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J. C. Penney: The Man, The Store And American Agriculture (Under Contract), David Delbert Kruger 2017 University of Wyoming

J. C. Penney: The Man, The Store And American Agriculture (Under Contract), David Delbert Kruger

David Delbert Kruger

No abstract provided.


Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann 2017 UMaine

Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unsexual Salamanders within the Blue-Spotted Salamander Complex carry combinations of ambystomatid genomes (those of Blue-Spotted Salamanders, Ambystoma laterale, and Jefferson Salamanders, A. jeffersonianum in Maine). They are nearly all female, breed in wetlands, and use sperm of related species to reproduce. Little is known about their ecology to guide the conservation of this unique lineage. I examined breeding site occupancy, demographics, orientation, and terrestrial habitat selection of Unisexual Salamanders in comparison to Blue-Spotted Salamanders and other amphibians. I compared statistical tests of orientation to determine which was most appropriate for pitfall data.

Unisexual Salamander occupancy at breeding sites was positively ...


The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani 2017 University of Maine

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Island populations of terrestrial species have an increased potential, compared to mainland populations, to adapt and diverge, as these populations often are isolated with respect to gene flow from other populations and may be subjected to novel pressures. Indeed, extended isolation of individuals can elicit dramatic changes within populations and is recognized as a common driver of speciation. It is for these reasons that island populations are often a priority for conservation. Plethodontid salamanders are among the most terrestrial of Maine’s amphibians and are not tolerant of prolonged exposure to seawater, and yet, they are found on a number ...


Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno

Master's Theses

Social structures are critical to the success of many species and have repercussions on health, well-being, and adaptation, yet little is known about the factors which shape these structures aside from ecology and life history strategies. Dyadic bonds are the basis of all social structures; however, mechanisms for formations of specific bonds or patterns in which individuals form which types of bonds have yet to be demonstrated. There is a variety of evidence indicating personality may be a factor in shaping bonds, but this relationship has not been explored with respect to bond components and is yet to be demonstrated ...


Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. de Vere 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. De Vere

Master's Theses

Personality has now been studied in species as diverse as chimpanzees (King & Figueredo, 1997) and cuttlefish (Carere et al., 2015), but marine mammals remain vastly underrepresented in this area. A broad range of traits have been assessed only in the bottlenose dolphin (Highfilll & Kuczaj, 2007), while consistent individual differences in a few specific behaviors have been identified in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012). Furthermore, the context component of definitions of personality is not often assessed, despite evidence that animals may show individual patterns of consistency (Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012). The current study therefore aimed to assess underlying personality factors and consistency across contexts in two unstudied marine mammal species, using behavioral coding.

Two California sea lion and three harbor seal personality factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis. Two factors were broadly similar across species; the first, Boldness, resembled human Extraversion, and to some extent Openness. The second factor was labeled Routine Activity, and contained some Conscientiousness-like traits. Excitable-Interest emerged as a third factor in seals, but had low reliability. Species-specific patterns were also identified for interactive behaviors across two contexts. However, there was substantial individual variation in the frequency of these behaviors, as well as some animals who did not conform to species-level trends. This study therefore provides novel evidence for broad personality factors and ...


Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Native rangelands in the Great Plains are largely privately owned and used for beef production. Vegetation heterogeneity is important for maintaining biodiversity, but private land may be more homogenous than desired. My research had two components: 1) to examine whether a variety of grazing strategies created vegetation heterogeneity in a large, intact rangeland, and 2) to understand beef producers’ attitudes about vegetation heterogeneity.

First, I sampled vegetation structure, composition, and bird abundance at multiple plots on eleven management units in Cherry County, Nebraska. Units were managed with commonly used grazing strategies (e.g., short-duration grazing and season-long continuous grazing). I ...


Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


The Effect Of Boat Type On Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Trucatus) Behavior In The Mississippi Sound, Maria Zapetis 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of Boat Type On Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Trucatus) Behavior In The Mississippi Sound, Maria Zapetis

Master's Theses

Increases in oceanic shipping are a global phenomenon, and a leading cause of concern for marine animal welfare. While it may be difficult to assess the effect of boat traffic on all species in all contexts, it is vital to report anthropogenic impacts where longitudinal data is available, and doubly so where a dearth of information exists. The purpose of this study is to describe how dolphin behavior changed in the presence of boats in the Mississippi Sound between 2006 and 2012, and more specifically, to detail how different boat types impacted dolphins’ behavioral states. This study is unique in ...


