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The Centennial Of The Smith-Lever Act And Aquaculture Extension, Michael A. Rice 2014 University of Rhode Island

The Centennial Of The Smith-Lever Act And Aquaculture Extension, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

May 8, 2014 marked the centennial of the landmark Smith-Lever Act in the United States that created the Cooperative Extension service at Land Grant Universities nationwide. Major contributors to the 1914 Act were Seaman A. Knapp and Kenyon L. Butterfield. A half century later the Sea Grant College Program was proposed by Athelstan F. Spilhaus expanding Extension programming to the sea. Together these two programs have been a major force in promoting the growth of the aquaculture industry in America.


2014 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report, 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

2014 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Contents:

Cow/Calf

Effect of Pubertal Status and Number of Estrous Cycles Prior to the Breeding Season on Pregnancy Rate in Beef Heifers .5

Comparison of Long-term Progestin-based Synchronization Protocols on Fixed-time AI pregnancy Rate in Beef Heifers . 8

Androgen Excess in Beef Cows Results in Altered Theca Cell Gene Expression and Fertility 11

Follicular Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Expression Before and After the LH Surge . 14

Evaluation of Genomic Predictors for Red Angus Cattle . 17

Preconception Distillers Grains Supplementation Improves Mature Beef Cow Return to Estrous . 19

Impact of Supplemental Protein Source on Pregnant Heifers 21

Effects of ...


New Insight Into The Effects Of Small Heat Shock Proteins On Callipyge Lamb Meat Tenderness, Traci Cramer, Yuan H Brad Kim, Danyi Ma, Jolena N. Waddell, Moriah Penick 2014 Purdue University

New Insight Into The Effects Of Small Heat Shock Proteins On Callipyge Lamb Meat Tenderness, Traci Cramer, Yuan H Brad Kim, Danyi Ma, Jolena N. Waddell, Moriah Penick

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Callipyge lambs are a type of sheep that are genetically known to produce tough meat. High expression of calpastatin, which inhibits proteolytic activity of µ-calpain, has been identified as the main factor behind the toughness of callipyge lamb meat. Another group of proteins called small heat shock proteins (sHSP) has recently been suggested for its possible involvement in tenderness development of meat, where up-regulation of sHSP may be associated with toughness. However, the role of sHSP in meat tenderization of callipyge lambs has never been investigated; therefore, the objective of this study is to determine possible involvement of sHSP in ...


From Progesterone In Biopsies To Estimates Of Pregnancy Rates: Large Scale Reproductive Patterns Of Two Sympatric Species Of Common Dolphin, Delphinus Spp. Off California, Usa And Baja, Mexico, Nicholas Marc Kellar, Marisa L. Trego, Susan J. Chivers, Fredrick I. Archer, Wayne L. Perryman 2014 Occidental College

From Progesterone In Biopsies To Estimates Of Pregnancy Rates: Large Scale Reproductive Patterns Of Two Sympatric Species Of Common Dolphin, Delphinus Spp. Off California, Usa And Baja, Mexico, Nicholas Marc Kellar, Marisa L. Trego, Susan J. Chivers, Fredrick I. Archer, Wayne L. Perryman

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Blubber progesterone levels were measured in biopsy samples and used to predict the pregnancy status of 507 female common dolphins (204 long-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus capensis, and 303 short-beaked common dolphins, D. delphis). Samples were collected in the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific between central California, USA and the southern end of Baja California, Mexico. The percentage of females pregnant was similar between the two species: 22.1% (n = 45) of D. capensis and 28.1% (n = 85) of D. delphis. For both species we found strong geographic patterns in pregnancy, suggesting that some areas were more conducive ...


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus Albus), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Robert A. Klumb, Sam Stukel 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus Albus), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Robert A. Klumb, Sam Stukel

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Anthropogenic alterations to the Missouri River have placed the Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population in jeopardy and contributed to their listing as an endangered species. Pallid sturgeon were always less common than the sympatric Shovelnose Sturgeon (S. platorynchus); however, Pallid Sturgeon seemed to be more affected by river alterations as the river sturgeon ratio has become more skewed towards Shovelnose Sturgeon. Shortly after listing, population augmentation with hatchery produced Pallid Sturgeon began to supplement the diminishing wild population. Therefore, the objective of this study was to present the current population status of the Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River along ...


