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J. C. Penney: The Man, The Store And American Agriculture (Under Contract), David Delbert Kruger 2017 University of Wyoming

J. C. Penney: The Man, The Store And American Agriculture (Under Contract), David Delbert Kruger

David Delbert Kruger

No abstract provided.


Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno

Master's Theses

Social structures are critical to the success of many species and have repercussions on health, well-being, and adaptation, yet little is known about the factors which shape these structures aside from ecology and life history strategies. Dyadic bonds are the basis of all social structures; however, mechanisms for formations of specific bonds or patterns in which individuals form which types of bonds have yet to be demonstrated. There is a variety of evidence indicating personality may be a factor in shaping bonds, but this relationship has not been explored with respect to bond components and is yet to be demonstrated ...


Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. de Vere 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. De Vere

Master's Theses

Personality has now been studied in species as diverse as chimpanzees (King & Figueredo, 1997) and cuttlefish (Carere et al., 2015), but marine mammals remain vastly underrepresented in this area. A broad range of traits have been assessed only in the bottlenose dolphin (Highfilll & Kuczaj, 2007), while consistent individual differences in a few specific behaviors have been identified in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012). Furthermore, the context component of definitions of personality is not often assessed, despite evidence that animals may show individual patterns of consistency (Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012). The current study therefore aimed to assess underlying personality factors and consistency across contexts in two unstudied marine mammal species, using behavioral coding.

Two California sea lion and three harbor seal personality factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis. Two factors were broadly similar across species; the first, Boldness, resembled human Extraversion, and to some extent Openness. The second factor was labeled Routine Activity, and contained some Conscientiousness-like traits. Excitable-Interest emerged as a third factor in seals, but had low reliability. Species-specific patterns were also identified for interactive behaviors across two contexts. However, there was substantial individual variation in the frequency of these behaviors, as well as some animals who did not conform to species-level trends. This study therefore provides novel evidence for broad personality factors and ...


Computational Modeling Suggests Dimerization Of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Rev Is Required For Rna Binding, Chijioke N. Umunnakwe, Hyelee Loyd, Kinsey Cornick, Jerald R. Chavez, Drena Dobbs, Susan Carpenter 2017 Iowa State University

Computational Modeling Suggests Dimerization Of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Rev Is Required For Rna Binding, Chijioke N. Umunnakwe, Hyelee Loyd, Kinsey Cornick, Jerald R. Chavez, Drena Dobbs, Susan Carpenter

Drena Dobbs

Background The lentiviral Rev protein mediates nuclear export of intron-containing viral RNAs that encode structural proteins or serve as the viral genome. Following translation, HIV-1 Rev localizes to the nucleus and binds its cognate sequence, termed the Rev-responsive element (RRE), in incompletely spliced viral RNA. Rev subsequently multimerizes along the viral RNA and associates with the cellular Crm1 export machinery to translocate the RNA-protein complex to the cytoplasm. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Rev is functionally homologous to HIV-1 Rev, but shares very little sequence similarity and differs in domain organization. EIAV Rev also contains a bipartite RNA binding domain ...


Horn Fly Control And Growth Implants Are Effective Strategies For Heifers Grazing Flint Hills Pasture, S. S. Trehal, J. L. Talley, K. D. Sherrill, T. Spore, R. N. Wahl, W. R. Hollenbeck, Dale Blasi 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Horn Fly Control And Growth Implants Are Effective Strategies For Heifers Grazing Flint Hills Pasture, S. S. Trehal, J. L. Talley, K. D. Sherrill, T. Spore, R. N. Wahl, W. R. Hollenbeck, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Horn flies (Haematobia irritans (L.)) are considered the most important external parasite that negatively affects pasture-based beef systems with losses estimated to exceed $1 billion annually to the U.S. beef industry. Control strategies have relied heavily on insecticide applications to control horn flies and are implemented when the economic threshold of 200 flies/animal have been exceeded. When horn fly populations are maintained below 200 flies/animal by treating them with insecticides then the level of stress annoyance behaviors such as leg stomping, head throwing, and skin twitching decreases while grazing increases. While most stocker operators utilize some type ...


