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Rna Interference As A Tool For The Functional Analysis Of Genes In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (Say), Ashley Danielle Yates 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Rna Interference As A Tool For The Functional Analysis Of Genes In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (Say), Ashley Danielle Yates

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring phenomenon in eukaryotes in which a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) suppresses the expression of a target gene. RNAi has markedly changed the way in which functional genetics studies are performed, especially in non-model organisms. In insects, the efficacy of RNAi is influenced by several factors, including the species and the methods of dsRNAs delivery.

The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a pest of the plant family Solanaceae. RNAi in the CPB is of interest for potential use in insect management and as a tool to study the interaction with host plants ...


The Evolution Of Genomic Imprinting: Theories, Predictions And Empirical Tests, M M. Patten, L Ross, J P. Curley, David C. Queller, R Bonduriansky, J B. Wolf 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

The Evolution Of Genomic Imprinting: Theories, Predictions And Empirical Tests, M M. Patten, L Ross, J P. Curley, David C. Queller, R Bonduriansky, J B. Wolf

Biology Faculty Publications

The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues’ kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky’s sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager’s maternal–offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal ...


Internesting Diving Behavior And Population Structure Of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys Imbricata) On St. Croix, Usvi, Jacob E. Hill 2014 Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne

Internesting Diving Behavior And Population Structure Of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys Imbricata) On St. Croix, Usvi, Jacob E. Hill

Master's Theses

Hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are distributed circumtropically and populations in many locations have been severely depleted. Developing management plans for this species is hindered by major gaps in knowledge concerning habitat use, behavior, and population structure. This study addresses these knowledge gaps for hawksbill sea turtles nesting at Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Specifically, I will focus on research priorities identified by the US Fish and Wildlife Service in the Recovery Plan for Hawksbill Sea Turtles in the US Caribbean Sea.

The first chapter addresses Recovery Plan Objective 111: Identify Important Nesting Beaches. Three ...


Associations Between Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis System Gene Variants And Cortisol Reactivity In Preschoolers: Main Effects And Gene-Environment Interactions, Haroon I. Sheikh 2014 Western University

Associations Between Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis System Gene Variants And Cortisol Reactivity In Preschoolers: Main Effects And Gene-Environment Interactions, Haroon I. Sheikh

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Exposure to stressful events during early development has consistently been shown to produce long lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may increase vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders. Recently reported genetic association studies indicate that these disorders may be influenced, in part, by gene-environment interactions (GxE) involving polymorphisms within the corticotrophin-releasing hormone and monoaminergic system genes. However, little is known about how genetic variants and life stress work to shape children’s neuroendocrine reactivity and emerging symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to examine main effects of candidate genes and GxE on the neuroendocrine stress response ...


The Evolution Of Respiratory O2/No Reductases: An Out-Of-The-Phylogenetic-Box Perspective, Anne-Lise Ducluzeau, Barbara Schoepp-Cothenet, Robert van Lis, Frauke Baymann, Michael J. Russell, Wilfgang Nitschke 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Evolution Of Respiratory O2/No Reductases: An Out-Of-The-Phylogenetic-Box Perspective, Anne-Lise Ducluzeau, Barbara Schoepp-Cothenet, Robert Van Lis, Frauke Baymann, Michael J. Russell, Wilfgang Nitschke

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Complex life on our planet crucially depends on strong redox disequilibria afforded by the almost ubiquitous presence of highly oxidizing molecular oxygen. However, the history of O2-levels in the atmosphere is complex and prior to the Great Oxidation Event some 2.3 billion years ago, the amount of O2 in the biosphere is considered to have been extremely low as compared with present-day values. Therefore the evolutionary histories of life and of O2-levels are likely intricately intertwined. The obvious biological proxy for inferring the impact of changing O2-levels on life is the evolutionary ...


Investigations Into Sensory Ecology And Gene Evolution Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Swapna R. Purandare 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigations Into Sensory Ecology And Gene Evolution Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Swapna R. Purandare

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Organisms use environmental cues to gather information required to perform activities that are essential for their survival and reproduction, such as searching for food, avoiding danger, and finding mates. They respond to the acquired information by changing their behavior or physiology, which may result in increased fitness. Due to the fundamental importance of information in an organism’s life, it is important to understand its acquisition, processing, and the organism’s response to it. In the work presented here, we used the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), an insect that produces multiple phenotypes, or morphs, that are genetically identical, but differ ...


