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The Emerging Epidemic Of Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity Amongst Young Children, Juliana Morales 2022 Dominican University of California

The Emerging Epidemic Of Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity Amongst Young Children, Juliana Morales

Nursing | Senior Theses

Background:

In the past years childhood obesity has increased tremendously and currently ⅓ of children in the United States are obese today. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes are illnesses that can later on lead to more severe health complications when as a child enters adulthood. Children who are obese have a greater risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, and currently more than 80% of children who already are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes are obese. In school and often by health care providers we are told daily physical activity and healthy diet are the best ways to maintain optimal health ...


Is Your Child Hydrated?, Hadyn Flygare, Stacy Bevan, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos 2022 Utah State University

Is Your Child Hydrated?, Hadyn Flygare, Stacy Bevan, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos

All Current Publications

Adequate hydration is necessary for proper functioning of the body. Since children are more prone to dehydration than adults, it is essential that fluid intake and hydration status are monitored. This fact sheet provides information on daily fluid requirements for children, barriers to staying hydrated, and warning signs and impacts of dehydration.


Webinars As A Tool For Increasing Awareness Of Diabetes Prevention And Management Programs, Cindy Jenkins, Carrie Durward, April Litchford, Catherine Hansen, Annette Prall, Caitlyn Jasumback 2022 Utah State University

Webinars As A Tool For Increasing Awareness Of Diabetes Prevention And Management Programs, Cindy Jenkins, Carrie Durward, April Litchford, Catherine Hansen, Annette Prall, Caitlyn Jasumback

Outcomes and Impact Quarterly

Stakeholders sought to reduce the burden of preventable diabetes among adults in Utah via a “Food as Medicine” webinar series. The “Food as Medicine” webinar series sought to increase awareness of and enrollment in public diabetes programs. Evaluation results from the webinar series indicated an increase in awareness of diabetes programs and nutrition information needed to improve personal diabetes management.


The Go Wild With Whole Grains! School-Based Program: Positive Impacts Among Children, Joshua Bailey, Sara Van Offelen, Hyunjun Kim, Marla Reicks 2022 University of Minnesota

The Go Wild With Whole Grains! School-Based Program: Positive Impacts Among Children, Joshua Bailey, Sara Van Offelen, Hyunjun Kim, Marla Reicks

The Journal of Extension

Whole grain foods have been associated with health benefits, yet are underconsumed by youth compared to recommendations. This study evaluated impacts of a school-based curriculum among children in grades 3-5 to address barriers to intake (2018-2019) (n = 1,748). Surveys before and after the program indicated youth were more willing to try and better able to identify whole grain foods. Open-ended responses confirmed findings regarding increased ability to identify whole grain foods, increased preferences and perceptions of availability. Together, these impacts could increase the likelihood that youth can meet whole grain intake recommendations to improve diet quality and health.


Engaging Farmers, Culinary Schools, And Communities In Value-Added Production To Strengthen Local Food Systems, Lauren B. Errickson, Ethan D. Schoolman, Virginia Quick, Sarah Davis, Anthony Capece 2022 Rutgers Cooperative Extension

Engaging Farmers, Culinary Schools, And Communities In Value-Added Production To Strengthen Local Food Systems, Lauren B. Errickson, Ethan D. Schoolman, Virginia Quick, Sarah Davis, Anthony Capece

The Journal of Extension

Value-added products can generate farm income and improve community food access, yet lack of available kitchen infrastructure and labor can limit farm production capacity. This project explored how community-based culinary schools might fill the gap. A unique “product share” model was identified and piloted, meeting the collective needs of farmers, a culinary school, and urban consumers. By researching farmer crop availability and business model preferences, and aligning value-added production with community food preferences, we demonstrate a successful pilot indicative that similar initiatives can be replicated in other metropolitan areas, with potential to engage cross-disciplinary extension professionals.


Broiler Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines, Nelson E. Ward 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Broiler Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines, Nelson E. Ward

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

In a time of record feed prices, nutritionists and production managers continue to look for opportunities to lower growout costs. Even though their contribution seldom exceeds 1-2% of feed costs, vitamins are not immune to this cost-crunching scrutiny. Furthermore, in late 2017, an unparalleled drop in global vitamin supply resulted in sharply increased prices, and in some cases, outright shortages. Such events have placed pressure on vitamin fortification levels in broiler feeds. Nutritionists decide on the fortification rates based on a variety of criteria – bird age, production phase, field experience, research trials, and so forth. The rapid change in broiler ...


Recent Findings On Phosphorus Digestibility Of Feed Ingredients In Broilers, Jay Hampton, Wenting Li, Franco Mussini, Katie Hilton, Janet Remus, Samuel J. Rochell 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Recent Findings On Phosphorus Digestibility Of Feed Ingredients In Broilers, Jay Hampton, Wenting Li, Franco Mussini, Katie Hilton, Janet Remus, Samuel J. Rochell

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Accurately meeting the dietary P needs of broilers is critical to ensure optimal bird performance, health, and welfare without causing undue environmental burdens associated with excess dietary P excretion. Phosphorus is commonly supplied in broiler diets from inorganic phosphates derived from non-renewable sources, but it has been estimated that peak P production will occur between 2030-2040 and that the global supply of P could be depleted within this century (Cordell and Drangert, 2009; Nest and Cordell, 2012). To address these concerns, inorganic P use in agriculture, including use in broiler diet formulation, requires careful stewardship. To this end, the dietary ...