Effects Of Growing-Season Prescribed Burning On Vigor Of Sericea Lespedeza In The Kansas Flint Hills: Ii. Plant-Species Composition, J. A. Alexander, W. H. Fick, J. Lemmon, G. A. Gatson, G. W. Preedy, K C. Olson 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Effects Of Growing-Season Prescribed Burning On Vigor Of Sericea Lespedeza In The Kansas Flint Hills: Ii. Plant-Species Composition, J. A. Alexander, W. H. Fick, J. Lemmon, G. A. Gatson, G. W. Preedy, K C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Fire has, for centuries, been a key force for sustainability of native ecosystems in the Kansas Flint Hills. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, prescribed and wild fires occurred at less than 3-year intervals in the tallgrass prairie region. As a result, native tallgrass plant communities adapted to fire at regular intervals and plant-species composition became stable on a geologic time scale.
Currently, prescribed fire is used in the Kansas Flint Hills as a treatment for control of woody-stemmed invasive species such as eastern red cedar, honey locust, and roughleaf dogwood. These fires are generally applied in March and ...


Effects Of Growing-Season Prescribed Burning On Vigor Of Sericea Lespedeza In The Kansas Flint Hills: I. Suppression Of Seed Production And Canopy Dominance, J. A. Alexander, W. H. Fick, J. Lemmon, G. A. Gatson, G. W. Preedy, K C. Olson 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Effects Of Growing-Season Prescribed Burning On Vigor Of Sericea Lespedeza In The Kansas Flint Hills: I. Suppression Of Seed Production And Canopy Dominance, J. A. Alexander, W. H. Fick, J. Lemmon, G. A. Gatson, G. W. Preedy, K C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) is a highly fecund noxious weed in Kansas and surrounding states. Individual plants are capable of producing greater than 1,000 seeds annually. Vigorous seed production allows sericea lespedeza to rapidly infiltrate native and cultivated grasslands; seed can be transported great distances via farm machinery and the alimentary canal of wild and domestic herbivores. In Kansas alone, sericea lespedeza infests more than 700 square miles of pasture, primarily in the Flint Hills region. The resulting damage to native habitats for wildlife and pasture quality for domestic herbivores has been devastating.
The predominant grazing management practice in ...


Slimy And Ropy Milk, R. E. Buchanan, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Slimy And Ropy Milk, R. E. Buchanan, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

A study of slimy and ropy milk sent for examination to the dairy bacteriological laboratories of Iowa State College has shown the following:

1. Cultures of organisms secured from slimy starters, apparently typical Streptococcus lacticus forms, sometimes showed marked capacity to produce ropiness when inoculated into sterile milk. This slime producing power is evidently a variable characteristic, appearing and disappearing without apparent cause.

2. Associative action of organisms in some cases is responsible for ropiness. Two organisms, neither of which alone can cause ropiness, may, when grown together, cause the medium to become slimy.

3. Bacterium (lactis) viscosum is one ...


Bacteriological Studies On Two Yellow Milk Organisms, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Studies On Two Yellow Milk Organisms, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The different milk constituents vary greatly in their susceptibility to the action of the bacteria that make up the flora commonly found in milk. At ordinary temperatures in raw milk, the lactose is soon attacked and acid formed, but if the acid producing organisms are destroyed by some such procedure as heating, pronounced changes soon take place in the casein. The fat is one of the milk constituents that is more resistant to bacterial action, yet even in it striking changes are observed under certain conditions. Some of the common milk organisms, even some of the acid producing types, are ...


Bacteriological Studies On The Coagulation Of Evaporated Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Studies On The Coagulation Of Evaporated Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The value of milk as a food has led to many attempts at its preservation until at the present time various kinds of dried and canned milks are manufactured. The canned milks, because of the water contained in them, are open to bacteriological changes unless the action of microorganisms is overcome by either killing those present or by making the conditions unsuited to their growth.


