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Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie 2023 University of South Dakota

Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie

Dissertations and Theses

Offspring of diabetic and obese mothers (ODOM) have greater risks of heart disease at birth and later in life. However, prevention is hindered because underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mounting studies in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease field suggest that mitochondria play key roles in developmentally programmed heart disease similar to the roles they play in cardiomyopathy in adults with diabetes and obesity. However, whether mitochondria are responsible for the short[1]and long-term cardiac disease seen in ODOM remains unknown. Here, we sought to delineate the roles of mitochondria in the hearts of ODOM, determine whether mitochondria are playing …


Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. MacPherson 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. Macpherson

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A variety of molecules can be radiolabeled and delivered to a cancer site for the purposes of diagnostics and therapy. Among the most promising of tumor targeting molecules are peptides and antibodies. These bio-inspired molecules can be designed and synthesized to target and respond to cancer cells based on the properties of those cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes are over-expressed by some metastatic cancers, in which they are responsible for the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In recent years, MMPs have emerged as promising targets for enzyme-responsive diagnostic probes because oligopeptides can be designed to be selectively hydrolyzed …


Comparison Of Serum Albumin Levels In The Breast Milk Of Breastfeeding Infants Aged 1-3 Months And 4-6 Months, Ninik Mudjihartini 2023 Universitas Indonesia

Comparison Of Serum Albumin Levels In The Breast Milk Of Breastfeeding Infants Aged 1-3 Months And 4-6 Months, Ninik Mudjihartini

Indonesian Journal of Medical Chemistry and Bioinformatics

Abstract: Background: Serum albumin is the most abundant plasma protein in the blood, contributing to maintaining colloid osmotic pressure and binding substances that are poorly soluble in plasma so that they can be distributed throughout the body. Serum albumin levels in breast milk can vary, influenced by various factors such as the lactation phase (age of the baby), number of parities, age and body mass index (BMI) of the mother. This study aims to determine the comparison of serum albumin levels in breast milk of mothers who breastfeed infants aged 1-3 months and 4-6 months and to find the relationship …


Dual Ionic Liquid-Functionalized Cellulosic Materials: Thermal, Mechanical And Conductive Properties, Elizabeth McGrew, Kevin M. Miller PhD 2023 Murray State University

Dual Ionic Liquid-Functionalized Cellulosic Materials: Thermal, Mechanical And Conductive Properties, Elizabeth Mcgrew, Kevin M. Miller Phd

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Cellulose, an inexpensive and renewable biomacromolecule, represents an intriguing synthetic foundation for new materials with task-specific properties. Here, we wish to report a synthetic route for functionalizing cellulose with a side chain containing two ionic liquid functional groups using azide-alkyne ‘click’ cyclization strategy, followed by quaternization of the two resulting heterocycles (1,2,3-triazole and imidazole). Through this functionalization strategy, the resulting cellulosic materials exhibited significant softening, with several glass transition (Tg) values observed below room temperature, indicating the amorphous nature of the materials, with the Tg dependent on both the length of the side chain and the …


The Effect Of Alkalinity On Lampricide Effectiveness And Gill Physiology In Invasive Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus), Alexandre J. Walsh 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effect Of Alkalinity On Lampricide Effectiveness And Gill Physiology In Invasive Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus), Alexandre J. Walsh

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The pesticides, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and niclosamide are used to control populations of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Added to streams infested with larval sea lamprey, the effectiveness of these pesticides, commonly called lampricides, are strongly influenced by water pH, with greater toxicity for both TFM and niclosamide in lower pH than higher pH water. However, the TFM and niclosamide sensitivity of sea lamprey are also greater in poorly buffered, low alkalinity water than in high alkalinity water but it is unclear why. One goal of my thesis was to propose …


Analysis Of Biologically Effective Dose For Retroactive Yttrium-90 Trans-Arterial Radioembolization Treatment Optimization, MJ Lindsey 2023 Claremont Colleges

Analysis Of Biologically Effective Dose For Retroactive Yttrium-90 Trans-Arterial Radioembolization Treatment Optimization, Mj Lindsey

