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Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie 2023 University of South Dakota

Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie

Dissertations and Theses

Offspring of diabetic and obese mothers (ODOM) have greater risks of heart disease at birth and later in life. However, prevention is hindered because underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mounting studies in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease field suggest that mitochondria play key roles in developmentally programmed heart disease similar to the roles they play in cardiomyopathy in adults with diabetes and obesity. However, whether mitochondria are responsible for the short[1]and long-term cardiac disease seen in ODOM remains unknown. Here, we sought to delineate the roles of mitochondria in the hearts of ODOM, determine whether mitochondria ...


Dynamics Of Nucleosome Assembly Characterized By Atomic Force Microscopy, Tommy Stormberg 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Dynamics Of Nucleosome Assembly Characterized By Atomic Force Microscopy, Tommy Stormberg

Theses & Dissertations

Nucleosomes are the basic repeating unit defining the assembly and function of chromatin. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of nucleosome structure and dynamics is critical to elucidating the chromatin assembly process. This dissertation describes my work in elucidating the role of different factors that drive the nucleosome dynamics.

In my first study, we characterized, for the first time, the effect of sequence on nucleosome assembly. We then characterized the role of internucleosomal interactions, discovering a critical role internucleosomal interactions in the assembly of higher order structures.

Based on the previous study and literature regarding histone tails, we hypothesized the histone H4 ...


Speciation Jigsaw Activity, Erika Crispo 2022 Pace University

Speciation Jigsaw Activity, Erika Crispo

Open Educational Resources

What is a species? Why are there so many species on the planet? The question of why we have different species of organisms was the key thesis of Charles Darwin’s most famous book, On the Origin of Species.While several definitions of what constitutes a species exists, the most common definition lies within thebiological species concept. This concept states that different species exist when two individuals of different sexes are unable to reproduce with one another to yield viable offspring in the wild. A major limitation of this definition is that it can only be applied to sexually reproducing ...


Examination Of The Time Delayed Induction Between Prior Encapsulation Of Catalytic Enzymes In P22 Virus-Like Particles, Andrea Hernandez Irias 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Examination Of The Time Delayed Induction Between Prior Encapsulation Of Catalytic Enzymes In P22 Virus-Like Particles, Andrea Hernandez Irias

Chemistry Theses

Protein cages found in nature have the ability to protect and develop new nanomaterials in order to enhance catalytic reactions. This is due to the ability of these organelle structures to mimic protein-based organelles such as Virus-Like Particles (VLPs). VLPs have the ability to not only resemble virus protein structures but to encapsulate enzymes while retaining their activity. This research examines the in vitro encapsulation withing the bacteriophage P22 derived VLP, and show that some enzymes may require a delay in encapsulation to allowed proper folding

and maturation before they can be encapsulated inside P22 as fully active enzymes. Exploring ...


Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Maternal obesity has led to an increase in adverse offspring developmental outcomes and a greater risk for long-term metabolic diseases. Choline, a semi-essential nutrient, can be incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as sphingomyelin (SM) and donate its labile methyl group for the remethylation of homocysteine after choline is oxidized to betaine. Prenatal choline insufficiency has been related to maternal obesity and metabolic diseases, such as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Choline may interact with maternal obesity to influence the programming offspring.

Chapter 1 presents an introduction of choline and the various clinical outcomes associated with choline supplementation during ...


Role Of Nuclear Lamins In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Camila Yattah 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Role Of Nuclear Lamins In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Camila Yattah

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Differentiation of oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells is a highly regulated process characterized by a series of molecular changes, resulting in nuclear and morphological features unique to the mature oligodendrocyte state. Heterochromatin formation starting at the nuclear periphery, as well as increased nuclear rigidity are characteristically observed. The nuclear periphery is characterized by the presence of the nuclear lamina and it has been implicated in higher-order genome organization in cells. Lamins are the protein components of the nuclear lamina, and their expression is dependent upon the cell differentiation stage of the cells. While Lamin B1 (LMNB1) expression is high in progenitors ...


Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) gene is often mutated in cancer, with missense mutations found in the central DNA binding domain, and less often in the oligomerization domain (OD) and C-terminal domain (CTD). The OD and CTD have been found to be critical for the tumor suppressor functionality of wild-type p53 (wtp53). Specific missense mutations in the DNA binding domain have been found to confer new gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Mutations that destabilize tetramer formation, or deletion of key lysine residues within the CTD, downregulate the ability of wtp53 to transactivate (increase the rate of transcription of) its target genes. We ...


Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age related neurodegenerative disease with pathology that includes amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and non-resolving neuroinflammation. Non-resolving neuroinflammation lasts the entire course of the disease and has deleterious effects and is often thought to accelerate AD pathology. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) have commonly been used as therapeutics to treat pain, inflammation and vascular. NSAIDs work by altering the cyclooxygenase (COX) mediated biosynthesis of prostaglandins which are lipid mediators that have many physiological functions, for example nociception, inflammation and vasodilation. Epidemiological studies support the notion that NSAIDs could be used to treat AD. Yet, clinical trials ...


Conformation Of The U12-U6atac Snrna Complex Of The Minor Spliceosome And Binding By Ntc-Related Protein Rbm22, Joanna Ciavarella 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Conformation Of The U12-U6atac Snrna Complex Of The Minor Spliceosome And Binding By Ntc-Related Protein Rbm22, Joanna Ciavarella

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Splicing of precursor messenger (pre-m)RNA is a critical process in eukaryotes in which the non-coding regions, called introns, are removed and coding regions, or exons, are ligated to form a mature mRNA. This process is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a multi-mega Dalton ribonucleoprotein complex assembled from five small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNP) in the form of small nuclear (sn)RNA-protein complexes (U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6) and >100 proteins. snRNA components catalyze the two transesterification reactions while proteins perform critical roles in assembly and rearrangement. U2 and U6 snRNAs are the only snRNAs directly implicated in catalyzing the splicing ...


Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Targeting Toll-Like Receptor Signaling And A Multi-Target Approach, Giovanni Oliveros 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Targeting Toll-Like Receptor Signaling And A Multi-Target Approach, Giovanni Oliveros

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is multifactorial, and its hallmarks include the formation of amyloid-beta (Ab) plaques and neurofibrillary tau tangles, accompanied by an increase in glial cell activation, culminating in neurodegeneration, chronic neuroinflammation, and cognitive decline in human patients. AD will cost the United States over $300 million this year alone and is projected to cost over $1 trillion by 2050, AD is a serious concern for the aging population, and efforts need to be redirected towards more effective therapeutic intervention strategies. Drugs aimed at halting AD progression have so far proven unsuccessful due to the development of pharmaceuticals that ...


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in ...


Perseverance Of Protein Homeostasis Despite Mistranslation, Farah Hasan 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Perseverance Of Protein Homeostasis Despite Mistranslation, Farah Hasan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are essential for protein synthesis and translation fidelity. Some human tRNA variants may cause amino acid misincorporation: tRNAGly variants (tRNAGlyCCC, tRNAGlyGCC) have mutations that generate an alanine tRNA identity element (G3:U70), likely causing mis-aminoacylation of glycine tRNAs with alanine, while the tRNAAlaAGC G35C (tRNAAlaACC) variant may function similarly to mis-incorporate Ala at Gly codons by generating a Gly anticodon. I propose that these mistranslating tRNAs will disrupt protein homeostasis in mammalian cells. Although the tRNAGly and tRNAAla variants did not affect protein synthesis in normal ...


Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advancements in sequencing technologies have revolutionized biological sciences and led to the emergence of a number of fields of research. One such field of research is metagenomics, which is the study of the genomic content of complex communities of bacteria. The goal of this thesis was to contribute computational methodology that can maximize the data generated in these studies and to apply these protocols human and environmental metagenomic samples.