A Bacteriological Study Of Blue Milk, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

A Bacteriological Study Of Blue Milk, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In October, 1913, the receipt of a sample of blue milk by the dairy section of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station prompted an investigation of this uncommon phenomenon. Careful study of the organism involved proved it to be Bac. cyanogenes, the same organism that has been isolated in other instances of blue milk. As far as is known, this organism is entirely harmless and milk which is turned blue by it is objectionable only on account of its color.


The Specific Heat Of Milk And Milk Derivatives, B. W. Hammer, A. R. Johnson 2017 Iowa State College

The Specific Heat Of Milk And Milk Derivatives, B. W. Hammer, A. R. Johnson

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In a great many dairy processes where heat is used, the amount and intensity of the energy necessary to gain a certain end-product are very important. These factors are important not only because heat, like material commodities, is an item of expense, but also, because too great an intensity of temperature, or too prolonged an application, may cause serious chemical and physical changes in the substance worked with.


A Sonic Net Excludes Birds From An Airfield: Implications For Reducing Bird Strike And Crop Losses, John P. Swaddle, Dana L. Moseley, Mark H. Hinders, Elizabeth P. Smith 2017 College of William and Mary

A Sonic Net Excludes Birds From An Airfield: Implications For Reducing Bird Strike And Crop Losses, John P. Swaddle, Dana L. Moseley, Mark H. Hinders, Elizabeth P. Smith

John Swaddle

Collisions between birds and aircraft cause billions of dollars of damages annually to civil, commercial, and military aviation. Yet technology to reduce bird strike is not generally effective, especially over longer time periods. Previous information from our lab indicated that filling an area with acoustic noise, which masks important communication channels for birds, can displace European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from food sources. Here we deployed a spatially controlled noise (termed a “sonic net”), designed to overlap with the frequency range of bird vocalizations, at an airfield. By conducting point counts, we monitored the presence of birds for four weeks before ...


Acoustic Space Is Affected By Anthropogenic Habitat Features: Implications For Avian Vocal Communication, Caitlin R. Kight, Mark H. Hinders, John P. Swaddle 2017 College of William and Mary

Acoustic Space Is Affected By Anthropogenic Habitat Features: Implications For Avian Vocal Communication, Caitlin R. Kight, Mark H. Hinders, John P. Swaddle

John Swaddle

Human-altered landscapes often include structural features, such as higher levels of impervious surface cover (ISC) and less vegetation, that are likely to affect the transmission of avian vocalizations. We investigated the relationships between human habitat modifications and signal transmission by measuring four acoustic parameters—persistence, reverberation, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of broadcast tones, as well as absolute ambient noise level—in each of 39 avian breeding territories across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient. Using a geographic information system, we quantified the amounts of different habitat features (e.g., ISC, grass, trees) at each site; a principal component analysis was used to ...


Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos 2017 College of William and Mary

Increased Avian Diversity Is Associated With Lower Incidence Of Human West Nile Infection: Observation Of The Dilution Effect, John P. Swaddle, Stavros E. Calos

John Swaddle

Recent infectious disease models illustrate a suite of mechanisms that can result in lower incidence of disease in areas of higher disease host diversity–the ‘dilution effect’. These models are particularly applicable to human zoonoses, which are infectious diseases of wildlife that spill over into human populations. As many recent emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, the mechanisms that underlie the ‘dilution effect’ are potentially widely applicable and could contribute greatly to our understanding of a suite of diseases. The dilution effect has largely been observed in the context of Lyme disease and the predictions of the underlying models have rarely ...


Constraints On Acoustic Signaling Among Birds Breeding In Secondary Cavities: The Effects Of Weather, Cavity Material, And Noise On Sound Propagation, John P. Swaddle, Caitlin R. Kight, Saji Perera, Eduardo Davila-Reyes, Shena Sikora 2017 College of William and Mary

Constraints On Acoustic Signaling Among Birds Breeding In Secondary Cavities: The Effects Of Weather, Cavity Material, And Noise On Sound Propagation, John P. Swaddle, Caitlin R. Kight, Saji Perera, Eduardo Davila-Reyes, Shena Sikora

John Swaddle

Increasing evidence suggests that anthropogenic noise from urbanization affects animal acoustic communication. We investigated whether the begging calls of nestling Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) varied along a disturbance gradient of ambient noise. Contrary to our prediction and the results of a previous study of nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), we found that nestling Eastern Bluebirds did not increase the amplitude or structural characteristics—including frequency, rate, and duration—of their vocalizations in response to ambient noise. However, we found that prevalent temperature and humidity conditions attenuated begging calls. Specifically, in warmer, more humid weather, vocalizations of nestling Eastern Bluebirds attenuated ...


