Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Animal Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

41,397 Full-Text Articles 52,696 Authors 10,850,497 Downloads 267 Institutions

All Articles in Animal Sciences

Faceted Search

41,397 full-text articles. Page 1 of 1040.

Mitochondrial Metabolism In Blood More Reliably Predicts Whole-Animal Energy Needs Compared To Other Tissues, Stefania Casagrande, Maciej Dzialo, Lisa Trost, Kasja Malkoc, Edyta T. Sadowska, Michaela Hau, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. McWilliams, Ulf Bauchinger 2023 Evolutionary Physiology Research Group

Mitochondrial Metabolism In Blood More Reliably Predicts Whole-Animal Energy Needs Compared To Other Tissues, Stefania Casagrande, Maciej Dzialo, Lisa Trost, Kasja Malkoc, Edyta T. Sadowska, Michaela Hau, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Ulf Bauchinger

Biology Faculty Publications

Understanding energy metabolism in free-ranging animals is crucial for ecological studies. In birds, red blood cells (RBCs) offer a minimally invasive method to estimate metabolic rate (MR). In this study with European starlings Sturnus vulgaris, we examined how RBC oxygen consumption relates to oxygen use in key tissues (brain, liver, heart, and pectoral muscle) and versus the whole-organism measured at basal levels. The pectoral muscle accounted for 34-42% of organismal MR, while the heart and liver, despite their high mass-specific metabolic rate, each contributed 2.5-3.0% to organismal MR. Despite its low contribution to organismal MR (0.03-0.04%), RBC MR best predicted …


Feed Value And Utilization Of Corn Residue: Implications For Cow Performance And Grazing Strategies, Kaylee E. Wheeler 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Feed Value And Utilization Of Corn Residue: Implications For Cow Performance And Grazing Strategies, Kaylee E. Wheeler

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Two experiments were conducted to determine the correlation of corn residue feed value and utilization on cow performance and potential grazing strategies. A qualitative observation of corn residue grazing by 13 cattle herds across Nebraska was conducted over two years. Based on producer reported grain yields and stocking rates, it was found that these producers were generally not as aggressive as the recommended 1.2 animal unit months (AUM) for each 6,280 kg/ha (100 U.S. bushels/acre) of harvested grain. They stocked 17 to 101% of the recommendation and on average used 63% of the carrying capacity. Across herds, average body condition …


Characterization Of Enterovirus D68 In A Mouse Model And Evaluation Of Antiviral Therapies, Zoe K. Taylor 2023 Utah State University

Characterization Of Enterovirus D68 In A Mouse Model And Evaluation Of Antiviral Therapies, Zoe K. Taylor

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a virus that causes respiratory disease. Children are most commonly affected by EV-D68 but immunocompromised adults can also get infected and develop severe disease signs. In 2014, the United States experienced an unprecedented outbreak of EV-D68. Similar outbreaks were also observed in 2016, 2018 and 2022. Interestingly, few EV-D68 infections were observed in 2020, likely due to public health measures put in place to reduce the spread of another respiratory disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). EV-D68 is in the same virus family as polio, and one of the most concerning findings from these outbreaks is that …


Atmospheric Mercury At Storm Peak Laboratory: Development Of Methods To Calibrate Ambient Oxidized Mercury Measurements And Comparisons To A 3-D Photochemical Transport Model, Tyler Raymond Elgiar 2023 Utah State University

Atmospheric Mercury At Storm Peak Laboratory: Development Of Methods To Calibrate Ambient Oxidized Mercury Measurements And Comparisons To A 3-D Photochemical Transport Model, Tyler Raymond Elgiar

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal found ubiquitously throughout the environment that has the potential to harm wildlife and human health. Human exposure to Hg can lead to symptoms such as blindness, loss of memory, ataxia, and death. Hg exposure to pregnant women and young children is of even greater concern, as high levels of Hg can hinder fetal and child development.

