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U.S. Sweetener Consumption Trends And Dietary Guidelines, Helen H. Jensen, John C. Beghin 2015 Iowa State University

U.S. Sweetener Consumption Trends And Dietary Guidelines, Helen H. Jensen, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

The United States is the fourth-largest producer of sugar and has well-developed sugarcane and sugar beet industries. However, since the 1970s, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has gained popularity with food processors as a sweetener, a change stimulated by sugar agricultural policies that have raised the price of sugar well above its world level, and the emergence of cheaper sweeteners based on corn. Nearly 7.3 percent of total corn production (2.2 million bushels) was used to produce HFCS in 2003/04. The United States is the world’s lowest-cost producer of HFCS, partly because of access to cheap ...


Dietary Change In China’S Cities: Empirical Fact Or Urban Legend?, Fengxia Dong, Frank H. Fuller 2015 Iowa State University

Dietary Change In China’S Cities: Empirical Fact Or Urban Legend?, Fengxia Dong, Frank H. Fuller

Iowa Ag Review

Over the last two decades, urban Chinese consumers have dramatically increased their consumption of meat, other livestock products, and fruits and have decreased consumption of grainbased foods. China’s per capita grain consumption declined from 145 kilograms in 1981 to 78 kilograms in 2004 in urban areas, whereas the per capita consumption of meats, eggs, and aquatic products increased respectively from 20, 5, and 7 kilograms in 1981 to 29, 10, and 12 kilograms in 2004. As signifi cant changes in food consumption patterns in urban China are noted, it is natural to ask: Are consumer responses to price changes ...


Influence Of Native And Processed Cereal Grain Fibers On Gut Health, Junyi Yang 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Influence Of Native And Processed Cereal Grain Fibers On Gut Health, Junyi Yang

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

Cereal fibers that can be metabolized by gut microbiota have been shown to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Increased consumption of cereal fibers may improve host / gut microbiota interactions in obesity and other metabolic diseases by normalizing gut dysbiosis. The present dissertation describes four research projects to assess the impact of cereal dietary fibers on gut microbiota and host metabolism. In the first study, we determined the treatment temperatures for production of soluble, non-digestible, feruloylated oligo- and polysaccharides (FOPS) from maize bran and wheat bran, and determined the fermentation properties of partially purified FOPS from maize ...


The School Meals Program, Helen H. Jensen 2015 Iowa State University

The School Meals Program, Helen H. Jensen

Agricultural Policy Review

The National School Meals Programs affect the lives of almost all school children in the United States today. The National School Lunch Program, available in 99% of US public schools and 83% of private and public schools combined, serves over 31 million school children on a typical school day—nearly 64% of school-age children. The total federal cost of the School Meals Programs was $14.9 billion in 2012, and most of the funding is provided to school districts through federal reimbursement for free and reduced-price meals, with cash payments for the National School Lunch Program representing about 70% of ...


Food Programs And The Potato, Helen H. Jensen 2015 Iowa State University

Food Programs And The Potato, Helen H. Jensen

Agricultural Policy Review

The special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is one of USDA’s major food assistance programs. WIC is authorized under the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Major changes in the supplemental food packages were introduced in 2009 based on recommendations of a committee of the National Academies’ Institute of Medicine (IOM). One of the innovative program changes implemented at that time was the introduction of a cash value voucher (CVV) to supplement the purchase of fruit and vegetables for qualifying participants.


Discovery Neighborhood Myplate Macy: A Pilot Study, Amanda M. Robine 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Discovery Neighborhood Myplate Macy: A Pilot Study, Amanda M. Robine

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Background: Obesity prevalence in United States children ages 2-19 years has been consistently high since 2003.1 These children are at a greater risk for many chronic disease. Educating children on how to make healthful food choices, and using fun characters in a classroom setting may be one step to reducing the obesity rate.

Objective: Increase knowledge about MyPlate and heathy eating in children in kindergarten through fifth grade.

