Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Animal Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

20564 Full-Text Articles 23116 Authors 1827933 Downloads 168 Institutions

All Articles in Animal Sciences

Faceted Search

20564 full-text articles. Page 1 of 392.

J. C. Penney: The Man, The Store And American Agriculture (Under Contract), David Kruger 2016 University of Wyoming

J. C. Penney: The Man, The Store And American Agriculture (Under Contract), David Kruger

David Delbert Kruger

No abstract provided.


Food Science Education, Research, And Professional Development, Phillip S. Tong 2016 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Food Science Education, Research, And Professional Development, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

Food science knowledge and experience obtained through education, research, and professional development are the engines for innovative solutions that have historically solved key challenges in providing food for man since ancient times, and hold the key to meeting future needs of a growing global population. The systems in place that have been used to evolve our education programs conduct research and provide continuous learning opportunities that are essential to insuring a vibrant and widely available nutritious, safe, and wholesome food supply. This article provides an overview of the topics of the hierarchy related to food science education, research, and professional ...


Mixing Beef Feed Rations Containing Distillers Wet Grains, Nathan J. Schuler, Carl J. Bern, Daniel D. Loy, Thomas J. Brumm, Daryl R. Strohbehn 2016 Iowa State University

Mixing Beef Feed Rations Containing Distillers Wet Grains, Nathan J. Schuler, Carl J. Bern, Daniel D. Loy, Thomas J. Brumm, Daryl R. Strohbehn

Carl J. Bern

The flexibility of distillers grains has made it a major substitute for corn in beef feed rations. However, producers are having issues with feeding wet distillers grains. This study addresses three major mixing conditions: ingredient addition order, mixing time, and mixer design. The addition orders considered were hay-corn-protein-DWG and hay-DWG-protein-corn. Horizontal and vertical mixers were tested at mix times of 3, 5, and 7 min mixing a beef finishing ration containing wet distillers grains. Test results were obtained using total mixed ration and Pennsylvania State University Particle Separator analyses. Results showed that the 3-min mixing time is sufficient, thus when ...


Consumer Confidence In Food Safety And The 2010 Egg Recall, Sebastien Pouliot 2016 Iowa State University

Consumer Confidence In Food Safety And The 2010 Egg Recall, Sebastien Pouliot

Sebastien Pouliot

Iowa egg producers recalled nearly 500 million eggs in August 2010. The typical effect of a recall is to cause a decline in the demand for the affected product, yielding a decrease in the price. In the case of August 2010 egg recall, the price of eggs increased in the following weeks. This essay investigates the market effects of the egg recall. I estimate a system of simultaneous equations that includes supply and demand equations for the two main segments of the US industry. This essay offers preliminary evidence of the market effects of the August 2010 egg recall and ...


Measuring Maine’S Marine Economy, Brian Roach, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris 2016 University of Maine

Measuring Maine’S Marine Economy, Brian Roach, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris

Jonathan Rubin

Even though Maine’s new license plate no longer features the lobster, the ocean remains central to Maine’s identity and to its economy. As the authors point out, Maine has more than 4,500 miles of coastline and more than 4,600 islands over one acre in size. For many who live here, their way of life is tied to the sea; for many who visit Maine, their stay is tied to the sea. Despite such prominence, it has been difficult to accurately assess the importance of Maine’s marine economy. In part, this is because there clear definition ...


Subjective Experience In Insects: Definitions And Other Difficulties, Shelley Adamo 2016 Dalhousie University

Subjective Experience In Insects: Definitions And Other Difficulties, Shelley Adamo

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Whether insects have the potential for subjective experiences depends on the definition of subjective experience. The definition used by Klein & Barron (2016) is an unusually liberal one and could be used to argue that some modern robots have subjective experiences. From an evolutionary perspective, the additional neurons needed to produce subjective experiences will be proportionately more expensive for insects than for mammals because of the small size of the insect brain. This greater cost could weaken selection for such traits. Minimally, it may be premature to assume that small neuronal number is unimportant in determining the capacity for consciousness.


Agricultural Research Bulletins, Nos. 175–184, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale, G. C. Sands, Joe L. Robinson, P. K. Whelpton, R. H. Walker, P. E. Brown, M. B. Michaelian, B. W. Hammer, George W. Snedecor, Gertrude M. Cox, Lenore E. Sater, Paul L. Harding, C. B. Lane, John A. Hopkins Jr., Paul L. Taylor 2016 Iowa State College

Agricultural Research Bulletins, Nos. 175–184, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale, G. C. Sands, Joe L. Robinson, P. K. Whelpton, R. H. Walker, P. E. Brown, M. B. Michaelian, B. W. Hammer, George W. Snedecor, Gertrude M. Cox, Lenore E. Sater, Paul L. Harding, C. B. Lane, John A. Hopkins Jr., Paul L. Taylor

John H. Robinson

Volume 15, Bulletins 175-184. (175) Chemistry of Butter Making: II. The Nature of the Fatty Materials in Buttermilk and the significance of Certain Buttermilk Testing Methods; (176) Physiologic Factors Affecting the Germination of Seed Corn; (177) Iowa's Population Prospect; (178) Effects of Lime on the Hydrogen-Ion Concentration and Base Exchange Complex of Gundy Silt Loam; (179) Studies on Acetylmethylcarbinol and Diacetyl in Dairy Products; (180) Disproportionate Subclass Numbers in Tables of Multiple Classification; (181) Passing an Alternating Electric Current Through Food and Fruit Juices; (182) Physiological Behavior of Grimes Golden Apples in Storage; 9183) Bacteriology of Cheese: I. Effect ...