Hg is emitted into the atmosphere through natural and anthropogenic processes such as biomass burning and the incineration of coal, respectively. Hg exists in the atmosphere as elemental Hg (Hg0) or in an oxidized form …


Forages And Technology Management In Growing And Finishing Beef Cattle Systems, Kelton Adair 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Forages And Technology Management In Growing And Finishing Beef Cattle Systems, Kelton Adair

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

A systems study evaluated the effects of an implant [25.7 mg estradiol (Compudose; Elanco Animal Health)] at two rates of gain (LOW: 0.45 kg/d and HIGH: 0.9 kg/d) applied during the winter backgrounding phase in drylot and winter grazing systems and its effects on subsequent phases of production. HIGH supplementation with an implant during the winter backgrounding phase in the drylot system yielded the greatest ending body weight (EBW) during the summer backgrounding phase (P = 0.04). LOW supplementation, without an implant, improved summer backgrounding average daily gain (ADG; P = 0.05) while achieving similar carcass adjusted final body …


Accelerated Evolution Of Sars-Cov-2 In Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer, Dillon S. McBride, Sofya K. Garushyants, John Franks, Andrew F. Magee, Steven H. Overend, Devra Huey, Amanda M. Williams, Seth A. Faith, Ahmed Kandeil, Sanja Trifkovic, Lance Miller, Trushar Jeevan, Anami Patel, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Michael J. Tonkovich, J. Tyler Genders, Andrew J. Montoney, Kevin Kasnyik, Timothy J. Linder, Sarah N. Bevins, Julianna B. Lenoch, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Eugene V. Koonin, Marc A. Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Richard J. Webby, Martha I. Nelson, Andrew S. Bowman 2023 The Ohio State University

Accelerated Evolution Of Sars-Cov-2 In Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer, Dillon S. Mcbride, Sofya K. Garushyants, John Franks, Andrew F. Magee, Steven H. Overend, Devra Huey, Amanda M. Williams, Seth A. Faith, Ahmed Kandeil, Sanja Trifkovic, Lance Miller, Trushar Jeevan, Anami Patel, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Michael J. Tonkovich, J. Tyler Genders, Andrew J. Montoney, Kevin Kasnyik, Timothy J. Linder, Sarah N. Bevins, Julianna B. Lenoch, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Thomas J. Deliberto, Eugene V. Koonin, Marc A. Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Richard J. Webby, Martha I. Nelson, Andrew S. Bowman

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

The zoonotic origin of the COVID-19 pandemic virus highlights the need to fill the vast gaps in our knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 ecology and evolution in non-human hosts. Here, we detected that SARS-CoV-2 was introduced from humans into white-tailed deer more than 30 times in Ohio, USA during November 2021-March 2022. Subsequently, deer-to-deer transmission persisted for 2–8 months, disseminating across hundreds of kilometers. Newly developed Bayesian phylogenetic methods quantified how SARS-CoV-2 evolution is not only three-times faster in white-tailed deer compared to the rate observed in humans but also driven by different mutational biases and selection pressures. The long-term effect of …


Rapid Evolution Of A(H5n1) Influenza Viruses After Intercontinental Spread To North America, Ahmed Kandeil, Christopher Patton, Jeremy C. Jones, Trushar Jeevan, Walter N. Harrington, Sanja Trifkovic, Jon P. Seiler, Thomas Fabrizio, Karlie Woodard, Jasmine C. Turner, Jeri Carol Crumpton, Lance Miller, Adam Rubrum, Jennifer DeBeauchamp, Charles J. Russell, Elena A. Govorkova, Peter Vogel, Mia Kim-Torchetti, Yohannes Berhane, David Stallknecht, Rebecca Poulson, Lisa Kercher, Richard J. Webby 2023 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

