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Regressive Evolution In The Mexican Cave Tetra, Astyanax Mexicanus, Meredith E. Protas, Melissa Conrad, Joshua B. Gross, Clifford Tabin, Richard Borowsky 2017 Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School

Regressive Evolution In The Mexican Cave Tetra, Astyanax Mexicanus, Meredith E. Protas, Melissa Conrad, Joshua B. Gross, Clifford Tabin, Richard Borowsky

Meredith Protas

Cave adapted animals generally have reduced pigmentation and eyes, but the evolutionary forces driving the reductions are unknown; Darwin famously questioned the role of natural selection in eye loss in cave fishes; “As it is difficult to imagine that eyes, although useless, could be in any way injurious to animals living in darkness, I attribute their loss wholly to disuse” [1]. We studied the genetic basis of this phenomenon in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, by mapping the quantitative trait loci (QTL) determining differences in eye/lens sizes and melanophore number between cave and surface fish. In addition, we ...


A Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cave, Surface, And Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans Of The Species Asellus Aquaticus, Bethany A. Stahl, Joshua B. Gross, Daniel I. Speiser, Todd H. Oakley, Nipham H. Patel, Douglas B. Gould, Meredith E. Protas 2017 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati

A Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cave, Surface, And Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans Of The Species Asellus Aquaticus, Bethany A. Stahl, Joshua B. Gross, Daniel I. Speiser, Todd H. Oakley, Nipham H. Patel, Douglas B. Gould, Meredith E. Protas

Meredith Protas

Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal ...


Using Phylogenetically-Informed Annotation (Pia) To Search For Light-Interacting Genes In Transcriptomes From Non-Model Organisms, Daniel I. Speiser, M. Sabrina Pankey, Alexander K. Zaharoff, Barbara A. Battelle, Heather D. Bracken-Grissom, Jesse W. Breinholt, Seth M. Bybee, Thomas W. Cronin, Anders Garm, Annie R. Lindgren, Nipam H. Patel, Megan L. Porter, Meredith E. Protas, Anja S. Rivera, Jeanne M. Serb, Kirk S. Zigler, Keith A. Crandall, Todd H. Oakley 2017 Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara

Using Phylogenetically-Informed Annotation (Pia) To Search For Light-Interacting Genes In Transcriptomes From Non-Model Organisms, Daniel I. Speiser, M. Sabrina Pankey, Alexander K. Zaharoff, Barbara A. Battelle, Heather D. Bracken-Grissom, Jesse W. Breinholt, Seth M. Bybee, Thomas W. Cronin, Anders Garm, Annie R. Lindgren, Nipam H. Patel, Megan L. Porter, Meredith E. Protas, Anja S. Rivera, Jeanne M. Serb, Kirk S. Zigler, Keith A. Crandall, Todd H. Oakley

Meredith Protas

Background: Tools for high throughput sequencing and de novo assembly make the analysis of transcriptomes (i.e. the suite of genes expressed in a tissue) feasible for almost any organism. Yet a challenge for biologists is that it can be difficult to assign identities to gene sequences, especially from non-model organisms. Phylogenetic analyses are one useful method for assigning identities to these sequences, but such methods tend to be time-consuming because of the need to re-calculate trees for every gene of interest and each time a new data set is analyzed. In response, we employed existing tools for phylogenetic analysis ...


Opsin Repertoire And Expression Patterns In Horseshoe Crabs: Evidence From The Genome Of Limulus Polyphemus (Arthropoda: Chelicerata), Barbara-Anne Battelle, Joseph F. Ryan, Karen E. Kempler, Spencer R. Saraf, Catherine E. Marten, Wesley C. Warren, Patrick J. Minx, Michael J. Montague, Pamela J. Green, Skye A. Schmidt, Lucinda Fulton, Nipam H. Patel, Meredith E. Protas, Richard K. Wilson, Megan L. Porter 2017 Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, Departments of Neuroscience and Biology, University of Florida

Opsin Repertoire And Expression Patterns In Horseshoe Crabs: Evidence From The Genome Of Limulus Polyphemus (Arthropoda: Chelicerata), Barbara-Anne Battelle, Joseph F. Ryan, Karen E. Kempler, Spencer R. Saraf, Catherine E. Marten, Wesley C. Warren, Patrick J. Minx, Michael J. Montague, Pamela J. Green, Skye A. Schmidt, Lucinda Fulton, Nipam H. Patel, Meredith E. Protas, Richard K. Wilson, Megan L. Porter

