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A Prototype On-Line Aotf Hyperspectral Image Acquisition System For Tenderness Assessment Of Beef Carcasses, Govindarajan Konda Naganathan, Kim Cluff, Ashok Samal, Chris Calkins, David D. Jones, Carol Lorenzen, Jeyamkondan Subbiah 2015 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Prototype On-Line Aotf Hyperspectral Image Acquisition System For Tenderness Assessment Of Beef Carcasses, Govindarajan Konda Naganathan, Kim Cluff, Ashok Samal, Chris Calkins, David D. Jones, Carol Lorenzen, Jeyamkondan Subbiah

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

A prototype on-line acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based hyperspectral image acquisition system (λ = 450– 900 nm) was developed for tenderness assessment of beef carcasses. Hyperspectral images of ribeye muscle on stationary hanging beef carcasses (n = 338) at 2-day postmortem were acquired in commercial beef slaughter or packing plants. After image acquisition, a strip steak was cut from each carcass, vacuum packaged, aged for 14 days, cooked, and slice shear force tenderness scores were collected by an independent lab. Beef hyperspectral images were mosaicked together and principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to reduce the spectral dimension. Six different textural feature ...


Supplemental Zinc Oxide Does Not Interact With Zilmax In Feedlot Steers, C. L. Van Bibber, K. A. Miller, J. M. Gonzalez, J. S. Drouillard 2015 Kansas State University

Supplemental Zinc Oxide Does Not Interact With Zilmax In Feedlot Steers, C. L. Van Bibber, K. A. Miller, J. M. Gonzalez, J. S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Zilmax (Merck Animal Health; Summit, NJ) is in a class of feed additives known as beta agonists and is designed to improve production efficiency in cattle when fed 20 days prior to harvest. Zilmax works by altering deposition of body tissue to more lean muscle than fat. Zinc is an essential mineral necessary for normal growth and development of all mammals. Zinc functions largely in enzymes involved in protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism along with many other biological reactions. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in blood components and to evaluate the interactive effects of zinc and ...


Menthol Supplementation Has Minimal Effects On Blood Components From Holstein Steers, C. L. Van Bibber, K. A. Miller, C. C. Aperce, C. Alvarado, J. J. Higgins, J. S. Drouillard 2015 Kansas State University

Menthol Supplementation Has Minimal Effects On Blood Components From Holstein Steers, C. L. Van Bibber, K. A. Miller, C. C. Aperce, C. Alvarado, J. J. Higgins, J. S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Menthol is a naturally occurring compound classified as an essential oil that gives plants of the Mentha species their characteristic minty aroma and flavor. Menthol is used as a cooling compound in products ranging from common cold medications to pesticides and has been found to have a wide range of biological activities in different systems within the body. More recently, menthol and other essential oils have been identified as potential alternatives to feed antibiotics and growth promotants. Menthol has been observed to directly affect κ-opioid receptors. Kappa opioid receptors are located in the central nervous system, with a high density ...


Comparing Standing Heat And Estrotect Heat Detection Patches, S. K. Johnson, J. R. Jaeger 2015 Kansas State University

Comparing Standing Heat And Estrotect Heat Detection Patches, S. K. Johnson, J. R. Jaeger

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A recent survey showed that 66% of producers surveyed used some amount of heat detection in their artificial insemination program, and 74% of producers that used heat detection aids had tried Estrotect (Rockway, Inc.; Spring Valley, WS) heat detection patches. The peel-and-stick application made Estrotect more popular than types that required adhesive application. The patches are designed so that when the animal is mounted the top surface layer is removed, much like scratching a lottery ticket. After several mounts the entire layer is removed, leaving a bright-colored surface behind. A new type of patch, Standing Heat (Standing Heat, LLC; Dannebrog ...


Lactipro (Megasphaera Elsdenii) Increases Ruminal Ph And Alters Volatile Fatty Acids And Lactate During Transition To An 80% Concentrate Diet, J. Thieszen, C. L. Van Bibber, J. E. Axman, J. S. Drouillard 2015 Kansas State University

Lactipro (Megasphaera Elsdenii) Increases Ruminal Ph And Alters Volatile Fatty Acids And Lactate During Transition To An 80% Concentrate Diet, J. Thieszen, C. L. Van Bibber, J. E. Axman, J. S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Direct-fed microbials commonly have been used to enhance performance or to decrease shedding of foodborne pathogens in beef cattle. Megasphaera elsdenii is a recently introduced probiotic bacteria marketed under the trade name Lactipro (MS-Biotec Inc., Wamego, KS) and is a key lactate-fermenting bacterium in the rumens of cattle fed high-concentrate diets. Megasphaera elsdenii is responsible for metabolizing up to 95% lactic acid within the rumen, and thus is an important species for controlling occurrence of ruminal acidosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid concentration during the transition from a diet ...