Bacteria And The Cellular Basis Of Consciousness, Michael L. Woodruff 2016 East Tennessee State University

Bacteria And The Cellular Basis Of Consciousness, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

According to Reber’s theory, the Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC), sentience originates as bio-sensitivity in unicellular organisms. For this reason, Reber regards sentience as evolutionarily foundational. Many bacteria show chemotaxis and, thus, according to CBC, they are sentient. Analysis of the genetic mechanisms underlying bacterial chemotaxis indicates that sentience has no explanatory power in this case. Genetic analysis also fails to show species continuity underlying bio-sensitivity in bacteria and bio-sensitivity in species with nervous systems, so it does not seem that sentience is evolutionary foundational. CBC is rejected on these grounds.


Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin 2016 Animal Studies Repository

Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Both Descartes the rationalist and Hume the empiricist, polar opposites philosophically, denied the unity and continuity of animal mind. Kant pointed out that the presence of retrievable memories entails unity of consciousness. Rowlands now argues that animals too have unity of consciousness.


Butheoloides Grosseri Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Uganda, František Kovařík 2016 Marshall University

Butheoloides Grosseri Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Uganda, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

A new species Butheoloides grosseri sp. n. is described and fully complemented with color photos of female holotype, as well as its habitat. This is the first species assigned to this genus from Uganda and represents southern limits of genus Butheoloides distribution.


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Viii. Pandinops Birula, 1913 (Scorpionidae), With Description Of Two New Species, František Kovařík 2016 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Viii. Pandinops Birula, 1913 (Scorpionidae), With Description Of Two New Species, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Complete Pandinops trichobothrial pattern and spiniform formula of tarsomeres of legs are published for the first time. P. friedrichi sp. n. from Somalia and P. turieli sp. n. from Ethiopia and Kenya are described. Information is provided about all Pandinops species, their taxonomy, and distribution, and P. turieli sp. n. discovered during scorpiological expeditions in 2011–2016 is fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as its habitat.


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Vii. Parabuthus Pocock, 1890 (Buthidae), With Description Of P. Hamar Sp. N. And P. Kajibu Sp. N. From Ethiopia, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Jana Plíšková, František Šťáhlavský 2016 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Vii. Parabuthus Pocock, 1890 (Buthidae), With Description Of P. Hamar Sp. N. And P. Kajibu Sp. N. From Ethiopia, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Jana Plíšková, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

All Parabuthus species from Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somaliland were newly collected and are revised for the first time. The complex of Parabuthus liosoma is split into three sibling species with separate areas of distribution: P. abyssinicus Pocock, 1901 (Eritrea, Djibouti, central and north-eastern parts of Ethiopia), P. liosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828) (Yemen and Saudi Arabia), and P. maximus Werner, 1913 (Tanzania and Kenya). P. hamar sp. n. and P. kajibu sp. n., discovered during scorpiological expeditions in 2011–2016, are described. Information is provided about all Parabuthus species from the Horn of Africa, their taxonomy, distribution, and ecology, fully complemented with ...


Fisheries Management With Stock Growth Uncertainty And Costly Capital Adjustment, Rajesh Singh, Quinn Weninger, Matthew Doyle 2016 Iowa State University

Fisheries Management With Stock Growth Uncertainty And Costly Capital Adjustment, Rajesh Singh, Quinn Weninger, Matthew Doyle

Quinn Weninger

We develop a dynamic model of a fishery which simultaneously incorporates random stock growth and costly capital adjustment. Numerical techniques are used to solve for the resource-rent-maximizing harvest and capital investment policies. Capital rigidities bring diminishing marginal returns to the current period harvest, and introduce an incentive to smooth the catch over time. With density-dependent stock growth, however, catch smoothing increases stock variability resulting in reduced average yields. The optimal management policy balances the catch smoothing benefits against yield loss. We calibrate the model to the Alaskan pacific halibut fishery to demonstrate the main insights.


Bioeconomies Of Scope And The Discard Problem In Multiple-Species Fisheries, Rajesh Singh, Quinn Weninger 2016 Iowa State University

Bioeconomies Of Scope And The Discard Problem In Multiple-Species Fisheries, Rajesh Singh, Quinn Weninger

Quinn Weninger

We consider the problem of multi-species fisheries management when targeting individual species is costly and at-sea discards of fish by fishermen are unobserved by the regulator. Stock conditions, ecosystem interaction, technological specification, and relative prices under which at-sea discards are acute are identified. A dynamic model is developed to balance ecological interdependencies among multiple fish species, and scope economies implicit in a costly targeting technology. Three regulatory regimes, species-specific harvest quotas, landing taxes, and revenue quotas, are contrasted against a hypothetical sole-owner problem. An optimal plan under all regimes precludes discarding. For both very low and very high levels of ...