Meredith Protas

Horseshoe crabs are xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister groupto arachnids. As such, they are important for understandingthemost recent common ancestor of Euchelicerata and the evolution and diversification of Arthropoda. Limulus polyphemus is the most investigated of the four extant species of horseshoe crabs, and the structure and function of its visual system have long been a major focus of studies critical for understanding the evolution of visual systems in arthropods. Likewise, studies of genes encoding Limulus opsins, the protein component of the visual pigments, are critical for understanding opsin evolution and diversification among chelicerates, where knowledge of opsins is limited, and ...


Penetrance Estimates For Incidental Genomic Findings In Acmg-59, James A. Diao 2017 Yale University

Penetrance Estimates For Incidental Genomic Findings In Acmg-59, James A. Diao

Yale Day of Data

The dropping costs and rising popularity of next-generation sequencing has introduced the possibility of personalizing medical treatments and screening for genetic diseases. Still, the clinical community’s understanding remains incomplete, with limited consensus on the proper interpretation for many genetic variants. Thus, the standard procedure when returning sequencing results has been to report findings only in genes related to the diagnostic indication, and not incidental findings in other genes. To balance the threat of false positives with the medical benefits of true findings, the American College on Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommends an exception: that clinical sequencing laboratories seek ...


Human-Nonhuman Chimeras, Ontology, And Dignity: A Constructivist Approach To The Ethics Of Conducting Research On Cross-Species Hybrids, Jonathan M. Vajda 2017 Western Michigan University

Human-Nonhuman Chimeras, Ontology, And Dignity: A Constructivist Approach To The Ethics Of Conducting Research On Cross-Species Hybrids, Jonathan M. Vajda

The Hilltop Review

Developments in biological technology in the last few decades highlight the surprising and ever-expanding practical benefits of stem cells. With this progress, the possibility of combining human and nonhuman organisms is a reality, with ethical boundaries that are not readily obvious. These inter-species hybrids are of a larger class of biological entities called “chimeras.” As the concept of a human-nonhuman creature is conjured in our minds, either incredulous wonder or grotesque horror is likely to follow. This paper seeks to mitigate those worries and demotivate reasonable concerns raised against chimera research, all the while pressing current ethical positions toward their ...


Transcriptomes Of Bovine Ovarian Follicular And Luteal Cells, Sarah Romereim, Adam Summers, William E. Pohlmeier, Pan Zhang, Xiaoying Hou, Heather Talbott, Robert A. Cushman, Jennifer R. Wood, John S. Davis, Andrea S. Cupp 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Transcriptomes Of Bovine Ovarian Follicular And Luteal Cells, Sarah Romereim, Adam Summers, William E. Pohlmeier, Pan Zhang, Xiaoying Hou, Heather Talbott, Robert A. Cushman, Jennifer R. Wood, John S. Davis, Andrea S. Cupp

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Affymetrix Bovine GeneChip® Gene 1.0 ST Array RNA expression analysis was performed on four somatic ovarian cell types: the granulosa cells (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) of the dominant follicle and the large luteal cells (LLCs) and small luteal cells (SLCs) of the corpus luteum. The normalized linear microarray data was deposited to the NCBI GEO repository (GSE83524). Subsequent ANOVA determined genes that were enriched (≥2 fold more) or decreased (≤−2 fold less) in one cell type compared to all three other cell types, and these analyzed and filtered datasets are presented as tables. Genes that were shared in ...


Integrative Genomic And Transcriptomic Analysis For Pinpointing Recurrent Alterations Of Plant Homeodomain Genes And Their Clinical Significance In Breast Cancer, Huimei Yu, Yuanyuan Jiang, Lanxin Liu, Wenqi Shan, Xiaofang Chu, Zhe Yang, Zeng-Quan Yang 2016 Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine

Integrative Genomic And Transcriptomic Analysis For Pinpointing Recurrent Alterations Of Plant Homeodomain Genes And Their Clinical Significance In Breast Cancer, Huimei Yu, Yuanyuan Jiang, Lanxin Liu, Wenqi Shan, Xiaofang Chu, Zhe Yang, Zeng-Quan Yang

