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J. C. Penney: The Man, The Store And American Agriculture (Under Contract), David Kruger 2016 University of Wyoming

J. C. Penney: The Man, The Store And American Agriculture (Under Contract), David Kruger

David Delbert Kruger

No abstract provided.


Food Science Education, Research, And Professional Development, Phillip S. Tong 2016 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Food Science Education, Research, And Professional Development, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

Food science knowledge and experience obtained through education, research, and professional development are the engines for innovative solutions that have historically solved key challenges in providing food for man since ancient times, and hold the key to meeting future needs of a growing global population. The systems in place that have been used to evolve our education programs conduct research and provide continuous learning opportunities that are essential to insuring a vibrant and widely available nutritious, safe, and wholesome food supply. This article provides an overview of the topics of the hierarchy related to food science education, research, and professional ...


Effects Of Salt And Nitrite Concentration On The Shelf Life Of Deli-Style Ham, Regan E. Stanley 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Salt And Nitrite Concentration On The Shelf Life Of Deli-Style Ham, Regan E. Stanley

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Deli-style hams were manufactured to measure the effects of salt and nitrite concentration on shelf life and physicochemical characteristics. Three replications of deli-style ham treatments were manufactured in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement of salt concentration (0.7%, 1.4%, or 2.1%, meat block basis) and nitrite concentration and source (0 ppm, 100 ppm or 200 ppm sodium nitrite, SN, or 100 ppm sodium nitrite equivalent from pre-converted celery juice powder, CP; Veg Stable 506, Florida Food Products). Salt concentration, water activity, cook yield, and texture profile analysis (TPA) were measured on w 0. Color, pH, residual nitrite ...


Development Of Terminal And Maternal Economic Selection Indices In Beefmaster Cattle, Kathleen P. Ochsner 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Development Of Terminal And Maternal Economic Selection Indices In Beefmaster Cattle, Kathleen P. Ochsner

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

In the design of economic selection indices, the relative importance of traits in the breeding objective is reflected by their relative economic weighting. The objective of this study was to develop two economic selection indices for Beefmaster cattle: one for a terminal production system and one for a maternal production system. The terminal index was developed assuming bulls are mated to mature cows with all resulting progeny harvested. The maternal index was developed assuming bulls are mated to a combination of heifers and mature cows, with resulting progeny retained as replacements or sold at weaning.

National average prices from 2010 ...


Growth And Reproduction Of Southern Flounder (Paralichthys Lethostigma) In The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Morgan Marie Corey 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Growth And Reproduction Of Southern Flounder (Paralichthys Lethostigma) In The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Morgan Marie Corey

Master's Theses

Southern Flounder Paralichthys lethostigma is the most commonly harvested flatfish in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and supports a major inshore recreational fishery, yet knowledge of the species’ life history is greatly limited. The objective of this research was to describe the growth and reproduction of Southern Flounder in the Mississippi stock. Fish were collected during September 2014 to March 2016 using primarily recreational fishing techniques. Otoliths (n = 313) were sectioned to estimate age, and multiple length-at-age models were fit to total length (TL, mm) and age estimate (y) data. Gonadal tissue samples (n = 221) were preserved for histological ...


Development Of Genomic Resources For The Evaluation Of Red Snapper, An Emerging Species Candidate For Marine Aquaculture And Stock Enhancement, Adrienne Elise Norrell 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Development Of Genomic Resources For The Evaluation Of Red Snapper, An Emerging Species Candidate For Marine Aquaculture And Stock Enhancement, Adrienne Elise Norrell

Master's Theses

The northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) is a highly targeted reef fish candidate for marine aquaculture and stock enhancement in the southern United States. This work aimed to develop genomic resources for the genetic management of aquaculture programs and to investigate population structure using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Eighty-four new microsatellite markers were developed through screening of Illumina paired-end sequencing reads. Microsatellite loci and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) generated through Restriction Site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing were assayed in 5 outbred full-sib families to construct a high-density linkage map of the red snapper genome. The map consists of 7,964 markers ...


Effects Of Human Disturbance On Physiology, Behavior, And Ornamentation In The Eastern Bluebird, Lauren Marjorie Gillespie 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Human Disturbance On Physiology, Behavior, And Ornamentation In The Eastern Bluebird, Lauren Marjorie Gillespie

Dissertations

Overall, few studies have focused on anthropogenic disturbance on wildlife physiology. Research has typically focused on how environmentally contaminated areas or anthropogenic disturbance (e.g. noise, human activity) influences biodiversity, community structure and behavior of individual animals. However, understanding how disturbance influences some aspects of physiology can require sacrifice of the animal, prohibiting ecologically relevant measures of behavior and reproductive success. This research strives to examine covariation between testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT), plumage ornamentation, and behavior in two populations of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) that differ in degree to which their habitat is modified by human activity.

In this ...


