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An Evolutionary And Mechanistic Perspective On Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction In Cancer Prevention, Eugene J. Fine, Colin E. Champ, Richard D. Feinman, Samuel Márquez, Rainer J. Klement 2016 Albert Einstein College of Medicine

An Evolutionary And Mechanistic Perspective On Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction In Cancer Prevention, Eugene J. Fine, Colin E. Champ, Richard D. Feinman, Samuel Márquez, Rainer J. Klement

Journal of Evolution and Health

The confluence of basic cell biochemistry, epidemiological and anthropologic evidence points to high dietary carbohydrate and the associated disruption of the glucose-insulin axis as causes of the current increase in metabolic disorders, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This hyperinsulinemic state likely contributes, as well, to an increased mutagenic microenvironment, with increased risk for cancer. This critical review discusses these risks in their historical and evolutionary context. The evidence supports the benefits of lowering the glycemic load of the diet as a preventive measure against the development of cancer.


Benefits Of A Flexitarian Diet: Educating College Students Of Lifestyle Approaches To Reduce The Risk Of Developing Breast And Prostate Cancer, Abbigail Pace 2016 Western Kentucky University

Benefits Of A Flexitarian Diet: Educating College Students Of Lifestyle Approaches To Reduce The Risk Of Developing Breast And Prostate Cancer, Abbigail Pace

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Practicing the Flexitarian diet, a plant-based diet, in conjunction with physical activity can promote a lifestyle consistent with the American Cancer Society’s recommendations for reducing risks of breast and prostate cancer (American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention, 2015) College students were assessed on knowledge of the relationship between diet and cancer risk prior to and after accessing information on the American Institute of Cancer Research site or the WKU Flexitarian Pinterest Page. Participants were recruited from the National Panhellenic and Interfraternity Council memberships and the International students at Western Kentucky University. Participants completed ...


Neighborhood Differences In The Availability Of Healthy Foods In The City Of Worcester, Kevin Kane, Maximilian Hoffman, Jie Cheng, Barbara C. Olendzki, Wenjun Li 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Neighborhood Differences In The Availability Of Healthy Foods In The City Of Worcester, Kevin Kane, Maximilian Hoffman, Jie Cheng, Barbara C. Olendzki, Wenjun Li

Wenjun Li

INTRODUCTION. Neighborhood food environment is important to healthy eating. The availability and proximity of healthy foods has been shown to affect dietary quality, obesity, and overall health. We surveyed food stores throughout City of Worcester to assess the variability of food availability in neighborhoods and inequalities in access to fresh produce, unprocessed foods, and other healthy food options by neighborhood socioeconomic status (N-SES).

METHODS. Where permitted by the store manager, the Community Nutrition Environment Evaluation Data Systems (C-NEEDS) survey was completed inside the store by trained staff. Healthy Food Availability Index (HFAI; range 0-56) and Unhealthy Food Availability Index (UFAI ...


A Non-Restrictive Weight Loss Diet Focused On Increasing Fiber And Lean Protein: Results Of A Pilot Trial, Lijuan Zhang, Sherry L. Pagoto, Barbara C. Olendzki, Gioia Persuitte, Linda C. Churchill, Jessica Oleski, Yunsheng Ma 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Non-Restrictive Weight Loss Diet Focused On Increasing Fiber And Lean Protein: Results Of A Pilot Trial, Lijuan Zhang, Sherry L. Pagoto, Barbara C. Olendzki, Gioia Persuitte, Linda C. Churchill, Jessica Oleski, Yunsheng Ma

Sherry L. Pagoto

Objective. The vast majority of diets are not only multicomponent but also restrictive. Dietary fiber or protein can reduce hunger and enhance satiety; they also exert clinical benefits. We examined feasibility and acceptability of a non-restrictive diet combining the two for weight loss.

Population and Methods. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the trial (2 men, 13 women, mean age=48 y and mean BMI = 36 kg/m2) to attend 6 bi-weekly individual counselling sessions for the diet during the 12-week study period. The goals of the intervention were to attain a daily goal of higher fiber (>35g)/ and lean protein ...


