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Energy Balance During A Self-Sufficient, Multistage Ultramarathon, Paul A. Hough, James Earle 2017 St. Mary's University

Energy Balance During A Self-Sufficient, Multistage Ultramarathon, Paul A. Hough, James Earle

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Endurance athletes are recommended to maintain energy balance and ensure adequate energy availability (EA) so that endurance performance is not compromised. Purpose: Describe and evaluate the energy balance of an athlete competing in a self-sufficient, multistage ultramarathon (MSU). Methods: A male endurance athlete (age 35 years; height 183.0 cm; body mass 78.4 kg; VO2max 66 ml/kg/min) volunteered to take part in this observational case study prior to competing in the Marathon des Sables (MdS) 2016. The subject self-reported energy intake (EI) by reviewing his dietary plan following each stage. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated ...


Key Differences Between Hepatic And Intestinal Apoc3 Regulation And Expression, And Implications For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Gabrielle West, Cayla Rodia, Diana Li, Hongli Dong MS, Zania Johnson, Alison B. Kohan PhD 2017 University Of Connecticut

Key Differences Between Hepatic And Intestinal Apoc3 Regulation And Expression, And Implications For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Gabrielle West, Cayla Rodia, Diana Li, Hongli Dong Ms, Zania Johnson, Alison B. Kohan Phd

Gabrielle West

In the intestine, apoC-III delays chylomicron secretion, and causes a decrease in chylomicron size. Once apoC-III is in circulation, apoC-III delays triglyceride-rich remnants clearance by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase and liver low-density lipoprotein receptor. In humans, high levels of plasma apoC-III directly result in hypertriglyceridemia. ApoC-III is a critical cardiovascular risk factor, and humans expressing null mutations in apoC-III are robustly protected from cardiovascular disease. Because of its critical role in elevating plasma lipids and CVD risk, the factors that regulate apoC-III expression in the liver have been determined, and include glucose, insulin (through FoxO1), and dietary fat. Considerably less is ...


Food Addiction And The Effective Treatment Of Adult Food Addicts: An Integrative Review Of Literature, Sara Bourque 2017 DePaul University

Food Addiction And The Effective Treatment Of Adult Food Addicts: An Integrative Review Of Literature, Sara Bourque

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Abstract

Background: In a survey conducted between the years of 2011 and 2014 it was suggested that 36% of adults in the U.S. were obese with over 40.2% being middle aged adults. Obesity is associated with a number of comorbid conditions including diabetes, heart attacks, and strokes. Due to this it is one of the major factors driving up our annual medical care costs. It is also one of the leading causes of death not only in the U.S. but worldwide. With one third of the adult population in the U.S. being obese food addiction may ...


Transcript Profiles In Longissimus Dorsi Muscle And Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: A Comparison Of Pigs With Different Postweaning Growth Rates, C. M. Pilcher, C. K. Jones, M. Schroyen, A. J. Severin, J. F. Patience, C. K. Tuggle, J. E. Koltes 2017 Iowa State University

Transcript Profiles In Longissimus Dorsi Muscle And Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: A Comparison Of Pigs With Different Postweaning Growth Rates, C. M. Pilcher, C. K. Jones, M. Schroyen, A. J. Severin, J. F. Patience, C. K. Tuggle, J. E. Koltes

Andrew Severin

Although most pigs recover rapidly from stresses associated with the transition of weaning, a portion of the population lags behind their contemporaries in growth performance. The underlying biological and molecular mechanisms involved in postweaning differences in growth performance are poorly understood. The objective of this experiment was to use transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to develop a better understanding of the metabolic basis for poor weaned-pig transition. A total of 1,054 pigs was reared in commercial conditions and weighed at birth, weaning, and 3 wk postweaning. Transition ADG (tADG) was calculated as the ADG for the ...


