Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Genetics and Genomics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

5926 Full-Text Articles 15761 Authors 680757 Downloads 168 Institutions

All Articles in Genetics and Genomics

Faceted Search

5926 full-text articles. Page 1 of 185.

Genome Research And Traditional Intellectual Property Protection -- A Bad Fit?, Kate H. Murashige 2016 University of New Hampshire

Genome Research And Traditional Intellectual Property Protection -- A Bad Fit?, Kate H. Murashige

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Murashige addresses the need for a patent system more closely tailored to the needs of biotechnology. For example, the obviousness requirement may interfere with using patents to recoup high costs of work when it could arguably be done by researchers of ordinary skill.


Social Issues Of Genome Innovation And Intellectual Property, Elaine Alma Draper 2016 University of New Hampshire

Social Issues Of Genome Innovation And Intellectual Property, Elaine Alma Draper

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Draper's focus is the use of personal information derived from genome research. She identifies several potential problems, including access to and control of genetic information, employment discrimination and social stratification. She also recommends possible solutions.


Evolution In Light Of Mitonuclear Landscapes An Examination Of Mitochondrial Replacement In Killifish (Fundulus Spp.), Stephen D. Flanagan 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Evolution In Light Of Mitonuclear Landscapes An Examination Of Mitochondrial Replacement In Killifish (Fundulus Spp.), Stephen D. Flanagan

Dissertations

The mitochondria are responsible for the bulk of energy production in eukaryotes. They possess their own genome that works in conjunction with the nuclear genome to accomplish the extraordinarily important task of energy conversion. When species hybridize there will be a mismatch in evolutionary histories between these two genomes. The deleterious interactions of these genomes have been studied in great detail (i.e. hybrid breakdown). However, little work has been conducted to understand the population genetic, and morphological consequences of wide-ranging replacement. The Fundulus notatus complex is comprised of 3 species: F. notatus, F. olivaceus, and F. euryzonus. Within the ...


Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar

Dissertations

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and harbor several pathogens which transmit various diseases to humans and their domesticated animals. Host blood- digestion in a tick midgut (MG) generates several reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are extremely toxic to essential macromolecules (e.g. DNA, proteins, and lipids) within the cell, resulting in high oxidative stress. Thus, this dissertation focuses on the questions of how tick homeostasis responds to high oxidative stress, and how ticks and their harbored pathogens survive the high surge of oxidative stress during blood digestion. We are specifically interested in the tick-pathogen, Rickettsia parkeri (R. parkeri, Rp), harbored ...


A Microbiomic Approach To The Characterization Of The Impacts And Influences Of Viral, Bacterial, And Harmfulalgal Bloom Toxins On The Bottlenose Dolphin, Corey David Russo 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

A Microbiomic Approach To The Characterization Of The Impacts And Influences Of Viral, Bacterial, And Harmfulalgal Bloom Toxins On The Bottlenose Dolphin, Corey David Russo

Dissertations

As apex predators that display high site fidelity Tursiops truncatus (bottlenose dolphin) are indicators of marine ecosystem health. Bottlenose dolphins, additionally, display pathogenesis and immune response similar to that of humans. Humans and coastal bottlenose dolphins, in particular, are constantly exposed to the same industrial, agricultural and domestic toxins and pathogens, contaminants and pollutants. Thus, studies on the bottlenose dolphin are also valuable in bridging the gap between ocean and human health. Bottlenose dolphins are susceptible to viral bacterial and toxin infection. Infection in the bottlenose dolphin manifests itself in the form of mass stranding events, unusual mortality events, chronic ...


Role Of Multicellular Aggregates In Biofilm Formation, Kasper N. Kragh, Jaime B. Hutchison, Gavin Melaugh, Chris Rodesney, Aled E. L. Roberts, Yasuhiko Irie, Peter Ø. Jensen, Stephen P. Diggle, Rosalind J. Allen, Vernita Gordon, Thomas Bjarnsholt 2016 University of Copenhagen

Role Of Multicellular Aggregates In Biofilm Formation, Kasper N. Kragh, Jaime B. Hutchison, Gavin Melaugh, Chris Rodesney, Aled E. L. Roberts, Yasuhiko Irie, Peter Ø. Jensen, Stephen P. Diggle, Rosalind J. Allen, Vernita Gordon, Thomas Bjarnsholt

Yasuhiko Irie

In traditional models of in vitro biofilm development, individual bacterial cells seed a surface, multiply, and mature into multicellular, three-dimensional structures. Much research has been devoted to elucidating the mechanisms governing the initial attachment of single cells to surfaces. However, in natural environments and during infection, bacterial cells tend to clump as multicellular aggregates, and biofilms can also slough off aggregates as a part of the dispersal process. This makes it likely that biofilms are often seeded by aggregates and single cells, yet how these aggregates impact biofilm initiation and development is not known. Here we use a combination of ...


