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Characterization And Manipulation Of O-Glcnacylation In Granulosa Cells Of Bovine Ovarian Antral Follicles, Abigail Marie Maucieri 2022 University of Vermont

Characterization And Manipulation Of O-Glcnacylation In Granulosa Cells Of Bovine Ovarian Antral Follicles, Abigail Marie Maucieri

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Glucose is widely recognized as the preferred energy substrate for metabolism by granulosa cells (GCs). Yet in most cells, 2-5% of glucose is shunted through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) for O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation). O-GlcNAcylation is an evolutionarily-conserved, post-translational process that modifies serine and threonine residues on a variety of proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is also considered a nutrient sensor that can regulate cellular processes such as metabolism, signal transduction, and proliferation. In this respect, O-GlcNAcylation may be similar to, and possibly mediate, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and its nutrient-sensing actions. However, the occurrence of O-GlcNAcylation and its relative importance to ...


Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade

Protocols and Reports

Senescence, from the shortening of telomeres, accumulation of mutations, epigenetic hypomethylation, and other causes, begins an eventual cycle of decline in every patient. Stem cells disappear as a function of age, which in turn impairs cellular replication. Moreover, when fully differentiated cells are induced back into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they not only revert to a state of pre-differentiation, but also to a younger cellular age. Their aging clocks turn back: their telomeres become longer and DNA methylation reverts back to an earlier age. It should therefore be possible to use iPSCs to replace the missing stem cells from ...


Apoε4 Lowers Energy Expenditure In Females And Impairs Glucose Oxidation By Increasing Flux Through Aerobic Glycolysis, Brandon C. Farmer, Holden C. Williams, Nicholas A. Devanney, Margaret A. Piron, Grant K. Nation, David J. Carter, Adeline E. Walsh, Rebika Khanal, Lyndsay E. A. Young, Jude C. Kluemper, Gabriela Hernandez, Elizabeth J. Allenger, Rachel Mooney, Lesley R. Golden, Cathryn T. Smith, J. Anthony Brandon, Vedant A. Gupta, Philip A. Kern, Matthew S. Gentry, Josh M. Morganti, Ramon C. Sun, Lance A. Johnson 2021 University of Kentucky

Apoε4 Lowers Energy Expenditure In Females And Impairs Glucose Oxidation By Increasing Flux Through Aerobic Glycolysis, Brandon C. Farmer, Holden C. Williams, Nicholas A. Devanney, Margaret A. Piron, Grant K. Nation, David J. Carter, Adeline E. Walsh, Rebika Khanal, Lyndsay E. A. Young, Jude C. Kluemper, Gabriela Hernandez, Elizabeth J. Allenger, Rachel Mooney, Lesley R. Golden, Cathryn T. Smith, J. Anthony Brandon, Vedant A. Gupta, Philip A. Kern, Matthew S. Gentry, Josh M. Morganti, Ramon C. Sun, Lance A. Johnson

Physiology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Cerebral glucose hypometabolism is consistently observed in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as in young cognitively normal carriers of the Ε4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (APOE), the strongest genetic predictor of late-onset AD. While this clinical feature has been described for over two decades, the mechanism underlying these changes in cerebral glucose metabolism remains a critical knowledge gap in the field.

METHODS: Here, we undertook a multi-omic approach by combining single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) and stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM) to define a metabolic rewiring across astrocytes, brain tissue, mice, and human subjects expressing APOE4.

RESULTS ...


The Nature Of Cofilin’S Severing Mechanism, Ethan Lester 2021 Yale University

The Nature Of Cofilin’S Severing Mechanism, Ethan Lester

The Yale Undergraduate Research Journal

Cofilin plays an essential role in regulating actin filament propagation through the cytoplasmic medium. Over the years, various studies have been conducted in an attempt to better understand the complex mechanism by which cofilin promotes filament severing and de-polymerization. Here, we have compiled information obtained from these studies in order to craft a more complete and succinct description of cofilin functionality. In particular, we review the precise structural and mechanical changes associated with cofilin-binding, and the subtle ways in which some of these structural changes may be interconnected.