CMC Senior Theses

Trans-arterial radioembolization (TARE) is a protracted modality of radiation therapy where radionuclides labeled with Yttrium-90 (90Y) are inserted inside a patient's hepatic artery to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While TARE has been shown to be a clinically effective and safe treatment, there is little understanding of the radiobiological relationship between absorbed dose and tissue response, and thus there is no dosimetric standard for treatment planning. The Biologically Effective Dose (BED) formalism, derived from the Linear-Quadratic model of radiobiology, is used to weigh the absorbed dose by the time pattern of delivery. BED is a virtual dose that can …


A Computational Study Of The Copper-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation Of Boronic Acids, Kevin Nyhuis 2023 Montclair State University

A Computational Study Of The Copper-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation Of Boronic Acids, Kevin Nyhuis

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

This work is a computational study of a reaction mechanism for the trifluoromethylation of boronic acids. Three steps of the proposed reaction mechanism are studied, •CF3 addition to a copper catalyst center, base promoted transmetalation between copper and aryl boronic acid, and bond forming reductive elimination in which the CF3 and aryl substituent form a bond. Limited information is known about this mechanism. This study uses computational methods to attempt to elucidate the mechanism and provide the groundwork for potential improvement. Quantum chemical methods in conjunction with tight-binding based conformational sampling methods are used to investigate the possible …


Production Of Biofuel Using Magnetic Nanocatalyst Zno-Ni0.5zn0.5fe2o4-Fe2o3: A Mini-Review Of Recent Studies, Nida Ziafat Miss, Majid Mahmood 2022 Department of Chemistry, University of Poonch Rawalaakot, Rawalaakot, AJK, Pakistan

Production Of Biofuel Using Magnetic Nanocatalyst Zno-Ni0.5zn0.5fe2o4-Fe2o3: A Mini-Review Of Recent Studies, Nida Ziafat Miss, Majid Mahmood

Journal of Bioresource Management

As conventional fossil fuels are becoming limited, it is critical to find alternative clean and renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is a degradable and renewable form of fuel made up of long-chain fatty acid esters that can be generated from either plants or animals. It is a mixture of long-chain alkyl esters made through a transesterification reaction with alcohol and catalyst. Due to the high cost of petroleum, the concept of biofuel production as an alternative source has increased in recent years. The present mini-review summarizes some recent studies on alternative methods for the production of biofuel. The review concludes that …


Apoptotic Effect Of Bortezomib On Pancreatic Islet Cells In Stz-Induced Diabetic Rats, Çiğdem Ekin, Neslihan Tekin Karacaer, Mehtap Tarhan Karaoğlan, ibrahim Örün, Kamile Öztürk 2022 Molecular Biology Division, Biology Department, Science and Letter Faculty, Aksaray University, Aksaray 68100, Turkey

Apoptotic Effect Of Bortezomib On Pancreatic Islet Cells In Stz-Induced Diabetic Rats, Çiğdem Ekin, Neslihan Tekin Karacaer, Mehtap Tarhan Karaoğlan, Ibrahim Örün, Kamile Öztürk

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: This study aimed to investigate the possible apoptotic role of bortezomib (BMZ) on pancreatic islets of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups that were administered BMZ alone or in combination with STZ. To evaluate the effect of BMZ on the development of diabetes, blood glucose levels were measured regularly in the animals. Islet cell viability was determined by staining the islets with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. Expression of the Bcl-2 and bax genes was determined in islet cells by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Administering STZ-induced hyperglycemia in the …


Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill 2022 Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest

Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic, double-membrane organelles that synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally inherited from the oocyte. Mitochondrial proteins are encoded by either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mtDNA, and both code for proteins forming the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes of the respiratory chain. These complexes form a chain that allows the passage of electrons down the electron transport chain (ETC) through a proton motive force, creating ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This study aims to explore current and prospective therapies for mitochondrial disorders (MTDS). MTDS are clinical syndromes coupled with abnormalities …


