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Protein Motions Control Activity In Biologically Important Phosphatases, Ryan Hirschi, Gwen Moise 2015 Utah State University

Protein Motions Control Activity In Biologically Important Phosphatases, Ryan Hirschi, Gwen Moise

Research on Capitol Hill

No abstract provided.


Altered Cd161bright Cd8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (Mait)-Like Cell Dynamics And Increased Differentiation States Among Juvenile Type 1 Diabetics., Robert Z. Harms, Kristina M. Lorenzo, Kevin P. Corley, Monina S. Cabrera, Nora Sarvetnick 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Altered Cd161bright Cd8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (Mait)-Like Cell Dynamics And Increased Differentiation States Among Juvenile Type 1 Diabetics., Robert Z. Harms, Kristina M. Lorenzo, Kevin P. Corley, Monina S. Cabrera, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Type 1A diabetes (T1D) is believed to be caused by immune-mediated destruction of β-cells, but the immunological basis for T1D remains controversial. Microbial diversity promotes the maturation and activation of certain immune subsets, including CD161bright CD8+ mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and alterations in gut mucosal responses have been reported in type 1 diabetics (T1Ds). We analyzed T cell populations in peripheral blood leukocytes from juvenile T1Ds and healthy controls. We found that proportion and absolute number of MAIT cells were similar between T1Ds and controls. Furthermore, while MAIT cell proportions increased with age among healthy controls, this trend ...


Structural Mechanism Of Laforin Function In Glycogen Dephosphorylation And Lafora Disease, Madushi Raththagala, M. Kathryn Brewer, Matthew W. Parker, Amanda R. Sherwood, Brian K. Wong, Simon Hsu, Travis M. Bridges, Bradley C. Paasch, Lance M. Hellman, Satrio Husodo, David A. Meekins, Adam O. Taylor, Benjamin D. Turner, Kyle D. Auger, Vikas V. Dukhande, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Pascual Sanz, Virgil L. Woods Jr., Sheng Li, Craig Vander Kooi, Matthew S. Gentry 2015 University of Kentucky

Structural Mechanism Of Laforin Function In Glycogen Dephosphorylation And Lafora Disease, Madushi Raththagala, M. Kathryn Brewer, Matthew W. Parker, Amanda R. Sherwood, Brian K. Wong, Simon Hsu, Travis M. Bridges, Bradley C. Paasch, Lance M. Hellman, Satrio Husodo, David A. Meekins, Adam O. Taylor, Benjamin D. Turner, Kyle D. Auger, Vikas V. Dukhande, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Pascual Sanz, Virgil L. Woods Jr., Sheng Li, Craig Vander Kooi, Matthew S. Gentry

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publication

Glycogen is the major mammalian glucose storage cache and is critical for energy homeostasis. Glycogen synthesis in neurons must be tightly controlled due to neuronal sensitivity to perturbations in glycogen metabolism. Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal, congenital, neurodegenerative epilepsy. Mutations in the gene encoding the glycogen phosphatase laforin result in hyperphosphorylated glycogen that forms water-insoluble inclusions called Lafora bodies (LBs). LBs induce neuronal apoptosis and are the causative agent of LD. The mechanism of glycogen dephosphorylation by laforin and dysfunction in LD is unknown. We report the crystal structure of laforin bound to phosphoglucan product, revealing its unique integrated ...


An Efficient And Sensitive Method For Preparing Cdna Libraries From Scarce Biological Samples, Catherine H. Sterling, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, Victor R. Ambros 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

An Efficient And Sensitive Method For Preparing Cdna Libraries From Scarce Biological Samples, Catherine H. Sterling, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

The preparation and high-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries from samples of small RNA is a powerful tool to quantify known small RNAs (such as microRNAs) and to discover novel RNA species. Interest in identifying the small RNA repertoire present in tissues and in biofluids has grown substantially with the findings that small RNAs can serve as indicators of biological conditions and disease states. Here we describe a novel and straightforward method to clone cDNA libraries from small quantities of input RNA. This method permits the generation of cDNA libraries from sub-picogram quantities of RNA robustly, efficiently and reproducibly. We demonstrate ...


