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Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tea Induction Of Cyp6a8 Promoter In Drosophila Melanogaster, Fiona Retzer

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Telomere Estimates By Qpcr In American Kestrel Birds, Esteban Palencia, Julie A. Heath (Mentor), Eric J. Hayden (Mentor) 2017 Boise State University

Telomere Estimates By Qpcr In American Kestrel Birds, Esteban Palencia, Julie A. Heath (Mentor), Eric J. Hayden (Mentor)

Idaho Conference on Undergraduate Research

Telomeres are highly conserved repeated sequences found at the ends of linear chromosomes. Measuring telomere length has been used to estimate the ages of individuals in several species. The research presented here focuses on developing telomere length estimates in the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). The verification of a primer pair that can amplify a reference gene and serve to normalize the telomere qPCR data is vitally important. The gene for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was preferably chosen because it occurs in a single copy in most birds. However, the Kestrel genome has not been sequenced ...


Arsenite Resistance Of Euglena Mutabilis, Nicole Loumarinett Rosendo Mercado, Doug G. Cole (Mentor) 2017 University of Idaho

Arsenite Resistance Of Euglena Mutabilis, Nicole Loumarinett Rosendo Mercado, Doug G. Cole (Mentor)

Idaho Conference on Undergraduate Research

Euglena are photosynthetic unicellular protozoa. Commonly found in rivers, lakes and ponds, some Euglena are found in toxic environments, like areas of acid mine drainage where they can grow at low pH and in the presence of heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenite (e.g. Euglena mutabilis). The goal of this research is to determine if an Idaho Euglena isolate (SG6) belongs to the E. mutabilis species and to compare it’s level of arsenite resistance with other E. mutabilis strains. As part of the methodology, we have developed microtiter plate assays in which the cells are grown in ...


The Role Of Inflammasomes In Asbestos-Induced Mesothelial To Fibroblastic Transition, Joyce K. Thompson 2017 University of Vermont

The Role Of Inflammasomes In Asbestos-Induced Mesothelial To Fibroblastic Transition, Joyce K. Thompson

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is a fatal disease with a low median survival between 8 to 12 months after diagnosis. MM has a long latency period (10-60 years), is causally related to asbestos exposure, and is refractory to all available modes of therapy. Despite the causal association between asbestos exposure and MM however, the mechanisms by which asbestos induces this deadly disease remain unclear. Chronic inflammation due to the presence of asbestos fibers is believed to play an important role in all aspects of MM pathogenesis, from development to progression and resistance. Chronic inflammation has been shown to promote dysregulated wound ...


Effects Of Novel Fragment-Warhead Adducts In Situ And In Vitro With Glutaredoxin Orthologs., Andrew J. Caras 2017 The University of Akron

Effects Of Novel Fragment-Warhead Adducts In Situ And In Vitro With Glutaredoxin Orthologs., Andrew J. Caras

Honors Research Projects

Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is a method of pharmaceutical research involving characterization of small “fragment” molecule interactions with a target protein. These fragments are optimized with the addition of a nucleophilic “warhead” moiety. Several novel fragment-warhead adducts have been synthesized in house by group member Ram Khattri Ph.D. The experiment investigates reactivity of these adducts with glutaredoxin protein (Grx) orthologs from Homo sapiens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Brucella melitensis. Three novel fragment-warhead adducts have been identified to cause weakly bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal effects, most with minimum inhibitory concentration values near 1.28 mg/mL. Discussed herein are molecular effects of ...


Phage Display To Identify Functional Resistance Mutations To Rigosertib, Nedim Filipovic 2017 Claremont McKenna College

Phage Display To Identify Functional Resistance Mutations To Rigosertib, Nedim Filipovic

CMC Senior Theses

In vitro protein selection has had major impacts in the field of protein engineering. Traditional screens assay individual proteins for specific function. Selection, however, analyzes a pool of mutants and yields the best variants. Phage display, a successful selection technique, also provides a reliable link between variant phenotype and genotype. It can also be coupled with high throughput sequencing to map protein mutations; potentially highlighting vital mutations in variants. We propose to apply this technique to cancer therapy. RAF, a serine/threonine kinase, is critical for cell regulation in mammals. RAF can be activated by oncogenic RAS, found in over ...