Mutations In Several Auxin Biosynthesis Genes And Their Effects On Plant Phenotypes In Arabidopsis, Gabriela Hernandez, Lauren Huebner, Bethany Karlin Zolman 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Mutations In Several Auxin Biosynthesis Genes And Their Effects On Plant Phenotypes In Arabidopsis, Gabriela Hernandez, Lauren Huebner, Bethany Karlin Zolman

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Auxins are important hormones in plants that regulate growth and development. Disruptions in the auxin biosynthesis pathway result in morphological changes in phenotypes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, including differences in root and leaf formation. Mutations in the Tryptophan Aminotransferase of Arabidopsis (TAA1) and YUCCA (YUC4) genes interfere with the plant's ability to synthesize Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the primary auxin involved in plant development. IBR1 and IBR3 act in the multistep conversion of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to IAA. ILL2, IAR3, and ILR1 hydrolyze IAA-amino acid conjugates into free IAA. The goal of our study was to determine the ...


A Novel Approach For Characterizing The Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community, Abdullah Ahmed Salim, Priscilla Nicole Pineda, Isabella Alamilla, Andrew Dean Putt 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Novel Approach For Characterizing The Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community, Abdullah Ahmed Salim, Priscilla Nicole Pineda, Isabella Alamilla, Andrew Dean Putt

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

A Novel Approach for Characterizing the Ultra-Micro Size-Fraction Community

Students: Abdullah Salim, Priscilla Pineda, Isabella Alamilla

Mentors/Supervisors: Andrew Putt, Terry C. Hazen

ABSTRACT

The ultra-micro size-fraction (UMSF) are bacteria that can pass through the 0.2 µm pore membrane filters employed in environmental surveys. Despite being ubiquitous and having high metabolic activity, UMSF remain elusive and largely uncultured. Investigations of UMSF are skewed by difficulties in culturing and a lack of techniques for measuring UMSF biogeochemical signatures. This study measures surface stream UMSF community diversity, and community response to the addition of the synthetic pharmaceutical and cosmetic carbon product ...


60. Epfl Genes And Their Role In Flower Development In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rachael Deboe 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

60. Epfl Genes And Their Role In Flower Development In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rachael Deboe

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Flowers are composed of four floral organ types: sepals, petals, stamens, and a pistil. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the ERECTA family leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (LRR-RLKs) have been shown to regulate plant morphology. Epidermal Patterning Factor-Like (EPFL) genes encode for small secretory proteins that are ligands for ERECTA Family (ERf) receptors. It is suspected that EPFL’s act as a signal to coordinate proper lateral organ number, patterning, and spacing. ERf mutants have significant defects in flower development, including difficulty forming anther lobes and pistils, yet little is known about how individual EPFL ligands contribute to ERf signaling. In ...


Targeting The Cdk6 Dependence Of Ph+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Patrizia Porazzi, Marco De Dominici, Joseph Salvino, Bruno Calabretta 2021 Thomas Jefferson University

Targeting The Cdk6 Dependence Of Ph+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Patrizia Porazzi, Marco De Dominici, Joseph Salvino, Bruno Calabretta

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Ph+ ALL is a poor-prognosis leukemia subtype driven by the BCR-ABL1 oncogene, either the p190-or the p210-BCR/ABL isoform in a 70:30 ratio. Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the drugs of choice in the therapy of Ph+ ALL. In combination with standard chemotherapy, TKIs have markedly improved the outcome of Ph+ ALL, in particular if this treatment is followed by bone marrow transplantation. However, resistance to TKIs develops with high frequency, causing leukemia relapse that results in <5-year overall survival. Thus, new therapies are needed to address relapsed/TKI-resistant Ph+ ALL. We have shown that expression of cell cycle regulatory kinase CDK6, but not of the highly related CDK4 kinase, is required for the proliferation and survival of Ph+ ALL cells. Comparison of leukemia suppression induced by treatment with the clinically-approved dual CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib versus CDK6 silencing revealed that the latter treatment was markedly more effective, probably reflecting inhibition of CDK6 kinase-independent effects. Thus, we developed CDK4/6-targeted proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) that preferentially degrade CDK6 over CDK4. One compound termed PROTAC YX-2-107, which degrades CDK6 by recruiting the Cereblon ubiquitin ligase, markedly suppressed leukemia burden in mice injected with de novo or TKI-resistant Ph+ ALL. The effect of PROTAC YX-2-107 was comparable or superior to that of palbociclib. The development of CDK6-selective PROTACs represents an effective strategy to exploit the “CDK6 dependence” of Ph+ ALL cells while sparing a high proportion of normal hematopoietic progenitors that depend on both CDK6 and CDK6 for their survival. In combination with other agents, CDK6-selective PROTACs may be valuable components of chemotherapy-free protocols for the therapy of Ph+ ALL and other CDK6-dependent hematological malignancies.