Rapid Evolution Of A(H5n1) Influenza Viruses After Intercontinental Spread To North America, Ahmed Kandeil, Christopher Patton, Jeremy C. Jones, Trushar Jeevan, Walter N. Harrington, Sanja Trifkovic, Jon P. Seiler, Thomas Fabrizio, Karlie Woodard, Jasmine C. Turner, Jeri Carol Crumpton, Lance Miller, Adam Rubrum, Jennifer Debeauchamp, Charles J. Russell, Elena A. Govorkova, Peter Vogel, Mia Kim-Torchetti, Yohannes Berhane, David Stallknecht, Rebecca Poulson, Lisa Kercher, Richard J. Webby

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses of clade 2.3.4.4b underwent an explosive geographic expansion in 2021 among wild birds and domestic poultry across Asia, Europe, and Africa. By the end of 2021, 2.3.4.4b viruses were detected in North America, signifying further intercontinental spread. Here we show that the western movement of clade 2.3.4.4b was quickly followed by reassortment with viruses circulating in wild birds in North America, resulting in the acquisition of different combinations of ribonucleoprotein genes. These reassortant A(H5N1) viruses are genotypically and phenotypically diverse, with many causing severe disease with dramatic neurologic involvement in mammals. The proclivity of …


Towards The Quantification Of Estrone And 17Β-Estradiol Conjugates In Dairy Cattle Urine Sorptive Stir Bar Extraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry, S.M. Istiak Ahmed 2023 Western Kentucky University

Towards The Quantification Of Estrone And 17Β-Estradiol Conjugates In Dairy Cattle Urine Sorptive Stir Bar Extraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry, S.M. Istiak Ahmed

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The global concern regarding the presence of compounds with estrogenic properties in the environment has grown significantly. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are environmental pollutants that disrupt the endocrine systems of both wildlife and humans. Estrogens, with their potent estrogenic effects, are particularly noteworthy among the various substances with endocrine-disrupting properties. They are of concern due to their prevalence in the environment, especially due to dairy waste contamination. These lipophilic compounds can accumulate in livestock fat tissues, potentially entering the human food chain. Sulfated forms of estrone and β- estriol, which exhibit a higher degree of saturation than their non-conjugated counterparts, have …


Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Elisha Ogbebor 2023 Western Kentucky University

Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Method Development For The Determination Of Β–Defensins In Bovine Milk, Elisha Ogbebor

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bovine mastitis is caused by a wide range of pathogens which results in a substantial economic loss for the dairy cattle livestock industry. β-defensins are a part of the innate immune system and act as the first line of defense against mastitis in bovine. β-defensins (~6- 10kDa) are antimicrobial peptides that contain about 28 to 67 amino acids, the presence of six cysteine residues results in their three disulfide bonds and a β-sheet structure. A few β- defensins have been identified in cows based on the site of occurrence and time of expression in tissue, but not in milk. A …


Vulnerabilities Of Greater Prairie Chicken And Tier 1 At-Risk Species In Nebraska Caused By Grassland Transition To Woody Dominance, Robert Peterson 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Vulnerabilities Of Greater Prairie Chicken And Tier 1 At-Risk Species In Nebraska Caused By Grassland Transition To Woody Dominance, Robert Peterson

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Woody plant encroachment is a global threat and has been transitioning grasslands to woody dominance at a biome scale. This threat is present in the Great Plains grassland biome which is currently experiencing grassland biome collapse as the alternative woody biome advances northwest. Nebraska, which contains the most intact temperate grassland in the world, is currently at the front lines of this large-scale transition making this state’s management decisions vital for the remaining grasslands and the species which rely on these ecosystems. In this study, we assess the vulnerability of Greater Prairie Chicken and Tier 1 at-risk species in Nebraska …


How Beavers (Castor Canadensis) Affect Habitat Availability For Two Native Oregon Turtles: Actinemys Marmorata And Chrysemys Picta Bellii, Rodé N. Krige 2023 Portland State University

How Beavers (Castor Canadensis) Affect Habitat Availability For Two Native Oregon Turtles: Actinemys Marmorata And Chrysemys Picta Bellii, Rodé N. Krige