Cardio-Metabolic Benefits Of Plant-Based Diets., Hana Kahleova, Susan Levin, Neal Barnard 2017 George Washington University

Cardio-Metabolic Benefits Of Plant-Based Diets., Hana Kahleova, Susan Levin, Neal Barnard

Medicine Faculty Publications

Cardio-metabolic disease, namely ischemic heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, represent substantial health and economic burdens. Almost one half of cardio-metabolic deaths in the U.S. might be prevented through proper nutrition. Plant-based (vegetarian and vegan) diets are an effective strategy for improving nutrient intake. At the same time, they are associated with decreased all-cause mortality and decreased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Evidence suggests that plant-based diets may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events by an estimated 40% and the risk of cerebral vascular disease events by 29%. These diets ...


The Application Of Self-Administered Nutrition Screening Tools And Evaluations Of The Impact Of Malnutrition On Quality Of Life In Individuals With Head And Neck Cancer, Mark J. P. Lynch 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Application Of Self-Administered Nutrition Screening Tools And Evaluations Of The Impact Of Malnutrition On Quality Of Life In Individuals With Head And Neck Cancer, Mark J. P. Lynch

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

Background: Individuals with head and neck cancer (HNCa) are at an increased risk of malnutrition. Therefore, self-administered nutrition screens which attempt to address their nutritional concerns may yield benefits for treatment outcomes and quality of life (QOL).

Methods: 34 participants (26 men, 8 women) completed one demographic and two QOL surveys, two nutrition self-screening tools, a nutrition assessment and an ease-of-use questionnaire. Results of the screens were compared to those of the assessment, and relationships between QOL, nutrition status, and demographics were examined.

Results: 32.3% of participants were identified as nutritionally compromised. The sensitivity and specificity for the ...


The Effect Of Cocoa Flavanols On Β-Cell Mass And Function, Thomas John Rowley 2017 Brigham Young University

The Effect Of Cocoa Flavanols On Β-Cell Mass And Function, Thomas John Rowley

All Theses and Dissertations

A hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is β-cell dysfunction and the eventual loss of functional β-cell mass. Therefore, mechanisms that improve or preserve β-cell function could be used to improve the quality of life of individuals with T2D. Studies have shown that monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric cocoa flavanols have different effects on obesity, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that these cocoa flavanols may have beneficial effects on β-cell function. INS-1 832/13 derived β-cells and primary rat islets cultured with a monomeric catechin-rich cocoa flavanol fraction demonstrated enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while cells cultured with total cocoa ...


Added Sugar Consumption Among College Students, Maram Murad 2017 University of the Incarnate Word

Added Sugar Consumption Among College Students, Maram Murad

Theses & Dissertations

Added sugar consumption has been increasing in all age groups in the United States and worldwide, with the greatest increase in young adults. College-age years are a critical period in the young adult's life where many habits develop, including nutrition and food choices. An understanding of college-age students’ attitudes and behaviors toward added sugar consumption might help predict added sugar consumption within this population. This was a quantitative study of traditional-aged college students' added sugar consumption through a convenience sample at a private university in San Antonio, TX. A survey was administrated to undergraduate students at different classes. Subjects ...


The Effect Of Blinded Hydration State On Thermoregulation And Performance In Male Cyclists, Jon David Adams 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Blinded Hydration State On Thermoregulation And Performance In Male Cyclists, Jon David Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of these studies was to observe the effect of dehydration on exercise performance while subjects were blinded to their hydration status. Methods: Study 1: Seven male cyclists (weight: 71±8 kg, body fat: 14±6%, VO2peak: 59.4±6 ml∙kg-1·min-1) exercised for 2 hours on a cycle ergometer at 55% VO2peak, in a hot-dry environment (35°C, 30% rh), with a nasogastric (NG) tube under euhydrated (EUH-NT) and hypohydrated (DEH-NT) conditions. In both trials, thirst was matched by drinking 25 mL every 5 min. In the EUH-NT trial sweat losses were fully replaced via the ...


