Exploring The Connection Between Community Food Security Initiatives And Social-Cognitive Factors On Dietary Intake, Diana Cuy Castellanos, Josh Keller, Emma Majchrzak
Diana Cuy Castellanos
Food insecurity and poor dietary consumption continue to impact low-income populations in the U.S. However, communities are developing ways to address it at the local level. Community Food Security Initiatives (CFSI) focus on increasing a sustainable, healthy food supply and food system while addressing food insecurity and dietary quality within a community.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) explore CFSIs in low-income areas in a metropolitan Midwest city and (2) examine the effects of the initiatives along with other social-cognitive factors on fruit and vegetable consumption in persons participating in local CFSIs.
This was a mixed-methods study ...
The Prevalence And Practice Impact Of Weight Bias Amongst Australian Dietitians, 2016 Bond University
The Prevalence And Practice Impact Of Weight Bias Amongst Australian Dietitians, Tara Diversi, Roger Hughes, K J. Burke
Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications
This study explored weight bias amongst Australian Accredited Practising Dietitians (APDs) and the effect of client weight status on dietetic practice.
Participants were 201 APDs, recruited using purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire, the fat phobia scale (FPS), was completed to assess explicit weight bias. Participants were then randomized to receive either a female within the healthy weight range or female with obesity, accompanied by an identical case study for a condition unrelated to weight. Participants assessed the client based on data provided, provided recommendations and rated their perception of the client.
Mean FPS scores indicated mild fat ...
Food Cost And Nutrient Availability In Urban Indonesia: Estimates For Food Policy Analysis, 2016 International Food Policy Research Institute
Food Cost And Nutrient Availability In Urban Indonesia: Estimates For Food Policy Analysis, Tesfaye Teklu, Helen H. Jensen
Evaluating the effects of economic growth and the effectiveness of targeted government intervention requires identification of tarket groups and information on food and nutrient consumption patterns. A model of nutrient consumption linked to food choice behaviour is used to evaluate nutrient availability in urban Indonesia. Nutrient demand responses varied significantly across income levels
Early Nutritional Programming To Enhance The Utilization Of Plant Based Diets In Fish (Largemouth Bass, Micropterus Salmoides), 2016 Kentucky State University
Early Nutritional Programming To Enhance The Utilization Of Plant Based Diets In Fish (Largemouth Bass, Micropterus Salmoides), Maya Rene Jackson, Amit Kumar Yadav, Waldemar Rossi, Vikas Kumar
Aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal food-producing sector for over half a century. Sustainable aquaculture should include replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients. However, this approach is often impeded by poor growth in carnivorous fish such as largemouth bass (LMB, Micropterus salmoides) fed high levels of plant-based protein. Therefore, our overall goal of the present work was to develop alternative methods of utilizing the plant-based diets (PBD) for sustainable LMB production. When fish is exposed to PBD early in their life, they may accept them more efficiently at later stages (so called Nutritional Programing, NP). Therefore, we ...
Higher Unsaturated Fatty Acid Intake And Aerobic Training Are Related With Lower Intramyocellular Lipid In Older Adults, Hillary D. Mclean
Title: Higher Unsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Aerobic Training are Related to Lower Intramyocellular Lipid in Older Adults
1Hillary McLean, 2Maja Redzic, and 3D. Travis Thomas
Department: 1Department of Agriculture, 2Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, and 3Department of Clinical Sciences
Funding: R21AG046762-01A1, UL1TR000117, T32DK007778-16
Word Count: 298/300
Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) is associated with metabolic dysfunction in aging. Exercise is known to influence IMCL accumulation and was recently observed to have a direct association with vitamin D status (25(OH)D) in our lab. In addition, we observed an inverse association between IMCL ...