Three Lc-Ms Plant Metabolomics Studies Of Hop (Humulus) Species: Wild H. Neomexicanus, Drought Stress, And Agricultural Terroir, Taylan Morcol 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Three Lc-Ms Plant Metabolomics Studies Of Hop (Humulus) Species: Wild H. Neomexicanus, Drought Stress, And Agricultural Terroir, Taylan Morcol

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The hop plant (Humulus L., Cannabaceae) is a dioecious, perennial, twining vine with a long history of human use. Nowadays, hop plants are generally grown for their inflorescences (“cones”), which are used in brewing for their phytochemical metabolites. Many of these metabolites are involved in plant stress response and communication. Genetics and environment are two major factors that affect plant metabolism. In three separate metabolomics studies, this project examined the effects of both genetic and environmental factors on hop phytochemistry.

In the first study, 23 hop genotypes were grown in two different locations in the Pacific Northwest region of the ...


Machine Learning And Solvation Theory For Drug Discovery, Lieyang Chen 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Machine Learning And Solvation Theory For Drug Discovery, Lieyang Chen

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Drug discovery is a notoriously expensive and time-consuming process; hence, developing computational methods to facilitate the discovery process and lower the associated costs is a long-sought goal of computational chemists. Protein-ligand binding, which provides the physical and chemical basis for the mechanism of action of most drugs, occurs in an aqueous environment, and binding affinity is determined not only by atomic interactions between the protein and ligand but also by changes in their interactions with surrounding water molecules that occur upon binding. Thus, a quantitative understanding of the roles water molecules play in the protein-ligand binding process is an essential ...


Tools And Strategies For The Patterning Of Bioactive Molecules And Macromolecules, Daniel J. Valles 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Tools And Strategies For The Patterning Of Bioactive Molecules And Macromolecules, Daniel J. Valles

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hypersurface Photolithography (HP) is a printing method for fabricating structures and patterns composed of soft materials bound to solid surfaces and with ~1 micrometer resolution in the x, y, and z dimensions. This platform leverages benign, low intensity light to perform photochemical surface reactions with spatial and temporal control of irradiation, and, as a result, is particularly useful for patterning delicate organic and biological material. In particular, surface- initiated controlled radical polymerizations can be leveraged to create arbitrary polymer and block- copolymer brush patterns. Chapter 1 will review the advances in instrumentation architectures from our group that have made these ...


Don't Sell Them Short, There's More To Bacterial Natural Products Than Antibiotics, Alison Clare Domzalski 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Don't Sell Them Short, There's More To Bacterial Natural Products Than Antibiotics, Alison Clare Domzalski

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Recent genomic studies of microbiomes have revealed an overwhelming number of biosynthetic genes of unknown function. Most of these “cryptic” biosynthetic genes are not expressed in laboratory monocultures of individual microbes. Thus, there remains tremendous untapped potential for natural products discovery. Here we employ mixed microbial culture (MMC) as a simple yet powerful approach to awaken cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters. Our preliminary studies demonstrated that arrays of metabolites could be induced in MMCs upon environmental cues, such as surface adhesion. Using this system, we have screened, identified, and isolated bioactive bacterial metabolites, which were characterized structurally and biologically. Of the ...


The Veiled Lady Fungus, Nick Parbhoo 2021 Kennesaw State University

The Veiled Lady Fungus, Nick Parbhoo

Symposium of Student Scholars

This semester I studied the Stinkhorn mushroom Phallus Indusiatus. The plan of this research is to develop a protocol for growing this fungus and using it in collaboration with research on it’s web-like properties of the unique veil produced by the fruiting body. This will be distributed to teams of engineers as well as NASA for Dr. Penick’s research. Due to logistics of receiving spores from across the world, we still have not been able to begin growing these mushrooms. However, I have described a protocol that we will follow in order to grow. The protocol contains detailed ...


Conserved Regions Mediate Interactions Between Canonical Nox Domains, Akua Acheampong 2021 Kennesaw State University

Conserved Regions Mediate Interactions Between Canonical Nox Domains, Akua Acheampong

Symposium of Student Scholars

NAPDH oxidase (NOXes) are membrane-bound enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a role in immune response and signaling. Misregulation of NOXes is implicated in various human pathologies. NOXes contain a catalytic core comprised of a heme-containing transmembrane (TM) domain and a cytoplasmic dehydrogenase (DH) domain that binds FAD and NADPH. Several conserved regions at the interface of the TM and DH domains in eukaryotic NOXes have been suggested to mediate enzyme function and activity. In 2017, researchers successfully purified SpNox, a bona fide NOX homolog from Streptococcus pneumoniae and verified its NOX properties. SpNox’s robust activity ...