Chip-Seq And Rna-Seq Reveal An Amrz-Mediated Mechanism For Cyclic Di-Gmp Synthesis And Biofilm Development By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Christopher J. Jones, David Newsom, Benjamin Kelly, Yasuhiko Irie, Laura K. Jennings, Binjie Xu, Dominique H. Limoli, Joe J. Harrison, Matthew R. Parsek, Peter White, Daniel J. Wozniak 2016 The Ohio State University

Chip-Seq And Rna-Seq Reveal An Amrz-Mediated Mechanism For Cyclic Di-Gmp Synthesis And Biofilm Development By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Christopher J. Jones, David Newsom, Benjamin Kelly, Yasuhiko Irie, Laura K. Jennings, Binjie Xu, Dominique H. Limoli, Joe J. Harrison, Matthew R. Parsek, Peter White, Daniel J. Wozniak

Yasuhiko Irie

The transcription factor AmrZ regulates genes important for P. aeruginosa virulence, including type IV pili, extracellular polysaccharides, and the flagellum; however, the global effect of AmrZ on gene expression remains unknown, and therefore, AmrZ may directly regulate many additional genes that are crucial for infection. Compared to the wild type strain, a ΔamrZ mutant exhibits a rugose colony phenotype, which is commonly observed in variants that accumulate the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). Cyclic di-GMP is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDE). We hypothesized that AmrZ limits the intracellular accumulation of c-di-GMP through transcriptional repression ...


The Cababc Operon Essential For Biofilm And Rugose Colony Development In Vibrio Vulnificus, Jin Hwan Park, Youmi Jo, Song Yee Jang, Haenaem Kwon, Yasuhiko Irie, Matthew R. Parsek, Myung Hee Kim, Sang Ho Choi 2016 Seoul National University

The Cababc Operon Essential For Biofilm And Rugose Colony Development In Vibrio Vulnificus, Jin Hwan Park, Youmi Jo, Song Yee Jang, Haenaem Kwon, Yasuhiko Irie, Matthew R. Parsek, Myung Hee Kim, Sang Ho Choi

Yasuhiko Irie

A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix ...


Exploring Molecular Mechanisms Of Paradoxical Activation In The Braf Kinase Dimers: Atomistic Simulations Of Conformational Dynamics And Modeling Of Allosteric Communication Networks And Signaling Pathways, Amanda Tse, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2016 Chapman University

Exploring Molecular Mechanisms Of Paradoxical Activation In The Braf Kinase Dimers: Atomistic Simulations Of Conformational Dynamics And Modeling Of Allosteric Communication Networks And Signaling Pathways, Amanda Tse, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The recent studies have revealed that most BRAF inhibitors can paradoxically induce kinase activation by promoting dimerization and enzyme transactivation. Despite rapidly growing number of structural and functional studies about the BRAF dimer complexes, the molecular basis of paradoxical activation phenomenon is poorly understood and remains largely hypothetical. In this work, we have explored the relationships between inhibitor binding, protein dynamics and allosteric signaling in the BRAF dimers using a network-centric approach. Using this theoretical framework, we have combined molecular dynamics simulations with coevolutionary analysis and modeling of the residue interaction networks to determine molecular determinants of paradoxical activation. We ...


Self-Complementary Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors Improve Transduction Efficiency Of Corneal Endothelial Cells, Anja K. Gruenert, Marta Czugala, Christian Mueller, Marco Schmeer, Martin Schleef, Friedrich E. Kruse, Thomas A. Fuchsluger 2016 University of Erlangen-Nurnberg

Self-Complementary Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors Improve Transduction Efficiency Of Corneal Endothelial Cells, Anja K. Gruenert, Marta Czugala, Christian Mueller, Marco Schmeer, Martin Schleef, Friedrich E. Kruse, Thomas A. Fuchsluger

Christian Mueller

Transplantation of a donor cornea to restore vision is the most frequently performed transplantation in the world. Corneal endothelial cells (CEC) are crucial for the outcome of a graft as they maintain corneal transparency and avoid graft failure due to corneal opaqueness. Given the characteristic of being a monolayer and in direct contact with culture medium during cultivation in eye banks, CEC are specifically suitable for gene therapeutic approaches prior to transplantation. Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) vectors represent a promising tool for gene therapy of CEC. However, high vector titers are needed to achieve sufficient gene expression. One of ...


Expression Of The Primary Carbohydrate Component Of The Bordetella Bronchiseptica Biofilm Matrix Is Dependent On Growth Phase But Independent Of Bvg Regulation, Yasuhiko Irie, Andrew Preston, Ming H. Yuk 2016 University of Dayton

Expression Of The Primary Carbohydrate Component Of The Bordetella Bronchiseptica Biofilm Matrix Is Dependent On Growth Phase But Independent Of Bvg Regulation, Yasuhiko Irie, Andrew Preston, Ming H. Yuk

Yasuhiko Irie

We previously showed that the Bvg virulence control system regulates biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica (Y. Irie, S. Mattoo, and M. H. Yuk, J. Bacteriol. 186:5692-5698, 2004). Analyses of the extracellular components of B. bronchiseptica biofilm matrix revealed that the major sugar component in the matrix was xylose, and linkage analysis indicated a majority of it to be in a 4-linked polymeric form. The production of xylose was independent of Bvg regulation but instead was dependent on bacterial growth phase. In addition, N-acetyl-glucosamine in the matrix was found to be important for the initial development of the biofilm ...