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus Platorynchus), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus Platorynchus), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Shovelnose Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus remains the most abundant riverine sturgeon species in North American despite the anthropogenic modifications that have occurred throughout their historic range; however, their populations have declined throughout Nebraska since the construction of Fort Randall and Gavins Point Dams. Therefore, the objective of this study was to present the current status of Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River along Nebraska’s border. Data was acquired from 2003 to 2012 from all reaches of the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border. Catch rates of Shovelnose Sturgeon increased in a downstream trend and were highest in the ...


The Effect Of A Small Ruminant Farm Operation And Sustainable Farm Practices: Soil Quality And Run-Off At The University Hickory Hill Farm, Delaware, Gulnihal Ozbay Dr., Akida J. Ferguson, Raju Khatiwada, Lathadevi K. Chintapenta 2014 Tuskegee University

The Effect Of A Small Ruminant Farm Operation And Sustainable Farm Practices: Soil Quality And Run-Off At The University Hickory Hill Farm, Delaware, Gulnihal Ozbay Dr., Akida J. Ferguson, Raju Khatiwada, Lathadevi K. Chintapenta

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

This project was designed to evaluate the effect of ruminant grazing practices at Hickory Hill Farm on the surrounding environment by measuring soil nutrients and runoff chemistry. Three pastures on the farm (Goat, Cattle and Control) were selected for soil sampling and nutrient analyses were recorded. Physical water quality parameters were conducted on the runoff collected from the farm after Hurricane Sandy. The sites with animal activity had higher levels of sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, Mehlich 3 phosphorus and conductivity when compared to control site. However, the control site had slightly higher pH and chloride levels. Nitrogen and phosphorous levels were ...


Microalgae In Eastern Pacific White Shrimp Hatcheries: A Review On Roles And Culture Environments, Wa Iba, Michael A. Rice, Gary H. Wikfors 2014 University of Rhode Island

Microalgae In Eastern Pacific White Shrimp Hatcheries: A Review On Roles And Culture Environments, Wa Iba, Michael A. Rice, Gary H. Wikfors

Michael A Rice

Demand for shrimp, particularly the eastern Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931), will continue to increase in Asian and worldwide seafood markets. Providing shrimp farms with a robust, healthy, and continuous supply of shrimp seed is a challenge that must be addressed to meet the demand. Shrimp feed during hatchery production still relies on live microalgae, despite many years of effort to find suitable full or partial-replacement diet alternatives. Successful mass production of microalgae for hatchery feed to obtain good quality shrimp seedstock depends on a number of environmental factors that determine the growth and nutritional values of various ...


The Innate Immune Response In Eisenia Fetida To Microbial Challenges, Aaron Schindler 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Innate Immune Response In Eisenia Fetida To Microbial Challenges, Aaron Schindler

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The common earthworm, Eisenia fetida, exhibits a rudimentary immune system. The earthworm needs cellular and chemical responses against a constant microbial exposure from its natural environment. Some cellular and chemical responses are found in the coelomic fluid and have been shown to demonstrate anti-microbial characteristics. This project uses microscopy and modified staining techniques to differentiate and categorize the cellular components found in the coelomic fluid. Following a microbial challenge by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an inflammatory response was initiated. Six groups of earthworms were injected with 0.05 ml of 1.0 x 106 cfu /ml K. pneumoniae on day one and ...


Search For The Causative Organism Of Waterfowl Deaths At Lake Onalaska, Derek Skillings 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Search For The Causative Organism Of Waterfowl Deaths At Lake Onalaska, Derek Skillings

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

American coots (Fulica americana) and diving ducks, including lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) have been dying in significant numbers on Lake Onalaska since 2001. Bird mortality is being attributed to parasitic infections from two intestinal trematodes, Cyathocotyle bushiensis and Sphaeridiotrema globulus. The birds begin dying in as little as two weeks of landing at this lake. Rapid mortality is not typically associated with trematode parasitism. Assuming these birds acquired their infections at Lake Onalaska, leads to the conclusion that our current understanding of the disease in this parasite-host system is lacking. Neorickettsiales are a group of ...