Enzymatic Synthesis Of Chlorogenic Acid Glucoside Using Dextransucrase And Its Physical And Functional Properties, Seung-Hee Nam, Jin-A Ko, Young-Jung Wee, Marie K. Walsh, Kwang-Yeol Yang, Sun-Hee Yim, Jon-Bang Eun, Woojin Jun, Jang-Hyun Park, Young-Min Kim, Songhee Han, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Nahyun M. Kim 2017 Chonnam National University

Enzymatic Synthesis Of Chlorogenic Acid Glucoside Using Dextransucrase And Its Physical And Functional Properties, Seung-Hee Nam, Jin-A Ko, Young-Jung Wee, Marie K. Walsh, Kwang-Yeol Yang, Sun-Hee Yim, Jon-Bang Eun, Woojin Jun, Jang-Hyun Park, Young-Min Kim, Songhee Han, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Nahyun M. Kim

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Chlorogenic acid, a major polyphenol in edible plants, possesses strong antioxidant activity, anti-lipid peroxidation and anticancer effects. It used for industrial applications; however, this is limited by its instability to heat or light. In this study, we, for the first time synthesized chlorogenic acid glucoside (CHG) via transglycosylation using dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides and sucrose. CHG was purified and its structure determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and matrix-associated laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The production yield of CHG was 44.0% or 141 mM, as determined by response surface methodology. CHG possessed a 65% increase in water solubility and ...


The Role Of Attitude, Control And Intention To Explain Fruit And Vegetable Intake Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Women With Low Socioeconomic Status, Michele DeBiasse, Deborah J. Bowen, Sherry L. Pagoto, Joseph M. Massaro, N. Istfan, Lisa M. Quintiliani 2017 Boston University

The Role Of Attitude, Control And Intention To Explain Fruit And Vegetable Intake Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Women With Low Socioeconomic Status, Michele Debiasse, Deborah J. Bowen, Sherry L. Pagoto, Joseph M. Massaro, N. Istfan, Lisa M. Quintiliani

Sherry L. Pagoto

Objective: Fruit and Vegetable (FV) intake-a modifiable risk factor for chronic diseases-is lower among racial/ethnic minorities and low Socio- Economic Status (SES) groups when compared to other populations. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one theoretical model studied to explain and influence individual health behaviors, including FV intake, in middle class populations, but not exclusively in diverse, low SES groups. This cross-sectional study evaluated the utility of select TPB variables to explain intention to consume and intake of FV in this population.

Design: Demographics, BMI, select TPB variables, and FV intake were measured via survey. Bivariate analyses were ...


Maternal Choline Supplementation Alters Fetal Growth Patterns In A Mouse Model Of Placental Insufficiency, Julia H. King, Sze Ting (Cecilia) Kwan, Jian Yan, Kevin C. Klatt, Xinyin Jiang, Mark S. Roberson, Marie A. Caudill 2017 Cornell University

Maternal Choline Supplementation Alters Fetal Growth Patterns In A Mouse Model Of Placental Insufficiency, Julia H. King, Sze Ting (Cecilia) Kwan, Jian Yan, Kevin C. Klatt, Xinyin Jiang, Mark S. Roberson, Marie A. Caudill

Publications and Research

Impairments in placental development can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. The bioactive nutrient choline may mitigate some of these impairments, as suggested by data in humans, animals, and human trophoblasts. Herein, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on parameters of fetal growth in a Dlx3+/− (distal-less homeobox 3) mouse model of placental insufficiency. Dlx3+/− female mice were assigned to 1X (control), 2X, or 4X choline intake levels during gestation. Dams were sacrificed at embryonic days E10.5, 12.5, 15.5, and 18.5. At E10.5, placental weight, embryo weight, and placental efficiency were higher in 4X ...