Hops Βeta-Acid Extract Yields Feedlot Performance Similar To Rumensin, J. E. Axman, C. L. Van Bibber, C. Alvarado, J. Thieszen, J. S. Drouillard 2015 Kansas State University

Hops Βeta-Acid Extract Yields Feedlot Performance Similar To Rumensin, J. E. Axman, C. L. Van Bibber, C. Alvarado, J. Thieszen, J. S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Hops (Humulus lupulus) have played an integral role in beer manufacturing and are widely known for their antimicrobial and preservative properties. Alpha-acids of hops are extracted and utilized to enhance beer flavor, leaving residues largely composed of β-acids. Beta-acid extracts of hops are structurally similar to ionophores and may express ionophore-like traits. Ionophores, including Rumensin (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN), are used to improve feed efficiency and to decrease the incidence of digestive disturbances in feedlot cattle. A large portion of in vitro studies show benefits from feeding hops or hop acids with results similar to ionophores; however, live animal ...


Global Warming And Population Responses Among Great Plains Birds, Paul A. Johnsgard 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Global Warming And Population Responses Among Great Plains Birds, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

Based on an analysis of 47 years (1967–2014) of Audubon Christmas Bird Counts (CBC), evidence for population changes and shifts in early winter (late December) ranges of nearly 150 species of birds in the Great Plains states is summarized, a region defined as including the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Texas panhandle. The rationale for this study had its origins in Terry Root’s 1988 Atlas of North American Wintering Birds. Root’s landmark study provided a baseline for evaluating the nationwide winter distributions of 253 North American birds in the mid-20th century, using data from the National ...


Using Estrus-Detection Patches To Vary Time Of Insemination Improves Pregnancy Rates Compared With One Single Timed Insemination, S. L. Hill, D. M. Grieger, K C. Olson, J. R. Jaeger, J. S. Stevenson 2015 Kansas State University

Using Estrus-Detection Patches To Vary Time Of Insemination Improves Pregnancy Rates Compared With One Single Timed Insemination, S. L. Hill, D. M. Grieger, K C. Olson, J. R. Jaeger, J. S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Timed artificial insemination (TAI) of beef cows at a predetermined time is a management tool that reduces labor costs associated with conventional heat detection before insemination. Multiple research trials have examined timing of the individual components of the developed protocols associated with TAI. The 7-day CO-Synch + progesterone insert (controlled internal drug release; CIDR) protocol has been shown to initiate ovulation effectively in cycling and noncycling suckled beef cows, often producing pregnancy rates greater than 50% in beef cows. In the current research, we examined using two targeted insemination intervals depending on the occurrence of estrus. We hypothesized that by more ...


An Injectable Trace Mineral Supplement In Yearling Bulls Causes A Short-Term Increase In Circulating Trace Mineral Levels But Does Not Improve Sperm Quality, A. A. Kirchhoff, K. E. Fike, R. Breiner 2015 Kansas State University

An Injectable Trace Mineral Supplement In Yearling Bulls Causes A Short-Term Increase In Circulating Trace Mineral Levels But Does Not Improve Sperm Quality, A. A. Kirchhoff, K. E. Fike, R. Breiner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Proper trace mineral supplementation is necessary for reproductive development and function. Supplementation with various trace minerals has been shown to improve overall sperm quality and morphology and increase the percentage of live sperm. When developing beef bulls, it is necessary to meet trace mineral requirements to ensure proper reproductive success. An injectable trace mineral product has been made commercially available for use in cattle as a supplemental form of chelated selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese. Considering the role of trace minerals in bull reproductive function, we posed the question of whether using an injectable trace mineral product beyond dietary supplementation ...


Genetic Variance And Covariance Components For Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, And Postweaning Gain In Growing Beef Cattle, K. J. Retallick, Jennifer A. Minick, R. L. Weaber, M. D. MacNeil, H. L. Bradford, Harvey C. Freetly, W. M. Snelling, Mark Thallman, D. Moser, Larry Kuehn 2015 Kansas State University

Genetic Variance And Covariance Components For Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, And Postweaning Gain In Growing Beef Cattle, K. J. Retallick, Jennifer A. Minick, R. L. Weaber, M. D. Macneil, H. L. Bradford, Harvey C. Freetly, W. M. Snelling, Mark Thallman, D. Moser, Larry Kuehn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Feed is the greatest cost for a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficiency of animals is also costly, because both gain and intake records are needed to calculate feed efficiency. Electronic intake monitoring systems such as GrowSafe or Insentec to collect feed intake data are expensive and thus limit the number of animals that can be tested. Scientists have worked to pinpoint optimal test durations for collecting both weight gain and feed intake records to lessen costs.

