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Initial Characterization Of A Conserved Active Site Residue For The Cdc34 Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme, Arvin Akoopie 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Initial Characterization Of A Conserved Active Site Residue For The Cdc34 Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme, Arvin Akoopie

Theses

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) covalently modify protein substrates with ubiquitins. The active site cysteine residues on E2s are essential for catalyzing the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 active site onto the protein substrate, however there is a limited amount of information available concerning additional active site residues for E2s that may also participate in catalysis. Cdc34 is an essential E2 that has merited the lion’s share of attention for biochemical analysis of the E2 family. Previous phylogenetic analysis of Cdc34 amino acid sequences has identified an invariably conserved histidine residue close to the active site cysteine in the primary ...


Aminoglycoside-Induced Sensitization Of Cancer Cells And Development Of Carbohydrate-Containing Drugs, Michael F. Cuccarese 2014 Northeastern University

Aminoglycoside-Induced Sensitization Of Cancer Cells And Development Of Carbohydrate-Containing Drugs, Michael F. Cuccarese

Chemistry Dissertations

Modern drug discovery requires that synthesis of compounds with unique structures and properties is performed in concert with in-depth research on the biological event being targeted. The synergy of these two components of drug discovery generates the meaningful data necessary for a hypothesis-driven approach toward novel therapeutics. Herein, research is presented that pertains both to the study of biological activity, as well as the development of novel synthetic methods.

While the bactericidal effects of aminoglycosides are well understood, their therapeutic potential in human cells is emerging. Herein, a novel use of this class of compounds in cancer therapy is described ...


Pop2: A Potential Regulator Of Hmt1-Catalyzed Arginine Methylation In Yeast, Celeste Excell 2014 Utah State University

Pop2: A Potential Regulator Of Hmt1-Catalyzed Arginine Methylation In Yeast, Celeste Excell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Protein arginine methylation is an important post-translational modification that is vital in regulating various cellular processes such as gene transcription, cell signaling, and RNA processing. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are responsible for performing this important modification. PRMT1 (protein arginine methyltransferase 1) and Hmt1 (hnRNP methyltransferase 1) are the predominant PRMTs in humans and yeast, respectively. Despite growing momentum in this field, relatively little is understood about PRMT regulation. Further work discovering how PRMTs are regulated will greatly advance our understanding of diseases where PRMTs have been implicated, such as heart disease, viral pathogenesis, and cancer.

It has been discovered that ...


Collagen Xiα1 And The Stem Cell Theory Of Cancer, Cody Roell, Kenneth Weekes, Julia Oxford 2014 Boise State University

Collagen Xiα1 And The Stem Cell Theory Of Cancer, Cody Roell, Kenneth Weekes, Julia Oxford

College of Arts and Sciences Presentations

Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory hypothesizes that heterogeneity within tumors is not a mere consequence of random mutation and clonal evolution, but results from an intrinsic hierarchy of cells. The KeWe cell line was isolated and characterized in Dr. Oxford’s lab. Characterization has included the determination of conditions for maintenance in cell culture for extended periods of time and using different techniques to count the cells to characterize cellular proliferation rates. Collagen XIα1 can be found throughout the body in a variety of places including tendons, skin, ligaments, interstitial tissue, dentin, blood vessels, the cornea, intervertebral discs, muscle, bone ...


Expediting Drug Discovery: Fast And Accurate Prediction Of Coupling Constants For Nitrogen Heterocycles, Petr Malek 2014 Boise State University

Expediting Drug Discovery: Fast And Accurate Prediction Of Coupling Constants For Nitrogen Heterocycles, Petr Malek

College of Arts and Sciences Presentations

Nitrogen containing heterocyclic drugs that regulate the JAK-STAT pathway have proven therapeutic usage for a variety of disorders from hematological cancers to rheumatoid arthritis. The synthesis of these drugs to selectively inhibit specific JAK-STAT has become an active area of research for pharmaceutical companies. Nitrogen heterocycles are commonly hydrogen deficient, presenting challenges for their characterization. The method of choice to determine the structure of these novel drugs is Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The limitation of this method is that it requires prior knowledge of the molecular orbital electron density of the molecule to be ...