Reduction Of Protein Levels In Broiler Feed For Commercial Application – A German Case, Andreas Lemme, Kilian Fenske, Heiner Westendarp, Mathias Guhe, Elmar Rother 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Reduction Of Protein Levels In Broiler Feed For Commercial Application – A German Case, Andreas Lemme, Kilian Fenske, Heiner Westendarp, Mathias Guhe, Elmar Rother

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

A project was initiated to apply dietary CP reduction under commercial conditions. The main objective was to demonstrate and validate that dietary CP can be reduced without compromising broiler performance in a production system which is already rather efficient. In addition, we wanted to demonstrate the potential of dietary CP reduction on reducing N-excretions especially in the context of German revised regulations and monitoring attempts. Finally, as previous research suggested, few further aspects such as impact of dietary CP reduction on litter quality and quantity, footpad health, change of ingredient inclusion levels and related impact on sustainability impact factors were ...


Application Of Simulation Modelling In Broiler Integration: Is It A Necessary Nutritional Tool?, Peter Chrystal 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Application Of Simulation Modelling In Broiler Integration: Is It A Necessary Nutritional Tool?, Peter Chrystal

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Modelling techniques have been used in many industries globally to illustrate to others an understanding of the way processes work. Also, engineers and scientists employ models to predict the consequences of various courses of action. Simple pictorial models, such as the diagram of the chicken digestive system, are useful in education and may be more suitable than a photograph for the purposes of explaining how the animal converts ingested feed into components that can be assimilated, leaving residue that is excreted. Complex, predictive models seek to quantify a specified outcome based on defined inputs. Many attempts have been made over ...


State Of The Art Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, Rick van Emous 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

State Of The Art Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, Rick Van Emous

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

During the last six to seven decades, broilers have been successfully selected for maximum growth and feed efficiency (Zuidhof et al., 2014). Modern fast-growing broilers reach a body weight of 2.0 to 2.5 kg in 35 to 45 days with an average daily growth of 55 or more gram a day (Augère-Granier, 2019). In a study with different broiler strains representative of broilers in 1957 or 1978 were compared with a broiler strain from 2005 (Zuidhof et al., 2014). The 2005 strain showed, over a 56-day growth period, a 4.6 times higher growth rate and a 50 ...


Broiler Breeder Males: Feed And Nutrition Discussion, Benton Hudson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Broiler Breeder Males: Feed And Nutrition Discussion, Benton Hudson

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The methods for feeding broiler breeder males have evolved over recent decades, and further revisions will likely be needed as males become more challenging to manage. Since the introduction of separate male feeding systems in the early 1980’s, breeder males’ nutrient needs have been better managed via daily feed restriction. If a breeder operation can effectively produce, haul, and store a separate male diet, then it provides more options to use different nutrient levels or feed additives that are designed to enhance fertility. This article will outline the history of male-separate feeding and revisit nutritional research on fertility of ...


Amino Acids Were Not All Created Equal, Peter H. Selle, Shemil P. Macelline, Peter V. Chrystal, Sonia Y. Liu 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Amino Acids Were Not All Created Equal, Peter H. Selle, Shemil P. Macelline, Peter V. Chrystal, Sonia Y. Liu

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The contention that amino acids were not all created equal is based on the simple premise that intestinal uptakes of non-bound (synthetic, crystalline, feed-grade) amino acids are more rapid than their protein-bound counterparts. The post-enteral ramifications of this difference in bioequivalence are amplified in broiler chickens given their express growth rates and just one complication is the post-prandial oxidation of amino acids. The lack of bioequivalence between non-bound and protein-bound amino acids is a real obstacle to the development and adoption of reduced-crude protein diets that have the potential to promote sustainable chicken-meat production Thus, the purpose of this paper ...


Recent Advancements On Calcium And Phosphorus Recommendations In Broilers, Justina Caldas, Marcelo Silva 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Recent Advancements On Calcium And Phosphorus Recommendations In Broilers, Justina Caldas, Marcelo Silva

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Calcium and phosphorus have been recognized essential nutrients in chickens since 1950’s (Lesson & Summers, 2001) playing important roles in bone development, among other functions. Calcium is assumed an inexpensive nutrient in animal least cost formulation while phosphorus is considered expensive and scant. The actual economic impact comes from the influence of calcium on phosphorus requirements, changes in phosphorus digestibility, buffer capacity, gut health, trace mineral absorption, fat digestibility, welfare traits, etc. Both minerals have important interactions to be considered during formulation. Few changes have been made over the past 20 years to calcium and phosphorus recommendations because these values ...