Misclassification Of Healthy Eating Based On Food Frequency Questionnaires And 24-Hour Dietary Recalls In Older Men And Women, Elizabeth Procter-Gray, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kevin J. Kane, Linda C. Churchill, Rashelle B. Hayes, Annabella Aguirre, Hyung-Joo Kang, Wenjun Li 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Misclassification Of Healthy Eating Based On Food Frequency Questionnaires And 24-Hour Dietary Recalls In Older Men And Women, Elizabeth Procter-Gray, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kevin J. Kane, Linda C. Churchill, Rashelle B. Hayes, Annabella Aguirre, Hyung-Joo Kang, Wenjun Li

Wenjun Li

OBJECTIVE: To examine the agreement in nutrient intake and alternative healthy eating indices (AHEI) between a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) measurements of diet by gender among older adults.

METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study of 105 men and 99 women aged 65 and older living in urban and rural neighborhoods in Worcester County. Participants were queried on diet using both FFQ and 24HR. The healthy eating classification was compared between the two instruments by gender.

RESULTS: For men, the mean±SD of AHEI total score was 48.2±12.3 based on FFQ versus ...


Misclassification Of Healthy Eating Based On Food Frequency Questionnaires And 24-Hour Dietary Recalls In Older Men And Women, Elizabeth Procter-Gray, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kevin J. Kane, Linda C. Churchill, Rashelle B. Hayes, Annabella Aguirre, Hyung-Joo Kang, Wenjun Li 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Misclassification Of Healthy Eating Based On Food Frequency Questionnaires And 24-Hour Dietary Recalls In Older Men And Women, Elizabeth Procter-Gray, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kevin J. Kane, Linda C. Churchill, Rashelle B. Hayes, Annabella Aguirre, Hyung-Joo Kang, Wenjun Li

Rashelle B. Hayes

OBJECTIVE: To examine the agreement in nutrient intake and alternative healthy eating indices (AHEI) between a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) measurements of diet by gender among older adults.

METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study of 105 men and 99 women aged 65 and older living in urban and rural neighborhoods in Worcester County. Participants were queried on diet using both FFQ and 24HR. The healthy eating classification was compared between the two instruments by gender.

RESULTS: For men, the mean±SD of AHEI total score was 48.2±12.3 based on FFQ versus ...


Misclassification Of Healthy Eating Based On Food Frequency Questionnaires And 24-Hour Dietary Recalls In Older Men And Women, Elizabeth Procter-Gray, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kevin J. Kane, Linda C. Churchill, Rashelle B. Hayes, Annabella Aguirre, Hyung-Joo Kang, Wenjun Li 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Misclassification Of Healthy Eating Based On Food Frequency Questionnaires And 24-Hour Dietary Recalls In Older Men And Women, Elizabeth Procter-Gray, Barbara C. Olendzki, Kevin J. Kane, Linda C. Churchill, Rashelle B. Hayes, Annabella Aguirre, Hyung-Joo Kang, Wenjun Li

Barbara C. Olendzki

OBJECTIVE: To examine the agreement in nutrient intake and alternative healthy eating indices (AHEI) between a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) measurements of diet by gender among older adults. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study of 105 men and 99 women aged 65 and older living in urban and rural neighborhoods in Worcester County. Participants were queried on diet using both FFQ and 24HR. The healthy eating classification was compared between the two instruments by gender. RESULTS: For men, the mean±SD of AHEI total score was 48.2±12.3 based on FFQ versus ...


Investigation Of The Cultural Context Of Sugars Consumption Behavior In Low-Income Mexican-American Women, Tanya J. Benitez, Colleen Keller, Kathryn Coe, Natasha Tasevska 2017 Arizona State University

Investigation Of The Cultural Context Of Sugars Consumption Behavior In Low-Income Mexican-American Women, Tanya J. Benitez, Colleen Keller, Kathryn Coe, Natasha Tasevska

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Despite the recent federal dietary recommendations to limit consumption of added sugars to less than ten percent of daily caloric intake, there is a gap in published literature examining the influence of food preparation behaviors on sugars consumption among low-income Mexican-American women. The purpose of the study was to describe the cultural context of Mexican-American women in procuring, preparing and presenting added sugars in their families’ diets.