Fluorescence-Based Reporter For Gauging Cyclic Di-Gmp Levels In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Morten T. Rybtke, Bradley R. Borlee, Keiji Murakami, Yasuhiko Irie, Morten Hentzer, Thomas E. Nielsen, Michael Givskov, Matthew R. Parsek, Tim Tolker-Nielsen 2016 University of Copenhagen

Fluorescence-Based Reporter For Gauging Cyclic Di-Gmp Levels In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Morten T. Rybtke, Bradley R. Borlee, Keiji Murakami, Yasuhiko Irie, Morten Hentzer, Thomas E. Nielsen, Michael Givskov, Matthew R. Parsek, Tim Tolker-Nielsen

Yasuhiko Irie

The increased tolerance toward the host immune system and antibiotics displayed by biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other bacteria in chronic infections such as cystic fibrosis bronchopneumonia is of major concern. Targeting of biofilm formation is believed to be a key aspect in the development of novel antipathogenic drugs that can augment the effect of classic antibiotics by decreasing antimicrobial tolerance. The second messenger cyclic di-GMP is a positive regulator of biofilm formation, and cyclic di-GMP signaling is now regarded as a potential target for the development of antipathogenic compounds. Here we describe the development of fluorescent monitors that can gauge ...


[Review Of] The Genetic Frontier: Ethics, Law, And Policy (Mark S. Frankel & Albert Teich Eds., American Association For The Advancement Of Science 1994), Suzanne A. Sprunger 2016 University of New Hampshire

[Review Of] The Genetic Frontier: Ethics, Law, And Policy (Mark S. Frankel & Albert Teich Eds., American Association For The Advancement Of Science 1994), Suzanne A. Sprunger

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of: The Genetic Frontier: Ethics, Law, and Policy (Mark S. Frankel & Albert Teich eds., American Association for the Advancement of Science 1994). Acknowledgments, appendix, contributors, figures, index, introduction, notes, references, tables. LC 93-37230, ISBN 0-87168-526-4. [260 pp. Paper $22.95. 1333 H St., NW, Washington DC 20005.]


Biotechnology Process Patents: Is Special Legislation Needed?, Timothy P. Linkkila, Timothy E. Tracy 2016 University of New Hampshire

Biotechnology Process Patents: Is Special Legislation Needed?, Timothy P. Linkkila, Timothy E. Tracy

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors review administrative and court decisions prompting proposed changes to the patent law. After reviewing pros and cons, they argue that, on balance, pending bills can easily cause more problems than they solve.


Technology Transfer And The Genome Project: Problems With Patenting Research Tools, Rebecca S. Eisenberg 2016 University of New Hampshire

Technology Transfer And The Genome Project: Problems With Patenting Research Tools, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Professor Eisenberg argues against a system providing for federally-sponsored inventions to be patented if any associated person so desires. She believes that the system does not adequately weigh the possibility that the greatest social return from genome research will require some discoveries to be in the public domain.


The Human Genome Project And The Downside Of Federal Technology Transfer, Christopher J. Harnett 2016 University of New Hampshire

The Human Genome Project And The Downside Of Federal Technology Transfer, Christopher J. Harnett

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Mr. Harnett argues that emphasizing technology transfer at institutions such as the National Institutes of Health will interfere with what should be regarded as their primary mission, basic research.


Technology Transfer: A View From The Trenches, Harvey Drucker 2016 University of New Hampshire

Technology Transfer: A View From The Trenches, Harvey Drucker

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Drucker, who has lab-wide responsibility for technology transfer at Argonne National Laboratory, argues that transferring rights in discoveries made through tax supported research to private entities can contribute to public welfare in many ways.


Overview Of Federal Technology Transfer, Lawrence Rudolph 2016 University of New Hampshire

Overview Of Federal Technology Transfer, Lawrence Rudolph

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Mr. Rudolph reviews approximately thirteen years of legal and political developments that have contributed to laws governing the extent to which private firms may secure rights in technology at least partly developed with federal funds.


Overview Of Potential Intellectual Property Protection For Biotechnology, Kate H. Murashige 2016 University of New Hampshire

Overview Of Potential Intellectual Property Protection For Biotechnology, Kate H. Murashige

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Murashige compares the function and value of copyright, patent and trade secret laws in recovering investments in developing genome-related biotechnology.


Origins Of The Human Genome Project, Robert Mullan Cook-Deegan 2016 University of New Hampshire

Origins Of The Human Genome Project, Robert Mullan Cook-Deegan

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Cook-Deegan recounts some of the scientific and political history leading to controversy about the proper mix of private and public roles in pursuing genome research and bringing its fruits to bear, e.g., in preventing and curing disease.


Digital Commons powered by bepress