A Pilot Study To Assess The Feasibility, Safety And Acceptability Of Soy-Based Diet For Pregnant Women At High Risk For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Ling Shi, Vidya Iyer, Emily Jones, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Laura L. Hayman 2016 University of Massachusetts Boston

A Pilot Study To Assess The Feasibility, Safety And Acceptability Of Soy-Based Diet For Pregnant Women At High Risk For Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Ling Shi, Vidya Iyer, Emily Jones, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Laura L. Hayman

Tiffany A. Moore Simas

Background: Diet plays an important role in the prevention and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Previous studies suggest that soy protein and isoflavones may have beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. Little is known regarding the cardiometabolic effects of soy intake during pregnancy. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, safety and acceptability of daily consumption of soy foods during pregnancy in women at high risk for GDM, and participant adherence to their assigned treatment.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted among pregnant women at high risk for GDM. The Soy group were counseled to consume a ...


Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff

Doctoral Dissertations

Skeletal muscle glucose metabolism can affect whole body glucose homeostasis significantly. Vitamin A (VA) plays a role in a number of physiological functions including glucose metabolism. However, its role in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism has not been well established. Insulin controls glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle via the regulations of glucose uptake, glycogenesis, and glycolysis. We hypothesize that insulin and VA signaling pathways may converge to regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Here, the effects of retinoic acid (RA) alone and in combination with insulin on glucose utilization in rat L6 muscle cells were studied. L6 cells were treated ...


Relationship Between Body Composition, Fitness, And Eating Behaviors And Markers Of Metabolic Suppression In Exercising Men, Mikayla K. Locke, Karsten Koehler 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationship Between Body Composition, Fitness, And Eating Behaviors And Markers Of Metabolic Suppression In Exercising Men, Mikayla K. Locke, Karsten Koehler

UCARE Research Products

Introduction: Chronic dieting can result in characteristic metabolic adaptations such as a suppression of resting metabolic rate (RMR). Previous research has focused on health outcomes related to metabolic suppression in female athletes, which include impaired menstrual and bone health. The study purpose was to assess the relationship between metabolic suppression and body composition, fitness, and eating behavior traits in exercising men.

Approach: Cross-sectional study comparing exercising men who display evidence of metabolic suppression (MS) and a control group (Con). RMR was used as a surrogate marker of metabolic suppression.

Results and Discussion: When compared to Con, MS had a higher ...


Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, MD, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, MD, Franklin D. Shuler, MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, Md, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, Md, Franklin D. Shuler, Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Vitamin K is known to play an essential role in the coagulation cascade; however, a growing body of research has found that a subtype of this vitamin, vitamin K2 (menaquinone) may have a beneficial effect in osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. This purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature regarding menaquinone and its role in human health. This review discusses the physiology of menaquinone, its clinical benefits in cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, and how it may interact with certain medications. The authors conclude that menaquinone supplementation has been shown to improve carboxylation ...


Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr. 2016 Rockhurst University

Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr.

Journal of Evolution and Health

As rates of overweight and obesity have risen in the US, the public has sought effective strategies for weight loss through dietary modification. A proliferation of processed foods and changing governmental nutrition guidelines have both impacted dietary intake patterns. While physicians are considered respectable sources of weight-loss information, increasingly the public has turned to the media, particularly magazines, for weight loss advice. This study investigated the dietary recommendations found in the five leading US health-related magazines and compared those recommendations to ancestral diets. With a couple notable exceptions, leading health magazines present consistent recommendations for dietary modifications to promote weight ...


Mechanism Of Triglyceride Lowering Action Of Akkermansia Muciniphila And Fenugreek In A Genetic Induced Hyperlipidemia, Jing Shen 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanism Of Triglyceride Lowering Action Of Akkermansia Muciniphila And Fenugreek In A Genetic Induced Hyperlipidemia, Jing Shen

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Hyperlipidemia is a condition of abnormally elevated levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood circulation. It is usually accompanied with obesity, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and has become a great threat to human health. New therapeutic strategies are needed for the prevention and treatment of both genetic intervention-induced hyperlipidemia and environmentally induced hyperlipidemia. In this study, we determined the therapeutic effects of a diseaseprotecting gut bacteria, Akkermansia muciniphila, and an annual legume, fenugreek, on hypertriglyceridemia induced by genetic depletion of cAMP responsive binding protein H (CREBH KO) in mice. We ...


