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Monitoring Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Toxins Via Miniaturized Electrochemical Assemblies, Thaddaeus Webster 2015 Northeastern University

Monitoring Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Toxins Via Miniaturized Electrochemical Assemblies, Thaddaeus Webster

Chemical Engineering Dissertations

The production of pyocyanin from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa was probed using a variety of miniaturized electrochemical systems. Goal 1 used disposable screen printed carbon electrodes to measure pyocyanin in medically relevant samples showing for the first time that pyocyanin can be detected at medically relevant concentrations (1-100 µM) without sample processing. Goal 2 coupled these same electrodes with Polydimethylsiloxane growth chambers to expose P. aeruginosa biofilms to varying concentrations of colistin sulphate. A reduction in electrochemical signal from pyocyanin, of approximately 80% when exposed to 100 mg/L colistin sulphate, highlights this molecules relation to biofilm health. Goal ...


Pharmacology Of Organic Cation Transporters: Focus On Structure-Function Relationships In Oct3 (Slc22a3), Dan C. Li 2015 Washington University in St Louis

Pharmacology Of Organic Cation Transporters: Focus On Structure-Function Relationships In Oct3 (Slc22a3), Dan C. Li

Undergraduate Theses—Unrestricted

Organic Cation Transporters (OCTs) are polyspecific, facilitative transporters that play major roles in metabolite and drug clearance. OCTs are promising drug targets and elucidating their mechanisms of substrate recognition is crucial for rational drug design. OCT-mediated transport of polyvalent cations remains unexplored. OCT-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes were used to assess transport of polyamines, ubiquitous polyvalent cations of broad physiological import, but for which transport mechanisms are unknown. Dose-response analysis of radiolabelled substrate uptake revealed that polyamines are relatively low affinity, but high turnover substrates for OCTs compared to model substrate methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Polyamine analogs of varying hydrophobic character were screened ...


Inhibition Of Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation By Diarylthiourea Analog, Sl1-18, Maryam Fallatah 2015 Dominican University of California

Inhibition Of Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation By Diarylthiourea Analog, Sl1-18, Maryam Fallatah

Scholarly and Creative Works Conference

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy that occurs in women in the US and has the second highest cancer-associated mortality rate. Depending on the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα), breast cancer can be classified as ER positive or negative. Current drugs used to treat ER+ cancers include selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and selective estrogen receptor down-regulators (SERDs). Unfortunately, prolonged exposure to these drugs often leads to the development of acquired resistance. Consequently, there is a great need to develop alternative therapeutic options. Flexible heteroarotinoids (Flex-Hets) are groups of compounds that are derived from retinoids. Flex-Hets have been ...


Protein Crystallization Of Hiv Protease Wildtype 113a, Wayne Darisaw 2015 Georgia State University

Protein Crystallization Of Hiv Protease Wildtype 113a, Wayne Darisaw

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Genes Involved In Anaerobic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Oxidation In Geobacter Daltonii Strain Frc-32, Joseph Collins, Michael A. Sanderson, Lawrence Shedrick 2015 Georgia State University

Identification Of Genes Involved In Anaerobic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Oxidation In Geobacter Daltonii Strain Frc-32, Joseph Collins, Michael A. Sanderson, Lawrence Shedrick

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


O-Glcnacylation And Modifications To The Class Ii Transactivator, Ronald Shanderson 2015 Georgia State University

O-Glcnacylation And Modifications To The Class Ii Transactivator, Ronald Shanderson

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Preliminary Report On The Production Of A Shiga-Like Toxoid Fusion Protein As Associated With Novel Flic Vaccine, Michael Maulin 2015 Georgia State University

Preliminary Report On The Production Of A Shiga-Like Toxoid Fusion Protein As Associated With Novel Flic Vaccine, Michael Maulin

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Polyamine-Anthracene Conjugates As Dna Ligands: A Potential Anti-Cancer Agent, Khoa T. Nguyen, Sunhwa Joung, Jennifer J. Archer, Otto Phanstiel IV, Kathryn B. Grant 2015 Georgia State University