University Honors Theses

Oregon is home to two native freshwater turtle species: the northwestern pond turtle and the western painted turtle. Both turtles are Oregon conservation strategy species with a status rating of sensitive, indicating declining populations. Oregon’s decline in these turtle’s populations is thought to be predominantly due to loss and degradation of habitat that results from development and urbanization. Beavers’ ability to dam streams and create ponds may be creating habitat usable by turtles, but the relationship is under-studied. This study assessed water temperature, basking habitat, and overall turtle habitat suitability at beaver-dammed and control ponds in Portland, Oregon. Average basking …


The Evaluation Of Feed Additives On Reducing Enteric Methane Production From Cattle, Reba L. Colin 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Evaluation Of Feed Additives On Reducing Enteric Methane Production From Cattle, Reba L. Colin

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Environmental sustainability can be positively impacted by the inclusion of feed additives to reduce enteric methane production from cattle. Methane production can be affected by feed additives that either alter the rumen environment or act as methanogenesis inhibitors. A reduction in methane from cattle can contribute to meeting carbon neutrality.

A metabolism study was conducted to evaluate Alga 1.0, a product containing bromoform, fed to cattle to evaluate the effects on gas emissions. Treatments were (0, 69, or 103 g/d Alga 1.0) fed in a corn-based diet. Headbox-style indirect calorimeters were used to measure gas emissions. Feeding Alga 1.0 linearly …


Investigation Of Breeding Objectives And Indexes-In-Retrospect, Hunter F. Valasek 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigation Of Breeding Objectives And Indexes-In-Retrospect, Hunter F. Valasek

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This thesis presents two projects that investigate the impacts of breeding objectives and indexes-in-retrospect within the beef cattle industry. The first project synthesized how changes due to planning horizon, breeding system, and sale endpoint in the economic breeding goal of cattle influence the relative emphasis of traits as well as the re-ranking of selection candidates. A total of three breeding systems that represent straightbred and crossbred cattle were used along with six planning horizons (2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 yrs.) for both a weaning and slaughter point of sale. The combination of these different breeding objective attributes resulted …


Predicting Body Weight Of Cattle And Nutrient Digestion Of Individual Sweet Bran Components To Improve Beef Cattle Production Efficiency, Dalton J. Anderson 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Predicting Body Weight Of Cattle And Nutrient Digestion Of Individual Sweet Bran Components To Improve Beef Cattle Production Efficiency, Dalton J. Anderson

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Efficiency is of high importance to beef cattle producers to ensure that beef cattle are being raised without unnecessary resource use. Two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate potential strategies to improve efficiency in beef cattle production. A metabolism study was conducted to evaluate digestion parameters of individual Sweet Bran components. The objective was to determine the effects of diet components on nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation parameters. The individual components of Sweet Bran (Corn bran, solvent-extracted germ meal, and corn steep liquor) were included at 40% diet dry matter (DM) in a steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diet. A SFC-based …


Game-Theoretic Approaches To Optimal Resource Allocation And Defense Strategies In Herbaceous Plants, Molly R. Creagar 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Game-Theoretic Approaches To Optimal Resource Allocation And Defense Strategies In Herbaceous Plants, Molly R. Creagar

Department of Mathematics: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Empirical evidence suggests that the attractiveness of a plant to herbivores can be affected by the investment in defense by neighboring plants, as well as investment in defense by the focal plant. Thus, allocation to defense may not only be influenced by the frequency and intensity of herbivory but also by defense strategies employed by other plants in the environment. We incorporate a neighborhood defense effect by applying spatial evolutionary game theory to optimal resource allocation in plants where cooperators are plants investing in defense and defectors are plants that do not. We use a stochastic dynamic programming model, along …