Targeted Cancer Therapy Systems: An In Silico Study Of Radiohalogenated Ligands In The Estrogen Receptor And The Synthesis Of A Molecular Toolkit For The Fabrication Of Customizable Nanoparticles, Kelton Kerry Barnsley 2015 Northeastern University

Targeted Cancer Therapy Systems: An In Silico Study Of Radiohalogenated Ligands In The Estrogen Receptor And The Synthesis Of A Molecular Toolkit For The Fabrication Of Customizable Nanoparticles, Kelton Kerry Barnsley

Chemistry Master's Theses

Chemotherapy is often limited by off-target toxicity and the development of multi-drug resistance in response to treatment. Strategies which reduce off-target toxicity by passively or actively targeting cancer cells may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy. Herein, two projects relating to targeted therapy are described. In the first project, the binding modes of 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenylethylenes (THPEs), a class of synthetic estrogens previously developed by our group, in the human estrogen receptor alpha-ligand binding domain were studied using molecular modeling programs YASARA AutoDock and Schrodinger Glide. The results were internally consistent and supported the observation that a bromine or iodine ...


Development Of Methods For The Analysis Of Protein Post-Translational Modifications: Isoaspartic Acid And Protein Crosslinking, Min Liu 2015 Northeastern University

Development Of Methods For The Analysis Of Protein Post-Translational Modifications: Isoaspartic Acid And Protein Crosslinking, Min Liu

Chemistry Dissertations

Analysis of protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) plays pivotal roles for the understanding of their biological importance. Isoaspartic acid (isoAsp) as the smallest PTM is observed in vivo and in vitro. No mass difference and subtle difference in physiochemical property between isoAsp and Asp pose a great challenging for sensitive detection and ambiguous location of isoAsp site in complex samples. A novel assay of isoAsp by exploiting methylation specificity of protein isoaspartate methyltransferase (PIMT) at isoAsp and subsequent 18O-incorporation during methyl ester hydrolysis is presented for sensitive detection and unambiguous site location of several isoAsp residues in IgG1 (Anal Chem ...


Allosteric Regulation Of Bacterial And Fungal Xylulose 5-Phosphate/ Fructose 6-Phosphate Phosphoketolases (Xfps), Katie Glenn 2015 Clemson University

Allosteric Regulation Of Bacterial And Fungal Xylulose 5-Phosphate/ Fructose 6-Phosphate Phosphoketolases (Xfps), Katie Glenn

All Dissertations

Acetate is excreted as a metabolic end product in many microbes. Acetate production has primarily been studied in bacteria and archaea but is known to occur in eukaryotic organisms as well. For example, acetate is one of the most abundant metabolites excreted by the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans during cryptococcosis suggesting that acetate production may be important during pathogenesis. One possible pathway for acetate production in C. neoformans involves the enzymes xylulose 5-phosphate/ fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp), which can generate acetyl phosphate from either fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) or xylulose 5-phosphate (X5P), and acetate kinase (Ack), which can then convert acetyl ...


Elasticity Of Differentiated And Undifferentiated Human Neuroblastoma Cells Characterized By Atomic Force Microscopy, Shijia Zhao, Alex Stamm, Jeong Soon Lee, Alexei Gruverman, Jung Yul Lim, Linxia Gu 2015 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Elasticity Of Differentiated And Undifferentiated Human Neuroblastoma Cells Characterized By Atomic Force Microscopy, Shijia Zhao, Alex Stamm, Jeong Soon Lee, Alexei Gruverman, Jung Yul Lim, Linxia Gu

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells, with its ability to differentiate into neurons, have been widely used as the in vitro cell culture model for neuroscience research, especially in studying the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and developing therapeutic strategies. Cellular elasticity could potentially serve as a biomarker to quantitatively distinguish undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. The goal of this work is to characterize the retinoic acid (RA) induced alternations of elastic properties of SH-SY5Y cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The elasticity was measured at multiple points of a single cell. Results have shown that the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cell ...


Is There Pandemic Vitamin D Deficiency In The Black Population? A Review Of Evidence, Ria S. Roberts, Fafa Huberta Koudoro, Mark S. Elliott, Zhiyong Han 2015 George Washington University

Is There Pandemic Vitamin D Deficiency In The Black Population? A Review Of Evidence, Ria S. Roberts, Fafa Huberta Koudoro, Mark S. Elliott, Zhiyong Han

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Although 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] is the biologically active form of vitamin D, measurement of the total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level is the gold standard used to define vitamin D status. Currently, it is widely accepted that serum 25 (OH) D levels below 20 ng/ml defines vitamin D deficiency. According to this definition, there appears to be pandemic vitamin D deficiency in the Black population. However, there is no evidence of higher-thannormal rates of common complications and symptomology of true vitamin D deficiency in the Black population. What is going on? We researched ...


