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Ligand-Directed Signaling And Trafficking At The Nociceptin Opioid Peptide Receptor, Gina E. Migneco 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

Ligand-Directed Signaling And Trafficking At The Nociceptin Opioid Peptide Receptor, Gina E. Migneco

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters & Abstracts

Traditional opioid receptors such as the μ and κ opioid receptors (MOR and

KOR) are well studied and are found to be common targets for pain and

stress therapies. The nociceptin opioid receptor (NOPR/ORL1) is a most

recently discovered opioid receptor whose complete function is still relatively

unknown, however is of great interest to researchers due to its analgesic

and antidepressant properties. NOPR activation due to ligand binding

triggers a variety of downstream effects, including G-protein signaling,

arrestin-mediated signaling, and receptor internalization. A variety of NOPR

ligands, both putative agonists and antagonists, were characterized by

further examination of these ...


Platelet Secretion And Hemostasis Require Syntaxin-Binding Protein Stxbp5, Shaojing Ye, Yunjie Huang, Smita Joshi, Jinchao Zhang, Fanmuyi Yang, Guoying Zhang, Susan S. Smyth, Zhenyu Li, Yoshimi Takai, Sidney W. Whiteheart 2014 University of Kentucky

Platelet Secretion And Hemostasis Require Syntaxin-Binding Protein Stxbp5, Shaojing Ye, Yunjie Huang, Smita Joshi, Jinchao Zhang, Fanmuyi Yang, Guoying Zhang, Susan S. Smyth, Zhenyu Li, Yoshimi Takai, Sidney W. Whiteheart

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publication

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked genes encoding several soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) regulators to cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because these regulatory proteins may directly affect platelet secretion, we used SNARE-containing complexes to affinity purify potential regulators from human platelet extracts. Syntaxin-binding protein 5 (STXBP5; also known as tomosyn-1) was identified by mass spectrometry, and its expression in isolated platelets was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that STXBP5 interacts with core secretion machinery complexes, such as syntaxin-11/SNAP23 heterodimers, and fractionation studies suggested that STXBP5 also interacts with the platelet cytoskeleton. Platelets from Stxbp5 KO mice ...


Determining The Binding Between Saga Subunits And Spliceosomal Components, Peyton J. Spreacker, Rachel L. Stegeman, Vikki M. Weake 2014 Purdue University

Determining The Binding Between Saga Subunits And Spliceosomal Components, Peyton J. Spreacker, Rachel L. Stegeman, Vikki M. Weake

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Proper gene regulation is vital to the health and development of an organism. Determining the relationship between splicing, transcription, and chromatin structure is vital for understanding gene regulation as a whole. There have been previous studies linking these elements pairwise; however, no evidence exists for a direct link between all three. Recent data shows that splicing components of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleic protein (snRNP) co-purify with Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA), a highly conserved transcriptional co-activator and chromatin modifier. We hypothesize that SAGA binds with splicing components through a multi-protein binding surface with certain core components based on preliminary yeast two-hybrid data ...


Electrophoresis Staining: A New Method Of Whole Mount Staining, Mitchell G. Ayers, Sarah Calve, Zhiyu Li 2014 Purdue University

Electrophoresis Staining: A New Method Of Whole Mount Staining, Mitchell G. Ayers, Sarah Calve, Zhiyu Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Advances in tissue clearing techniques have allowed almost a ten-fold increase in the viewing depth of confocal microscopy. This allows for intact cellular structures to be rendered in 3D. However, viewing tissues to this depth is often limited to endogenous fluorescence as passive diffusion of antibodies via whole mount staining can take weeks. Our lab is developing a new method involving electrophoresis as a driving force that will promote active antibody binding deep into tissue, reducing the amount of time needed to stain for cellular structures. Due to the inherent charge within antibodies, they are able to be directionally forced ...


The Effect Of Transient Hmg-Coa Reductase And 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Synthase Overexpression On Terpene Production In Transgenic Tomato Fruits, Scott A. Gentry, Michael Gutensohn, Laura Henry, Natalia Dudareva 2014 Purdue University

The Effect Of Transient Hmg-Coa Reductase And 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Synthase Overexpression On Terpene Production In Transgenic Tomato Fruits, Scott A. Gentry, Michael Gutensohn, Laura Henry, Natalia Dudareva

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Isoprenoids are secondary metabolites that control numerous plant functions including signaling, growth, photosynthesis, and membrane structure. The bioengineering of isoprenoid synthesis could produce plants with a variety of beneficial traits. Plants form isoprenoids using two different pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the methylerithritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, which cooperate via metabolic cross-talk. Transgenic tomato lines expressing both the plastidic and cytosolic forms of the snapdragon nerolidol/linalool terpene synthase under a fruit ripening specific promoter were transiently transformed to overexpress key enzymes in the two isoprenoid pathways. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) is the rate limiting enzyme in the MVA pathway ...