Decoding The Gut Microbiome; Providing Solutions For Poultry Production, Nichoals Evans, Peter Karnezos, Curtis Novak, Diana Ayala, Emily Kimminau, Kay Russo 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Decoding The Gut Microbiome; Providing Solutions For Poultry Production, Nichoals Evans, Peter Karnezos, Curtis Novak, Diana Ayala, Emily Kimminau, Kay Russo

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The term “microbiome” refers to all the micro-organisms within a particular environment. In poultry, the microbiome is influenced by the barn, diet, and age of the birds and is believed to modulate immunity and inflammation. In the past, culture methods were primarily used to evaluate the presence of the various micro-organisms present in the microbiome; however, recent technological advances in genomic sequencing have revolutionized sample analysis. This technology has opened new avenues of research in poultry production and our understanding of the associated health challenges. Turkey cellulitis has been a major economic and health concern for many years. Traditional bacterial ...


Application Of Nutritional Immunology In The Mitigation Of Economic And Production Losses In The Poultry Industry Associated With Food-Borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, And Necrotic Enteritis., Shahna Fathima, Ramesh K. Selvaraj 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Application Of Nutritional Immunology In The Mitigation Of Economic And Production Losses In The Poultry Industry Associated With Food-Borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, And Necrotic Enteritis., Shahna Fathima, Ramesh K. Selvaraj

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics were used in poultry production since the 1950s for improved production, prophylaxis, and animal welfare. Extensive and indiscriminatory use of antibiotics led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens of public health significance (Jones & Ricke, 2003). As per the United States Centre for Disease Control, more than 2.8 million infections in 2019 were caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Due to public health concerns, the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock production was prohibited by Sweden and Denmark in 1986 and 1998 respectively (Hammerum et al., 2007). The European Union banned the use ...


A Dynamic Approach To Feed Formulation, Rob Gous 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Dynamic Approach To Feed Formulation, Rob Gous

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the opportunity cost of using fixed tables of nutrient requirements when formulating feeds for broilers can be considerable, and that nutritionists should consider a more dynamic approach to defining the lower bounds of amino acids in particular, in line with the objective of the business, which is to maximise profit. In order to do this, it is necessary to consider the potential growth rate of the broiler, the cost of feed and amount of feed consumed, and the income generated from the sale of product.


Transitioning To Net Energy: A Swine Story, John F. Patience 2022 Iowa State University

Transitioning To Net Energy: A Swine Story, John F. Patience

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Net energy (NE) is one member of the sequence of energy systems which also includes gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME). It is perhaps the most sophisticated because it attempts to consider more components of the ingredient or diet which normally cannot be used by the pig for maintenance and/or productive purposes. Gross energy makes no such adjustment and therefore has little direct value in diet formulation. Digestible energy corrects for energy which is lost in the feces, and metabolizable energy also adjusts for energy lost in the urine. The data in Table 1 reveal ...


Where Can We Go With Net Energy In Poultry?, Katie Hilton 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Where Can We Go With Net Energy In Poultry?, Katie Hilton

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Metabolizable energy (ME) is the main system used globally in poultry industry for feed formulation and for evaluating feed ingredients and mixed feeds (de Boer and Bickel, 1988). ME is considered a reliable index of what is available to the bird for maintenance and production but is not a predictor of how efficiently the bird uses the available energy (MacLeod, 2000). The ME system developed by Hill and Anderson (1958) was reported to provide less variation in energy values for feed and ingredients than the Fraps PE system, but MacLeod (1994, 1997, 1999) suggest that the low variation of ME ...


Limestone Solubility: What Can You Do About It?, Wenting Li, Katie Hilton, Franco Mussini, Janet Remus 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Limestone Solubility: What Can You Do About It?, Wenting Li, Katie Hilton, Franco Mussini, Janet Remus

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Calcium (Ca) is essential for bone development mineralisation, as well as for eggshell formation, muscle and neural functions. Depending on the type of diets (veggie vs. non-veggie), species (turkey, chicken, duck), and age of animal (young vs. adult), limestone can contribute up to 95% total Ca in the final diet, with more Ca from limestone for younger animals with veggie diet. Despite the significant contribution of limestone to total diet Ca levels, the bioavailability variation of limestone Ca is rarely considered. Phosphorus (P) is a limited resource and is the third most costly ingredient in poultry diets. Improving P utilization ...


Social Protection And Foundational Cognitive Skills During Adolescence: Evidence From A Large Public Works Programme, Richard Freund, Marta Favara, Catherine Porter, Jere R. Behrman 2022 University of Oxford

Social Protection And Foundational Cognitive Skills During Adolescence: Evidence From A Large Public Works Programme, Richard Freund, Marta Favara, Catherine Porter, Jere R. Behrman

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Many low- and middle-income countries have introduced Public Works Programmes (PWPs) to fight poverty. PWPs provide temporary cash-for-work opportunities to boost poor households’ incomes and to provide better infrastructure to local communities. While PWPs do not target children directly, the increased demand for adult labour may affect children’s development through increasing households’ incomes and changing household members’ time uses. This paper expands on a multidimensional literature showing the relationship between early life circumstances and learning outcomes and provides the first evidence that children from families who benefit from PWPs show increased foundational cognitive skills (FCS). We focus on four ...


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