Evaluation Of Hematological And Serum Biochemical Profiles Associated With The Supplementation Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride To Feedlot Heifers, Sara Elizabeth Sieren 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluation Of Hematological And Serum Biochemical Profiles Associated With The Supplementation Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride To Feedlot Heifers, Sara Elizabeth Sieren

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®) to cattle has been suggested to have a negative impact on well-being of cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hematological and serum biochemical profiles in feedlot heifers supplemented with ZH in a minimal stress environment. Heifers were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Control (CON no ZH), or ZH (supplemented with ZH at 8.33mg/kg of feed on a DM basis). The study was conducted over a period of 25 d (-2 to 23), with three serum collection periods [-2 to 4 d (ZH supplementation began on ...


The Effects Of Zinc Supplementation From Two Sources On Egg Quality And Bone Health In Laying Hens, Kelli Marie Martin 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Zinc Supplementation From Two Sources On Egg Quality And Bone Health In Laying Hens, Kelli Marie Martin

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

The objective of this study was to compare zinc sources and levels of supplementation on laying hen performance. Bovan White Leghorn hens were fed one of six dietary treatments in a 2x3 factorial arrangement consisting of two zinc sources (Availa®Zn or zinc sulfate) and three levels (40, 80, or 120 ppm). Treatments were randomly assigned to 48 cages with five hens/cage. Blocks provided eight replicates/treatment. Hens were housed in a tiered manure belt housing system providing 97.2 cm2/hen. Hens were given 110 g/hen/day of feed ad libitum. Feed intake, egg production, egg ...


Validating Laboratory Techniques That Influence Estimates Of Intake And Performance In Beef Cattle, Hannah C. Hamilton 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Validating Laboratory Techniques That Influence Estimates Of Intake And Performance In Beef Cattle, Hannah C. Hamilton

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of inoculum source on in vitro and in situ digestion procedures performed on grass hay and corn residue samples. Steers were fed 70% brome or 70% corn residue. Inoculum from each steer was used to perform in vitro procedures to determine IVDMD, organic matter digestibility (OMD), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and for in situ procedures to determine NDF digestibility. There were no interactions for inoculum source and IVDMD, OMD, or NDF digestibility.

Three cattle digestion studies were used to evaluate the relationship between TDN and digested OM (DIGOM). Total tract collection ...


Evaluation Of The Metabolic Response, Blood Chemistry Profile, And Cardiac Morphology Of Beef Heifers Supplemented With Zilpaterol Hydrochloride Followed By An Endocrine Induced Stress Challenge, Joe O. Buntyn 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluation Of The Metabolic Response, Blood Chemistry Profile, And Cardiac Morphology Of Beef Heifers Supplemented With Zilpaterol Hydrochloride Followed By An Endocrine Induced Stress Challenge, Joe O. Buntyn

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, hematology, organ weights, histology and cardiac anatomical features of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (VP) challenge. Crossbred heifers (n = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into two treatment groups: 1) Control (CON): no ZH, and 2) Zilpaterol (ZIL): supplemented with ZH at 8.33 mg / kg (DM basis). The ZIL group was supplemented ZH for 20 d, with a 3-d withdrawal period. On d 24, heifers received an intravenous bolus of CRH (0.3 µg / kg ...


Short-Term Water Potential Fluctuations And Eggs Of The Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys Scripta Elegans), John K. Tucker, Gary L. Paukstis, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Illinois Natural History Survey

Short-Term Water Potential Fluctuations And Eggs Of The Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys Scripta Elegans), John K. Tucker, Gary L. Paukstis, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

We exposed eggs of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) to short duration (i.e., 48 hours) changes in water potential at two embryonic ages (20 and 40 days). Survivorship to hatching did not differ by substrate water potential or among treatments. Net change in egg mass, a measure of net water exchange between the egg and substrate, was affected by treatments. However, treatments had no effect on hatchling mass, carcass mass, yolk mass, or incubation period. Eggs and embryos are able to exploit beneficial short-term increases in water potential and withstand adverse ones.


Turtles: The Animal Answer Guide, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Turtles: The Animal Answer Guide, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Turtles are among the most universally adored organisms. They exhibit an instantly recognizable morphology, yet lead lives that are cryptic to the casual observer, thus questions naturally surface regarding all sorts of aspects of their biology and history. In the absence of informed experience, mythic explanations have arisen and even become entrenched culturally, often doing no favor to the turtles or to turtle biologists who must combat such nonsense on behalf of the animals. Into this informational void appears this volume prepared by the expert authors, with the assistance of many knowledgeable colleagues.


Laboratory Survivorship Of Aerially Exposed Pond Snails (Physella Integra) From Illinois, John K. Tucker, Fredric J. Janzen, Gary L. Paukstis 2016 Illinois Natural History Survey

Laboratory Survivorship Of Aerially Exposed Pond Snails (Physella Integra) From Illinois, John K. Tucker, Fredric J. Janzen, Gary L. Paukstis

Fredric Janzen

Many aquatic snails occupy ephemeral habitats that are occasionally subjected to severe environmental conditions. To investigate the physiological capacity of these animals to resist extreme environmental changes, we aerially exposed aquatic pond snails (Physella integra) to temperatures of 5°C and 20°C for 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hours. Survivorship varied with temperature and exposure times. At 20°C, survivorship was 0% for snails aerially exposed for 24 hours or longer. At 5°C, 0% survivorship was attained at 60 hours exposure. Sensitivity to aerial exposure was related to shell size of individuals, with larger specimens ...