Determining The Functionality Of The G12 Base In The Hammerhead Ribozyme As A General Base, Emma Lendy, Aamir Mir, Kyle Robinson, Bharat Mankani, Ji Chen, Barbara L. Golden, Dor Ben-Amotz 2014 Purdue University

Determining The Functionality Of The G12 Base In The Hammerhead Ribozyme As A General Base, Emma Lendy, Aamir Mir, Kyle Robinson, Bharat Mankani, Ji Chen, Barbara L. Golden, Dor Ben-Amotz

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The hammerhead ribozyme (Hrz) is one of the most well-known ribozymes, and has been studied as a therapeutic vehicle for disease management as well as to gain an understanding of gene expression. Despite these characterizations, there is an ongoing dispute over the precise catalytic mechanism that Hrz employs. Evidence from crystal structures suggests guanine-12 (G12) and the 2’-OH of guanine-8 (G8) work in conjunction as the general base-general acid pair that propels catalysis. However, pH rate profiles of wild type (WT), G12A and deoxy-G8 mutants indicate that Hrz functions similarly whether or not this general acid-general base pair is ...


Development Of Electron Microscopy Analysis And Simulation Tools For Nanohub, Mingxuan Lu, Chang Wan Han, Benjamin P. Haley, Volkan Ortalan 2014 Purdue University

Development Of Electron Microscopy Analysis And Simulation Tools For Nanohub, Mingxuan Lu, Chang Wan Han, Benjamin P. Haley, Volkan Ortalan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Electron microscopy has a crucial role in the field of materials science and structural biology. Although electron microscopy gives lots of important results and findings, some additional simulations and image processing/reconstruction is required to get more information from the data that are collected from the experiments. For this purpose, researchers are using IMOD1 and QSTEM2 for electron microscopy analysis and simulation. IMOD is a set of programs used for tomographic reconstruction and 3D visualization and QSTEM is used for quantitative simulations of TEM and STEM images. However, IMOD and QSTEM are hard to install or use for ...


Permaculture Design: On The Practice Of Radical Imagination, Katja Rothe 2014 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Permaculture Design: On The Practice Of Radical Imagination, Katja Rothe

communication +1

Permaculture design is a concept that aims at transforming not only agriculture, but also city planning, architecture, development, etc. In short it aims to change human habitats. It is part of a new ecological paradigm that is currently spreading in popularity from the urban gardening movement to various other alternative movements such as the slow movement, sustainable architecture, etc. Permaculture design defines itself as building on systems theory (as formulated in particular by Howard Thomas Odum and Christopher Alexander). However I would like to propose that the afterlife of systems theory as expressed in the concept of permaculture, first developed ...


Activation Of Dna Damage Checkpoint Pathways During Skeletal Myoblast Differentiation And Apoptosis, Mofetoluwa Oluwasanmi, Greg Kliment, Crystal M. Weyman 2014 Cleveland State University

Activation Of Dna Damage Checkpoint Pathways During Skeletal Myoblast Differentiation And Apoptosis, Mofetoluwa Oluwasanmi, Greg Kliment, Crystal M. Weyman

Undergraduate Research Posters 2014

A subset of skeletal myoblasts undergo apoptosis rather than differentiation when cultured in differentiation media (DM: absence of growth factors). While the muscle regulatory transcription factor MyoD is known to control the process of differentiation, our lab has recently discovered that MyoD is also controlling the apoptotic process in response to culture in DM by direct up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA. We similarly discovered that MyoD plays a role in the increased expression of PUMA and apoptosis in response to the DNA damaging agent, etoposide. This led to the hypothesis that culture in DM may lead to ...


Cholesterol Conjugated Hdac Inhibitor As Novel Anticancer Agent, Paul Orefice, Jane Peterson, Bin Sun 2014 Cleveland State University

Cholesterol Conjugated Hdac Inhibitor As Novel Anticancer Agent, Paul Orefice, Jane Peterson, Bin Sun

Undergraduate Research Posters 2014

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a class of promising new multifunctional anticancer agents. These agents are able to affect multiple epigenetic changes in aberrant cells. In addition to regulating the gene expression and transcription via chromatin remodeling, HDAC inhibitors can also modulate a variety of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Vorinostat (SuberAniloHydroxamic Acid, SAHA), the first HDAC inhibitor approved by FDA, inhibited the metastasis of various cancer cells. However, SAHA distributes in cancer tissue and normal tissue in a similar level. It will be ideal to selectively delivery SAHA into cancer cells. Rapidly growing cancer cells have a ...