Sustainable Service-Learning Projects In The Tropics: A Costa Rica Maymester, Kimberly Lutz 2014 Purdue University

Sustainable Service-Learning Projects In The Tropics: A Costa Rica Maymester, Kimberly Lutz

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

International service-learning projects extend textbook knowledge into practical, real-world applications while giving students an opportunity to engage in a different culture. In May 2012, a group of Purdue students from various majors in the College of Agriculture, led by a student leader and faculty member, traveled to Costa Rica to complete several service-learning projects. These projects included: (1) the construction and installation of water filtration systems, (2) creating an animal health care curricula for local schools, and (3) finalizing a guidebook of fl ora and fauna to benefit an emerging ecotourism site. Maymester students met for an 8-week course prior ...


Population Of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana Pipiens) Migrating Between The Ney Frog Pond And The Minnesota River Valley For Spring Breeding, Rebecca Madison Pollack 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Population Of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana Pipiens) Migrating Between The Ney Frog Pond And The Minnesota River Valley For Spring Breeding, Rebecca Madison Pollack

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens) found at the Ney Nature Center (NNC) are particularly important to the NNC, as they are the initial population of frogs found deformed in 1995. As bio-indicators, frog populations can be used to assess the health of their surrounding environment. This study used standard herpetological field methods to gain a population estimate of Northern Leopard Frogs and the migration route used by these frogs as they moved up the bluffs of the Minnesota River Valley from their wintering site to the Ney Frog Pond for spring breeding. The results gathered provide the Ney Environmental ...


Effect Of Increased Water Temperature On Warm Water Fish Feeding Behavior And Habitat Use, Eric Walberg 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Effect Of Increased Water Temperature On Warm Water Fish Feeding Behavior And Habitat Use, Eric Walberg

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Global warming could cause changes in species behavior and life history. Stream fish may be significantly affected by climate change because individuals are restricted in their movements by water systems and other physical factors, preventing migration to locations more thermally suitable. The effect of warmer waters on stream fish could change behavior and affect the fish species survival and ultimately ecosystem function. During my experiment I observed the effects of increased water temperature on the feeding behavior and habitat use of two native Minnesota fish species, black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) and black bullhead (Ameiurus melas). An increase of 2oC over ...


Anti-Predator Responses Of Fathead Minnows To Alarm Substance Pheromone, Sarah Thomson 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Anti-Predator Responses Of Fathead Minnows To Alarm Substance Pheromone, Sarah Thomson

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

In some fish, alarm substances are released from skin cells when they are bitten by a predator, signaling nearby fish in potential danger. Such anti-predator defenses have been studied in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and some have hypothesized that the response to the alarm substance is not instinctual, but rather fish must learn to associate it with a predation cue such as motion. The purpose of this study is to detect an effect of conditioning (associating alarm substance with predation threat) on minnow responses to alarm substance. We tested the prediction that conditioned fish would react more strongly to ...


Atrazine Influence On Northern Pike Sperm Motility And Viability In Minnesota, Andy Stevens, Paul Pallardy 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Atrazine Influence On Northern Pike Sperm Motility And Viability In Minnesota, Andy Stevens, Paul Pallardy

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Concern has been noted by fish hatchery biologists with the Department of Natural Resources that southern Minnesota northern pike Esox lucius populations have exhibited reduced hatching rates, a trend not occurring with northern Minnesota pike populations. The chemical atrazine is a frequently used herbicide in Minnesota and has been found to cause gonadal dysgenesis and reproductive development issues in amphibians and fish. Sperm, length, and age data were collected from northern pike in four Minnesota lakes. Water samples were obtained from two of the lakes to test for atrazine. Test results indicated atrazine concentrations0.10 and r2 < 0.06 for all regressions). Sperm motility reductions in northern pike could be related to declining populations and warrants further research.