Experimental Analysis Of An Early Life-History Stage: Selection On Size Of Hatchling Turtles, Fredric J. Janzen, John K. Tucker, Gary L. Paukstis 2016 Iowa State University

Experimental Analysis Of An Early Life-History Stage: Selection On Size Of Hatchling Turtles, Fredric J. Janzen, John K. Tucker, Gary L. Paukstis

Fredric Janzen

Life-history evolution in short-lived organisms has been investigated extensively, but little is known empirically about the causes of the different life-history strategies of long-lived organisms. To explore this issue, we conducted experiments to evaluate natural selection acting on key traits during an important life-history stage of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). We reared eggs from 56 females in a seminatural common environment and released 356 of the resulting hatchlings in four replicates at a natural nesting area to assess offspring recapture probability as a measure of survivorship during the post-emergence migration. Larger body size of hatchling turtles was ...


Impact Of Nest-Site Selection On Nest Success And Nest Temperature In Natural And Disturbed Habitats, Jason J. Kolbe, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Impact Of Nest-Site Selection On Nest Success And Nest Temperature In Natural And Disturbed Habitats, Jason J. Kolbe, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Nest-site selection behavior is a maternal effect that contributes to offspring survival and variation in offspring phenotypes that are subject to natural selection. We investigated nest-site selection and its consequences in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, in northwestern Illinois. We evaluated nest-site selection at both the microhabitat and habitat patch levels. Turtles selected nest sites with shorter vegetation, more open sand, and fewer cacti than random locations. These microhabitat characteristics described sandy patches where both nest density and success were higher compared to grassy patches in 1999. We subsequently investigated nest-site selection within two discrete subdivisions of the study area ...


Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) Occurrence In The Moray Firth, North-East Scotland, Kevin P. Robinson, Sonja Eisfeld, Marina Costa, Mark P. Simmonds 2016 Cetacean Research and Rescue Unit

Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) Occurrence In The Moray Firth, North-East Scotland, Kevin P. Robinson, Sonja Eisfeld, Marina Costa, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, O.B.E.

The short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is regarded as notably rare or absent from the northern North Sea, but recent evidence suggests a rising frequency of the species in these waters with increasing regional sea temperatures. The following paper documents the presence of D. delphis in the Moray Firth in north-east Scotland and provides the first evidence for the sustained occurrence of these delphinids in this region during the warmer summer months at least. Sightings were collated during systematic surveys of the outer Moray Firth between 2001 and 2009 by independent research teams from the CRRU and WDCS. A total ...


Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. McElligott 2016 Queen Mary University of London

Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity allows animals to effectively respond to internal and external stimuli in everyday challenges via changes in, for example, heart and respiration rate. Various factors, ranging from social such as dominance rank to internal such as personality or affective states can impact animal physiology. Our knowledge of the combinatory effects of social and internal factors on ANS basal activity and reactivity, and of the importance that each factor has in determining physiological parameters, is limited, particularly in nonhuman, free-ranging animals. In this study, we tested the effects of dominance rank and personality (assessed ...


The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. McElligott 2016 Queen Mary University of London

The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

The development of accurate measures of animal emotions is important for improving and promoting animal welfare. Cognitive bias indicates the effect of emotional states on cognitive processes, such as memory, attention, and judgement. Cognitive bias tests complement existing behavioural and physiological measures for assessing the valence of animal emotions indirectly. The judgement bias test has been used to assess emotional states in non-human animals; mainly in laboratory settings. The aim of this review is to summarise the findings on the use of the judgement bias test approach in assessing emotions in non-human animals, focusing in particular on farm livestock. The ...


Mother--Offspring Recognition Via Contact Calls In Cattle, Bos Taurus, Mónica Padilla de la Torre, Elodie F. Briefer, Brad M. Ochocki, Alan G. McElligott, Tom Reader 2016 University of Nottingham

Mother--Offspring Recognition Via Contact Calls In Cattle, Bos Taurus, Mónica Padilla De La Torre, Elodie F. Briefer, Brad M. Ochocki, Alan G. Mcelligott, Tom Reader

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Individual recognition in gregarious species is fundamental in order to avoid misdirected parental investment. In ungulates, two very different parental care strategies have been identified: ‘hider’ offspring usually lie concealed in vegetation whereas offspring of ‘follower’ species remain with their mothers while they forage. These two strategies have been suggested to impact on mother--offspring vocal recognition, with unidirectional recognition of the mother by offspring occurring in hiders and bidirectional recognition in followers. In domestic cattle, Bos taurus, a facultative hider species, vocal communication and recognition have not been studied in detail under free-ranging conditions, where cows and calves can graze ...


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