Evaluation Of Polyamine-Anthracene Conjugates As Dna Ligands: A Potential Anti-Cancer Agent, Khoa T. Nguyen, Sunhwa Joung, Jennifer J. Archer, Otto Phanstiel Iv, Kathryn B. Grant

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Generating A Focused View Of Disease Ontology Cancer Terms For Pan-Cancer Data Integration And Analysis., Tsung-Jung Wu, Lynn M. Schriml, Qing-Rong Chen, Maureen Colbert, Daniel J. Crichton, Raja Mazumder, +11 additional authors 2015 George Washington University

Generating A Focused View Of Disease Ontology Cancer Terms For Pan-Cancer Data Integration And Analysis., Tsung-Jung Wu, Lynn M. Schriml, Qing-Rong Chen, Maureen Colbert, Daniel J. Crichton, Raja Mazumder, +11 Additional Authors

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Bio-ontologies provide terminologies for the scientific community to describe biomedical entities in a standardized manner. There are multiple initiatives that are developing biomedical terminologies for the purpose of providing better annotation, data integration and mining capabilities. Terminology resources devised for multiple purposes inherently diverge in content and structure. A major issue of biomedical data integration is the development of overlapping terms, ambiguous classifications and inconsistencies represented across databases and publications. The disease ontology (DO) was developed over the past decade to address data integration, standardization and annotation issues for human disease data. We have established a DO cancer project to ...


Assessing Glucose Uptake Through The Yeast Hexose Transporter 1 (Hxt1), Adhiraj Roy, Angela D. Dement, Kyu Hong Cho, Jeong-Ho Kim 2015 George Washington University

Assessing Glucose Uptake Through The Yeast Hexose Transporter 1 (Hxt1), Adhiraj Roy, Angela D. Dement, Kyu Hong Cho, Jeong-Ho Kim

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

The transport of glucose across the plasma membrane is mediated by members of the glucose transporter family. In this study, we investigated glucose uptake through the yeast hexose transporter 1 (Hxt1) by measuring incorporation of 2-NBDG, a non-metabolizable, fluorescent glucose analog, into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that 2-NBDG is not incorporated into the hxt null strain lacking all glucose transporter genes and that this defect is rescued by expression of wild type Hxt1, but not of Hxt1 with mutations at the putative glucose-binding residues, inferred from the alignment of yeast and human glucose transporter sequences. Similarly, the growth ...


Cis-Encoded Non-Coding Antisense Rnas In Streptococci And Other Low Gc Gram (+) Bacterial Pathogens, Kyu Hong Cho, Jeong-Ho Kim 2015 George Washington University

Cis-Encoded Non-Coding Antisense Rnas In Streptococci And Other Low Gc Gram (+) Bacterial Pathogens, Kyu Hong Cho, Jeong-Ho Kim

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Due to recent advances of bioinformatics and high throughput sequencing technology, discovery of regulatory non-coding RNAs in bacteria has been increased to a great extent. Based on this bandwagon, many studies searching for trans-acting small non-coding RNAs in streptococci have been performed intensively, especially in the important human pathogen, group A and B streptococci. However, studies for cis-encoded non-coding antisense RNAs in streptococci have been scarce. A recent study shows antisense RNAs are involved in virulence gene regulation in group B streptococcus, S. agalactiae. This suggests antisense RNAs could have important roles in the pathogenesis of streptococcal pathogens ...


The Effects Of Tetracycline And Ibuprofen On Common Duckweed, Lemna Minor, John Von Drasek 2015 College of DuPage

The Effects Of Tetracycline And Ibuprofen On Common Duckweed, Lemna Minor, John Von Drasek

Honors Council of Illinois Region 2015 Student Research Symposium

Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are finding their way into drinking water by means of household and industrial sewage. This study explores the effects of two common pharmaceuticals—tetracycline and ibuprofen—on the growth of Common Duckweed, Lemna minor. The number of duckweed per test tube for each treatment was compared after 37 days. Tetracycline was not found to effect clonal growth of duckweed. There was significant difference in duckweed count between the ibuprofen treatment and the control treatment with ibuprofen inhibiting the growth of the duckweed. It is possible that the tetracycline prevented the protein synthesis of any harmful bacteria growing ...