Starlings Can Categorize Symmetry Differences In Dot Displays, John P. Swaddle, Stephen Pruett-Jones 2017 College of William and Mary

Starlings Can Categorize Symmetry Differences In Dot Displays, John P. Swaddle, Stephen Pruett-Jones

John Swaddle

Fluctuating asymmetry is an estimate of developmental stability and, in some cases, the asymmetry of morphological traits can reflect aspects of individual fitness. As asymmetry can be a marker for fitness, it has been proposed that organisms could use morphological asymmetry as a direct visual cue during inter‐ and intraspecific encounters. Despite some experimental evidence to support this prediction, the perceptual abilities of animals to detect and respond to symmetry differences have been largely overlooked. Studying the ability of animals to perceive symmetry and factors that affect this ability are crucial to assessing whether fluctuating asymmetry could be used as ...


Anthropogenic Noise Is Associated With Reductions In The Productivity Of Breeding Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Caitlin R. Kight, Margaret S. Saha, John P. Swaddle 2017 College of William and Mary

Anthropogenic Noise Is Associated With Reductions In The Productivity Of Breeding Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Caitlin R. Kight, Margaret S. Saha, John P. Swaddle

John Swaddle

Although previous studies have related variations in environmental noise levels with alterations in communication behaviors of birds, little work has investigated the potential long-term implications of living or breeding in noisy habitats. However, noise has the potential to reduce fitness, both directly (because it is a physiological stressor) and indirectly (by masking important vocalizations and/or leading to behavioral changes). Here, we quantified acoustic conditions in active breeding territories of male Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Simultaneously, we measured four fitness indicators: cuckoldry rates, brood growth rate and condition, and number of fledglings produced (i.e., productivity). Increases in environmental noise ...


Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success And Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study With Adult- Or Lifetime-Exposure In Zebra Finch, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, John P. Swaddle, Daniel A. Cristol 2017 Colorado State University - Pueblo

Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success And Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study With Adult- Or Lifetime-Exposure In Zebra Finch, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, John P. Swaddle, Daniel A. Cristol

John Swaddle

Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing wildlife at risk of reduced reproductive fitness and survival. Songbirds are the most diverse branch of the avian evolutionary tree; many are suffering persistent and serious population declines and we know that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects of environmentally relevant doses of mercury on reproductive success of songbirds exposed throughout their lives or only as adults. The two modes of exposure simulated philopatric species versus dispersive species, and are particularly relevant because of the heightened mercury-sensitivity of developing nervous systems ...


Blood Mercury Levels Of Zebra Finches Are Heritable: Implications For The Evolution Of Mercury Resistance, Kenton A. Buck, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, Daniel A. Cristol, John P. Swaddle 2017 College of William and Mary

Blood Mercury Levels Of Zebra Finches Are Heritable: Implications For The Evolution Of Mercury Resistance, Kenton A. Buck, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, Daniel A. Cristol, John P. Swaddle

John Swaddle

Mercury is a ubiquitous metal contaminant that negatively impacts reproduction of wildlife and has many other sub-lethal effects. Songbirds are sensitive bioindicators of mercury toxicity and may suffer population declines as a result of mercury pollution. Current predictions of mercury accumulation and biomagnification often overlook possible genetic variation in mercury uptake and elimination within species and the potential for evolution in affected populations. We conducted a study of dietary mercury exposure in a model songbird species, maintaining a breeding population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) on standardized diets ranging from 0.0–2.4 μg/g methylmercury. We applied a ...


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