The Chemistry Of The Flint Water Crisis, Ernest M. Oleksy 2016 Cleveland State University

The Chemistry Of The Flint Water Crisis, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Politics and science do not always go hand-in-hand. Nowhere was this more clear than in the Flint Water Crisis. Negligence towards growing levels of lead poisoning in drinking water led to incredibly deleterious effects on Flint's citizens. The chemistry of equilibrium and the shortcomings of local leaders led to Flint's water becoming a crisis.


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Arvin Iracheta-Vellve

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


The Association Between Oxidative Stress, Cellular Differentiation And Galectins In Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60), James R. Vinnai 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Association Between Oxidative Stress, Cellular Differentiation And Galectins In Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60), James R. Vinnai

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Galectins are a group of β-galactoside-binding proteins involved in different cellular processes including stress responses and differentiation. The role and expression of galectins under oxidative stress and during neutrophilic differentiation was examined in HL-60 cells. Galectin gene (LGALS), and galectin protein expression were determined using RT-qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Neutrophilic differentiation was measured via a spectrofluorometric assay. DNA methylation and JNK signaling were investigated as galectin regulatory mechanisms. Menadione-induced oxidative stress, DMSO-induced differentiation, DNA hypomethylation and JNK signaling all promoted similar galectin expression profiles. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuated the menadione-induced galectin expression but only partially attenuated DMSO-induced galectin expression. Galectin inhibitory ...


Id4 And Fkbp52 Interaction Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity: Mechanistic Insight, Jugal Bharat Joshi 2016 Clark Atlanta University

Id4 And Fkbp52 Interaction Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity: Mechanistic Insight, Jugal Bharat Joshi

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The inhibitor of DNA binding protein 4 (ID4) is a dominant negative regulator of basic helix loop helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors.1 Recently, Patel et al., demonstrated that inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) acts as a tumor suppressor and its loss, frequently observed in prostate cancer, promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through constitutive androgen receptor (AR) activation.2 However, the mechanism by which loss of ID4 promotes constitutively active AR signaling in the CRPC conditions is unknown. The rationale of the present study was to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms through which loss of ID4 potentiates AR signaling ...


Amyloidogenesis In Animals: Investigating The Correlation Between Iapp Aggregation And Type-Ii Diabetes Mellitus, Kate Menefee 2016 Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School

Amyloidogenesis In Animals: Investigating The Correlation Between Iapp Aggregation And Type-Ii Diabetes Mellitus, Kate Menefee

Research & Exhibition

No abstract provided.


Stability Of Peatland Carbon To Rising Temperatures, R. M. Wilson, A. M. Hopple, M. M. Tfaily, S. D. Sebestyen, C. W. Schadt, L. Pfeifer-Meister, Cassandra Medvedeff, K. J. McFarlane, J. E. Kostka, M. Kolton, R. K. Kolka, L. A. Kluber, Jason K. Keller, T. P. Guilderson, N. A. Griffiths, J. P. Chanton, S. D. Brigham, P. J. Hanson 2016 Florida State University

Stability Of Peatland Carbon To Rising Temperatures, R. M. Wilson, A. M. Hopple, M. M. Tfaily, S. D. Sebestyen, C. W. Schadt, L. Pfeifer-Meister, Cassandra Medvedeff, K. J. Mcfarlane, J. E. Kostka, M. Kolton, R. K. Kolka, L. A. Kluber, Jason K. Keller, T. P. Guilderson, N. A. Griffiths, J. P. Chanton, S. D. Brigham, P. J. Hanson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Peatlands contain one-third of soil carbon (C), mostly buried in deep, saturated anoxic zones (catotelm). The response of catotelm C to climate forcing is uncertain, because prior experiments have focused on surface warming. We show that deep peat heating of a 2 m-thick peat column results in an exponential increase in CH4 emissions. However, this response is due solely to surface processes and not degradation of catotelm peat. Incubations show that only the top 20–30 cm of peat from experimental plots have higher CH4 production rates at elevated temperatures. Radiocarbon analyses demonstrate that CH4 and CO2 are produced primarily ...


Riboregulation Of Bacterial Transposons, Michael J. Ellis 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Riboregulation Of Bacterial Transposons, Michael J. Ellis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bacterial transposons typically exist in a mutually beneficial relationship with the host cell. Limited transposition can benefit the host while also ensuring the survival of the element. An important component of this relationship is that transposition must be tightly regulated. In this thesis I explore ways that the host and transposon each control transposition in E. coli and provide evidence that a transposon can also control host gene expression in S. enterica Typhimurium. Post-transcriptional regulation with small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) has emerged as a key way that bacteria respond to stress and regulate many cellular processes. The RNA-binding protein Hfq ...