Oncology Faculty Publications

A wide range of the epigenetic effectors that regulate chromatin modification, gene expression, genomic stability, and DNA repair contain structurally conserved domains called plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers. Alternations of several PHD finger-containing proteins (PHFs) due to genomic amplification, mutations, deletions, and translocations have been linked directly to various types of cancer. However, little is known about the genomic landscape and the clinical significance of PHFs in breast cancer. Hence, we performed a large-scale genomic and transcriptomic analysis of 98 PHF genes in breast cancer using TCGA and METABRIC datasets and correlated the recurrent alterations with clinicopathological features and survival of ...


Novel Models Of Visual Topographic Map Alignment In The Superior Colliculus., Ruben A Tikidji-Hamburyan, Tarek A El-Ghazawi, Jason W. Triplett 2016 George Washington University

Novel Models Of Visual Topographic Map Alignment In The Superior Colliculus., Ruben A Tikidji-Hamburyan, Tarek A El-Ghazawi, Jason W. Triplett

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

The establishment of precise neuronal connectivity during development is critical for sensing the external environment and informing appropriate behavioral responses. In the visual system, many connections are organized topographically, which preserves the spatial order of the visual scene. The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain nucleus that integrates visual inputs from the retina and primary visual cortex (V1) to regulate goal-directed eye movements. In the SC, topographically organized inputs from the retina and V1 must be aligned to facilitate integration. Previously, we showed that retinal input instructs the alignment of V1 inputs in the SC in a manner dependent on ...


Genetic Monitoring In The Workplace: A Tool Not A Solution, Lillian Trettin, Catherine Musham, Richard Jablonski 2016 University of New Hampshire

Genetic Monitoring In The Workplace: A Tool Not A Solution, Lillian Trettin, Catherine Musham, Richard Jablonski

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors differentiate between genetic monitoring and screening, and discuss the potential risks and benefits of predictive testing technologies.


Psychosocial Risks Of Storing And Using Human Tissues In Research, Jon F. Merz 2016 University of New Hampshire

Psychosocial Risks Of Storing And Using Human Tissues In Research, Jon F. Merz

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Merz argues that genetics technology makes it more compelling that researchers plan more carefully for the collection and disposition of information derived from subjects' tissues and blood.


Genome Research And Traditional Intellectual Property Protection -- A Bad Fit?, Kate H. Murashige 2016 University of New Hampshire

Genome Research And Traditional Intellectual Property Protection -- A Bad Fit?, Kate H. Murashige

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Murashige addresses the need for a patent system more closely tailored to the needs of biotechnology. For example, the obviousness requirement may interfere with using patents to recoup high costs of work when it could arguably be done by researchers of ordinary skill.


Social Issues Of Genome Innovation And Intellectual Property, Elaine Alma Draper 2016 University of New Hampshire

Social Issues Of Genome Innovation And Intellectual Property, Elaine Alma Draper

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Draper's focus is the use of personal information derived from genome research. She identifies several potential problems, including access to and control of genetic information, employment discrimination and social stratification. She also recommends possible solutions.


Exploration Of Dna Transfer In The Nyc Subway, Sannia K. Tauqeer 2016 CUNY John Jay College

Exploration Of Dna Transfer In The Nyc Subway, Sannia K. Tauqeer

Student Theses

The ability to detect “touch” DNA has complicated the interpretation of DNA profiles in the field of forensics because it leads to the introduction of the concept of DNA transfer, persistence and background into casework. This project is geared towards understanding DNA transfer in the NYC subways and has relevance in groping and attempted sexual assault cases, where garments are submitted as evidence. The study involved 10 volunteers who were asked to wear a clean jacket during their trips on the subway for one week and the DNA from these jackets was collected, extracted, quantified, amplified and typed. The results ...


American Chestnut Sem Portfolio, Dakota Matthews 2016 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

American Chestnut Sem Portfolio, Dakota Matthews

N.C. Brown Center for Ultrastructure Studies

Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of transgenic american chestnut pollen and anthers. Chinkapin anthers and pollen imaged also.