Life History Of The Non-Native Invasive Red Lionfish (Pterois Volitans) In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Alexander Q. Fogg 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Life History Of The Non-Native Invasive Red Lionfish (Pterois Volitans) In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Alexander Q. Fogg

Master's Theses

Invasive Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans) were first detected in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) in 2010 and since then their numbers have increased dramatically. From 2010 to 2015, more than 15,000 Red Lionfish were collected opportunistically from the nGOM for this study. Length and weight relationships differed significantly among ecoregions by sex and there was clear sexual dimorphism in size with males being larger and heavier. Red Lionfish age ranged from 0-4.5 years old and males achieved greater growth rate (K) and asymptotic maximum lengths (Linf) compared to females and these parameters were also different by ...


From Disaster To Sustainability: The Story Of The Pacific Groundfish, Matthew Richards 2017 Utah State University

From Disaster To Sustainability: The Story Of The Pacific Groundfish, Matthew Richards

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

This paper reviews the circumstances that led to the collapse of the Pacific groundfish fishery and the steps that fishery managers took to curb over-harvesting and bring the fishery back to sustainability. Fishery managers utilized various management tools such as a vessel buyback program, regulatory mechanisms, and market strategies to improve the available data on the fishery, improve safety for fishermen, and reduce harvest rates and overcapitalization. By employing a diverse range of measures, managers developed a system by with they successfully balanced conservation objectives and minimized adverse impacts to fishing communities. Overcapitalization and overharvest continue to degrade the health ...


Pragmatic Understanding Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Use Of A Two-Way Communication System, Pepper Reid Hanna 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Pragmatic Understanding Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Use Of A Two-Way Communication System, Pepper Reid Hanna

Dissertations

Pragmatics focuses on how a communication system is used to achieve a communicative goal, the social context of the communication, and the organizational structure of communications (Horn & Ward, 2004; McLaughlin, 1998). There is evidence of pragmatics within animal communication systems. For example, context appears to be an important component in both signal production and a receiver’s response in vervet monkeys (Seyfarth et al. 1980).

MA Thesis: http://aquila.usm.edu/masters_theses/170/

The current study used an underwater keyboard to establish a two-way communication system between humans and dolphins. The purpose of this study was to determine if, under these conditions ...


Efficacy Of Cognitive Enrichment For Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus): Evaluation Of Planning Abilities Through The Use Of A Novel Problem Solving Task, Lisa Kay Lauderdale 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Efficacy Of Cognitive Enrichment For Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus): Evaluation Of Planning Abilities Through The Use Of A Novel Problem Solving Task, Lisa Kay Lauderdale

Dissertations

Environmental enrichment is a key component to improving the psychological and physiological well being of animals in human care. Enrichment can be achieved through a variety of modalities, including the addition of objects and scents, or by providing the animals with additional challenges. The effectiveness of specific enrichment should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if the desired result is achieved. Environmental enrichment devices (EED’s) can be utilized to present novel problems to animals in human care. When confronted with a novel problem, dolphins can plan their behavior to create a more efficient strategy then previously modeled ...


Evaluation Of Protein And Fiber From Distillers Grains Plus Solubles In Finishing Beef Cattle Diets, Zachary E. Carlson 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluation Of Protein And Fiber From Distillers Grains Plus Solubles In Finishing Beef Cattle Diets, Zachary E. Carlson

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Four studies were conducted to evaluate the components of distillers grains plus solubles in finishing beef cattle diets. Experiment 1 evaluated the effects of five composites of feedstuffs formulated to be similar in nutrient composition to DDGS on finishing performance of cattle. Experiment 2 evaluated isolating the protein from distillers grains using a feedstuff from the wet milling ethanol industry to determine the impacts of protein on the feeding value of WDGS in finishing performance of cattle. Experiments 3 and 4 evaluated the effects of protein from distillers grains with the diets used in Exp. 2 on site of digestion ...


