Proton Pumping Mechanism In Cytochrome C Oxidase, 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Proton Pumping Mechanism In Cytochrome C Oxidase, Xiuhong Cai
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO), is the terminal electron acceptor in the membrane bound aerobic respiratory chain. It reduces O2 to water. The energy released by this reaction is stored by pumping protons from the high pH, N-side of the membrane to the low pH, P-side. The generated proton gradient provides the motive force for synthesis of ATP by the ATP synthase.
Building a proton gradient across the membrane requires that proton transport must occur along controllable proton pathways to prevent proton leakage to the N-side. It has been suggested that CcO function requires proton transfer channels in both the ...
Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial to many cellular processes. Many of these processes are regulated by extracellular signaling cues, which direct changes in the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in changes to cellular morphology, and directed motility. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, is used as a simple model system to study the translation of extracellular signals to the actin cytoskeleton. When starved, these unicellular amoebae undergo a multicellular developmental process characterized by a tightly regulated sequence of signaling events. This results in chemotaxis and formation of a multicellular aggregate, and ultimately cell differentiation and the formation of a fruiting ...
Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, 2020 Eastern Washington University
Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D
2020 Symposium Posters
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a US citizen is infected by an antibiotic-resistant pathogen every 11 seconds, and every 15 minutes, a patient dies as a result of these infections. Due to the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic microbes, the study and exploration of novel antibiotics from novel environments are imperative as infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze antibiotic-producing soil microbes in Spokane County, WA, with hopes of discovering novel antibiotic-producing microbes, specifically Streptomyces species, and explore some of ...
Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg
Floral nectar is a rich secretion produced by the nectary gland and is offered as reward to attract pollinators leading to improved seed set. Nectars are composed of a complex mixture of sugars, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, lipids, organic and inorganic acids. This composition is influenced by several factors, including floral morphology, mechanism of nectar secretion, time of flowering, and visitation by pollinators. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of flowering time, plant phylogeny, and pollinator selection on nectar composition in Nicotiana. The main classes of nectar metabolites (sugars and amino acids) were quantified using gas ...
Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, 2020 Eastern Washington University
Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao
2020 Symposium Posters
Bordetella Type III Secretion System Effector A (BteA) is a virulence protein found in members of the genus Bordetella which include important pathogens of humans and other mammals. Bordetella pertussis is a causative agent of the whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is especially dangerous, and sometimes deadly, for infants. The BteA protein appears to be an important factor in the ability of these pathogens to cause disease, as it leads to rapid killing of a wide range of mammalian cells. The aim of this project is to determine which regions of the DNA are important for mediating ...
Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Contents And Prefaces, 2020 University of Pennsylvania
Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Contents And Prefaces, Philip C. Nelson
Department of Physics Papers
Brief Contents; Detailed Contents; To the Student; To the Instructor
Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Chapter 1, 2020 University of Pennsylvania
Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Chapter 1, Philip C. Nelson
Department of Physics Papers
Chapter 1: What the Ancients Knew
Molecular Docking Study Of Itpa Protein Substrate Complex, 2020 Eastern Washington University
Molecular Docking Study Of Itpa Protein Substrate Complex, Aulane Mpouli
2020 Symposium Posters
Inosine Triphosphatase (ITPA) is an enzymatic molecule that works to prevent the amassed of an intermediate in the formation of purine nucleotides, Inosine Triphosphate (ITP). DNA consists of purine nucleotides, and its metabolic pathway includes the formation of this intermediate. Overpopulation of ITP causes mutations of DNA leading to cancers, increased Inosine levels in DNA and other immunodeficiencies. In order to regulate the ITP concentration, ITPA binds ITP creating a substrate/enzyme complex. In this study, we used computational docking to explore bound conformation and energy of the binding of ITP to ITPA protein. The docking results reveal how ITPA ...
Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, 2020 University of Washington - Seattle Campus
Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison
Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference
No abstract provided.