Arginine Methylation Of The Pgc-1Α C‑Terminus Is Temperature- Dependent, Meryl Mendoz, Mariel Mendoza, Tiffany Lubrino, Sidney Briski, Immaculeta Osuji, Janielle Cuala, Brendan Ly, Ivan Ocegueda, Harvey Peralta, Benjamin A. Garcia, Cecilia Zurita-Lopez 2022 California State University, Los Angeles

Arginine Methylation Of The Pgc-1Α C‑Terminus Is Temperature- Dependent, Meryl Mendoz, Mariel Mendoza, Tiffany Lubrino, Sidney Briski, Immaculeta Osuji, Janielle Cuala, Brendan Ly, Ivan Ocegueda, Harvey Peralta, Benjamin A. Garcia, Cecilia Zurita-Lopez

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

We set out to determine whether the C-terminus (amino acids 481–798) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α, UniProt Q9UBK2), a regulatory metabolic protein involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, and respiration, is an arginine methyltransferase substrate. Arginine methylation by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) alters protein function and thus contributes to various cellular processes. In addition to confirming methylation of the C-terminus by PRMT1 as described in the literature, we have identified methylation by another member of the PRMT family, PRMT7. We performed in vitro methylation reactions using recombinant mammalian PRMT7 and PRMT1 at 37, 30, 21, 18, and 4 °C. …


Dissecting Interactions Across Gene Regulatory Layers In C. Elegans, Morgan Taylor 2022 Southern Methodist University

Dissecting Interactions Across Gene Regulatory Layers In C. Elegans, Morgan Taylor

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful tool for studying nervous system genetics. Though relatively simple compared to mammals, C. elegans boasts a remarkably well-conserved neuronal genome and proteome, and its utility in the characterization of neuronal genes has been well-established. However, gene expression is often controlled by complex interactions between multiple genes, and teasing apart the functions of individual genes within such networks remains a challenge. Dissecting these interaction networks is crucial in determining the multifaceted functions of important, conserved regulatory genes. Here we explore interactions between gene regulatory layers in the C. elegans nervous system, employing a synthetic …


Dynamics Of Nucleosome Assembly Characterized By Atomic Force Microscopy, Tommy Stormberg 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Dynamics Of Nucleosome Assembly Characterized By Atomic Force Microscopy, Tommy Stormberg

Theses & Dissertations

Nucleosomes are the basic repeating unit defining the assembly and function of chromatin. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of nucleosome structure and dynamics is critical to elucidating the chromatin assembly process. This dissertation describes my work in elucidating the role of different factors that drive the nucleosome dynamics.

In my first study, we characterized, for the first time, the effect of sequence on nucleosome assembly. We then characterized the role of internucleosomal interactions, discovering a critical role internucleosomal interactions in the assembly of higher order structures.

Based on the previous study and literature regarding histone tails, we hypothesized the histone H4 …


Insights Into The Non-Osmoregulatory Function Of A Pollen-Specific Mechanosensitive Ion Channel, Kari Miller 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Insights Into The Non-Osmoregulatory Function Of A Pollen-Specific Mechanosensitive Ion Channel, Kari Miller

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollen, the male gametophyte of flowering plants, delivers the sperm cells to the ovule to carry out sexual reproduction. During this process, the pollen grain undergoes dramatic physical changes. Survival requires careful control of cell mechanics, particularly the balance between protoplast expansion and cell wall resistance. One control mechanism is the use of a mechanosensitive (MS) ion channel, MscS-Like (MSL)8. This pollen-specific protein was previously shown to be essential for pollen survival during hydration and was proposed to function as a tension-gated osmoregulator. However, direct proof of osmoregulation during initial hydration has not yet been found. In fact, studies of …


Bis-Indolyl Compounds And The Induction Of Apoptosis In T98g Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Margot C. Brown 2022 Seton Hall University

Bis-Indolyl Compounds And The Induction Of Apoptosis In T98g Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Margot C. Brown