Understanding Avidities Of Recreational Activities For People Possessing Fishing Licenses And Residing In Urban Environments, Kyle F. Hansen 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Understanding Avidities Of Recreational Activities For People Possessing Fishing Licenses And Residing In Urban Environments, Kyle F. Hansen

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Recreational fishing is one of the world's most popular pastimes, wherein participation is associated with sociodemographic factors. Even so, fishing license sales are declining in the USA in conjunction with a reduction in rural populations as people move to urban areas. Thus, urban areas are constantly growing in population size, population diversity, and geographic size suggesting a need to understand fishing participation in these growing areas. Natural resource managers often use participation to understand recreationists, yet avidity could provide a new way to understand recreationists. The goal of our study is to understand what sociodemographic factors influence the fishing avidity …


Factors Affecting Forage Quality And The Subsequent Response In Production And Energy Metabolism In Lactating Jersey Cows, Kassidy Kate Buse 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Factors Affecting Forage Quality And The Subsequent Response In Production And Energy Metabolism In Lactating Jersey Cows, Kassidy Kate Buse

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Forage quality is the potential of a forage to produce a production response in animals. Because of how essential they are in dairy cattle rations, forages can have major influence on the behavior and production of dairy cattle. In experiment 1, the effect of forage fragility on the rumen environment and digestibility was evaluated. Increasing the inclusion of a less fragile forage led to greater rumen retention time, which resulted in lower rumen pH and greater NDF digestibility. Experiment 2 evaluated the effects of diets high in either corn silage or alfalfa haylage supplemented with either corn- or soybased protein …


The Influence Of Invasive Species On Fishers’ Satisfactions, Caroline M. LaPlante 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Influence Of Invasive Species On Fishers’ Satisfactions, Caroline M. Laplante

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Invasives species are prevalent and widespread in North America. Outdoor recreational activities, such as fishing, introduce a point in which humans may interact with invasive species and have to adapt their own behaviors. Bigheaded carp in the Missouri River below Gavin’s Point Dam are a group of invasive fish species that were thought to be negatively relating to recreational fishers’ satisfactions. Using a content analysis and an importance-grid, we conclude that invasive species do not strongly relate to recreational paddlefish fishers’ satisfactions. Paddlefish fishers represent a small sub-set of recreational fishers in Nebraska and South Dakota. The content analysis revealed …


Impacts Of Feeding Space Allowance And Feeder Arrangements On The Feeding Behavior Of Grow-Finish Swine, Kuljit Bhatti 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Impacts Of Feeding Space Allowance And Feeder Arrangements On The Feeding Behavior Of Grow-Finish Swine, Kuljit Bhatti

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Precision animal management refers to the practice of managing animals with aid of systems developed using technology and data analysis that predict or monitor different aspects of animal production agriculture like feeding behavior, social behavior, and environmental conditions. The analysis of feeding behavior of grow-finish swine could give better insight into health and welfare of individual pigs enabling the farmer or animal caretaker to make informed decisions. The objective of the Chapter Two was to determine the minimum meal interval for different ages of grow-finish pigs. The minimum meal interval can be defined as time between two recorded occurrences of …


Culled Lionfish Sexual Maturity Over A Four-Year Timespan​, Christina Bland, Jurgen Hauer, Bilal Saleem, Noelle James 2023 Kennesaw State University

Culled Lionfish Sexual Maturity Over A Four-Year Timespan​, Christina Bland, Jurgen Hauer, Bilal Saleem, Noelle James

Symposium of Student Scholars

Lionfish are invasive in the Atlantic and the Caribbean. Like many other invasive species, they do not have any natural predators in these areas, so their population can grow unchecked. This can decrease the population of native fish species due to lionfish eating to excess. Because of their impact on native species, resource managers have incentivized lionfish hunting. Hunters were paid $6 USD for every pound of lionfish they brought in, so they possibly favored larger lionfish to increase their reward which would lead to an adaptive advantage for fish of smaller sizes. We hypothesized that the lionfish bounty program …


Digital Commons powered by bepress