Nutrigenomics Study In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Novel Diets Supplemented With Marine By-Products, Nellie Gagné 2016 Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Nutrigenomics Study In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Novel Diets Supplemented With Marine By-Products, Nellie Gagné

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Delta Tocotrienol Attenuates Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Via Inhibition Of Nf-Κb Priming And Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Teresa Buckner 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Delta Tocotrienol Attenuates Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Via Inhibition Of Nf-Κb Priming And Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Teresa Buckner

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Chronic, low-grade inflammation during obesity is associated with the development of metabolic dysfunction. The NLRP3 inflammasome is assembled in response to cellular stressors and leads to cytotoxic cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 production, which implicates the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammatory conditions, including type 2 diabetes. Tocotrienols are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory forms of vitamin E. Delta-tocotrienol (dT3) displays NF-κB inhibitory and anti-oxidant abilities, and is easily isolated from the Annatto plant. My primary aim was to determine whether dT3 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and to compare the extent to which dT3 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome with other tocotrienol forms, i.e. alpha-tocotrienol (aT3 ...


Malnourished Older Adults With Informal Caregivers Admitted To Rural Rehabilitation Units Remain Malnourished During And After Rehabilitation: A Prospective Cohort Study Of Current Practice, Skye Marshall, Adrienne Young, Judith Bauer, Elizabeth Isenring 2016 Bond University

Malnourished Older Adults With Informal Caregivers Admitted To Rural Rehabilitation Units Remain Malnourished During And After Rehabilitation: A Prospective Cohort Study Of Current Practice, Skye Marshall, Adrienne Young, Judith Bauer, Elizabeth Isenring

Skye Marshall

Understanding the nutritional journey older adults make from rehabilitation to home may help to engage and support the patient and their informal caregiver during this process. This study aimed to determine the change in nutritional status, physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) amongst malnourished older adults (≥65years) with informal caregivers admitted to rural rehabilitation and 12 weeks post-discharge to the community.


Malnutrition In Geriatric Rehabilitation: Prevalence, Patient Outcomes And Criterion Validity Of The Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (Pg-Sga) And The Mini Nutritional Assessment (Mna), Skye Marshall, Adrienne Young, Judith Bauer, Elizabeth Isenring 2016 Bond University

Malnutrition In Geriatric Rehabilitation: Prevalence, Patient Outcomes And Criterion Validity Of The Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (Pg-Sga) And The Mini Nutritional Assessment (Mna), Skye Marshall, Adrienne Young, Judith Bauer, Elizabeth Isenring

Skye Marshall

No abstract provided.


Malnourished Older Adults Admitted To Rehabilitation In Rural New South Wales Remain Malnourished Throughout Rehabilitation And Once Discharged Back To The Community: A Prospective Cohort Study, Skye Marshall, Adrienne Young, Judith Bauer, Elizabeth Isenring 2016 Bond University

Malnourished Older Adults Admitted To Rehabilitation In Rural New South Wales Remain Malnourished Throughout Rehabilitation And Once Discharged Back To The Community: A Prospective Cohort Study, Skye Marshall, Adrienne Young, Judith Bauer, Elizabeth Isenring

Skye Marshall

No abstract provided.


Malnutrition In Geriatric Rehabilitation: Prevalence, Patient Outcomes And Criterion Validity Of The Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (Pg-Sga) And The Mini Nutritional Assessment (Mna), Skye Marshall, Adrienne Young, Judith Bauer, Liz Isenring 2016 Bond University

Malnutrition In Geriatric Rehabilitation: Prevalence, Patient Outcomes And Criterion Validity Of The Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (Pg-Sga) And The Mini Nutritional Assessment (Mna), Skye Marshall, Adrienne Young, Judith Bauer, Liz Isenring

Skye Marshall

There is strong evidence showing malnutrition is under-recognized and underdiagnosed in the rehabilitation setting. Accurate identification and management of malnutrition is essential so that patient outcomes may be improved and resources used efficaciously.The Scored PG-SGA and MNA require evaluation of their validity in diagnosing malnutrition in rehabilitation. In addition, the prevalence of malnutrition and associated patient outcomes in rural Australian populations has not been reported.