Multiple Transcription Factors Directly Regulate Hox Gene Lin-39 Expression In Ventral Hypodermal Cells Of The C. Elegans Embryo And Larva, Including The Hypodermal Fate Regulators Lin-26 And Elt-6, Wan-Ju Liu, John S. Reece-Hoyes, Albertha J. M. Walhout, David M. Eisenmann 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Multiple Transcription Factors Directly Regulate Hox Gene Lin-39 Expression In Ventral Hypodermal Cells Of The C. Elegans Embryo And Larva, Including The Hypodermal Fate Regulators Lin-26 And Elt-6, Wan-Ju Liu, John S. Reece-Hoyes, Albertha J. M. Walhout, David M. Eisenmann

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo.

RESULTS: We used the ...


The Mechanism Of Small Rna Biogenesis, Degradation, And Function In Arabidopsis, Meng Xie 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Mechanism Of Small Rna Biogenesis, Degradation, And Function In Arabidopsis, Meng Xie

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Eukaryotic small RNAs play important roles in many biological processes through sequence-specific RNA silencing. In plants, there are mainly two small RNAs triggering gene silencing: microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The biogenesis and precise regulation of small RNA abundance are crucial for plant growth, development, genomic stability, and the resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana, the model plant, to study the mechanism of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), in which siRNAs can trigger DNA methylation and gene silencing. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of miRNA biogenesis and degradation. For RdDM ...


An Examination Of The Phylogenetic Diversity Of Green Algae (Chlorophyceae) That Symbiose With Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum) In The Egg Stage., Crystal Xue 2014 University of Connecticut

An Examination Of The Phylogenetic Diversity Of Green Algae (Chlorophyceae) That Symbiose With Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum) In The Egg Stage., Crystal Xue

Honors Scholar Theses

In 1909, the species Oophila amblystomatis Lambert ex Wille was described for green algae that symbiose with salamanders in the egg stage (Wille). There are two hypotheses about the source of algae: 1) that algae enter from the surrounding water once the egg clutch is laid in a pond, and 2) that they are acquired from the maternal reproductive tract. We developed a third hypothesis developed to account for the salamander reproductive cycle. Male salamanders lay spermatophores, which are protein-filled capsules, on plant matter in and around ponds. Spermatophores are exposed to the environment before use by females in internal ...


Transcriptome Analysis Of Sea Lamprey Embryogenesis, Zakary Ilya Yermolenko 2014 Seton Hall University

Transcriptome Analysis Of Sea Lamprey Embryogenesis, Zakary Ilya Yermolenko

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has survived throughout evolution for hundreds of millions of years. It is considered an invasive species to the Great Lakes that has caused dramatic changes in the ecosystem for fish communities resulting in the collapse of a fishing industry that was previously valued at billions of dollars. Successful management of the sea lamprey is essential to a sustainable fishing industry and biodiversity. Therefore sea lamprey embryos were studied at various stages of development by growing them in a simulated habitat. RNAs from adult female ovaries and embryos at different time points during embryogenesis were extracted ...


The Association Between The Il-1 Pathway, Isaac C. Wun 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

The Association Between The Il-1 Pathway, Isaac C. Wun

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a potentially lethal malignancy that warrants attention and further research, as it is known to that there is an increasing rate of incidence in theUnited States, and it is also known that exposure to UV light is its most crucial risk factor, and family history of melanoma is also an important risk factor. Melanoma is an aggressive and lethal cancer in humans. There are an estimated new 132,000 melanoma cases annually worldwide, and the trend has doubled in the past 20 years. However, attempts to treat melanoma have encountered considerable resistance and remained ineffective ...


Lifecycle Efficiency Of Mice Divergently Selected For Heat Loss, Adrienne Bhatnagar 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Lifecycle Efficiency Of Mice Divergently Selected For Heat Loss, Adrienne Bhatnagar

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Divergent selection for heat loss as an indication of maintenance energy requirements in mice resulted in a low (ML) and high maintenance line (MH), and an intermediate control line (MC). Improved feed efficiency has been observed in ML mice, which would be economically beneficial in livestock species. However, previous work showed evidence of unfavorable correlated responses to selection in ML mice compared to MH mice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to model a lifecycle similar to a livestock production system using these lines and determine if these correlated responses diminish the benefit of improved feed efficiency by calculating ...