The Snakeskin-Mesh Complex Of Smooth Septate Junction Restricts Yorkie To Regulate Intestinal Homeostasis In Drosophila, 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Snakeskin-Mesh Complex Of Smooth Septate Junction Restricts Yorkie To Regulate Intestinal Homeostasis In Drosophila, Hsi-Ju Chen, Qi Li, Niraj K. Nirala, Y. Tony Ip
Open Access Articles
Tight junctions in mammals and septate junctions in insects are essential for epithelial integrity. We show here that, in the Drosophila intestine, smooth septate junction proteins provide barrier and signaling functions. During an RNAi screen for genes that regulate adult midgut tissue growth, we found that loss of two smooth septate junction components, Snakeskin and Mesh, caused a hyperproliferation phenotype. By examining epitope-tagged endogenous Snakeskin and Mesh, we demonstrate that the two proteins are present in the cytoplasm of differentiating enteroblasts and in cytoplasm and septate junctions of mature enterocytes. In both enteroblasts and enterocytes, loss of Snakeskin and Mesh ...
Testing Kalanchoe Laxiflora U6 Promoters For Optimal Sgrna Expression In Tobacco, 2020 University of South Dakota
Testing Kalanchoe Laxiflora U6 Promoters For Optimal Sgrna Expression In Tobacco, Marlee E. Jones
Within studies of plant genome modification there is a method of gene alteration which involves using CRISPR/Cas systems in order to target specific gene loci and implement the intended modification. This process is driven by the ability of a single guide RNA (sgRNA) to find this target location within the plant’s genome. This sgRNA strand is expressed due to the presence of a proper RNA promoter. In an effort to understand the effect of an endogenous RNA promoter’s sequence on the successful expression of a sgRNA strand, an experiment was developed involving twelve U6 promoter sequences from ...
The Impact Of Age/Rage Signaling On Oxidative Stress Under Diabetic Conditions In Cardiac Fibroblasts, 2020 University of Mississippi
The Impact Of Age/Rage Signaling On Oxidative Stress Under Diabetic Conditions In Cardiac Fibroblasts, Christopher Dorroh
Diabetes is a major health concern in the United States, with 1.5 million new cases diagnosed each year. Patients who suffer from diabetes have an increased risk of developing heart failure, a form of cardiovascular disease. Heart failure has been shown to result from increased left ventricular stiffness, which in turn is caused by increased remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This increase in ECM remodeling is a result of AGE/RAGE signaling, which occurs at a heightened level in the cardiac fibroblast cells of diabetics. Studies have shown that diabetics have elevated levels of AGEs (Advanced Glycation End-Products ...
Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, 2020 University of Mississippi
Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Metastasize To Lung And Bone Exhibit Different Metabolic Preferences, Mollie Merrell
Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer related deaths. In breast cancer the lungs and bones are the major sites for metastasis. Previous studies used the metastatic aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line to isolate sub-clones that preferentially invade the lungs (LM line) or bones (BoM line). While genes associated with the tissue specific metastasis have been identified, it is unknown if metabolic adaptations contribute to the growth of the LM and BoM lines in their respective organs. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the LM and BoM lines exhibit differences in glucose and glutamine ...
Intrinsic Buffer Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry For Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting, 2020 University of Mississippi
Intrinsic Buffer Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry For Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting, Addison Roush
Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting (HRPF) coupled to mass spectrometry is a powerful technique for the analysis of protein topography as it generates covalent mass labels that can survive downstream sample handling, and it is sensitive to the solvent accessibility of amino acid sidechains. Of the multiple platforms for HRPF, fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) utilizes a pulsed 248 nm KrF excimer laser to label proteins by photolyzing hydrogen peroxide. FPOP is the most widely used HRPF platform because it labels proteins faster than unfolding can occur. Variations in FPOP sample conditions make it difficult to compare results between experiments ...