Effects Of Osmotic Stress Induced By Polyethylene Glycol (Peg) 6000 And Mannitol On Seed Germination And Seedling Growth Of Durum Wheat, Ratiba Bousba, Rabah Bounar, Narimene Sedrati, Randa Lakhal, Chourouk Hamla, Malika Rached-Kanouni 2021 Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University Mentouri Brothers Constantine 1, Algeria.

Effects Of Osmotic Stress Induced By Polyethylene Glycol (Peg) 6000 And Mannitol On Seed Germination And Seedling Growth Of Durum Wheat, Ratiba Bousba, Rabah Bounar, Narimene Sedrati, Randa Lakhal, Chourouk Hamla, Malika Rached-Kanouni

Journal of Bioresource Management

Seed germination is generally the critical step in seed establishment and thus the determination of successful crop production. This study was focused at examination of the biochemical and germination parameters effected by low water potential which was generated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and mannitol, related to drought stress and growth of Waha durum wheat genotype. Two tests were carried out in a growth chamber; the first comprises seed germination into Petri dishes in the presence of different concentrations of the two osmoticums (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % of PEG6000 and mannitol). The second test was carried out in ...


Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol 2021 American University in Cairo

Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersaline environments are extreme habitats that can be exploited as biotechnological resources. Here, we characterized a nitrilase (NitraS-ATII) isolated from Atlantis II Deep brine pool. It showed higher thermal stability and heavy metal tolerance compared to a closely related nitrilase.

We also studied integrons in halophiles and hypersaline environments. Integrons are genetic platforms in which an integron integrase (IntI) mediates the excision and integration of gene cassettes at specific recombination sites. In order to search for integrons in halophiles and hypersaline metagenomes, we used a PCR-based approach, in addition to different bioinformatics tools, mainly IntegronFinder.

We found that integrons and ...


Assessing Selective Plasmids For Bradyrhizobium Sp. Doa9 And Mesorhizobium Loti, Aiden J. Wilcox, Rebecca Meaney, Bogumil Karas 2021 Western University

Assessing Selective Plasmids For Bradyrhizobium Sp. Doa9 And Mesorhizobium Loti, Aiden J. Wilcox, Rebecca Meaney, Bogumil Karas

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule 3 (Corm - 3) On Platelet Adhesion To Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Najat S. El-Farra 2021 Western University

Effect Of Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule 3 (Corm - 3) On Platelet Adhesion To Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Najat S. El-Farra

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Sepsis is characterized by the widespread inflammation of the body. Systemic inflammation activates and recruits inflammatory cells (e.g., leukocytes) and platelets to the affected organs.

During these inflammatory conditions, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMEC) and platelets both upregulate adhesive molecules rendering platelets to adhere to hBMEC.

Although carbon monoxide is thought of as a toxic molecule to many, previous work shows its anti-inflammatory properties. Evidence has shown carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (e.g., CORM-3; that release small, non-toxic amounts of CO) can combat the effects of severe inflammation in several in vivo animal model.

In this current study, we ...


Understanding The Role Of Rhamm In Tumor Load– Mediated Tumor Invasiveness Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Ashwin Sritharan, Britney Messam 2021 Western University

Understanding The Role Of Rhamm In Tumor Load– Mediated Tumor Invasiveness Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Ashwin Sritharan, Britney Messam

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

1.Compare the levels of proliferation between RHAMM+/+ and RHAMM -/- MDA-MB-231 spheroids as determined by ki67 and Caspase 3 signaling 2.Compare levels of RHAMM, CD44, Has2, and p-ERK activation between RHAMM+/+ and RHAMM -/- MDA-MB-231 spheroids


Fine-Scale Morphological Divergence Of Wing Trait Variables In Highly Fragmented Populations Of The Bog Copper Butterfly (Lycaena Epixanthe), Jessica L. T. Jeong 2021 Western University

Fine-Scale Morphological Divergence Of Wing Trait Variables In Highly Fragmented Populations Of The Bog Copper Butterfly (Lycaena Epixanthe), Jessica L. T. Jeong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Habitat fragmentation can adversely affect animal and plant species through subdividing their natural habitats into smaller, more isolated patches. Oftentimes, these isolated groups are subject to reduced dispersal and gene flow, leading to genetic divergence and, consequently, morphological divergence among populations. This study aims to quantify the morphological divergence of the bog copper butterfly, Lycaena epixanthe, between nine isolated bog sites in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, via seven quantitative morphological traits in their wing pattern. Statistical analyses demonstrate significant differences in wing trait measurements between populations. As bog coppers are small, weak fliers with a strict host-plant dependency, it is ...


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