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Genetic Effect Of Drought On The California Newt, Taricha Torosa, Madeleine M. Perrault, Samantha Fiallo, Alero Arueyingho, Cindy Kim, Laiken Ritchie 2017 Pepperdine University

Genetic Effect Of Drought On The California Newt, Taricha Torosa, Madeleine M. Perrault, Samantha Fiallo, Alero Arueyingho, Cindy Kim, Laiken Ritchie

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Droughts are now a common occurrence in Southern California and are known to cause population declines in many species, and such bottlenecks can cause a loss of genetic variation. Genetic variation was examined in a population of the California newt located in Arroyo Sequit Creek in the Santa Monica Mountains. Genetic data from animals examined prior to the current drought were compared to similar data collected from the population after it experienced several years of severe drought. We hypothesized that the drought impacted population should show less genetic variation in comparison to the pre-drought population. Nevertheless, there were no genetic ...


Messenger Rna And Microrna Transcriptomic Signatures Of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, David D. McManus, Jian Rong, Tianxiao Huan, Sean Lacey, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Peter J. Munson, Martin G. Larson, Roby Joehanes, Venkatesh Murthy, Ravi Shah, Jane Freedman, Daniel Levy 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Messenger Rna And Microrna Transcriptomic Signatures Of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, David D. Mcmanus, Jian Rong, Tianxiao Huan, Sean Lacey, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Peter J. Munson, Martin G. Larson, Roby Joehanes, Venkatesh Murthy, Ravi Shah, Jane Freedman, Daniel Levy

David D. McManus

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors are heritable and cluster in individuals. We hypothesized that CM risk factors are associated with multiple shared and unique mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) signatures. We examined associations of mRNA and miRNA levels with 6 CM traits: body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, fasting glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures through cross-sectional analysis of 2812 Framingham Heart Study who had whole blood collection for RNA isolation for mRNA and miRNA expression studies and who consented to genetic research. We excluded participants taking medication for hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. We measured mRNA (n = 17,318; using ...


Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio 2017 Dr. Michael Ruscio

Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio

Journal of Evolution and Health

Clinicians have long understood the immense impact the health of our gut has on things like weight, energy, depression, autoimmunity and more. With the recent advancements in microbiota research we have learned much more about this connection. Like never before we understand how we can alleviate chronic health conditions and enhance well-being through improving the health of the gut.

However, with this increased research has also come over speculation and ill-informed recommendations. This has high impact on today's healthcare professional or consumer who could unintentionally do harm. For example by replicating the microbiota of hunter-gatherers of Africa, we could ...


Functional Redundancy Between Trans-Golgi Network Snare Family Members In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Sang-Jin Kim, Diane C. Bassham 2017 Iowa State University

Functional Redundancy Between Trans-Golgi Network Snare Family Members In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Sang-Jin Kim, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Background

Vesicle fusion is an essential process for maintaining the structure and function of the endomembrane system. Fusion is mediated by t-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) fusion proteins on the target membrane and v-SNAREs on the vesicle membrane; v-and t-SNAREs interact with each other, driving vesicle fusion with the target membrane. The Arabidopsis thaliana trans-Golgi network resident SNAREs SYP41 and VTI12, along with YKT61/62, have been shown to function in vesicle fusion in vitro, consistent with immunoprecipitation results showing their interaction in Arabidopsis cell extracts. Conflicting published results have indicated that SYP4 family members are ...


Guidelines For The Use And Interpretation Of Assays For Monitoring Autophagy In Higher Eukaryotes, Daniel J. Klionsky, Michael J. Lenardo, Diane C. Bassham 2017 University of Michigan-Ann Arbor

Guidelines For The Use And Interpretation Of Assays For Monitoring Autophagy In Higher Eukaryotes, Daniel J. Klionsky, Michael J. Lenardo, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,1 and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.2,3 There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there ...


Autophagy In Plants And Algae, Diane C. Bassham, Jose L. Crespo 2017 Iowa State University

Autophagy In Plants And Algae, Diane C. Bassham, Jose L. Crespo

Diane Bassham

Autophagy is a major cellular degradation pathway in which materials are delivered to the vacuole in double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes, broken down, and recycled (Li and Vierstra, 2012; Liu and Bassham, 2012). In photosynthetic organisms, the pathway is strongly activated by biotic and abiotic stresses, including nutrient limitation, oxidative, salt and drought stress and pathogen infection, and during senescence (Perez-Perez et al., 2012; Lv et al., 2014). Mutation of genes required for autophagy causes hypersensitivity to stress, indicating that autophagy is important for tolerance of multiple stresses. While autophagy is often non-selective, a growing number of examples of selectivity ...


Guidelines For The Use And Interpretation Of Assays For Monitoring Autophagy, Daniel J. Klionsky, Shoba Amarnath, Vellareddy Anantharam, Diane C. Bassham, Bryan Bellaire 2017 University of Michigan-Ann Arbor

Guidelines For The Use And Interpretation Of Assays For Monitoring Autophagy, Daniel J. Klionsky, Shoba Amarnath, Vellareddy Anantharam, Diane C. Bassham, Bryan Bellaire

Diane Bassham

In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is ...


P02. Production Of A Protein Subunit Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin 2017 Western University

P02. Production Of A Protein Subunit Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin

Western Research Forum

The cattle industry worldwide is ravaged by bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a bacterial disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. We have designed a chimeric protein subunit vaccine against M. haemolytica based on recent evidence demonstrating the protective potential of antigens against a virulence factor, leukotoxin, in addition to a surface lipoprotein. Plant-based production of this protein vaccine provides a safe and inexpensive alternative to traditional production methods. Plant-base production also supports the use of an edible vaccine that will deliver antigens to pharyngeal tissues to provide local immunization against M. haemolytica to prior to its progression into the lungs. Chloroplasts produce ...