Glucose Metabolism Of Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Preferentially Metastasize To The Lungs And Bone, 2020 University of Mississippi
Glucose Metabolism Of Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Preferentially Metastasize To The Lungs And Bone, Anna G. Skubiz
Malignant breast cancers exhibit preferential metastasis to bone and lung (1). While changes in gene expression in lung-specific (LM) and bone-specific metastasis (BoM) lines derived from the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line have been identified, few metabolic genes are differentially expressed; thus it is unknown if tissue-specific metabolic reprogramming occurs. Two hallmarks of cancer cells are an altered metabolic phenotype characterized by enhanced conversion of glucose to lactate in spite of adequate oxygen availability for complete mitochondrial oxidation of this substrate (referred to as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect) and a greater dependence on glutamine. These changes in primary tumor ...
Crystallization Efforts For An Engineered Nickel-Binding Protein, Gold-Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoclusters, And An Artificial De Novo Tetramer Hydrogenase Mimic, Skyler Crane
Protein crystallization is fundamental to modern research efforts given its ability to determine a protein’s structure as well as the interactions that structure allows and relies upon. This process, though lacking direct application, provides necessary information for subsequent research efforts for which applicationsmay be explored. As such, efforts were taken to crystallize nickel-binding protein (NBP) reengineered from Copper Storage Protein 1 (Csp1) in its apo and metal bound form, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in its apo and gold bound form (Au-BSA), and an artificial de novo tetramer hydrogenase mimic peptide to better inform future research actions for these respective ...
The Effects Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf-1) And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (Igfr) Regulation On Cognition And Structure Of Astrocytes, Sariya Khan
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neuroendocrine signaling hormone that plays an integral role in bone and tissue growth and development. Inhibition of this hormone is known to disrupt the chemistry of the brain, resulting in cognitive impairments such as those seen in many common neurodegenerative diseases. While much research has been conducted on neurons and their relation with IGF-1, the role of astrocytes still needs to be explored. Our research investigates how astrocytes are affected as a result of IGF-1 regulation. Preliminary studies in our laboratory established a connection between IGF-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and in ...
Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, 2020 University of Mississippi
Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease in which the myocardium becomes hypertrophied, making it more difficult for the heart to pump blood. HCM is commonly caused by a mutation in the β-cardiac myosin II heavy chain. Myosin is a motor protein that facilitates muscle contraction by converting chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work and concomitantly moving along actin filaments. Optical tweezers have been used previously to analyze single myosin biophysical properties; however, myosin does not work as a single unit within the heart. Multiple myosin interacts to displace actin filaments and do not have the same properties ...
Studies Of Salvinorin-Based Antagonists To Elucidate Pertinent Interactions For Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonism, 2020 University of Mississippi
Studies Of Salvinorin-Based Antagonists To Elucidate Pertinent Interactions For Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonism, Madeline Keane
Opioid abuse, leading to addiction and related deaths, has created a chronic epidemic in the United States for the past 30 years. This crisis has sprung from reliance on the prescription of opioid analgesics as the primary method for the management of pain in the 1990s. At that time, these drugs, specifically Purdue Pharma’s OxyContin, were marketed as non-addictive. Due to this systemic minimization of the addictive properties of opioid analgesics, as prescription rates increased, opioid-related mortality rates climbed. This epidemic continues to be pervasive, as opioid-related overdose resulted in 47,600 deaths in 2017. In addition to the ...
The Raphe-Hippocampal Tract And Its Age Differences: Diffusion Tensor Imaging And Probabilistic Tractography Study, 2020 University of Mississippi
The Raphe-Hippocampal Tract And Its Age Differences: Diffusion Tensor Imaging And Probabilistic Tractography Study, Ashley Sekul
The raphe-hippocampal tract links the raphe nuclei to the hippocampus and is responsible for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The hippocampus is key in regulating emotional and stress responses. This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging which uses Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to provide scans of the brain for analyzing differences in the raphe-hippocampal tract as one ages. In this specific study, 491 samples were visually analyzed to gather data about the fractional anisotropy of the raphe nuclei in both male and female brains ranging from 6 to 85 years old. Through the ranking of images, some were discarded, and ...