Analysis For Science Librarians Of The 2017 Nobel Prize In Physiology Or Medicine: The Life And Work Of Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, And Michael W. Young, Neyda V. Gilman
Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael W. Young are the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Laureates, having earned the award for their “discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.” They identified the genes involved in the circadian rhythm mechanism and explained how all of the different pieces of the mechanism work together. These discoveries explain how the biological cycles of Earth’s organisms correspond to the rotation of the planet, acting as an inner clock. Their research also provides further opportunities to continue learning about the role of circadian rhythm and its relationship to human health ...
Functions Of Maize Genes Encoding Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase In Developing Endosperm, 2018 Iowa State University
Functions Of Maize Genes Encoding Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase In Developing Endosperm, Ryan R. Lappe, John W. Baier, Susan K. Boehlein, Ryan Huffman, Qiaohui Lin, Fabrice Wattebled, A. Mark Settles, L. Curtis Hannah, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Hardy Rolletschek, Jon D. Stewart, M. Paul Scott, Tracie A. Hennen-Bierwagen, Alan M. Myers
Maize opaque2 (o2) mutations are beneficial for endosperm nutritional quality but cause negative pleiotropic effects for reasons that are not fully understood. Direct targets of the bZIP transcriptional regulator encoded by o2 include pdk1 and pdk2 that specify pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). This enzyme reversibly converts AMP, pyrophosphate, and phosphoenolpyruvate to ATP, orthophosphate, and pyruvate and provides diverse functions in plants. This study addressed PPDK function in maize starchy endosperm where it is highly abundant during grain fill. pdk1 and pdk2 were inactivated individually by transposon insertions, and both genes were simultaneously targeted by endosperm-specific RNAi. pdk2 accounts for the ...
Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, 2018 The University of Akron
Altering Oligomerization Of Epha2 Via Mutations In The Intracellular Domain, Ryan W. Lingerak
Honors Research Projects
Eph receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are activated by membrane-bound ligands called ephrins. Eph RTKs are divided into two subclasses, each activated by a specific classes of the ligand ephrin. The overexpression of Eph receptors is correlated to cancer cell metastasis in several different types of cancers. Studies with the EphA2 extracellular domain (ECD) and ephrinA1 ligand have shown that upon binding of ephrin to the receptor, EphA2 undergoes increased oligomerization and activation. This indicates that oligomerization is intimately connected to kinase activity. High resolution crystal structures of the EphA2 ECD have revealed some details of these ligand bound oligomers, as ...
Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim
Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences
The effects of dietary ingredients on the proteome profile of postmortem beef longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle were evaluated. In the first experiment, the influence of dietary ractopamine on the whole-muscle proteome of beef LL was examined. Five proteins were differentially abundant between ractopamine-fed (RAC) and non-ractopamine fed (CON) groups. The differentially abundant proteins were over-abundant in RAC and were related to muscle structure development (F-actin-capping protein subunit beta-2 and PDZ and LIM domain protein-3), chaperone (heat shock protein beta-1), oxygen transportation (myoglobin), and glycolysis (L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain). These findings indicated that ractopamine influences the abundance of proteins associated with ...
Total Mercury Determination In Muscle And Liver Tissue Samples From Brazilian Amazon Fish Using Slurry Sampling, 2018 São Paulo State University
Total Mercury Determination In Muscle And Liver Tissue Samples From Brazilian Amazon Fish Using Slurry Sampling, João Vitor De Queiroz, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Izabela Da Cunha Bataglioli, Alis Correia Bittarello, Camila Pereira Braga, Grasieli De Oliveira, Cilene Do Carmo Federici Padilha, Pedro De Magalhães Padilha
Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications
This paper presents a slurry sampling method for total mercury determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) in tissue of fish from the Amazon. The tissue samples were lyophilized and macerated, and then the slurry samples were prepared by putting 20 mg of tissue, added to a solution containing Triton X-100, Suprapur HNO3, and zirconium nitrate directly in sampling vials of a spectrometer. Mercury standard solutions were prepared under the same conditions as the slurry samples. The slurry samples and the mercury standard solutions were sonicated for 20 s. Twenty microliters of slurry samples were injected into the ...
Evaluation Of Extracellular Matrix Composition And Rheology As Determinants Of Growth, Invasion, And Response To Photodynamic Therapy In 3d Cell Culture Models Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, 2017 University of Massachusetts Boston
Evaluation Of Extracellular Matrix Composition And Rheology As Determinants Of Growth, Invasion, And Response To Photodynamic Therapy In 3d Cell Culture Models Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Gwendolyn M. Cramer
Graduate Doctoral Dissertations
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a notoriously lethal disease characterized by prominent stromal involvement, which plays complex roles in regulating tumor growth and therapeutic response. The extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich stroma has been implicated as a barrier to drug penetration, although stromal depletion strategies have had mixed clinical success. It remains less clear how biophysical interactions with the ECM regulate invasive progression and susceptibilities to specific therapies. Here, an integrative approach combining 3D cell culture and quantitative imaging techniques is used to evaluate invasive behavior and motility as determinants of response to classical chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), in which ...