The Abundance And Diversity Of Intestinal Trematodes Collected From Blue Winged Teal And Ring-Neck Ducks Inhabiting Lake Winnibigoshish, Minnesota, Omolayo Ogunnowo 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Abundance And Diversity Of Intestinal Trematodes Collected From Blue Winged Teal And Ring-Neck Ducks Inhabiting Lake Winnibigoshish, Minnesota, Omolayo Ogunnowo

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

This study investigated the abundance and diversity of parasites residing in the digestive tracts of blue winged teal and ring-necked ducks collected at Lake Winnibigoshish, MN. The trematode parasites we focused on in this study were removed from the anterior-most, 15cm segment of the small intestine of 10 individuals of each bird species. The parasites were initially stored in 10% formalin and were subsequently stained with Schneider’s aceto carmine, then mounted on microscope slides for diagnostic purposes. A total of 1605 trematodes were recovered from the birds. We found that blue wing teal and ring-necked ducks tended to contain ...


Energy Content Of Reduced-Fat Dried Distillers Grains And Solubles For Lactating Dairy Cows And Effects On Energy And Nitrogen Balance, Alison J. Foth 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Energy Content Of Reduced-Fat Dried Distillers Grains And Solubles For Lactating Dairy Cows And Effects On Energy And Nitrogen Balance, Alison J. Foth

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2 % corn silage, 18.4 % alfalfa hay, 6.94 % brome hay with either 22.9 % rolled corn and 14.8 % soybean meal (Control), or 8.95 % rolled corn, 28.8 % RFDDGS, and 0 % soybean meal (Co-P; DM basis). The inclusion of RFDDGS did not affect (P = 0.86) DMI averaging 21.4 ± 0.53 kg DM ...


Effects Of Sorting Prior To Feeding Zilpaterol Hydrochloride And Effects Of Different Implant Strategies On Feedlot Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Steers And Heifers, Fred H. Hilscher Jr 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Sorting Prior To Feeding Zilpaterol Hydrochloride And Effects Of Different Implant Strategies On Feedlot Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Steers And Heifers, Fred H. Hilscher Jr

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Two experiments evaluated the effects of sorting and feeding Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to steers on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. In Exp. 1, treatments compared unsorted cattle either fed ZH or not, and three treatments utilizing 1 sort at the beginning, middle or end of the finishing period. In Exp. 2, treatments compared unsorted cattle fed ZH, and two treatments that utilized 1 sort based on initial BW or 4 sorts at the end of the finishing period. Feeding ZH increased BW, HCW and percentage of overweight carcasses; however, sorting decreased carcass weight standard deviations, and percent overweight carcasses. Feeding ...


Feeding Condensed Distillers Solubles To Feedlot Finishing Steers And The Effects Of Feed Additives In Adaptation Diets, Marie E. Harris 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Feeding Condensed Distillers Solubles To Feedlot Finishing Steers And The Effects Of Feed Additives In Adaptation Diets, Marie E. Harris

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

By-products from the dry-milling ethanol process can be used in cattle diets to replace corn. There is a significant interaction between corn processing methods as CCDS concentration increases in the diet. Improvements are observed for SFC in final BW, ADG, and G:F over DRC. An experiment was conducted to determine if greater concentrations of CCDS could be fed in SFC based diets and maintain or improve performance. Performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated with increasing concentrations of CCDS at 0, 9, 18, 27, or 36% in place of SFC in feedlot finishing diets. As CCDS concentration increased, DMI decreased ...


Effects Of Pubertal Status And Number Of Estrous Cycles Prior To Breeding In Beef Heifers, Average Daily Gain On Reproductive Performance And Comparison Of Two Fixed Time Ai Estrus Synchronization Protocols, Rebecca Vraspir 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Pubertal Status And Number Of Estrous Cycles Prior To Breeding In Beef Heifers, Average Daily Gain On Reproductive Performance And Comparison Of Two Fixed Time Ai Estrus Synchronization Protocols, Rebecca Vraspir

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Reproductive success is the most important factor in beef cattle production and is affected by timing of pubertal onset in heifers, and reproductive biotechnologies utilized. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of pubertal status, ADG, and 2 fixed time AI protocols on reproductive success in beef heifers.

In the first study, heifers that were pubertal prior to breeding had a greater AI and overall pregnancy rate; produced more calves born within the first 21 d of the calving season; and weaned older, heavier calves than non-pubertal heifers. Additionally, heifers that had ≥2 estrous cycles, prior to the first ...


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