Classification Of The Streptococcus Lactis Group, B. W. Hammer, M. P. Baker 2017 Iowa State College

Classification Of The Streptococcus Lactis Group, B. W. Hammer, M. P. Baker

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

'l'he lactic acid producing streptococci show certain differences, some of which must be of importance from the standpoint of the growth of these organisms in dairy products. A classification of this group of organisms has been proposed; it is not presumed to be complete and other types will necessarily be added. The classification is as follows:

Typical S. lactis

Malty S. Iactis—S. lactis var. maltigenes

Ropy S. lactis—S. lactis var. hollandicus

Slow reducing S. lactis—S. lactis var. anoxyphilus

Slow coagulating S. lactis—S. lactis var. tardus

Heat resistant lactic acid streptococci—S. thermophilus


Influence Of Carbon Dioxide Upon Quality And Keeping Properties Of Butter And Ice Cream, F. F. Sherwood, F. G. Martin 2017 Iowa State College

Influence Of Carbon Dioxide Upon Quality And Keeping Properties Of Butter And Ice Cream, F. F. Sherwood, F. G. Martin

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. Carbon dioxide did not improve the quality of butter, but showed a tendency to lower the score of the butter.

2. The composition of the butter was not influenced by carbon dioxide.

3. The rate of oxidation in carbonated butter was as great as that in the uncarbonated product.

4. Carbon dioxide had no affect on the bacteria in carbonated butter.

5. No results were obtained to show that carbon dioxide improves the quality of ice cream.

6. The texture of ice cream was not influenced by the carbonating process.

7. The application of carbon dioxide to ice cream ...


The Salt Consumption Of Sheep: Fattening Lambs, John M. Evvard, L. C. Brown, C. C. Culbertson, W. E. Hammond 2017 Iowa State College

The Salt Consumption Of Sheep: Fattening Lambs, John M. Evvard, L. C. Brown, C. C. Culbertson, W. E. Hammond

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. Common salt (sodium chloride) is one of the essential nutrients in the rations of sheep and lambs, and the proper provision of it makes for a more profitable and satisfactory sheep husbandry.

2. Free-choice salt feeding with our present knowledge appears to be the most satisfactory method of allowance under Corn-belt conditions to secure near-optimum nutritional results.

3. When salt is arbitrarily allowed, mixed with the feeds, experimental results indicate that with our present understanding of the factors controlling salt needs, it is very difficult to approximate the correct quantitative allowance.

4. Researches with wintering ewes indicate that salting ...


Influence Of The Milk On The Starter Made From It, M. P. Baker, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Influence Of The Milk On The Starter Made From It, M. P. Baker, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Altho the types of bacteria present is a very important consideration in the preparation of starters, the medium in which the organisms are to grow is also important. Normal milk, either whole or skimmed, is apparently the most satisfactory material as well as the most widely used. Milk reconstituted from mill} powder or condensed milk, and normal milk handled in various Ways by diluting and adding such fermentable substances as lactose and glucose have been employed for the making of starters\ but have not come into general usE and do not seem to yield as desirable a product as normal ...


Citric Acid Content Of Milk, F. F. Sherwood, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Citric Acid Content Of Milk, F. F. Sherwood, B. W. Hammer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The citric acid which is normally present in milk and cream can be fermented by a number of organisms commonly present in· dairy products. Some of these, such as the citric acid positive colon-aerogenes organisms, are always objectionable in milk and its derivatives, while others, Streptococcus citrovorus and S. paracitrovorus, which are frequently associated with S. lactis, are important in the development of flavor and aroma in starter and in butter, and undoubtedly in other materials.


Comparison Of Two Organic Trace Mineral Supplements For Cows Grazing Tall Fescue, J. K. Farney 2017 Kansas State University

Comparison Of Two Organic Trace Mineral Supplements For Cows Grazing Tall Fescue, J. K. Farney

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two sources of organic trace mineral and two sources of magnesium supplementation on cow performance of springcalving cows on K31 endophyte-infected fescue. The two treatments were organic trace minerals (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn)) offered free choice as an amino-acid chelate with magnesium (Mg) as an amino acid chelate (CHEL) or organic trace mineral supplement with amino-acid complex with magnesium supplied as magnesium oxide (COMP). Mineral was offered free-choice beginning 30 days before breeding season on 4 ranches with 6 pastures per treatment (cows n = 203). Blood ...


Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer 2017 Kansas State University

Effects Of Various Grazing Systems On Grazing And Subsequent Finishing Performance, L. W. Lomas, J. L. Moyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 280 mixed black yearling steers were used to compare grazing and subsequent finishing performance from pastures with ‘MaxQ’ tall fescue, a wheat-bermudagrass double-crop system, or a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed MaxQ fescue, wheatbermudagrass, or wheat-crabgrass were similar (P > 0.05) in 2010 and 2016. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-bermudagrass or wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that grazed MaxQ fescue in 2011 and 2012. Daily gains of steers that grazed wheat-crabgrass were greater (P > 0.05) than those that ...


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