Fluorescence Imaging Of Analyte Profiles In An Inductively Coupled Plasma With Laser Ablation As A Sample Introduction Source, Lance Moses 2015 Brigham Young University - Provo

Fluorescence Imaging Of Analyte Profiles In An Inductively Coupled Plasma With Laser Ablation As A Sample Introduction Source, Lance Moses

All Theses and Dissertations

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has risen to among the top tier techniques for the direct analysis of solid samples. However, significant problems remain that must be solved to achieve the full analytical potential of LA-ICP-MS. Inefficient conversion of aerosol to ions within the ICP or transmission through the MS interface may decrease precision, sensitivity, and/or accuracy. Although fundamental mechanisms that govern ion production and transmission have been studied extensively in solution-nebulization (SN) ICP-MS instruments, significant gaps in our understanding remain. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent differences between the aerosols generated during SN and ...


Repeated Stressors In Adulthood Increase The Rate Of Biological Ageing, James S. Adelman, Michaela Hau, Mark F. Haussmann, Timothy J. Greives, Christa Matlack, David Costantini, Michael Quetting, Ana C. Miranda, Jesko Partecke 2015 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Repeated Stressors In Adulthood Increase The Rate Of Biological Ageing, James S. Adelman, Michaela Hau, Mark F. Haussmann, Timothy J. Greives, Christa Matlack, David Costantini, Michael Quetting, Ana C. Miranda, Jesko Partecke

James S. Adelman

Individuals of the same age can differ substantially in the degree to which they have accumulated tissue damage, akin to bodily wear and tear, from past experiences. This accumulated tissue damage reflects the individual’s biological age and may better predict physiological and behavioural performance than the individual‘s chronological age. However, at present it remains unclear how to reliably assess biological age in individual wild vertebrates. We exposed hand-raised adult Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) to a combination of repeated immune and disturbance stressors for over one year to determine the effects of chronic stress on potential biomarkers of biological ...


Mcnamara 201412 Nih Scap Innocentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-Cells And Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – Plus Supplement Plus Posters - 20141228s, George McNamara 2014 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Mcnamara 201412 Nih Scap Innocentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-Cells And Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – Plus Supplement Plus Posters - 20141228s, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 201412 NIH SCAP InnoCentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-cells and Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – plus supplement plus posters - 20141228S

The download is my/Cooper lab solution (submission) to the 2014 NIH Single Cell Analysis Program (SCAP) InnoCentive Challenge, "Follow That Cell". I submitted the Solution on 20141215Mon (with 20 minutes to spare). The Challenge web page is

https://www.innocentive.com/ar/challenge/9933618

Our Solution is to revolutionize live cell transcriptional reporter assays. Specifically, we propose to multiplex five promoter response elements to drive expression of different color fluorescent proteins that would bind to ...


Regulation Of Phialide Morphogenesis In Aspergillus Nidulans, Hu Yin 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Regulation Of Phialide Morphogenesis In Aspergillus Nidulans, Hu Yin

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Filamentous fungi have two distinctive life cycles, vegetative growth and development for sexual or asexual spore formation. The asexual reproduction in development as conidiation in A. nidulans is the dominant form of producing spores effectively. A complex conidiophore structure is developed during asexual reproduction process. The conidiophore is formed from hyphal cell and consists of stalk, vesicle, metulae, phialide and conidial spores. Phialides are essential sporogenous cells in the conidiophore structure. The growth pattern is switched from acropetal to basipetal between phialide and spores, which makes phialide a unique cell type in A. nidulans and other phialide producing fungi. Study ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Polymer (Sulfonated Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone) Based Nanocomposite (H-Boron Nitride) Membrane For Hydrogen Storage, Naresh Muthu, S. Rajashabala, R. Kannan 2014 Madurai Kamaraj University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Polymer (Sulfonated Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone) Based Nanocomposite (H-Boron Nitride) Membrane For Hydrogen Storage, Naresh Muthu, S. Rajashabala, R. Kannan

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The development of light weight and compact hydrogen storage materials is still prerequisite to fuel-cell technology to be fully competitive. The present experimental study reports the hydrogen storage capability of sulfonated poly-ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK)-hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) (SPEEK-h-BN) nanocomposite membranes. The nanocomposite membranes are prepared by considering various amount of h-BN (0, 1, 3 and 5 wt. %) by phase inversion technique. The degree of sulfonation of the PEEK (SPEEK) is found to be 65% by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. Hydrogen adsorption studies have been carried out using a Seiverts-like hydrogenation setup. The membranes are characterized by ...