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

1,1-bis(3’idolyl)-1(aryl)methane compounds (BIM compounds) have been shown to have anti-cancer properties in colon cancer, bladder cancer, and leukemia cells. The purpose of this work was to determine if BIM compounds could be an effective treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays showed that 20µM of the BIM compounds could inhibit cellular proliferation of the T98G glioblastoma multiforme cell line over 72 hours. Then immunoblotting was used to analyze the molecular pathway induced by BIM compounds. An increase in the expression of both BAX and cleaved caspase 3 suggest BIM compounds activate programmed cell death, or apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. …


Molecular Basis Of Viroid Rna-Templated Transcription, Shachinthaka D. Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage 2022 Mississippi State University

Molecular Basis Of Viroid Rna-Templated Transcription, Shachinthaka D. Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage

Theses and Dissertations

Transcription is a fundamental process catalyzed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (DdRPs). Interestingly, some DdRPs can use both DNA and RNA as templates for transcription. This RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) activity of DdRPs is used by RNA-based pathogens such as viroids and hepatitis delta virus for replication. In addition, RdRP activity of DdRPs widely occurs in various organisms to regulate gene transcription. Despite the importance of this intrinsic RdRP activity of DdRPs, associated factors and mechanisms are in their infancy stage. We employed potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) as a model to study RNA-templated transcription. Here, we present evidence showing that …


Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore 2022 Kennesaw State University

Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore

Symposium of Student Scholars

Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a powerful tool for developing anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Within this, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative approach to screening and validating weak and robust binders with targeted proteins, making NMR among the most attractive strategies in FBDD. Inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme (Ivyp1) of P. aeruginosa serves as an excellent target because of its active cellular location and implications in clinical prognosis for cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. This study uses current NMR and biophysical techniques to develop a covalent, fragment-linked warhead inhibitor for Ivyp1 through synthetic methods, warhead linking, and …


Caribbean Reef-Building Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Network: Identifying Symbioses Critical For System Stability In A Changing Climate, Shaman Patel 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Caribbean Reef-Building Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Network: Identifying Symbioses Critical For System Stability In A Changing Climate, Shaman Patel

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Increasing global ocean temperatures and frequency of marine heatwaves pose dire consequences for coral reefs. High temperatures often lead to disruptions in coral symbiosis resulting in coral bleaching, increasing the mortality of corals. However, corals can potentially avoid bleaching peril by associating with thermally tolerant symbionts. Here we provide a tool for understanding symbiosis network stability of Caribbean reef-building corals. We created a network of Caribbean hermatypic corals and their associated Symbiodiniaceae phylotypes. A bleaching model was applied to this network to test for resilience and robustness (R50) to thermal stress. It was also layered with trait data for coral …


Wrack Lines Volume 22, Number 2, Fall-Winter 2022-2023, Nancy C. Balcom, Juliana Barrett, Judy Benson, Ben Crnic, sTo Len 2022 University of Connecticut-Avery Point

Wrack Lines Volume 22, Number 2, Fall-Winter 2022-2023, Nancy C. Balcom, Juliana Barrett, Judy Benson, Ben Crnic, Sto Len

Wrack Lines

With the theme, "Looking Ahead: People and Projects Shaping the Future," the Fall-Winter 2022-2023 leads with the first in what will be a series of articles about offshore wind development impacting Connecticut. That is followed by the inspiring story of how a dying forest was replanted for climate resilience. Next, a profile of longtime marine educator Tim Visel tells about his lasting impact on Connecticut schools and students. Lastly, the complex challenge of dealing with Contaminants of Emerging Concern is examined, with descriptions of how Sea Grant is involved and the particularly troublesome group of substances called PFAS.


Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville 2022 University of South Alabama

Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville

Theses and Dissertations

High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are malignant, highly metabolically active brain tumors. HGGs are associated with poor patient outcome, attributed to resistance to current therapies, with a survival rate between 12 to 15 months. Gliomas are highly complex tumors, making targeted therapy difficult, highlighting the need for novel approaches and new treatment options. In addition, a large percentage of HGGs are comprised of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that further contribute to therapeutic resistance. Notable characteristics of GSCs are a heightened DNA damage response (DDR) and elevated replication stress that could provide opportunities for therapeutic targeting. A notable feature of many glioma tumors …


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