Development Of An Online Food Safety Training For Employees Of University Farms And School Gardens, 2016 Iowa State University
Development Of An Online Food Safety Training For Employees Of University Farms And School Gardens, Angela M. Shaw, Catherine Strohbehn, Linda L. Naeve
Angela M. Shaw
With a rise in the number of publicly accessed fruit and vegetable growing venues, there is a need for food safety training for staff of these schools and research facilities. This project created a variety of media options to educate workers about proper ways to handle fruit and vegetables to ensure food safety.
On-Farm Food Safety: Cleaning And Sanitizing Guide, 2016 Iowa State University
On-Farm Food Safety: Cleaning And Sanitizing Guide, Catherine Strohbehn, Aubrey Mendonca, Lester Wilson, Paul Domoto, Margaret Smith, Byron Brehm-Stecher, Angela M. Shaw
Angela M. Shaw
Using good sanitation practices during production, harvesting, and packaging can help reduce the risk of microbial contamination of fresh produce. Soil, fertilizers, harvesting equipment, water, workers, or animals such as livestock, pets, and pests can be sources of harm- ful microorganisms that cause foodborne illness. Surfaces that come in contact with produce must be washed, rinsed, and sanitized regularly. Employees need to understand and use appropriate food handling practices.
Tissue-Specific Alterations Of Methyl Group Metabolism With Dna Hypermethylation In The Zucker (Type 2) Diabetic Fatty Rat., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske
BackgroundAltered methyl group and homocysteine metabolism were tissue-specific, persistent, and preceded hepatic DNA hypomethylation in type 1 diabetic rats. Similar metabolic perturbations have been shown in the Zucker (type 2) diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat in the pre-diabetic and early diabetic stages, but tissue specificity and potential impact on epigenetic marks are unknown, particularly during pathogenesis.
Methods ZDF (fa/fa) and lean (+/?) control rats were killed at 12 and 21 weeks of age, representing early and advanced diabetic conditions. Blood and tissues were analysed with respect to methyl group and homocysteine metabolism, including DNA methylation.
Results At 12 weeks, hepatic ...
Resistant Starch: Promise For Improving Human Health, 2016 Iowa State University
Resistant Starch: Promise For Improving Human Health, Diane F. Birt, Terri D. Boylston, Suzanne Hendrich, Jay-Lin Jane, James Hollis, Li Li, John F. Mcclelland, Samuel Moore, Gregory J. Phillips, Matthew James Rowling, Kevin Schalinske, Marvin Paul Scott, Elizabeth M. Whitley
Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect ...
Mapping Of Iron And Zinc Quantitative Trait Loci In Soybean For Association To Iron Deficiency Chlorosis Resistance, Keith E. King, Gregory A. Peiffer, Manju B. Reddy, Nick Lauter, Shun Fu Lin, Silvia R. Cianzio, Randy C. Shoemaker
Manju B. Reddy
Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybean results in yield losses or in extreme cases death. Breeding for resistance has shown limited success with no cultivar having complete resistance. Mineral content of the soybean could be an indicator of the ability of the plant to withstand the effects of IDC. Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentration was examined in soybean seed and leaves. SSR, RFLP, and BARCSOYSSR markers were used to construct a linkage map used for mapping of Fe and Zn concentrations. The QTL analysis for the combined data identified one major QTL for seed Fe accumulation on chromosome 20 ...
Inhibition Of Non-Haem Iron Absorption In Man By Polyphenolic-Containing Beverages, 2016 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich
Inhibition Of Non-Haem Iron Absorption In Man By Polyphenolic-Containing Beverages, Richard F. Hurrell, Manju B. Reddy, James D. Cook
Manju B. Reddy
The effects of different polyphenol-containing beverages on Fe absorption from a bread meal were estimated in adult human subjects from the erythrocyte incorporation of radio-Fe. The test beverages contained different polyphenol structures and were rich in either phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid in coffee), monomeric flavonoids (herb teas, camomile (Matricaria recutita L.)), vervain (Verbena officinalis L.), lime flower (Tilia cordata Mill.), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), or complex polyphenol polymerization products (black tea and cocoa). All beverages were potent inhibitors of Fe absorption and reduced absorption in a dose-dependent fashion depending on the content of total polyphenols ...