Statistical Biophysics Blog: Let’S Stop Being Sloppy About Uncertainty, 2017 Oregon Health & Science University
Statistical Biophysics Blog: Let’S Stop Being Sloppy About Uncertainty, Daniel M. Zuckerman
Molecular dynamics simulations often fail to reach timescales characteristic of equilibrum sampling, so great care must be taken in computing and reporting statistical uncertainty.
Identification Of Factors Involved In 18s Nonfunctional Ribosomal Rna Decay And A Method For Detecting 8-Oxoguanosine By Rna-Seq, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Identification Of Factors Involved In 18s Nonfunctional Ribosomal Rna Decay And A Method For Detecting 8-Oxoguanosine By Rna-Seq, Kelly A. Limoncelli
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
The translation of mRNA into functional proteins is essential for all life. In eukaryotes, aberrant RNAs containing sequence features that stall or severely slow down ribosomes are subject to translation-dependent quality control. Targets include mRNAs encoding a strong secondary structure (No-Go Decay; NGD) or stretches of positively-charged amino acids (Peptide-dependent Translation Arrest/Ribosome Quality Control; PDTA/RQC), mRNAs lacking an in-frame stop codon (Non-Stop Decay; NSD), or defective 18S rRNAs (18S Nonfunctional rRNA Decay; 18S NRD). Previous work from our lab showed that the S. cerevisiae NGD factors DOM34 and HBS1, and PDTA/RQC factor ASC1, all participate in the ...
Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Hibernation, characterized by a seasonal reduction in metabolism and body temperature, allows animals to conserve energy when environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food availability) are unfavourable. During hibernation, small mammals such as the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) cycle between two distinct metabolic states: torpor, where metabolic rate is suppressed by >95% and body temperature falls to ~5 °C, and interbout euthermia (IBE), where metabolic rate and body temperature rapidly increase and are maintained at euthermic levels several hours. Suppression of metabolism during entrance into torpor is paralleled by rapid suppression of liver mitochondrial metabolism. In my thesis, I aimed ...
Role Of Asparagine As A Nitrogen Signal And Characterization Of A Nitrogen Responsive Glutamine Amidotransferase, Gat1_2.1 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Role Of Asparagine As A Nitrogen Signal And Characterization Of A Nitrogen Responsive Glutamine Amidotransferase, Gat1_2.1 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shrikaar Kambhampati
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Maintaining the proper balance between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism is critical to the sustained growth of organisms. In plant leaves, this balance is achieved by photoperiod dependent cross-talk between the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and amino acid metabolism. A crucial mechanism in maintaining C/N balance is the GS/GOGAT cycle, which is well known to serve as a cross-road between C and N metabolism. Importantly, non-photosynthetic tissues (e.g. roots, germinating seeds) lack a sufficient supply of carbon skeletons under high N conditions and hence may resort to other mechanisms, along with the GS/GOGAT cycle, to ...
Building And Modifying An Open-Source 3d Printer To Extrude Viable 3d Cell Cultures, 2017 Chapman University
Building And Modifying An Open-Source 3d Printer To Extrude Viable 3d Cell Cultures, Kathleen Thornsberry
Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters
Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, has developed since its inception to enable the printing of various biological materials with tissue scaffolds. In 2004, an online project began to enable 3D printers to self-replicate using minimal extra materials, known as the RepRap community. The overarching goal of this project is to build an open-source RepRap 3D printer (Mendel90 model) in order to make modifications to the print head to extrude functional cell matrixes. This will be done in part by utilizing the 3D printer on Chapman’s campus, consistent with the self-replication model. The first phase of this project ...
The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, 2017 The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith
Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science
A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. We report that an internal virion component, the pUL37 tegument protein, has a surface region that is an essential neuroinvasion effector. Mutation of this region rendered ...
The Alpha6beta4 Integrin Promotes Resistance To Ferroptosis, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Alpha6beta4 Integrin Promotes Resistance To Ferroptosis, John J. Amante, Hira Lal Goel, Arthur M. Mercurio
UMass Metabolic Network Publications
Increases in lipid peroxidation can cause ferroptosis, a form of cell death triggered by inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), which catalyzes the reduction of lipid peroxides and is a target of ferroptosis inducers, such as erastin. The alpha6beta4 integrin protects adherent epithelial and carcinoma cells from ferroptosis induced by erastin. In addition, extracellular matrix (ECM) detachment is a physiologic trigger of ferroptosis, which is evaded by alpha6beta4. The mechanism that enables alpha6beta4 to evade ferroptosis involves its ability to protect changes in membrane lipids that are proferroptotic. Specifically, alpha6beta4-mediated activation of Src and STAT3 suppresses expression of ACSL4, an ...
