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Rapid Acid Tests For Cream, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale 2017 Iowa State College

Rapid Acid Tests For Cream, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The Farrington rapid acid test has been employed for many years by the fluid milk industry for grading samples on the borderline of acidity set for their purchase. In performing the test, neutralizing solutions (containing phenolphthalein) used are of such strength that 1 dipper of solution added to 1 dipper (of the same size) of milk gives a pink mixture if the milk is 0.1 percent acid or less; 2 dippers of neutralizing solution grade at the 0.2 percent point and so on. By adjusting the neutralizing strength the grades corresponding to 1 and 2 dippers of neutralizing ...


Tests For Cream Sediment, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale, H. P. Guest 2017 Iowa State College

Tests For Cream Sediment, E. W. Bird, D. F. Breazeale, H. P. Guest

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Commercial milk plants have employed the sediment test for milk for many years. In fact, the milk sediment test has its place on the milk score card. The amount of sediment is always determined in scoring milk. The test is extremely simple; it consists of passing 1 pint of milk through a sediment tester and catching the sediment present in the milk on a circular pad 1 inch in diameter.

The application of a sediment test to cream, on the other hand, has been attempted only very recently. A test as simple as that for milk is impossible. The cream ...


Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau 2017 The University of San Francisco

Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau

Master's Projects and Capstones

There is an under-recognized potential for cities to use urban green infrastructure to contribute to avian biodiversity conservation. At the global scale, climate change and growing urbanization are primary global drivers leading to decline and homogenization in world bird populations. Birds are fundamental and intricate species in ecosystems, and even in urban areas, act as indicator and regulator species contributing to healthy ecosystem function. While many cities have recognized the economic and social benefits associated with green spaces, such as the vast benefits ecosystem services provide to the urban dweller, the use of green spaces to concurrently contribute to avian ...


Iowa Blue Cheese, E. F. Goss, V. Nielsen, M. Mortensen 2017 Iowa State College

Iowa Blue Cheese, E. F. Goss, V. Nielsen, M. Mortensen

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Iowa is an importer of cheese. In 1933 Iowa dairy plants manufactured 1,491,822 pounds of cheese.2 In the same year consumption is estimated to have been 10,254,397 pounds, using the 1933 United States Department of Agriculture figure of 4.15 pounds per capita and 1930 Iowa census figures as a basis of computation. In 1933 Iowa dairy plants produced 14.6 percent of the cheese consumed in the state. If this percentage could be greatly increased it would result in a larger and more diversified market for Iowa milk.

Production of cured cheese in Iowa ...


Linebreeding, Jay L. Lush 2017 Iowa State College

Linebreeding, Jay L. Lush

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Linebreeding is a form of inbreeding (usually mild) directed toward keeping the offspring closely related to one ancestor (usually a much admired one). All inbreeding not necessary for holding this relationship high is avoided as far as possible.

It is practiced to conserve, among the descendants, the good traits of an outstanding sire or dam, increasing those descendants in numbers without lessening their resemblance to this ancestor even for many generations after that ancestor’s death.

The more superior a breeder’s herd or flock is to the average merit of its breed, the more reason he has to practice ...


The Agar Disc Method For Studying The Contamination From Metal Surfaces, H. C. Olsen, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

The Agar Disc Method For Studying The Contamination From Metal Surfaces, H. C. Olsen, B. W. Hammer

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

A procedure, designated the agar disc method, has been developed at the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station2 for the study of the contamination from churns. It consists of allowing a small amount of a special agar medium to solidify in contact with the surface to be studied, the transferring of the disc thus formed to a sterile petri dish and, finally, the counting of the colonies that develop on incubation. The usefulness of the method for the examination of churns, especially when the churns are at some distance from the laboratory3, suggests its application to the study of the ...


The Use Of Water Bowls In The Dairy Barn, C. Y. Cannon, E. N. Hansen, James R. O'Neal 2017 Iowa State College

The Use Of Water Bowls In The Dairy Barn, C. Y. Cannon, E. N. Hansen, James R. O'Neal

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

1. Dairy cows, watered by means of water bowls, drank approximately 18 percent more water and yielded 3.5 percent more milk and 10.7 percent more butterfat than cows that were watered twice per day at an outside tank.

2. Cows watered with water bowls drank an average of about 10 times in each 24 hours. Approximately two-thirds of the water was consumed in the daytime, that is between 5 a. m. and 5 p. m., and the other one-third at night.