To Bee Or Not To Bee?, Shimon Edelman, Roy Moyal, Tomer Fekete 2016 Cornell University

To Bee Or Not To Bee?, Shimon Edelman, Roy Moyal, Tomer Fekete

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Klein & Barron’s (2016) (K & B’s) case for insect consciousness is a welcome development in an area that, in all of the science and philosophy of mind, is probably the most anthropocentric. In this commentary, we seek to strengthen K & B’s side of the argument by appealing not just to putative neural mechanisms but also to computational theory that supports it (section 1). We also offer some remarks on three distinctions that are relevant to K & B’s thesis and are central to phenomenal awareness: between the capacity for awareness and its contents (section 2); between awareness and selfhood (section 3); and between “easy” and “hard” problems in consciousness research (section 4).


No Proof For Subjective Experience In Insects, Holk Cruse, Malte Schilling 2016 Bielefeld University

No Proof For Subjective Experience In Insects, Holk Cruse, Malte Schilling

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Klein & Barron (2016) provide an inspiring review collecting arguments that show quite related functions in humans and insects. Here we extend the comparison to robots, and formulate two critical objections. One concerns an epistemological question related to the phenomenon of subjective experience. The other questions whether insects need integrated spatiotemporal modeling for navigation.


Ethical Issues In The Use Of Animals In Biomedical And Psychopharmocological Research, John P. Gluck, Jordan Bell 2016 University of New Mexico

Ethical Issues In The Use Of Animals In Biomedical And Psychopharmocological Research, John P. Gluck, Jordan Bell

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

Rationale: The ethical debate concerning the use of animals in biomedical and pharmacological research continues to be replete with misunderstandings about whether animals have moral standing. Objectives: This article briefly reviews the central ethical positions and their relationship to the basic parameters of research regulation from an international perspective. The issues associated with the validation of animal models will then be discussed. Finally, suggestions for empirical ethics research will be presented. Methods: Recent literature reviews were accessed and analyzed. Results: This review summarizes the pertinent ethical and research literature. Conclusions: In summary, regardless of the ethical perspective one favors, there ...


Moving Beyond The Welfare Standard Of Psychological Well-Being For Nonhuman Primates: The Case Of Chimpanzees, John P. Gluck 2016 University of New Mexico

Moving Beyond The Welfare Standard Of Psychological Well-Being For Nonhuman Primates: The Case Of Chimpanzees, John P. Gluck

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

Since 1985, the US Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service policy have required that researchers using nonhuman primates in biomedical and behavioral research develop a plan ‘‘for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates.’’ In pursuing this charge, housing attributes such as social companionship, opportunities to express species-typical behavior, suitable space for expanded locomotor activity, and nonstressful relationships with laboratory personnel are dimensions that have dominated the discussion. Regulators were careful not to direct a specific set of prescriptions (i.e., engineering standards) for the attainment of these goals, but to leave the design of ...


Long-Term Effects Of Early Social Isolation In Macaca Mulatta: Changes In Dopamine Receptor Function Following Apomorphine Challenge, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Tom L. Beauchamp, Michael F. Keresztury, Richard B. Mailman 2016 University of North Carolina

Long-Term Effects Of Early Social Isolation In Macaca Mulatta: Changes In Dopamine Receptor Function Following Apomorphine Challenge, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Tom L. Beauchamp, Michael F. Keresztury, Richard B. Mailman

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

The hypothesis that early social isolation results in long-term alterations in dopamine receptor sensitivity was tested using older adult rhesus monkeys. Isolated and control monkeys were challenged with apomorphine (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg), and the drug effects on spontaneous blink rate, stereotyped behavior, and self-injurious behavior were quantified using observational measures. Monoamine metabolites were quantified from cisternal CSF by HPLC-EC, prior to pharmacological challenge. Isolated and control monkeys did not differ in CSF concentrations of HVA, 5-HIAA, or MHPG. At the higher dose, apomorphine significantly increased the rate of blinking, the occurrence of whole-body stereotypies, and the ...


Harry F. Harlow And Animal Research: Reflection On The Ethical Paradox, John P. Gluck 2016 University of New Mexico

Harry F. Harlow And Animal Research: Reflection On The Ethical Paradox, John P. Gluck

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

With respect to the ethical debate about the treatment of animals in biomedical and behavioral research, Harry F. Harlow represents a paradox. On the one hand, his work on monkey cognition and social development fostered a view of the animals as having rich subjective lives filled with intention and emotion. On the other, he has been criticized for the conduct of research that seemed to ignore the ethical implications of his own discoveries. The basis of this contradiction is discussed and propositions for current research practice are presented.


Digital Commons powered by bepress