Design: After the development of a nutrition lesson, an expert panel reviewed and suggested changes. Once changes were made the lesson was delivered to second and third graders at a summer ...


Nicotinamde Riboside Delivery Generates Nad+ Reserves To Protect Vascular Cells Against Oxidative Damage, Krista M. Hawrylyshyn 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Nicotinamde Riboside Delivery Generates Nad+ Reserves To Protect Vascular Cells Against Oxidative Damage, Krista M. Hawrylyshyn

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability of vascular cells to withstand oxidative insults is critical to vascular health. NAD+, which drives poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and sirtuin (SIRT) reactions, can be compromised and strategies for overcoming this limitation in the vasculature do not exist. This study determines if nicotinamide riboside (NR) delivery can augment NAD+ stores and fuel resistance to oxidative stress. I established that oxidative-stress insult on vascular cells decreased NAD+ levels, accompanied by a striking increase in nuclear PAR-chain accumulation. PARP inhibition abolished PAR-chain formation and preserved NAD+ levels, establishing PARP in NAD+ consumption in this model. NR delivery protected against cell-shrinkage ...


The Impact Of The Updated National School Lunch Program Meal Standards On Fruit And Vegetable Consumption Among Elementary School Students In Cache County Utah, Jillian C. Fox 2015 Utah State University

The Impact Of The Updated National School Lunch Program Meal Standards On Fruit And Vegetable Consumption Among Elementary School Students In Cache County Utah, Jillian C. Fox

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to the short time the updated National School Lunch Program standards have been in place since fall of 2012, few research studies have explored what effect these new standards have had on fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption, particularly among elementary school students. Because the new standards require schools to offer students more F/V than before, researchers are interested to know if F/V consumption has indeed increased.

The participants in the study were enrolled in a program to motivate students to eat more F/V – the Food Dudes program. The results of the data analysis found that ...


Examining The Association Between Children's Fruit And Vegetable Intake At And Away From School, Velarie Yaa Ankrah Ansu 2015 Utah State University

Examining The Association Between Children's Fruit And Vegetable Intake At And Away From School, Velarie Yaa Ankrah Ansu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Several school-based interventions aimed at increasing fruit and vegetables (FV) intake among children have demonstrated success in short-term interventions. The Fit Game is a school-based intervention aimed at encouraging children to consume increasing amounts of FV during a game, which is a narrative. Just as children are being encouraged to eat FV at school, so is it equally important for them to eat FV at home. Parents strongly influence the amount of FV children consume at home. The aim of this thesis is to examine associations between factors that influence consumption of fruits and vegetables at and away from school ...


Environmental Stimuli And Intragenerational Epigenetics, Nicholas J. Napier 2015 Wofford College

Environmental Stimuli And Intragenerational Epigenetics, Nicholas J. Napier

Student Scholarship

Epigenetics is the study of any change in gene expression that is not mediated by DNA sequence. The effects of environmental stimuli on epigenetic changes have been studied extensively in recent years. Multiple reviews have provided comprehensive summations of the effects of environmental stimuli on transgenerational epigenetic changes, but few reviews have focused upon environment-induced intragenerational epigenetic changes. This review will summarize current knowledge of the intragenerational epigenetic changes that are induced by two groups of well-studied environmental stimuli: nutritional deficiencies and carcinogens. This survey of intragenerational epigenetic changes will focus upon the mechanisms behind them, the disorders associated with ...


Fishing For A Sustainable Future: Aquaponics As A Method Of Food Production, Richard Ramsundar 2015 Fordham University

Fishing For A Sustainable Future: Aquaponics As A Method Of Food Production, Richard Ramsundar

Student Theses 2015-Present

This thesis compares and explains the advantages aquaponics farming has over modern industrial intensive farming. Through a comparison natural capital usage, conservation, recycling and cost, the thesis advocates for the expansion of aquaponics usage in urban settings. The thesis also explains the history of intensive farming and aquaponics in America, the science of how aquaponics operates, the economic and environmental costs of modern intensive farming versus aquaponics farming, and the social implications of aquaponics. Lastly, I propose a policy that reallocates farm subsidies by modifying the Farm Bill. Then I propose policies that support creating a new standard of farm ...