Five focus groups were conducted to examine sugars consumption behavior in thirteen overweight/obese low-income Mexican-American women ages 27-40 years. Themes that emerged during the sessions included: changes in food procurement to include ...


Veganism As An Aspiration, Lori Gruen, Robert C. Jones 2017 California State University - Chico

Veganism As An Aspiration, Lori Gruen, Robert C. Jones

Robert C. Jones, Ph.D.

iven the violence, objectification, domination, commodification, and oppression inherent in industrialized food production, some conscientious consumers have adopted vegan practices. This chapter discusses two conceptions of veganism, lifestyle/identity veganism, VI, and veganism as a goal/aspiration, VA. It argues that due to conceptual and practical flaws with VI, conscientious consumers should adopt VA. It considers and rejects the so-called compassionate carnivore movement. It then explores arguments denying the casual efficacy of adopting any form of veganism. It concludes that VA can make a difference, and those in consumer cultures are obligated to adopt and practice it.


Growing South Dakota, College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 2017 South Dakota State University

Growing South Dakota, College Of Agriculture And Biological Sciences

Growing South Dakota (College of Agriculture & Biological Sciences Publication)

[Page] 2 From the Director

[Page] 3 WaterTouches Everything, Multi-State Network Strives to Enhance Water Stewardship

[Page] 6 From RubbleTo Renewal, Unique Art Project Helps Delmont Community Heal

[Page] 7 Future Focused, Community Development Program Helps Harness Ideas Into Action

[Page] 8 Health Help, Statewide Program Strives To Help Individuals Better Manage Chronic Health Condition

[Page] 10 Making An Impact, Master Gardener Program Helps Individuals & Communities Flourish

[Page] 12 Statewide Highlights & Happenings

[Page] 14 Outreach to Youth, Programs Foster Engagement With Diverse Youth Audiences

[Page] 17 A Look At Land Use, Report Documents Status of Eastern South Dakota Native Grasslands ...


Adaptive Thermogenesis And Metabolic Changes Following Diet- And Exercise- Induced Weight Loss, Alexandra R. Martin 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Adaptive Thermogenesis And Metabolic Changes Following Diet- And Exercise- Induced Weight Loss, Alexandra R. Martin

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

With more than two-thirds of adults in the United States considered as overweight or obese, a myriad of weight loss programs and products that promise quick results have infiltrated the market. While many individuals successfully lose weight over the short term, almost half of the initial weight lost is regained within one year, indicating a general predisposition for weight cycling and fat replenishment. As weight is lost, fat-free mass (FFM) also decreases, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) declines, decreasing energy expenditure. After accounting for decreases in FFM, there remains a greater-than- predicted decrease in RMR, referred to as adaptive thermogenesis ...


Dietary Red And Processed Meat Intake And Markers Of Adiposity And Inflammation: The Multiethnic Cohort Study, Weiwen Chai, Yukiko Morimoto, Robert V. Cooney, Adrian A. Franke, Yurii B. Shvetsov, Loïc Le Marchand, Christopher A. Haiman, Laurence N. Kolonel, Marc T. Goodman, Gertraud Maskarinec 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dietary Red And Processed Meat Intake And Markers Of Adiposity And Inflammation: The Multiethnic Cohort Study, Weiwen Chai, Yukiko Morimoto, Robert V. Cooney, Adrian A. Franke, Yurii B. Shvetsov, Loïc Le Marchand, Christopher A. Haiman, Laurence N. Kolonel, Marc T. Goodman, Gertraud Maskarinec

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Objective—The potential influence of dietary factors on inflammation is important for cancer prevention. Utilizing data from control participants (312 men, 911 women) in two nested case-control studies of cancer within the Multiethnic Cohort, we examined the associations of red and processed meat intake with serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 and the mediator effect of body mass index (BMI) on the above associations (if present).

Methods—Multivariable linear models were applied to assess the association between red and processed meat intake at cohort entry and serum biomarker levels ...


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