Comparing And Informing Morphological Species Identifications And Boundaries In Arthropod Gut-Dwelling Protists Using Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses, Mason Hinchcliff, Nicole Reynolds, Eric Tretter, Dustin Heeney, Justin Gause, Tyler Pickell, Prasanna Kandel 2014 Boise State University

Comparing And Informing Morphological Species Identifications And Boundaries In Arthropod Gut-Dwelling Protists Using Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses, Mason Hinchcliff, Nicole Reynolds, Eric Tretter, Dustin Heeney, Justin Gause, Tyler Pickell, Prasanna Kandel

College of Arts and Sciences Presentations

Trichomycetes are fungal and protistan symbionts of arthropods and have been found in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats on every continent except Antarctica. Minimally, trichomycetes associate commensally with their immature aquatic hosts (including black flies, mayflies, stoneflies, isopods, and others) attaching to the chitinous lining of the mid or hindgut. Classified with trichomycetes are Paramoebidium, a group of protists which associate in an obligate manner with their hosts. To date, 16 species of Paramoebidium have been identified by morphological approaches. These descriptions have included characterization and discrimination of species based on thallus (body) length and width, differences in the holdfast ...


Stress Responses And Energy Storage In Drosophila Melanogaster Selected For Resistance To A Gram-Positive Bacillus Cereus Spores, Zhen Hu 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Stress Responses And Energy Storage In Drosophila Melanogaster Selected For Resistance To A Gram-Positive Bacillus Cereus Spores, Zhen Hu

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

A survival response study was carried out by using D. melanogaster and the opportunistic pathogen B. cereus as the agent of selection. The spores of B. cereus, a gram-positive bacteria that can cause the human pathogen disease, were applied in our artificial laboratory selection. Selected lines were treated with B. cereus spores. Wound control lines were punctured with a needle dipped into sterile H2O. Control lines did not apply any treatment. Three different environmental treatments were used within each line type (autoclaved spores of B.cereus, sterile H2O and no treatment). The autoclaved spores were used ...


Evaluating Fire Temperatures During A Prescribed Burn Of A Restored Tallgrass Prairie, Taylor A. Fulton, Connor J. Gilmour, Titus J. Hendricks, Mark A. Gathany 2014 Cedarville University

Evaluating Fire Temperatures During A Prescribed Burn Of A Restored Tallgrass Prairie, Taylor A. Fulton, Connor J. Gilmour, Titus J. Hendricks, Mark A. Gathany

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Wildfire is recognized to have shaped the great prairies of the central US. While the vast majority of these grasslands have been lost there remain significant remnants as well as sites under active restoration. Prescribed fire is often used in these systems in order to maximize the success of the native grasses. Beginning in 1999 Cedarville University established a prairie restoration site and have used disturbances, such as fire, to maintain the system. Without this regular burn, the prairie would likely show decreased grass growth and increased growth of forb species. The Cedarville Prairie Restoration site has a variable topography ...


Distribution Of Fish Species In Cedar Lake, David Dombrowski, Katherine Guffey, Brittany Hayes, Mark A. Gathany 2014 Cedarville University

Distribution Of Fish Species In Cedar Lake, David Dombrowski, Katherine Guffey, Brittany Hayes, Mark A. Gathany

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

With over 13,000 described species of freshwater fishes, diversity within aquatic systems can vary extensively. At the local scale small changes in the diversity of fish species within an ecosystem will modify processes within the ecosystem such as community decomposition and metabolism. Recent analyses indicate that actual species diversity within small, shallow ponds may be higher than previously thought. Fish species distribution will differ based on location within the aquatic system relative to the species’ position in the trophic web. We will measure both quantitative and qualitative differences among species at different locations within of Cedar Lake, expecting to ...