Identifying The Education Needs And Conveying Related Information On Nutrition Topics For Pre-School Age Children By Educating Parents Through Writing And Media Communication., Melissa E. Lichtman 2015 University of Rhode Island

Identifying The Education Needs And Conveying Related Information On Nutrition Topics For Pre-School Age Children By Educating Parents Through Writing And Media Communication., Melissa E. Lichtman

Senior Honors Projects

As nutrition topics continue to gain media attention the general public is increasingly exposed to nutrition recommendations. The mass communication of health information presents increased education opportunity to promote implementation of healthy habits. In contrast, this increased presence also presents a risk of increased communication of information unsupported by scientific evidence. As these unreliable recommendations are communicated with frequency through popular sources it is the responsibility of healthcare professionals to provide the public with accurate and scientifically supported information. This information must be presented in a clear and appealing way in order to gain the attention of the public, helping ...


Oral Wellness: Using Occupational Therapy To Enhance Oral Hygiene Delivery In Long-Term Care, Lauryn J. Banovitz, Liberty Bellah, Rosemarie Lion 2015 Dominican University of California

Oral Wellness: Using Occupational Therapy To Enhance Oral Hygiene Delivery In Long-Term Care, Lauryn J. Banovitz, Liberty Bellah, Rosemarie Lion

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Based on current literature, oral health in long-term care (LTC) facilities is frequently of low priority and does not follow evidence-based best practices. Poor oral health reduces the quality of life of older adult residents and patients and can lead to systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, and pneumonia, the leading cause of death in LTC. Occupational therapists can play an instrumental role as oral care consultants, and educators, and can act as resource guides to raise the standards of oral care in LTC facilities.

This capstone project explored ways in which occupational therapy, a profession traditionally designated for ...


Alcohol Consumption And Dietary Behavior Among College Greek Students, William B. Stevens 2015 The University of Southern Mississippi

Alcohol Consumption And Dietary Behavior Among College Greek Students, William B. Stevens

Honors Theses

Background: Alcohol consumption among college students has increased dramatically within the last three decades. Drinking has increased in even higher rates among students involved in Greek fraternities and sororities. The implications that this rise in drinking has on dietary behaviors are an important concern. While several studies have focused on investigating reasons for drinking and negative consequences with regards to drinking, literature is limited that focuses on how alcohol consumption affects dietary habits and behavior.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on the dietary behaviors of college Greek students.

Methods: An online ...


Knowledge And Behaviors Surrounding A Gluten-Free Diet Between Medically And Self-Diagnosed Individuals, Sara Andrea Quinteros-Fernandez 2015 Syracuse University

Knowledge And Behaviors Surrounding A Gluten-Free Diet Between Medically And Self-Diagnosed Individuals, Sara Andrea Quinteros-Fernandez

Theses - ALL

Objective: Gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye and barley has been linked to the inflammatory response of the GI tract in individuals with Celiac Disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and in some cases irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several factors have contributed to the increase in these gluten-related disorders in recent years, including improved medical diagnosis, public awareness of the disease, changes in the composition of wheat due to modern agricultural technologies and perceived health benefits from following a gluten-free diet. The purpose of this research was to examine the knowledge, behaviors and adherence to a gluten-free diet by individuals with ...


Characterizing The Effects Of Both Synthetic And Natural Inhibitors On The Function Of Holocarboxylase Synthetase And Lipid Metabolism, Elizabeth Cordonier 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterizing The Effects Of Both Synthetic And Natural Inhibitors On The Function Of Holocarboxylase Synthetase And Lipid Metabolism, Elizabeth Cordonier

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

The central theme of this dissertation explores enzyme inhibition, through the use of both synthetic and natural occurring inhibitors of three biotin-associated enzymes; the mammalian biotin ligase, holocarboxylase synthetase(HLCS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and 2), whose activity is dependent on biotinylation by HLCS, and are involved in fatty acid synthesis and regulation of beta-oxidation, respectively. No null HLCS individual has ever been reported and individuals with inherited mutations in the HLCS gene, which render it incapable of biotinylating carboxylases, exhibit varying degrees of symptoms associated with multiple carboxylase deficiency. Little is known with regard to the ...