Detection Of Survival And Proliferation Of Sulfate Reducers Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric And Soil Conditions, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Detection Of Survival And Proliferation Of Sulfate Reducers Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric And Soil Conditions, Sergio Mosquera Mora
Theses and Dissertations
Numerous studies have tried to determine the survivability and proliferation of microorganisms under simulated Martian conditions. Furthermore, most of them have been focused on the ability of these microbes to cope with high brines’ salt (NaCl) concentrations inherent of the Martian surface. However, there are not studies related to the ability of bacteria to survive on subsurface environments that have increasing concentrations of sulfate compounds. For this research, a group of microorganisms known as sulfate-reducing bacteria or simply sulfate reducers were chosen due to their ability to use sulfate compounds as terminal electron acceptors to produce metabolic energy, their tolerance ...
Developing Algorithms For Quantifying The Super Resolution Microscopic Data: Applications To The Quantification Of Protein-Reorganization In Bacteria Responding To Treatment By Silver Ions, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Developing Algorithms For Quantifying The Super Resolution Microscopic Data: Applications To The Quantification Of Protein-Reorganization In Bacteria Responding To Treatment By Silver Ions, Sai Divya Challapalli
Theses and Dissertations
Histone-like nucleoid structuring proteins (HNS) play significant roles in shaping the chromosomal DNA, regulation of transcriptional networks in microbes, as well as bacterial responses to environmental changes such as temperature fluctuations. In this work, the intracellular organization of HNS proteins in E. coli bacteria was investigated utilizing super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, which surpasses conventional microscopy by 10–20 fold in spatial resolution. More importantly, the changes of the spatial distribution of HNS proteins in E. coli, by addition of silver ions into the growth medium were explored. To quantify the spatial distribution of HNS in bacteria and its changes, an automatic ...
Temporal Regulation Of Chromatin During Myoblast Differentiation, 2017 Kyushu University, Japan
Temporal Regulation Of Chromatin During Myoblast Differentiation, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Anthony N. Imbalzano
UMass Metabolic Network Publications
The commitment to and execution of differentiation programmes involves a significant change in gene expression in the precursor cell to facilitate development of the mature cell type. In addition to being regulated by lineage-determining and auxiliary transcription factors that drive these changes, the structural status of the chromatin has a considerable impact on the transcriptional competence of differentiation-specific genes, which is clearly demonstrated by the large number of cofactors and the extraordinary complex mechanisms by which these genes become activated. The terminal differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes and mature skeletal muscle is an excellent system to illustrate these points. The ...
Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer
University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects
No abstract provided.
Determination Of The Effects Of Different Maillard Reaction Products On The Taxonomic Composition Of The Gut Microbiota, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Determination Of The Effects Of Different Maillard Reaction Products On The Taxonomic Composition Of The Gut Microbiota, Nesreen Hamdan Aljahdali
Theses and Dissertations
The Maillard Reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic chemical reaction which results in linkage between the amino group of amino acids and the carbonyl group of reduced sugars. This reaction generates Maillard reaction products (MRPs) which are not present naturally in foods, and are responsible for a range of colors, odors, flavors, and other sensory properties. Conflicting reports of MRPs impacts on human health are probably due to the fact that bioconversion of these digestible molecules by the gut microbiota has been marginally taken into account. This study aimed to determine the effects of different MRPs on rodent’s gut microbiota ...
Piglet Gut Microbiota Responses To Exposure To Outdoor Simulated Environment And Formula Feeding, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Piglet Gut Microbiota Responses To Exposure To Outdoor Simulated Environment And Formula Feeding, Nguyen Vo
Theses and Dissertations
Several lines of evidence suggest that early-life gut microbiota composition is a crucial determinant of the susceptibility to diseases later in life. Understanding the evolution of early-life gut microbiota and critical factors that can modify this microbial community will espouse the prevention or reversion of health risk originating from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in the early stage. In this research, we hypothesized that alterations in the environment (simulation of rural conditions by soil exposure) and feeding mode (breastmilk versus formula milk) will have significant impacts on the establishment of the gut microbiota in early life. At first, in literature ...
Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone
Theses and Dissertations
Foodborne illnesses are a leading cause of infectious diseases in the world. Among enteric organisms Salmonella is a key pathogen. It’s high prevalence in poultry and other food-animal sources make it imperative to study. Salmonella has the ability to modify its genetic content with help of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. Incompatibiltiy group 1 (IncI1) plasmids are commonly reported in Salmonella. This study evaluates role on IncI1 plasmids in antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Salmonella. Genetic determinants of resistance and virulence are noted among our IncI1-containing Salmonella isolates. These genetic elements are also transferable and reported to carry ...