Investigating Propargyl-Linked Antifolates In Inhibiting Bacterial And Fungal Dihydrofolate Reductase, Joshua Andrade 2014 University of Connecticut

Investigating Propargyl-Linked Antifolates In Inhibiting Bacterial And Fungal Dihydrofolate Reductase, Joshua Andrade

Honors Scholar Theses

Antimicrobial agents have been invaluable in reducing illness and death associated with bacterial infection. However, over time, bacteria have evolved resistance to all major drug classes as a result of selective pressure. The advancement of new drug compounds is therefore vital. The Anderson-Wright Lab has focused on developing potent and selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme key in cell proliferation and survival, in several pathogenic species. The lab has found that a set of compounds, known as propargyl-linked antifolates, are DHFR inhibitors that are both biologically effective and have strong pharmacokinetic properties.

The efficacy of novel propargyl-linked antifolates ...


Targeting Grp78 In Cancer With Nucleic Acid Bioconjugates, Pradeepkumar L. Patel 2014 Seton Hall University

Targeting Grp78 In Cancer With Nucleic Acid Bioconjugates, Pradeepkumar L. Patel

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Nucleic acid bioconjugates have gained widespread use in medicinal chemistry research programs aimed at fighting human malignancies such as cancer, diabetes, genetic and infectious diseases. Their popularity stems from their ability to accelerate the drug development process by conjugating chemical functionality that may improve the pharmacology of a bioactive nucleoside. Moreover, this strategy has been proven to be effective with small molecule nucleoside analogs and those derived from lengthy oligonucleotide sequences. Considering these fruitful applications, my research and this thesis aims to explore the synthesis, characterization and therapeutic potential of novel classes of nucleic acid bioconjugates.

These are based on ...


Acute Effects Of Tio2 Nanomaterials On The Viability And Taxonomic Composition Of Aquatic Bacterial Communities Assessed Via High-Throughput Screening And Next Generation Sequencing, Binh Chu, Tiezheng Tong, Jean-François Gaillard, Kimberley A. Gray, John J. Kelly 2014 Loyola University Chicago

Acute Effects Of Tio2 Nanomaterials On The Viability And Taxonomic Composition Of Aquatic Bacterial Communities Assessed Via High-Throughput Screening And Next Generation Sequencing, Binh Chu, Tiezheng Tong, Jean-François Gaillard, Kimberley A. Gray, John J. Kelly

Biology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The nanotechnology industry is growing rapidly, leading to concerns about the potential ecological consequences of the release of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the environment. One challenge of assessing the ecological risks of ENMs is the incredible diversity of ENMs currently available and the rapid pace at which new ENMs are being developed. High-throughput screening (HTS) is a popular approach to assessing ENM cytotoxicity that offers the opportunity to rapidly test in parallel a wide range of ENMs at multiple concentrations. However, current HTS approaches generally test one cell type at a time, which limits their ability to predict responses of ...


Identification Of Soybean Lipoxygenase Products By Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Ge-Ms), Rehan Ahmad Malik 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Identification Of Soybean Lipoxygenase Products By Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Ge-Ms), Rehan Ahmad Malik

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are enzymes which catalyze peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids containing at least one cis, cis 1, 4-pentadiene moiety to form conjugated diene-hydroperoxides. Soybean seeds contain three LOX isoenzymes while at least five different isoenzymes are in the vegetative tissue. Lipoxygenases have been related to several functions i.e. plant growth, defense mechanisms against pathogens and pests, and lipid metabolism. Given the proposed roles of LOX isoenzymes and the presence of multiple LOX isoenzymes in soybean vegetative tissue, it is likely that individual isoenzymes play specific functions. Do the isoenzymes show differences in which products they form? The basic ...


Regulation Of Saga By The N-Terminus Of Spt7 In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Dominik Dobransky 2014 Western University

Regulation Of Saga By The N-Terminus Of Spt7 In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Dominik Dobransky

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Spt7 is a 1,332 residue protein critical for maintaining structural integrity of the SAGA complex. I demonstrated that the extreme N-terminus of Spt7 plays an important role in SAGA function. Deletion of the first 73 (Spt773-1332) and 121 (Spt7121-1332) N- terminal residues resulted in slow growth, decreased transcriptional activation at PHO5 and INO1, and a partial decrease in acetylation at lysine 18 of histone H3 at PHO5. The Spt7121-1332 mutant did not affect Spt7’s association with Gcn5 or Tra1, or its localization within the cell. Mutation of the first four positively charged residues to glutamine ...