Language Proficiency, Citizenship, And Food Insecurity Among Predominantly Immigrant Caribbean Latinos In Massachusetts: A Masters Thesis, Tariana V. Little 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Language Proficiency, Citizenship, And Food Insecurity Among Predominantly Immigrant Caribbean Latinos In Massachusetts: A Masters Thesis, Tariana V. Little

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

BACKGROUND: Latinos report higher food insecurity than the national average, and food insecurity has been associated with adverse health outcomes wherein Latinos experience disparities. This study quantified the independent effects of language-speaking proficiency and citizenship on increased food insecurity among a predominantly immigrant Caribbean Latino sample in Lawrence, Massachusetts.

METHODS: The analytic sample comprised 574 participants aged 21-83 who visited a community health center in 2011-2013. Food insecurity was assessed via the 6-item US Household Food Security Survey. Multivariable logistic modeling (adjusted for self-reported age group, gender, education, and marital status) examined the independent associations between language proficiency and citizenship ...


Anti-Inflammatory Diet For Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Ibd-Aid), Anne Barnard, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kathryn Post, Rachel Erdil, Gin-Fei Olendzki, Anne Foley, David R. Cave 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Anti-Inflammatory Diet For Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Ibd-Aid), Anne Barnard, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kathryn Post, Rachel Erdil, Gin-Fei Olendzki, Anne Foley, David R. Cave

Senior Scholars Program

Background: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which have increasingly been linked to dysbiosis, or an imbalance in the gut microbiome. Standard of care for IBD involves an often-evolving combination of anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and immunomodulatory medications; however, the pharmacological approach is never curative, and medications routinely become ineffective for individual patients. Partially fueled by the increasing inadequacy of pharmacologic treatment regimens, there is emerging interest from patients regarding diet and its role in the pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory diseases, demanding more in-depth and ...


The Effect Of Polyphenol-Rich Black Currant Extract On Lipogenic And Inflammatory Gene Expression In Diet Induced Obesity Mice, Ellen Harness 2015 University of Connecticut

The Effect Of Polyphenol-Rich Black Currant Extract On Lipogenic And Inflammatory Gene Expression In Diet Induced Obesity Mice, Ellen Harness

Honors Scholar Theses

Hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia frequently occur in obese population. As chronic, low-grade inflammation is closely associated with obesity, we investigated if polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent inflammation and diet-induced metabolic disturbances in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a modified AIN-93M control diet containing high fat/high cholesterol (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol by weight) or the same diet supplemented with 0.1% BCE (wt/wt) for 12 weeks. No significant differences in total body weight or liver weight occurred between the two groups. BCE-fed mice had fewer crown-like structures (CLS) with concomitant decreases in mRNA abundance of F4 ...


Mobile Application Use And Healthy Eating Behaviors In Young Adult Women, Callie S. Neumann 2015 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Mobile Application Use And Healthy Eating Behaviors In Young Adult Women, Callie S. Neumann

Celebrating Scholarship & Creativity Day

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To assess the differential effects of a mobile phone-based application (app) versus phone-based memo use on anthropometric measures, healthy eating, and physical activity behaviors in college-age women. METHODS: Participants (n=43) were randomly enrolled in a mobile app or phone-based memo group during a 6 week study. Participants in the app group were trained on proper usage of the free app, MyNetDiary, and the memo group received directions on how to journal their food and exercise activity on their phone. Participants were asked to complete pre-and post-questionnaires at baseline and at the conclusion of the study. Physical activity ...


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