A 70-day performance test is currently recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency, with growth data as the limiting factor ...


Dietary Chromium Propionate Combined With Yeast Minimally Affects Growth Performance And Carcass Traits Of Finishing Steers, C. L. Van Bibber, J. E. Axman, J. M. Gonzalez, J. S. Drouillard 2015 Kansas State University

Dietary Chromium Propionate Combined With Yeast Minimally Affects Growth Performance And Carcass Traits Of Finishing Steers, C. L. Van Bibber, J. E. Axman, J. M. Gonzalez, J. S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Chromium (Cr) is an essential micromineral that serves to increase absorption of glucose from blood by potentiating the action of insulin. The ability to increase glucose tolerance could lead to more efficient use of glucose and ultimately to improved growth and efficiency. In addition, Cr may be beneficial in improving the immune response of cattle that are subjected to periods of stress. Organic forms of Cr (i.e., Cr propionate) increase absorption and are more physiologically active than their inorganic counterparts. Chromium propionate is currently the only approved form of organic Cr allowed for supplementation in cattle diets in the ...


Evaluation Of Calcium Hydroxide-Treated Stover (Second Crop) In Receiving And Growing Diets And Effects On Cattle Performance, T. Spore, S. Montgomery, C. Vahl, B. E. Oleen, W. R. Hollenbeck, J. W. Waggoner, J. Hill, D. A. Blasi 2015 Kansas State University

Evaluation Of Calcium Hydroxide-Treated Stover (Second Crop) In Receiving And Growing Diets And Effects On Cattle Performance, T. Spore, S. Montgomery, C. Vahl, B. E. Oleen, W. R. Hollenbeck, J. W. Waggoner, J. Hill, D. A. Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Production of ethanol from corn as an alternative fuel source has significantly affected the pricing landscape for corn as an energy source for livestock. As ethanol usage has become more prevalent, corn prices have become more volatile, especially in critical corn-growing areas that have been affected by drought. Consequently, many beef cattle feeders have become interested in alternative energy sources in an effort to control cost of gain. Second Crop (ADM Corp., Decatur, IL) is a process in which calcium hydroxide is added to fibrous crop residues, such as wheat straw and corn stover. When applied to low-quality roughages, calcium ...


Value And Use Of Artificial Insemination By Beef Producers, S. K. Johnson, Garland R. Dahlke 2015 Kansas State University

Value And Use Of Artificial Insemination By Beef Producers, S. K. Johnson, Garland R. Dahlke

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Artificial insemination and estrous synchronization remain underutilized by U.S. beef producers. The most recent National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (NAHMS 2007–08) reported that 7.6% of producers used artificial insemination and 7.9% used estrous synchronization. The most common reason cited for not using these reproductive technologies was time and labor, followed by cost and difficulty. Little information is available on actual management practices used by producers who do use these technologies and their value to such operations.


Earl Of Cranbrook Collection, Brantley Palmer 2015 Keene State College

Earl Of Cranbrook Collection, Brantley Palmer

Finding Guides

Gaithorne (Earl of) Cranbrook was born on June 20 in 1933. He received his Bachelor of Arts (1956) and Master of Arts (1960) degrees at Cambridge, England. He has pursued a career as an environmental biologist, initially in South East Asia and subsequently in the UK and Europe. He is a specialist in the biology and management of the cave swiftlets, the “birds-nest soup birds” and the biology of living mammals and archaeozoology of the Malaysian region.

His first post-graduate appointment, 1956-58 was at the Sarawak Museum, Kuching (Borneo) where he was engaged generally in collection and curation duties and ...


John Brandt Collection, Brantley Palmer 2015 Keene State College

John Brandt Collection, Brantley Palmer

Finding Guides

John Henry Brandt was a professional career officer with the U.S. State Department, the U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Military. His government service includes eight years spent working in Southeast Asia in the 1960's, three years in the Micronesian Islands and ten years in the United States, primarily among the Navajo, Ute, Dakota, Chippewa, Pueblo and Apache. During his service overseas he collected ethnological materials in New Guinea, Micronesia and Southeast Asia. These collections were deposited in the American Museum of National History, the Milwaukee Museum, the Kenosha Museum, the Anthropology Museum of Mexico ...