Transcriptomic And Proteomic Dynamics In The Metabolism Of A Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium, Cyanothece Sp. Pcc 7822 During A Diurnal Light-Dark Cycle, Louis A. Sherman 2014 lsherman@purdue.edu

Transcriptomic And Proteomic Dynamics In The Metabolism Of A Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium, Cyanothece Sp. Pcc 7822 During A Diurnal Light-Dark Cycle, Louis A. Sherman

Louis A Sherman

Background: Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 is an excellent cyanobacterial model organism with great potential to be applied as a biocatalyst for the production of high value compounds. Like other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterial species, it has a tightly regulated metabolism synchronized to the light-dark cycle. Utilizing transcriptomic and proteomic methods, we were able to quantify the relationships between transcription and translation underlying central and secondary metabolism in response to nitrogen free, 12 hour light and 12 hour dark conditions.

Results: By combining mass-spectrometry based proteomics and RNA-sequencing transcriptomics, we quantitatively measured a total of 6766 mRNAs and 1322 proteins at four ...


Argument Map: Loewi's Argument That Neuro-Transmission Works With Chemical Signals Instead Of Eletrical (Short Version), Michael Hoffmann 2014 Georgia Institute of Technology

Argument Map: Loewi's Argument That Neuro-Transmission Works With Chemical Signals Instead Of Eletrical (Short Version), Michael Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This argument shows how the hypothesis that muscles are probably stimulated exclusively by chemical signals and not by electrical ones can be justified by Loewi's experimentum crucis.


Swarna Ramaswamy_Thesis, Swarna S. Ramaswamy 2014 University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

Swarna Ramaswamy_Thesis, Swarna S. Ramaswamy

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF LIGAND GATED ION CHANNELS

Swarna Ramaswamy, B.S

Advisor: Vasanthi Jayaraman, Ph.D.

Ion channels form an integral part of membrane proteins. In the nervous system including the central and the peripheral nervous system, ligand gated ion channels form a very important part of intercellular communications. They receive chemical signals and convert them to electrical signal, mainly by allowing ion passage across the cell membrane. Ion passage also translates into downstream signaling events. Faithful translation of these signals and transmittance is crucial for several physiological functions, implying that irregular ion channel function could lead to serious consequences ...


Numerical Simulations Of In Vitro Nanoparticle Toxicity – The Case Of Poly(Amido Amine) Dendrimers., Marcus A. Maher, Pratap Naha, Sourav Prasanna Mukherjee, Hugh J. Byrne 2014 Dublin Institute of Technology

Numerical Simulations Of In Vitro Nanoparticle Toxicity – The Case Of Poly(Amido Amine) Dendrimers., Marcus A. Maher, Pratap Naha, Sourav Prasanna Mukherjee, Hugh J. Byrne

Articles

A phenomenological rate equation model is constructed to numerically simulate nanoparticle uptake and subsequent cellular response. Polyamidoamine dendrimers (generations 4-6) are modelled and the temporal evolution of the intracellular cascade of; increased levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidant species, caspase activation, mitochondrial membrane potential decay, tumour necrosis factor and interleukin generation is simulated, based on experimental observations.

The dose and generation dependence of several of these response factors are seen to well represent experimental observations at a range of time points. The model indicates that variations between responses of different cell-lines, including murine macrophages, human keratinocytes and colon cells ...


Redesign Of Trans-Splicing Molecules For The Correction Of Dystrophia Myotonica Type 1 Toxic Rna Transcripts, Eleanor G. Harrison 2014 East Tennessee State University

Redesign Of Trans-Splicing Molecules For The Correction Of Dystrophia Myotonica Type 1 Toxic Rna Transcripts, Eleanor G. Harrison

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Dystrophia myotonica (DM1), one of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy, is caused by a repeated trinucleotide expansion in the DMPK gene. This mutation results in the accumulation of toxic cellular RNA transcripts. Spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing (SMaRT) technology is a form of gene therapy that possesses the potential to correct these toxic RNA transcripts and thus cure the disease. Despite its promise, prior research applications of SMaRT technology to DM1 have been hampered by poor efficiency and have not been validated in a relevant model of the disease. In order to improve the efficiency of trans-splicing, this study examined ...


Characterization And Role Of Msaabcr In Biofilm Development And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Gyan Sundar Sahukhal 2014 University of Southern Mississippi

Characterization And Role Of Msaabcr In Biofilm Development And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Gyan Sundar Sahukhal

Dissertations

Community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains often cause localized infections in immune-compromised hosts, but some strains show enhanced virulence leading to severe infections even among healthy individuals with no predisposing risk factors. The genetic basis for this enhanced virulence has yet to be determined. S. aureus possesses a wide variety of virulence factors, the expression of which is carefully coordinated by a variety of regulators. Several virulence regulators have been well characterized, but others have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Previously, the msa gene as a regulator of several virulence genes, biofilm development, and antibiotic ...


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