Negative Effect Of Camu-Camu (Myrciaria Dubia) Despite High Vitamin C Content On Iron Bioavailability, Using A Caco-2 Cell Model, 2016 Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina
Negative Effect Of Camu-Camu (Myrciaria Dubia) Despite High Vitamin C Content On Iron Bioavailability, Using A Caco-2 Cell Model, Yael Nemirovsky, Nelly Zavaleta, Maria E. Villanueva, Seth M. Armah, Sixto A. Iman, Manju B. Reddy
Manju B. Reddy
It is well known that vitamin C is an important enhancer of nonheme iron bioavailability due to its high reducing capacity. Camu-camu, a fruit that grows in the jungle of Peru, contains high amount of vitamin C (2,780 mg per 100 g). In this study, we investigated the effect of camu-camu on nonheme iron bioavailability from two different meals (rice with lentils and wheat flour porridge) using an in vitro Caco-2 cell model. These two meals were treated with three different camu-camu juice concentrations (C0 = 0 g, C1 = typical consumption, and C2 = 3X typical consumption). The results showed that ...
Oxalate And Phytate Of Soy Foods, 2016 Washington State University
Oxalate And Phytate Of Soy Foods, Ismail A. Al-Wahsh, Harry T. Horner, Reid G. Palmer, Manju B. Reddy, Linda K. Massey
Manju B. Reddy
The consumption of foods made from soybeans is increasing because of their desirable nutritional value. However, some soy foods contain high concentrations of oxalate and/or phytate. Oxalate is a component of calcium oxalate kidney stones, whereas phytate is an inhibitor of calcium kidney stone formation. Thirty tested commercial soy foods exhibited ranges of 0.02−2.06 mg oxalate/g and 0.80−18.79 mg phytate/g. Commercial soy foods contained 2−58 mg of total oxalate per serving and 76−528 mg phytate per serving. Eighteen of 19 tofu brands and two soymilk brands contained less than ...
An Evaluation Of Edta Compounds For Iron Fortification Of Cereal-Based Foods, 2016 Nestlé Research Centre
An Evaluation Of Edta Compounds For Iron Fortification Of Cereal-Based Foods, Richard F. Hurrell, Manju B. Reddy, Joseph Burri, James D. Cook
Manju B. Reddy
Fe absorption was measured in adult human subjects consuming different cereal foods fortified with radiolabelled FeSO4, ferrous fumarate or NaFeEDTA, or with radiolabelled FeSO4 or ferric pyrophosphate in combination with different concentrations of Na2EDTA. Mean Fe absorption from wheat, wheat–soyabean and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) infant cereals fortified with FeSO4 or ferrous fumarate ranged from 0·6 to 2·2 %. For each infant cereal, mean Fe absorption from ferrous fumarate was similar to that from FeSO4 (absorption ratio 0·91–1·28). Mean Fe absorption from FeSO4-fortified bread rolls was 1·0 ...
Genetic Modification Of Low Phytic Acid 1-1 Maize To Enhance Iron Content And Bioavailability, 2016 Iowa State University
Genetic Modification Of Low Phytic Acid 1-1 Maize To Enhance Iron Content And Bioavailability, Maneesha R. Aluru, Steve R. Rodermel, Manju B. Reddy
Manju B. Reddy
High phytate content in staple food crops is a major barrier to successful iron biofortification. We have exploited the low phytic acid 1-1 (lpa1-1) mutant of maize to generate transgenic plants with up-to 70 μg/g seed iron through the endosperm-specific overexpression of soybean ferritin, resulting in more than 2-fold improvement in iron bioavailability. The levels of bioavailable seed iron achieved in this study greatly exceed any achieved thus far and closely approach values estimated to have a nutritional impact on target populations. Gene expression studies reveal a large induction of the YS1 transporter in leaves and severe repression of ...