Standard metagenomic analyses include a step for binning of assembled contigs, which has previously been shown to exclude mobile genetic elements, and I demonstrated that this phenomenon extends to all conjugative ...


Mitochondria Mediated Outcomes Of Developmental Exposure To Low-Level Chemical Mixtures In Zebrafish Danio Rerio, Remy Babich 2022 University of Maine

Mitochondria Mediated Outcomes Of Developmental Exposure To Low-Level Chemical Mixtures In Zebrafish Danio Rerio, Remy Babich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Exposure to drinking water contaminants has been linked to developmental outcomes in both epidemiological and model organism studies. However, low level mixture effects, on early development has yet to be explored. It is hypothesized that early chemical exposures may increase disease susceptibility later in life. This work aimed to investigate impacts of a variety of chemicals and concentrated on metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), vanadium (V), and lead (Pb) due to their presence in drinking water and known developmental toxicity. To determine the effects of a metal and organic contaminant co-exposure, the ubiquitously used herbicide glyphosate was also explored. The ...


Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand 2022 Western

Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A general description of why RNAi based pesticide technology is a breakthrough technology able to target only pests while not harming others. This presentation gives a summary of RNAi technology, the current drawbacks of conventional pesticides, and our research on how RNAi can be used against the two-spotted spidermite; a polyphagic pest that causes significant financial damage to Canadian and worldwide agriculture


The Relationship Between Joint Stiffness And Leg Morphology In Spiders, Lachlan Fisher 2022 Western University

The Relationship Between Joint Stiffness And Leg Morphology In Spiders, Lachlan Fisher

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

This poster investigates the relationship between joint stiffness and spider leg morphology, with an interest in collecting data to create more accurate biomechanical models of spiders.


Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib 2022 Western University

Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Translation, or the production of protein from an mRNA blueprint, is among the most fundamental processes to life as we know it. tRNAs are essential to accurate translation, as they decode the codons of mRNA and recruit corresponding amino acids. Variant tRNAs with anticodon mutations can decrease translational fidelity by recruiting the incorrect amino acid, an aberrant process known as mistranslation. When proteins are produced with incorrect amino acid sequences, they may misfold. The heat shock response functions to alleviate cellular stress caused by misfolded proteins, either by refolding or targeting misfolded proteins for degradation. Hsf1 acts as a transcriptional ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Cr-Znga2o4 And Eu-Ca3(Po4)2 Composite, Benjamin Hulme 2022 Western University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Cr-Znga2o4 And Eu-Ca3(Po4)2 Composite, Benjamin Hulme

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Collaborative Research: Developing Advanced Magnesium Electrolytes Toward Low Cost, High Energy Density Mg Batteries, Tianbiao Liu 2022 Utah State University

Collaborative Research: Developing Advanced Magnesium Electrolytes Toward Low Cost, High Energy Density Mg Batteries, Tianbiao Liu

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Quantification Of Spent Coffee Ground Extracts By Roast And Brew Method, And Their Utility In A Green Synthesis Of Gold And Silver Nanoparticles, Brian G Yust, Niny Z Rao, Evan T Schwarzmann, Madisyn H Peoples 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Quantification Of Spent Coffee Ground Extracts By Roast And Brew Method, And Their Utility In A Green Synthesis Of Gold And Silver Nanoparticles, Brian G Yust, Niny Z Rao, Evan T Schwarzmann, Madisyn H Peoples

College of Life Sciences Faculty Papers

Nanotechnology has become increasingly important in modern society, and nanoparticles are routinely used in many areas of technology, industry, and commercial products. Many species of nanoparticle (NP) are typically synthesized using toxic or hazardous chemicals, making these methods less environmentally friendly. Consequently, there has been growing interest in green synthesis methods, which avoid unnecessary exposure to toxic chemicals and reduce harmful waste. Synthesis methods which utilize food waste products are particularly attractive because they add value and a secondary use for material which would otherwise be disposed of. Here, we show that spent coffee grounds (SCGs) that have already been ...


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