Metabolome Searcher: A High Throughput Tool For Metabolite Identification And Metabolic Pathway Mapping Directly From Mass Spectrometry And Using Genome Restriction, A. Ranjitha Dhanasekaran, Jon L. Pearson, Balasubramanian Ganesan, Bart C. Weimer 2015 Computer Science Department, Utah State University

Metabolome Searcher: A High Throughput Tool For Metabolite Identification And Metabolic Pathway Mapping Directly From Mass Spectrometry And Using Genome Restriction, A. Ranjitha Dhanasekaran, Jon L. Pearson, Balasubramanian Ganesan, Bart C. Weimer

NFS Faculty Publications

Background

Mass spectrometric analysis of microbial metabolism provides a long list of possible compounds. Restricting the identification of the possible compounds to those produced by the specific organism would benefit the identification process. Currently, identification of mass spectrometry (MS) data is commonly done using empirically derived compound databases. Unfortunately, most databases contain relatively few compounds, leaving long lists of unidentified molecules. Incorporating genome-encoded metabolism enables MS output identification that may not be included in databases. Using an organism’s genome as a database restricts metabolite identification to only those compounds that the organism can produce.

Results

To address the challenge ...


Protein Motions Control Activity In Biologically Important Phosphatases, Ryan Hirschi, Gwen Moise 2015 Utah State University

Protein Motions Control Activity In Biologically Important Phosphatases, Ryan Hirschi, Gwen Moise

Research on Capitol Hill

No abstract provided.


Altered Cd161bright Cd8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (Mait)-Like Cell Dynamics And Increased Differentiation States Among Juvenile Type 1 Diabetics., Robert Z. Harms, Kristina M. Lorenzo, Kevin P. Corley, Monina S. Cabrera, Nora Sarvetnick 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Altered Cd161bright Cd8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (Mait)-Like Cell Dynamics And Increased Differentiation States Among Juvenile Type 1 Diabetics., Robert Z. Harms, Kristina M. Lorenzo, Kevin P. Corley, Monina S. Cabrera, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Type 1A diabetes (T1D) is believed to be caused by immune-mediated destruction of β-cells, but the immunological basis for T1D remains controversial. Microbial diversity promotes the maturation and activation of certain immune subsets, including CD161bright CD8+ mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and alterations in gut mucosal responses have been reported in type 1 diabetics (T1Ds). We analyzed T cell populations in peripheral blood leukocytes from juvenile T1Ds and healthy controls. We found that proportion and absolute number of MAIT cells were similar between T1Ds and controls. Furthermore, while MAIT cell proportions increased with age among healthy controls, this trend ...


Structural Mechanism Of Laforin Function In Glycogen Dephosphorylation And Lafora Disease, Madushi Raththagala, M. Kathryn Brewer, Matthew W. Parker, Amanda R. Sherwood, Brian K. Wong, Simon Hsu, Travis M. Bridges, Bradley C. Paasch, Lance M. Hellman, Satrio Husodo, David A. Meekins, Adam O. Taylor, Benjamin D. Turner, Kyle D. Auger, Vikas V. Dukhande, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Pascual Sanz, Virgil L. Woods Jr., Sheng Li, Craig Vander Kooi, Matthew S. Gentry 2015 University of Kentucky

Structural Mechanism Of Laforin Function In Glycogen Dephosphorylation And Lafora Disease, Madushi Raththagala, M. Kathryn Brewer, Matthew W. Parker, Amanda R. Sherwood, Brian K. Wong, Simon Hsu, Travis M. Bridges, Bradley C. Paasch, Lance M. Hellman, Satrio Husodo, David A. Meekins, Adam O. Taylor, Benjamin D. Turner, Kyle D. Auger, Vikas V. Dukhande, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Pascual Sanz, Virgil L. Woods Jr., Sheng Li, Craig Vander Kooi, Matthew S. Gentry

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publication

Glycogen is the major mammalian glucose storage cache and is critical for energy homeostasis. Glycogen synthesis in neurons must be tightly controlled due to neuronal sensitivity to perturbations in glycogen metabolism. Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal, congenital, neurodegenerative epilepsy. Mutations in the gene encoding the glycogen phosphatase laforin result in hyperphosphorylated glycogen that forms water-insoluble inclusions called Lafora bodies (LBs). LBs induce neuronal apoptosis and are the causative agent of LD. The mechanism of glycogen dephosphorylation by laforin and dysfunction in LD is unknown. We report the crystal structure of laforin bound to phosphoglucan product, revealing its unique integrated ...