Iron Bioavailability Of Hemoglobin From Soy Root Nodules Using A Caco-2 Cell Culture Model, 2016 Iowa State University
Iron Bioavailability Of Hemoglobin From Soy Root Nodules Using A Caco-2 Cell Culture Model, Amy K. Proulx, Manju B. Reddy
Manju B. Reddy
Heme iron has been identified in many plant sourcesmost commonly in the root nodules of leguminous plants, such as soy. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of soy root nodule (SRN) and purified soy hemoglobin (LHb) in improving iron bioavailability using an in vitro Caco-2 cell model, with ferritin response as the bioavailability index. We assessed bioavailability of iron from LHb (either partially purified (LHbA) or purified (LHbD)) with and without food matrix and compared it with that from bovine hemoglobin (BHb), ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), or SRN. Bioavailability of each treatment was normalized to 100% of the FeSO4 treatment ...
Androidal Fat Dominates In Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk In Postmenopausalwomen, 2016 University of Northern Iowa
Androidal Fat Dominates In Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk In Postmenopausalwomen, O. A. Matvienko, D. L. Alekel, S. N. Bhupathiraju, Heike Hofmann, L. M. Ritland, M. B. Reddy, M. D. Van Loan, C. D. Perry
Manju B. Reddy
We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and homocysteine. We collected data on 224 healthy postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis (45.8–65 y, median BMI 24.5) who consumed placebo or soy isoflavones (80 or 120 mg/d) for 36 months and used longitudinal analysis to examine the contribution of isoflavone treatment, androidal fat mass, other biologic factors, and dietary quality to cardiometabolic outcomes. Except ...
Echinacea Sanguinea And Echinacea Pallida Extracts Stimulate Glucuronidation And Basolateral Transfer Of Bauer Alkamides 8 And 10 And Ketone 24 And Inhibit P-Glycoprotein Transporter In Caco-2 Cells, 2016 Iowa State University
Echinacea Sanguinea And Echinacea Pallida Extracts Stimulate Glucuronidation And Basolateral Transfer Of Bauer Alkamides 8 And 10 And Ketone 24 And Inhibit P-Glycoprotein Transporter In Caco-2 Cells, Zhiyi Qiang, Catharine Hauck, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Manju B. Reddy, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich
Manju B. Reddy
The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit the P-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Using HPLC analysis, the permeation rate of Bauer alkamides by passive diffusion across Caco-2 cells corresponded with compound hydrophilicity (alkamide 8 > 10 > 11), independent of the plant extract matrix. Both ...
Fermentation And Lactic Acid Addition Enhance Iron Bioavailability Of Maize, 2016 Iowa State University
Fermentation And Lactic Acid Addition Enhance Iron Bioavailability Of Maize, Amy K. Proulx, Manju B. Reddy
Manju B. Reddy
Maize is one of the most important cereal crops for human consumption, yet it is of concern due to its low iron bioavailability. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of processing on iron bioavailability in common maize products and elucidate better processing techniques for enhancing iron bioavailability. Maize products were processed to represent different processing techniques: heating (porridge), fermentation (ogi), nixtamalization (tortillas), and decortication (arepas). Iron and phytate contents were evaluated. Iron bioavailability was assessed using the Caco-2 cell model. Phytate content of maize products was significantly reduced by decortication (25.6%, p ) 0.003) and ...
Soup Consumption Is Associated With A Reduced Risk Of Overweight And Obesity But Not Metabolic Syndrome In Us Adults: Nhanes 2003-2006, Yong Zhu, James H. Hollis
A limited number of studies have found that soup consumption is related to a lower risk of overweight and obesity in Asian and European populations, however, these studies do not provide a consistent picture regarding the association between soup consumption and markers of metabolic syndrome. To date, no study examining the relationship between soup and body weight or metabolic syndrome have been conducted in the US population. The present study used a sample of 4158 adults aged 19–64 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003 and 2006. The frequency of soup consumption was determined ...