The Effects Of A Prescribed Burn On Small Mammals In An Ohio Tallgrass Prairie, Austin Bush, Randy Howell, Daniel Nordquist, Grace Revenaugh, Kortney Good, Chelsea Griffin, Abbie Belcher, Mark A. Gathany 2014 Cedarville University

The Effects Of A Prescribed Burn On Small Mammals In An Ohio Tallgrass Prairie, Austin Bush, Randy Howell, Daniel Nordquist, Grace Revenaugh, Kortney Good, Chelsea Griffin, Abbie Belcher, Mark A. Gathany

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Prescribed burning is used on prairies for increased prairie health and to manage the communities of organisms that rely on the prairie’s natural resources. Small mammals are also affected by the burning of prairies. Previous research by Chance in 1986 and Cook in 1950 has established that burning decreases the small mammal capture rates in the burned area because of the habitat loss and rapid change of habitat post-burn that stresses the animals and leads to lower reproductive levels (Chance, 1986). Other studies by Francl and Small also showed that small mammal populations did not return to pre-burn numbers ...


Differential Regulation Of Dynamin-Related Protein 1 Splice Variants By Membrane Adaptors, Anthony J. Baglio 2014 Cedarville University

Differential Regulation Of Dynamin-Related Protein 1 Splice Variants By Membrane Adaptors, Anthony J. Baglio

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

We begin the first biochemical examination of the multiple splice variants of human Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a GTPase involved in mitochondrial fission. While eight such variants, generated through alternative mRNA splicing, have been identified, here we focus on two: the shortest variant (Short) which is ubiquitous, and the longest (Long), which piqued our interest since Drp1 Long is expressed exclusively in neurons. We now establish the various functional differences between these two Drp1 splice variants. Our data reveal that whereas Drp1 Short exhibits constitutively high GTPase activity, Drp1 Long does not. Interestingly, mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, mitochondrial fission protein ...


Evaluation Of Massie’S Creek Habitat And Water Quality, Kaitlyn Sturm, Amiah Warder, Malorie Young, Mark A. Gathany 2014 Cedarville University

Evaluation Of Massie’S Creek Habitat And Water Quality, Kaitlyn Sturm, Amiah Warder, Malorie Young, Mark A. Gathany

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

In November of 2009, Greene County completed a restoration project on the North Fork of Massie Creek. This project was designed to address “...erosion and water quality concerns, improve drainage, and restore the habitat of NFMC”. The project worked to “...stabilize the stream banks, create riffle/pool habitat, and restore and enhance vegetation along a 2.2-mile long segment of the creek”. The project was finalized with seeding the area in January of 2010. Now four years later we will evaluate the aquatic habitats, macroinvertebrate biodiversity, and water quality in the restored (North Fork) and unrestored (South Fork) segments of ...


The Chemorepellent, Netrin-1, Appears To Signal Through A Tyrosine Kinase In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Marian A. Bhajjan, Anna O. Hurtubise, David C. Petroff, Cambria R. Puffenberger, Stephanie E. Song, Heather G. Kuruvilla 2014 Cedarville University

The Chemorepellent, Netrin-1, Appears To Signal Through A Tyrosine Kinase In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Marian A. Bhajjan, Anna O. Hurtubise, David C. Petroff, Cambria R. Puffenberger, Stephanie E. Song, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Netrin-1 is a pleiotropic peptide signaling molecule. Its most well-known role in vertebrate development is neuronal guidance. Depending upon the cell type and signal concentration gradient, netrin-1 may serve either as a chemoattractant, causing formation of axonal growth cones, or as a chemorepellent, causing growth cone collapse within the axon.

Netrin-1 can bind to at least two types of receptors, and uses a variety of signaling proteins to convey its message. In some vertebrate cell types, the netrin-1 signal is G-protein mediated, while in other cell types, netrin signaling requires a tyrosine kinase or some other combination of kinases in ...