An Efficient And Sensitive Method For Preparing Cdna Libraries From Scarce Biological Samples, Catherine H. Sterling, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, Victor R. Ambros 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

An Efficient And Sensitive Method For Preparing Cdna Libraries From Scarce Biological Samples, Catherine H. Sterling, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

The preparation and high-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries from samples of small RNA is a powerful tool to quantify known small RNAs (such as microRNAs) and to discover novel RNA species. Interest in identifying the small RNA repertoire present in tissues and in biofluids has grown substantially with the findings that small RNAs can serve as indicators of biological conditions and disease states. Here we describe a novel and straightforward method to clone cDNA libraries from small quantities of input RNA. This method permits the generation of cDNA libraries from sub-picogram quantities of RNA robustly, efficiently and reproducibly. We demonstrate ...


Targeted Cancer Therapy Systems: An In Silico Study Of Radiohalogenated Ligands In The Estrogen Receptor And The Synthesis Of A Molecular Toolkit For The Fabrication Of Customizable Nanoparticles, Kelton Kerry Barnsley 2015 Northeastern University

Targeted Cancer Therapy Systems: An In Silico Study Of Radiohalogenated Ligands In The Estrogen Receptor And The Synthesis Of A Molecular Toolkit For The Fabrication Of Customizable Nanoparticles, Kelton Kerry Barnsley

Chemistry Master's Theses

Chemotherapy is often limited by off-target toxicity and the development of multi-drug resistance in response to treatment. Strategies which reduce off-target toxicity by passively or actively targeting cancer cells may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy. Herein, two projects relating to targeted therapy are described. In the first project, the binding modes of 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenylethylenes (THPEs), a class of synthetic estrogens previously developed by our group, in the human estrogen receptor alpha-ligand binding domain were studied using molecular modeling programs YASARA AutoDock and Schrodinger Glide. The results were internally consistent and supported the observation that a bromine or iodine ...


Development Of Methods For The Analysis Of Protein Post-Translational Modifications: Isoaspartic Acid And Protein Crosslinking, Min Liu 2015 Northeastern University

Development Of Methods For The Analysis Of Protein Post-Translational Modifications: Isoaspartic Acid And Protein Crosslinking, Min Liu

Chemistry Dissertations

Analysis of protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) plays pivotal roles for the understanding of their biological importance. Isoaspartic acid (isoAsp) as the smallest PTM is observed in vivo and in vitro. No mass difference and subtle difference in physiochemical property between isoAsp and Asp pose a great challenging for sensitive detection and ambiguous location of isoAsp site in complex samples. A novel assay of isoAsp by exploiting methylation specificity of protein isoaspartate methyltransferase (PIMT) at isoAsp and subsequent 18O-incorporation during methyl ester hydrolysis is presented for sensitive detection and unambiguous site location of several isoAsp residues in IgG1 (Anal Chem ...


Allosteric Regulation Of Bacterial And Fungal Xylulose 5-Phosphate/ Fructose 6-Phosphate Phosphoketolases (Xfps), Katie Glenn 2015 Clemson University

Allosteric Regulation Of Bacterial And Fungal Xylulose 5-Phosphate/ Fructose 6-Phosphate Phosphoketolases (Xfps), Katie Glenn

All Dissertations

Acetate is excreted as a metabolic end product in many microbes. Acetate production has primarily been studied in bacteria and archaea but is known to occur in eukaryotic organisms as well. For example, acetate is one of the most abundant metabolites excreted by the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans during cryptococcosis suggesting that acetate production may be important during pathogenesis. One possible pathway for acetate production in C. neoformans involves the enzymes xylulose 5-phosphate/ fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp), which can generate acetyl phosphate from either fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) or xylulose 5-phosphate (X5P), and acetate kinase (Ack), which can then convert acetyl ...


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