Peering Below The Diffraction Limit: Robust And Specific Sorting Of Viruses With Flow Cytometry, Shea T. Lance, David J. Sukovich, Kenneth M. Stedman, Adam R. Abate 2016 University of California, San Francisco

Peering Below The Diffraction Limit: Robust And Specific Sorting Of Viruses With Flow Cytometry, Shea T. Lance, David J. Sukovich, Kenneth M. Stedman, Adam R. Abate

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Viruses are incredibly diverse organisms and impact all forms of life on Earth; however, individual virions are challenging to study due to their small size and mass, precluding almost all direct imaging or molecular analysis. Moreover, like microbes, the overwhelming majority of viruses cannot be cultured, impeding isolation, replication, and study of interesting new species. Here, we introduce PCR-activated virus sorting, a method to isolate specific viruses from a heterogeneous population. Specific sorting opens new avenues in the study of uncultivable viruses, including recovering the full genomes of viruses based on genetic fragments in metagenomes, or identifying the hosts ...


Molecular Measurement Of Toxicity In Fish; Case Examples And Policy Implications, Jessica A. Freedman 2016 University of Rhode Island

Molecular Measurement Of Toxicity In Fish; Case Examples And Policy Implications, Jessica A. Freedman

Senior Honors Projects

Stormwater and oil are common urban contaminants that can be harmful to fish species. One way of recognizing exposed and impaired fish is by monitoring gene expression and gene induction. This study focused on the identification and validation of reference genes for measuring contaminant-induced changes in gene expression due to urban influence. In this study, reference genes (which are genes used to normalize data and remain consistent in varying exposures regardless of organism and tissue type) were established. Six genes were identified as reference genes (ef1a, wdtc1, mtm1, spop, rxrba and tuba1) from a longer list of potential reference genes ...


Strategies For Enriching Variant Coverage In Candidate Disease Loci On A Multiethnic Genotyping Array, Stephanie Bien, Genevieve L. Wojcik, Niha Zubair, Christopher Gignoux, Alicia R. Martin, Lisa W. Martin, PAGE Study Investigators 2016 George Washington University

Strategies For Enriching Variant Coverage In Candidate Disease Loci On A Multiethnic Genotyping Array, Stephanie Bien, Genevieve L. Wojcik, Niha Zubair, Christopher Gignoux, Alicia R. Martin, Lisa W. Martin, Page Study Investigators

Medicine Faculty Publications

Investigating genetic architecture of complex traits in ancestrally diverse populations is imperative to understand the etiology of disease. However, the current paucity of genetic research in people of African and Latin American ancestry, Hispanic and indigenous peoples in the United States is likely to exacerbate existing health disparities for many common diseases. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology, Phase II (PAGE II), Study was initiated in 2013 by the National Human Genome Research Institute to expand our understanding of complex trait loci in ethnically diverse and well characterized study populations. To meet this goal, the Multi-Ethnic Genotyping Array (MEGA ...


Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar

Dissertations

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and harbor several pathogens which transmit various diseases to humans and their domesticated animals. Host blood- digestion in a tick midgut (MG) generates several reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are extremely toxic to essential macromolecules (e.g. DNA, proteins, and lipids) within the cell, resulting in high oxidative stress. Thus, this dissertation focuses on the questions of how tick homeostasis responds to high oxidative stress, and how ticks and their harbored pathogens survive the high surge of oxidative stress during blood digestion. We are specifically interested in the tick-pathogen, Rickettsia parkeri (R. parkeri, Rp), harbored ...


Evolution In Light Of Mitonuclear Landscapes An Examination Of Mitochondrial Replacement In Killifish (Fundulus Spp.), Stephen D. Flanagan 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Evolution In Light Of Mitonuclear Landscapes An Examination Of Mitochondrial Replacement In Killifish (Fundulus Spp.), Stephen D. Flanagan

Dissertations

The mitochondria are responsible for the bulk of energy production in eukaryotes. They possess their own genome that works in conjunction with the nuclear genome to accomplish the extraordinarily important task of energy conversion. When species hybridize there will be a mismatch in evolutionary histories between these two genomes. The deleterious interactions of these genomes have been studied in great detail (i.e. hybrid breakdown). However, little work has been conducted to understand the population genetic, and morphological consequences of wide-ranging replacement. The Fundulus notatus complex is comprised of 3 species: F. notatus, F. olivaceus, and F. euryzonus. Within the ...


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