Clpxp Modulates Cell Growth And Morphology In Cell Shape Mutants Of E.Coli, Ryann Murphy 2014 University of Rhode Island

Clpxp Modulates Cell Growth And Morphology In Cell Shape Mutants Of E.Coli, Ryann Murphy

Senior Honors Projects

ClpXP modulates cell growth and morphology in cell shape mutants of E. coli

Ryann Murphy1 and Jodi L. Camberg1

1University of Rhode Island, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Kingston, RI, 02881

Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs) are a family of prokaryotic membrane proteins named for their propensity to bind the antibiotic penicillin and are involved in remodeling and deposition of peptidoglycan. In wild type Escherichia coli cells, the uniform rod shape is conserved across generations. E.coli cells containing multiple deletions of Low Molecular Weight (LMW) PBPs exhibit irregular shapes. LMW PBP5 (dacA) is a potential substrate ...


Student Identity Considerations And Implications Associated With Socioscientific Issues Instruction, Mitchel James Ruzek 2014 University of South Florida

Student Identity Considerations And Implications Associated With Socioscientific Issues Instruction, Mitchel James Ruzek

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this investigation was to explore how aspects of identity, perceived levels of controversy, and the strength of a student's attachment to their controversial identity relate to conceptual understanding and knowledge acquisition during socioscientific issues (SSI) based instruction in a biology classroom. The knowledge gained from this study will have the capacity to enhance our understanding of the role that attachment to identity plays during SSI negotiation. Additionally, insight was gained into the role played by aspects of identity in conceptual understanding of scientifically controversial topics during SSI based instruction.

This study contributed to the existing knowledge ...


Is Sickle Cell Trait As Benign As Is Usually Assumed?, Carroll Nicole Flansburg 2014 University of South Florida

Is Sickle Cell Trait As Benign As Is Usually Assumed?, Carroll Nicole Flansburg

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Introduction Sickle cell trait carriers may experience sickling events, which can cause severe health problems. Some sickle cell haplotypes contain genetic modifiers that are associated with increased levels of fetal hemoglobin, which is resistant to sickling. The aim of this study is to determine if sickle cell trait individuals who do not carry these modifiers are more likely to experience sickling episodes than those who do carry the modifiers.

Methods: Participants were eligible for inclusion in this study if they were male, 18 years of age or older, a sickle cell trait carrier, and had previously played any level ...


Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, kimberly.busiek@gmail.com K. Busiek 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Division of a bacterial cell into two equal daughter cells requires precise assembly and constriction of the division machinery, or divisome. The Escherichia coli divisome includes nearly a dozen essential cell division proteins that assemble at midcell between segregating sister chromosomes. FtsZ, a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin, is the first essential cell division protein to localize at midcell where it polymerizes into a ring-shaped scaffold (Z ring). Establishment of the Z ring is required for recruitment of downstream cell division proteins including FtsA, a cytoplasmic protein that tethers the Z ring to the inner membrane. Following localization of FtsA and ...


Genetic Resistance To Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis Associated With Bovine Cxcr1, Olivia Jean Crisp 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Genetic Resistance To Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis Associated With Bovine Cxcr1, Olivia Jean Crisp

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer 2014 University of Connecticut

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

University Scholar Projects

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer 2014 University of Connecticut

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

Honors Scholar Theses

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


A Proteomics Approach To Elucidate Enhancer-Mediated Gene Activation And Chromatin Topology, Grace Kroner 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

A Proteomics Approach To Elucidate Enhancer-Mediated Gene Activation And Chromatin Topology, Grace Kroner

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters & Abstracts

The molecular mechanisms that govern enhancer-mediated chromatin remodeling for gene activation and transcription are poorly understood. Our lab has recently identified an evolutionarily conserved non-coding element named 923 as a regulatory enhancer within the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC) locus. The EDC, located on human chromosome 1q21, encodes genes required for skin barrier function. Although our studies identify a mechanistic role for AP-1/c-Jun transcription factor binding to 923 in mediating EDC chromatin remodeling and relevant gene activation, residual 923 enhancer activity and chromatin looping continues to persist upon AP-1/c-Jun inhibition. Thus, the precise mechanism that links promoters in the ...


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