The Relationship Among Fifth Grade Physical Education Students' Body Size Perception, Fitnessgram Scores, And Physical Activity Level, Ashley N. Cleveland 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Relationship Among Fifth Grade Physical Education Students' Body Size Perception, Fitnessgram Scores, And Physical Activity Level, Ashley N. Cleveland

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Purpose: This study aims to explore the correlation between students’ self-perception of body image and FITNESSGRAM scores, the relationship between children’s body perceptions and their actual body mass index (BMI), and to see if body image in children affects their physical activity level.

Methods: FITNESSGRAM fitness testing protocol and a survey developed for the KidQuest nutrition intervention program by South Dakota State University (SDSU) was used to assess the correlation between students’ (n= 319) self-perception of body image and FITNESSGRAM scores. In addition accelerometers were used to assess the physical activity level of a subsample (n=57) of ...


Nitrate From Drinking Water And Diet And Bladder Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women In Iowa., Rena R Jones, Peter J Weyer, Curt T Dellavalle, Maki Inoue-Choi, Kristin E Anderson, Kenneth P Cantor, Stuart Krasner, Kim Robien, Laura E Beane Freeman, Debra T Silverman, Mary H Ward 2016 George Washington University

Nitrate From Drinking Water And Diet And Bladder Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women In Iowa., Rena R Jones, Peter J Weyer, Curt T Dellavalle, Maki Inoue-Choi, Kristin E Anderson, Kenneth P Cantor, Stuart Krasner, Kim Robien, Laura E Beane Freeman, Debra T Silverman, Mary H Ward

Exercise and Nutrition Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Nitrate is a drinking water contaminant arising from agricultural sources and a precursor in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), which are possible bladder carcinogens.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ingestion of nitrate and nitrite from drinking water and diet and bladder cancer risk in women.

METHODS: We identified incident bladder cancers among a cohort of 34,708 postmenopausal women in Iowa (1986-2010). Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were estimated from a baseline food frequency questionnaire. Drinking water source and duration were assessed in a 1989 follow-up. For women using public water supplies (PWS) >10 years (N=15,577 ...


Promoting Nutrition And Wellness Statewide Through An Electronic Newsletter, Morgan Bahl, Sarah L. Francis 2016 Iowa State University

Promoting Nutrition And Wellness Statewide Through An Electronic Newsletter, Morgan Bahl, Sarah L. Francis

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The Words on Wellness (WOW) newsletter was designed as an electronic newsletter intended to provide research-based nutrition and wellness information to Iowans. An evaluation was conducted to assess to what extent the newsletter is being used by its readership and whether readers are making lifestyle changes as a result. Those who completed the online survey (n = 154) report making lifestyle changes and finding the information to be current, understandable, and relevant to their lives. These results indicate that the use of indirect nutrition and wellness educational materials (i.e., a newsletter) is effective in promoting research-based information that results in ...


The Influence Of Exclusive Breastfeeding On Growth Trajectory From Birth To Year 5 In A Wic Cohort, Lindsey Arevalos 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Influence Of Exclusive Breastfeeding On Growth Trajectory From Birth To Year 5 In A Wic Cohort, Lindsey Arevalos

Master's Theses and Project Reports

OBJECTIVE. The impact of exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) on child body mass index (BMI) from birth through 60 months of age was investigated.

METHODS. 60,190 mothers and children attending Women, Infant and Children (WIC) clinics in the Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo counties of California provided data on breastfeeding duration, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and child weight-for-length (WL) was measured at 3 month intervals until 5 years of age. Missing time points were interpolated in determining child BMI/WL z-score trajectories plotted on the Center of Disease Control (CDC) infant and child growth curves. Multivariate analysis of variance was used ...


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