Scanning Electron Microscopy Laboratory Portfolio, Ian E. Newcomb 2016 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Scanning Electron Microscopy Laboratory Portfolio, Ian E. Newcomb

N.C. Brown Center for Ultrastructure Studies

These images were prepared by Ian Newcomb as part of the class MCR 484 Scanning Electron Microscopy at SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Fall 2016.

All images were acquired on the JEOL JSM 5800 LV Scanning Electron Microscope in the N. C. Brown Center for Ultrastructure Studies


The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe- Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe- Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette

Master's Theses

The elasmobranch osmoregulatory strategy is predicated on the accumulation of nitrogenous compounds, primarily urea and trimethylamine n¬-oxide (TMAO). Despite the abundance of these plasma osmolytes, it is notable that elasmobranchs appear to lack urease and TMA oxidase (Tmase), enzymes that scavenge urea-nitrogen and synthesize TMAO, respectively. However, urease and Tmase are found in many species of bacteria. Therefore, I hypothesized that intestinal bacteria are responsible for urease and Tmase activity in elasmobranchs. Absent dietary nitrogen sources, I evaluated the effects of reduced intestinal microbiota on osmoregulation in Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) in vivo. D. sabina were given daily broad-spectrum ...


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted 2016 East Tennessee State University

Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants that have bioactive properties including antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer. Two isomeric flavone were extracted from Gnaphalium elegans and Achyrocline bogotensis, plants used by the people from the Andean region of South America as remedies for cancer. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5, 7–dihydroxy- 3, 6, 8 trimethoxy flavone/ flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3, 5–dihydroxy-6, 7, 8–trimethoxy flavone/ flavone B) have shown antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cell lines dependent upon their differentiation status. Pharmacokinetic studies reported herein were used to determine dosing for antitumor assays, as ...


Exploring Enrichment Cultures Of Denitrifying Microorganisms From El Yunque National Forest, Samiha Ahsan, Jenny Onley, Frank Loeffler 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Exploring Enrichment Cultures Of Denitrifying Microorganisms From El Yunque National Forest, Samiha Ahsan, Jenny Onley, Frank Loeffler

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Spatial Crowding And Confinement Effects On Bursty Gene Expression, Charles Wei-Shing Chin 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Spatial Crowding And Confinement Effects On Bursty Gene Expression, Charles Wei-Shing Chin

Doctoral Dissertations

Synthetic biology and genetic engineering are valuable tools in the development of new, sustainable energy generation technologies. The characterization of stochastic gene expression is vital to the efficient application of genetic engineering techniques. Transcriptional bursting, in which periods of high expression are punctuated by periods of no expression, is extensively observed in gene expression. While various molecular mechanisms have been hypothesized to be responsible for transcriptional bursting, spatial considerations have largely been neglected. This work uses computational modeling to examine in detail the influence of spatial factors such as macromolecular crowding and confinement on gene expression.

In the first part ...


Towards Understanding Osmolyte Effects On Folate(S) And Dihydrofolate Reductase Proteins, Purva Prashant Bhojane 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Towards Understanding Osmolyte Effects On Folate(S) And Dihydrofolate Reductase Proteins, Purva Prashant Bhojane

Doctoral Dissertations

Osmolytes are small molecules that alter water activity and probe role of water in biological processes. Osmotic stress approach explored the role of water in ligand binding to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR catalyzes NADPH dependent reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF), which is essential for the synthesis of DNA, amino acids and other metabolic intermediates. R67 DHFR is a plasmid-encoded DHFR that confers resistance against trimethoprim, which is a potent inhibitor of E.coli chromosomal DHFR.

Osmolytes addition decreases the affinity of the substrate towards both the DHFRs. Weak preferential interactions between the osmolytes and DHF impede substrate binding ...


Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar

Dissertations

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and harbor several pathogens which transmit various diseases to humans and their domesticated animals. Host blood- digestion in a tick midgut (MG) generates several reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are extremely toxic to essential macromolecules (e.g. DNA, proteins, and lipids) within the cell, resulting in high oxidative stress. Thus, this dissertation focuses on the questions of how tick homeostasis responds to high oxidative stress, and how ticks and their harbored pathogens survive the high surge of oxidative stress during blood digestion. We are specifically interested in the tick-pathogen, Rickettsia parkeri (R. parkeri, Rp), harbored ...


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