3. Cows watered at the outside tank frequently drank but once per day. This occurred about 30 ...


Transcript Profiles In Longissimus Dorsi Muscle And Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: A Comparison Of Pigs With Different Postweaning Growth Rates, C. M. Pilcher, C. K. Jones, M. Schroyen, A. J. Severin, J. F. Patience, C. K. Tuggle, J. E. Koltes 2017 Iowa State University

Transcript Profiles In Longissimus Dorsi Muscle And Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: A Comparison Of Pigs With Different Postweaning Growth Rates, C. M. Pilcher, C. K. Jones, M. Schroyen, A. J. Severin, J. F. Patience, C. K. Tuggle, J. E. Koltes

Andrew Severin

Although most pigs recover rapidly from stresses associated with the transition of weaning, a portion of the population lags behind their contemporaries in growth performance. The underlying biological and molecular mechanisms involved in postweaning differences in growth performance are poorly understood. The objective of this experiment was to use transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to develop a better understanding of the metabolic basis for poor weaned-pig transition. A total of 1,054 pigs was reared in commercial conditions and weighed at birth, weaning, and 3 wk postweaning. Transition ADG (tADG) was calculated as the ADG for the ...


The Ages Of Breeding Cattle And The Possibilities Of Using Proven Sires, Jay L. Lush, M. D. Lacy 2017 Iowa State College

The Ages Of Breeding Cattle And The Possibilities Of Using Proven Sires, Jay L. Lush, M. D. Lacy

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

What proportion of the bulls actually in breeding use in the United States are old enough to be proven sires? What proportion of the purebred cows from which the next generation of bulls must come are old enough that their real breeding worth may be judged in considerable part by the qualities of the offspring they have already produced? How many years of breeding use may one expect to get from bulls of various ages? Out of every hundred heifers which come into milk for the first time, how many may be expected still to be breeding at 5 years ...


The Effect Of Processing, Handling And Of Testing Procedures On The Fat Content Of Ice Cream, E. W. Bird, Elgin A. Johnson 2017 Iowa State College

The Effect Of Processing, Handling And Of Testing Procedures On The Fat Content Of Ice Cream, E. W. Bird, Elgin A. Johnson

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

A number of inquiries received from Iowa ice cream manufacturers shows that they believe that some steps in the processing or handling of ice cream cause a lower fat percentage in the frozen product than in the mix. From a theoretical viewpoint, no such fat lowering should occur in the product. A sufficient number of inquiries has been received, however, to warrant studying the causes of any irregularities which might result from the processing and the handling of the mix and of the frozen ice cream, and likewise, any winch might be introduced by the methods of obtaining and mixing ...


The Pasteurization Efficiencies Secured With Milk From Individual Farms, R. V. Hussong, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

The Pasteurization Efficiencies Secured With Milk From Individual Farms, R. V. Hussong, B. W. Hammer

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The pasteurized milk coming from certain of the Iowa market milk plants contains larger numbers of bacteria than would be expected from the numbers present in the raw milk. These large numbers are sometimes due to contamination following pasteurization, but comparatively high counts are also encountered with carefully pasteurized milk taken directly from the pasteurizer so that there is no opportunity for contamination from the cooler, bottler, etc.

In order to determine whether or not certain milk supplies contain comparatively large percentages of heat resistant organisms, the pasteurization efficiencies1 secured with milk coming from different farms were studied. The ...


Observations On The Counting Of Bacteria In Ice Cream By The Plate Method, N. E. Fabricius, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Observations On The Counting Of Bacteria In Ice Cream By The Plate Method, N. E. Fabricius, B. W. Hammer

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The development of official or standard methods for various types of laboratory examinations represents a distinct advance from the standpoint of the usefulness of the results obtained. The standard methods for the bacteriological analysis of milk have made it possible to compare, on a satisfactory basis, the results secured in different laboratories and, undoubtedly, have been a factor in extending the use of bacterial counts for the control of milk supplies. The procedure at present required by Standard Methods of Milk Analysis1 for the macroscopic colony count on milk has been developed over a period of years. It is ...


Soybean And Alfalfa Hays For Wintering Pregnant Ewes, W. E. Hammond, John M. Evvard, C. C. Culbertson 2017 Iowa State College

Soybean And Alfalfa Hays For Wintering Pregnant Ewes, W. E. Hammond, John M. Evvard, C. C. Culbertson

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Since the soybean acreage has increased in Iowa and the Corn Belt, the determination of the economic feeding value of this plant deserves attention.

Alfalfa and clover have long been considered good legume hays for sheep. Because of the increase in soybean production, which involves a greater volume of soybean hay, the question naturally arises as to how this legume hay compares in feeding value with clover and alfalfa. With this question in mind four lots of pregnant ewes were experimentally fed on soybean and alfalfa hays and certain combinations of these two hays. The results secured are reported herein.


Dried Buttermilk For Growing And Fattening Pigs, John M. Evvard, C. C. Culbertson, Q. W. Wallace 2017 Iowa State College

Dried Buttermilk For Growing And Fattening Pigs, John M. Evvard, C. C. Culbertson, Q. W. Wallace

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The objects of this experiment were to determine the comparative value and efficiency of meat meal tankage, dried buttermilk and various combinations of these feeds on health, gains, feed requirements, water consumption, time required to reach 225 pounds average weight and other factors, when these protein feeds were self-fed along with shelled corn to growing and fattening pigs in dry lots.