Netrin-1-Like Peptides Are Secreted By Tetrahymena Thermophila, Marian Bhajjan, Kortney Good, Graham Heston, Elise Newcomer, Stephanie Song, Heather G. Kuruvilla 2014 Cedarville University

Netrin-1-Like Peptides Are Secreted By Tetrahymena Thermophila, Marian Bhajjan, Kortney Good, Graham Heston, Elise Newcomer, Stephanie Song, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Netrin-1 is a peptide signaling molecule that has many roles in vertebrates. In the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, netrin-1 acts as a chemorepellent, causing cells to exhibit a characteristic avoidance behavior. We have previously shown that netrin-1 avoidance by T. thermophila is inhibited by genistein, which is a broad spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

One question we wished to answer in our current study was, “Is genistein specifically acting upon tyrosine kinases in order to inhibit netrin avoidance in Tetrahymena?” In order to answer this question, we used the phytoestrogen, diadzein, as a negative control for genistein inhibition. Diadzein had no ...


Optimizing The Expression Of Nitronate Monooxygenase In E. Coli, Jennifer Hernandez 2014 Georgia State University

Optimizing The Expression Of Nitronate Monooxygenase In E. Coli, Jennifer Hernandez

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Molecular Dynamic Employment Regarding The Broad Specificity Of D-Arginine Dehydrogenase With D-Amino Acids, Charles Adeniran 2014 Georgia State University

Molecular Dynamic Employment Regarding The Broad Specificity Of D-Arginine Dehydrogenase With D-Amino Acids, Charles Adeniran

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold 2014 Georgia State University

Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


L-Carnitine Supplementation: A Potential Treatment For Cancer Cachexia, Aaron Kwong, Obaidullah Khan, Katrina Fleming, Sina Moshiri, Muhammad Hashmi 2014 McMaster University

L-Carnitine Supplementation: A Potential Treatment For Cancer Cachexia, Aaron Kwong, Obaidullah Khan, Katrina Fleming, Sina Moshiri, Muhammad Hashmi

The Meducator

Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that exhibits rampant muscle wasting, unintentional weight loss, fatigue, weakness, and overall loss of appetite, none of which can be abated by an increase in caloric intake. Metabolic derailment by cachexia is so severe in cancer patients that it can shorten lifetime expectancy and lead to death before the course of treatment is finished. Etiology may involve proinflammatory cytokines, but the abnormal loss of muscle, protein, and fat suggests an underlying metabolic dysfunction that contributes to cachexia. Previous research has shown reduction of L-carnitine in cachectic patients and chemotherapy-induced damage to the L-carnitine transport system ...


Determinants Of The Magnitude Of Training Mediated Muscle Hypertrophy, Cameron Mitchell 2014 McMaster University

Determinants Of The Magnitude Of Training Mediated Muscle Hypertrophy, Cameron Mitchell

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Chronic resistance training leads to muscle hypotrophy in a wide range of populations however most resistance training studies are relatively small in sample size

Three studies were conducted to better understand the sources of this variability. The first study employed a unilateral resistance training model to test the effects of relative training load and volume on the magnitude of hypertrophy and strength gains. This study showed that high relative training loads were no better than low training loads at inducing muscle hypertrophy provided that each set was performed to the point of muscular exhaustion. In agreement with previous finding, strength ...


Redox Regulation Of Protein Translation In Eukaryotes, Maxim Gerashchenko 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Redox Regulation Of Protein Translation In Eukaryotes, Maxim Gerashchenko

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

Gene expression may be controlled at multiple levels, e.g., through genomic architecture, transcription and translation. In the current work, we focused on regulation of protein synthesis. Historically, the investigation of the regulation of gene expression at the level of translation lagged behind the transcriptional control because of the lack of accessible high-throughput methods. Our research has begun with the finding of the use of alternative non-AUG start codon in thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR), a selenoprotein involved in redox control during male reproduction. The use of this codon, CUG, relies on the Kozak consensus sequence and ribosomal scanning mechanism. However, the ...


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