Genetic Improvement Made Through Dna Testing And Artificial Insemination To High- Growth, High Carcass Value Angus Sires, L C. Grimes, L. R. Corah, T. Brink, M. R. Gardiner, A. K. Sexten 2015 Kansas State University

Genetic Improvement Made Through Dna Testing And Artificial Insemination To High- Growth, High Carcass Value Angus Sires, L C. Grimes, L. R. Corah, T. Brink, M. R. Gardiner, A. K. Sexten

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The beef industry has improved the recording of pedigrees and performance data through the use of breed associations and herd health databases. Constant evaluation of genetics and performance has allowed producers to make more informed breeding decisions that help improve herd productivity. As a result of recent droughts and elevated feed and grain prices, however, the American beef cowherd is at a record-low 29 million head. For the United States to continue to be the leading producer of beef in the world, the industry must adopt technologies that improve efficiency of the cowherd and the quality of beef being produced ...


Evaluation Of The Productivity Of A Single Subcutaneous Injection Of Longrange In Stocker Calves Compared With A Positive (Dectomax) And A Negative (Saline) Control, A. C. Vesco, A. K. Sexten, C. S. Weibert, B. E. Oleen, W. R. Hollenbeck, L C. Grimes, Dale Blasi 2015 Kansas State University

Evaluation Of The Productivity Of A Single Subcutaneous Injection Of Longrange In Stocker Calves Compared With A Positive (Dectomax) And A Negative (Saline) Control, A. C. Vesco, A. K. Sexten, C. S. Weibert, B. E. Oleen, W. R. Hollenbeck, L C. Grimes, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Subclinical parasitism is commonly observed in stocker cattle. Treatment of internal parasites helps to improve weight gains, feed conversion, and immune status and decreases morbidity and mortality of beef cattle (Hawkins, 1993). Some of the most concerning classes of internal parasites include Cooperia, Haemonchus, and Ostertagia. Commonly used anthelmintics come in the form of pour-ons, oral drenches, and subcutaneous injections. A majority of these drugs are designed to be administered in a single dose and provide defense against stomach worms for approximately 14 to 42 days, but the typical grazing season lasts for approximately 120 days. For grazing cattle to ...


Animals As Neighbours: The Past And Present Of Commensal Animals By Terry O'Connor, Derek Woods 2015 Rice University

Animals As Neighbours: The Past And Present Of Commensal Animals By Terry O'Connor, Derek Woods

The Goose

Review of Terry O'Connor's Animals as Neighbours: The Past and Present of Commensal Animals.


Loss Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (Vegfa) Isoforms In Granulosa Cells Using Pdmrt-1-Cre Or Amhr2-Cre Reduces Fertility By Arresting Follicular Development And By Reducing Litter Size In Female Mice, Kevin M. Sargent, Ningxia Lu, Debra T. Clopton, William E. Pohlmeier, Vanessa Brauer, Napoleone Ferrara, David W. Silversides, Andrea S. Cupp 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Loss Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (Vegfa) Isoforms In Granulosa Cells Using Pdmrt-1-Cre Or Amhr2-Cre Reduces Fertility By Arresting Follicular Development And By Reducing Litter Size In Female Mice, Kevin M. Sargent, Ningxia Lu, Debra T. Clopton, William E. Pohlmeier, Vanessa Brauer, Napoleone Ferrara, David W. Silversides, Andrea S. Cupp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Because VEGFA has been implicated in follicle development, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of granulosa- and germ cell-specific VEGFA loss on ovarian morphogenesis, function, and female fertility. pDmrt1-Cre mice were mated to floxed VEGFA mice to develop granulosa-/germ cell-specific knockouts (pDmrt1-Cre;Vegfa-/-). The time from mating to first parturition was increased when pDmrt1-Cre;Vegfa-/- females were mated to control males (P = 0.0008) and tended to be longer for heterozygous females (P < 0.07). Litter size was reduced for pDmrt1-Cre;Vegfa-/- females (P < 0.007). The time between the first and second parturitions was also increased for heterozygous females (P < 0.04) and tended to be increased for pDmrt1-Cre;Vegfa-/- females (P < 0.07). pDmrt1-Cre;Vegfa-/- females had smaller ovaries (P < 0.04), reduced plasma estradiol (P < 0.007), fewer developing follicles (P < 0.008) and tended to have fewer corpora lutea (P < 0.08). Expression of Igf1r was reduced ...


Ectoparasitism Shortens The Breeding Season In A Colonial Bird, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown 2015 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa

Ectoparasitism Shortens The Breeding Season In A Colonial Bird, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown

Papers in Natural Resources

When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host’s breeding season—and thus the host’s opportunity for multiple brooding—has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively short (eight to nine week) breeding season, with birds rarely nesting late in the summer. Colonies at which ectoparasitic swallow bugs ...


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