The Role Of The Pre-Sensor 1 Β Hairpin In Minichromosome Maintenance 2-7 Function, Simon K. W. Lam 2014 Western University

The Role Of The Pre-Sensor 1 Β Hairpin In Minichromosome Maintenance 2-7 Function, Simon K. W. Lam

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pre-sensor 1 (PS1) hairpin is found in helicases of the AAA+ family (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) of proteins and is implicated in DNA translocation during DNA unwinding. To determine whether the PS1 b hairpin is required in the eukaryotic replicative helicase, Mcm2-7 (also comprised of AAA+ proteins), we mutated the conserved lysine residue in the PS1 hairpin in each of the S. cerevisiae Mcm subunits to alanine. Only the PS1 hairpin of Mcm3 was essential for viability, while mutation of the PS1 hairpin in the remaining Mcm subunits resulted in minimal phenotypes, with the exception ...


Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian 2014 Seton Hall University

Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Azapeptides are a class of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics), which have served as valuable tools for the development of peptide based therapeutic agents. The therapeutic promise of azapeptides has been correlated to its primary sequence modification which translates into bio-active secondary structures that improves the pharmacological properties of the native peptide sequence. More specifically, azapeptides contain a semicarbazide within the peptide backbone which restricts the peptide bond torsion angles (φ, ψ) into pre-organized b-turn secondary structures. Thus, azapeptides have been shown to stabilize bio-active b-turn secondary structures responsible for high affinity and selective binding to a target receptor or ...


Poly(Arginine) Derived Cancer-Targeting Peptides For The Development Of A Cancer-Targeted Gene Therapy Approach In Hepg2 Liver Cancer Cells, Stesha C. Joseph 2014 Seton Hall University

Poly(Arginine) Derived Cancer-Targeting Peptides For The Development Of A Cancer-Targeted Gene Therapy Approach In Hepg2 Liver Cancer Cells, Stesha C. Joseph

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer is a disease that has eluded medicinal approaches for many years and as a result new and improved therapeutic approaches are in constant demand. Although chemotherapy and radiation treatments have assisted in suppressing the growth of tumors, their poor selectivity and efficacy are major limitations for effective therapy en route towards the development of a cure for the cancer epidemic. With the mission of conquering cancer at heart, researchers have pursued a new form of cancer therapy, aptly named, a cancer targeting approach. This method revolves around the selection of a suitable biomarker, typically a cell surface receptor overexpressed ...


The Effect Of Maternal Aldosterone Levels On The Expression Of 11b-Hsd Isoenzymes In Normal And Hypertensive Rat Placentae, Nicole Jorissen 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Effect Of Maternal Aldosterone Levels On The Expression Of 11b-Hsd Isoenzymes In Normal And Hypertensive Rat Placentae, Nicole Jorissen

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

In this project, we developed a Western blotting procedure to semi-quantitate levels of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 in whole cell extracts. Then, we applied this technique to analyze the effect of reduced maternal aldosterone levels on the expression of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 isoenzymes in the placental tissue in both normal and hypertensive rats. These enzymes control levels of glucocorticoids which compete for aldosterone’s mineralocorticoid receptor. Overstimulation of this receptor results in hypertension. If aldosterone levels decrease, levels of the enzymes controlling active glucocorticoid concentrations might change to compensate for the lowered aldosterone levels. Decreased placental 11β-HSD2 expression could affect hypertension ...


The Roles Of Matrix-Associated Periostin In An In Vitro Model Of Hypertrophic Scarring, Justin D. Crawford 2014 Western University

The Roles Of Matrix-Associated Periostin In An In Vitro Model Of Hypertrophic Scarring, Justin D. Crawford

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abnormal scarring is a type of benign fibrosis of the skin that can restrict mobility, dexterity and quality of life. There are few, if any, truly effective treatment options for these conditions. Hypertrophic scarring is a common form of abnormal scarring characterized by increased fibroblast proliferation and differentiation of apoptosis-resistant and hyper-contractile myofibroblasts that promote excessive deposition and contracture of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Periostin, a secreted ECM protein, is transiently expressed during normal cutaneous wound repair, but is abnormally abundant and persistent in abnormal scars and other benign fibroses that display enhanced fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation. The objectives ...


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