Wilson, Shengbin Li, David A. Ray, Richard E. Green, Stephen J. O'Brien, Darren Griffin, Warren E. Johnson, David Haussler, Oliver A. Ryder, Eske Willerslev, Gary R. Graves, Per Alström, Jon Fjeldså, David P. Mindell, Scott V. Edwards, Edward L. Braun, Carsten Rahbek, David W. Burt, Peter Houde, Yong Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Avian Genome Consortium, Erich D. Jarvis, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Jun Wang

Jay F. Storz Publications

Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses ...


Glucose Significantly Enhances Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Adherence To Intestinal Epithelial Cells Through Its Effects On Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Production, Prageeth Wijemanne, Rodney A. Moxley 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Glucose Significantly Enhances Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Adherence To Intestinal Epithelial Cells Through Its Effects On Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Production, Prageeth Wijemanne, Rodney A. Moxley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The present study tested whether exposure of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to glucose at different concentrations in the media results in increased bacterial adherence to host cells through increased heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) production, thereby suggesting the effects are physiological. Porcine-origin ETEC strains grown in Casamino acid yeast extract medium containing different concentrations of glucose were washed and inoculated onto IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells to test for effects on adherence and host cell cAMP concentrations. Consistent with previous studies, all LT+ strains had higher ETEC adherence to IPEC-J2 cells than did LT2 strains. Adherence of the LT2 but not the ...


Data For Henson Et Al. 2014, Shandelle M. Henson, James L. Hayward, Gordon Atkins, Amanda Sandler, Wadenerson Saint Martin 2014 Andrews University

Data For Henson Et Al. 2014, Shandelle M. Henson, James L. Hayward, Gordon Atkins, Amanda Sandler, Wadenerson Saint Martin

Shandelle M. Henson

These data are archived for the paper "Changing sea surface temperature alters timescale of reproductive synchrony in seabirds" by Henson et al., currently submitted to Nature.


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