The pigs used in this test were very uniform in age, weight and breeding. They were all sired by the same purebred Hampshire boar and were out of either related purebred or very high grade Hampshire sows. The pigs ...


Swine Performance Record Litter Comparisons, C. C. Culbertson, John M. Evvard, H. H. Kildee, M. D. Helser 2017 Iowa State College

Swine Performance Record Litter Comparisons, C. C. Culbertson, John M. Evvard, H. H. Kildee, M. D. Helser

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Swine breeders in this country have been handicapped by not having had a satisfactory basis for the effective selection of their breeding stock. The judging of livestock by experienced men based on visual inspection has been responsible for considerable progress, but it should be supplemented by additional facts in order to determine accurately such essentials as ability to reproduce efficiently, to grow rapidly and to convert a unit of feed into a near-maximum of quality meat and by-products.

Actual records of performance have been used for years as a basis for the breeding of race horses. The dairyman and the ...


Soft Ear Corn Silage For Swine, John M. Evvard, C. C. Culbertson, Q. W. Wallace, E. J. Maynard 2017 Iowa State College

Soft Ear Corn Silage For Swine, John M. Evvard, C. C. Culbertson, Q. W. Wallace, E. J. Maynard

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

A recurrence of soft corn years in the last quarter century brings into prominence the question of what should be done with this perishable product, which is often large in amount.

Owing to the limited investigational work which has been carried on along this line and because of the numerous inquiries received in regard to the best way of handling, preserving and feeding soft corn, it was thought advisable to make some definite determinations of the keeping and feeding qualities of various grades of corn. Inasmuch as soft corn is corn which has been frosted before its kernels have reached ...


Influence Of The Animal's Age Upon The Quality And Palatability Of Beef, M. D. Helser, P. Mabel Nelson, Belle Lowe 2017 Iowa State College

Influence Of The Animal's Age Upon The Quality And Palatability Of Beef, M. D. Helser, P. Mabel Nelson, Belle Lowe

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

1. Beef from two-year-old and yearling steers is more desirable than beef from calves both in the feeder and finished stages.

2. Finished cattle show higher dressing and cutting yields than unfinished cattle.

3. The age of the animal has little influence on the percentages of the various cuts of beef.

4. Beef from young animals is lighter in color than that from older animals.

5. The distribution of fat thru the lean was more, satisfactory in the yearling and two-year-old beef than in beef from the calves.

6. Beef from older animals will ripen more satisfactorily than beef from ...


Relative Efficiency Of Calves, Yearlings And Two-Year-Old Steers For The Producer, C. C. Culbertson, John M. Evvard, W. E. Hammond 2017 Iowa State College

Relative Efficiency Of Calves, Yearlings And Two-Year-Old Steers For The Producer, C. C. Culbertson, John M. Evvard, W. E. Hammond

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

1. Steer calves purchased in the fall and full-fed in dry lot until finished for market proved in three different years to be more profitable for the producer than yearlings or two-year-old steers. A longer time was required to fatten the calves, but they required less feed for the hundredweight of gain, sold on a higher market and returned a greater margin over feed costs.

2. The yearling steers proved to be more profitable than the two-year-olds altho the margin was close in each of the three years.

3. The two-year-old steers made greater gains during the finishing period than ...


Creamery Organization And Construction, Henry Giese, M. Mortensen 2017 Iowa State College

Creamery Organization And Construction, Henry Giese, M. Mortensen

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Since 1910 the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station has taken an active part in assisting the farmers in the organization and erection of creameries.

The early creameries planned by the Iowa station in cooperation with the various creamery organizations were satisfactory at that time. Emphasis was placed primarily on sanitation, convenience, durability and economy in construction. These factors are not ignored today but are rather more strongly emphasized . In addition, much emphasis is placed on the appearance of the building, since the creamery of today is often centrally located in the town and is one of the important business institutions of ...


A Simple Linebreeding Program For Poultry Breeders, C. W. Knox 2017 Iowa State College

A Simple Linebreeding Program For Poultry Breeders, C. W. Knox

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

It is practically impossible to increase egg production beyond a certain point in any flock of chickens without proper regard to mating and breeding. The old adage that it is impossible to squeeze blood out of a turnip also holds true in poultry keeping for, no matter how much care is given the birds, they cannot lay eggs beyond their HEREDITARY capacity.

As with egg production, hatchability, egg size and body weight cannot be increased beyond certain limits unless some constructive breeding program is followed. Altho this bulletin will deal with linebreeding for higher egg production, the same principles will ...


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