P08. Unravelling Organelle Genome Evolution Architecture Using Rna-Sequencing Data, Matheus Sanita Lima, David Roy Smith 2017 Western University

P08. Unravelling Organelle Genome Evolution Architecture Using Rna-Sequencing Data, Matheus Sanita Lima, David Roy Smith

Western Research Forum

Background: Mitochondria genomes vary from 11 Mb to 6 kb, while plastids can vary from 1 Mb to 30 kb. Non-coding DNA accounts for most of this size variation, but the mechanistic and evolutionary reasons for that are still unknown. Next generation sequencing has generated unprecedented amounts of genomic and transcriptomic data that can be used for organelle genome evolution studies. However, most of these data is used only for the study of cell nucleus. Therefore, I decided to use these untapped data source to investigate the transcription of organelle genomes in plastid-bearing protists.

Methods: I mapped the transcriptomes over ...


Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2017 Duke University

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


Genetic Variants Contributing To Frontotemporal Dementia With Parkinsonism, Elizabeth C. Oduwo 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Genetic Variants Contributing To Frontotemporal Dementia With Parkinsonism, Elizabeth C. Oduwo

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism (FTDP) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by disturbances in cognition, language, and personality, which also has features of parkinsonism. This disease is associated with multiple genes including two located close together on chromosome 17: MAPT and GRN. Human and medical genetics can be used to identify the genes that contribute to the risk of this disease.

Earlier work in the Chase lab had identified a large Mennonite kindred (MEN-1) where parkinsonism and dementia were found in five members of a nuclear family. These symptoms parallel those seen in FTDP and all of the affected members share ...


Taxonomic Placement Of The Nidulariaceae Of Nebraska And Iowa Based On Molecular And Morphological Data, Goodmond H. Danielsen IV 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Taxonomic Placement Of The Nidulariaceae Of Nebraska And Iowa Based On Molecular And Morphological Data, Goodmond H. Danielsen Iv

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Proper taxonomic and molecular study is necessary to better organize closely related species that may not only be used for human needs, but also in the quest for knowledge of how the world around us works. Though important, the taxonomic placement of Nebraskan and Iowan bird’s nest fungi (Nidulariaceae) is not well documented. Here, phylogenetic analysis is used to place the Nidulariaceae of Nebraska and Iowa in the tree of life using molecular and morphological techniques. Based on these results and results of further work done on these specimens, it will be possible to better place the Nidulariaceae of ...


Diagnosis Of Lchad/Tfp Deficiency In An At Risk Newborn Using Umbilical Cord Blood Acylcarnitine Analysis, Donna Raval, Kristina Cusmano-Ozog, Omar Ayyub, Callie Jenevein, Laura Kofman, Brendan Lanpher, Natalie Hauser, Debra Regier 2017 George Washington University

Diagnosis Of Lchad/Tfp Deficiency In An At Risk Newborn Using Umbilical Cord Blood Acylcarnitine Analysis, Donna Raval, Kristina Cusmano-Ozog, Omar Ayyub, Callie Jenevein, Laura Kofman, Brendan Lanpher, Natalie Hauser, Debra Regier

Pathology Faculty Publications

Trifunctional protein deficiency/Long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD/TFP) deficiency is a disorder of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. Severe neonatal lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy, and hepatic dysfunction are caused by the accumulation of toxic long-chain acylcarnitines. The feasibility of umbilical cord blood use in screening for acylcarnitine analysis and free carnitine has been hypothesized but not reported in LCHAD/TFP neonates.

We present a 4 week old female who was at risk of inheriting LCHAD/TFP deficiency and was diagnosed at the time of delivery using umbilical cord blood. Umbilical cord blood was collected at delivery and sent for acylcarnitine ...


Draft Genome Sequences Of Three Closely Related Isolates Of The Purple Nonsulfur Bacterium Rhodovulum Sulfidophilum, Michael S. Guzman, Beau McGinley, Natalia Santiago-Merced, Dinesh Gupta, Arpita Bose 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Draft Genome Sequences Of Three Closely Related Isolates Of The Purple Nonsulfur Bacterium Rhodovulum Sulfidophilum, Michael S. Guzman, Beau Mcginley, Natalia Santiago-Merced, Dinesh Gupta, Arpita Bose

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

We report here the draft genome sequences of three isolates of Rhodovulum sulfidophilum from a single population that will serve as a model system for understanding genomic traits that underlie metabolic variation within closely related marine purple nonsulfur bacteria in natural microbial communities.


Movement Of Hypophthalmichthys Dna In The Illinois River Watershed By The Double-Crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Auritus), Michael P. Guilfoyle, Heather L. Farrington, Richard F. Lance, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Brian S. Dorr, Richard A. Fischer 2017 U.S. Army Corp of Engineers

Movement Of Hypophthalmichthys Dna In The Illinois River Watershed By The Double-Crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax Auritus), Michael P. Guilfoyle, Heather L. Farrington, Richard F. Lance, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Brian S. Dorr, Richard A. Fischer

Brian S Dorr

Paired throat and cloacal swabs, along with feather samples, from nesting Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) at two sites in Illinois, USA, were tested for presence of invasive bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) DNA. We also used DNA from the feather calamus to determine cormorant sex. Throat and cloacal swabs from cormorants at both locations tested positive for DNA from silver carp (H. molitrix), but none tested positive for  bighead carp (H. nobilis). Hypophthalmichthys DNA was not detected on feathers. There were no significant differences  among positive Hypophthalmichthys DNA detection frequencies between cormorant sexes. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration ...


Association Of Ifih1 And Pro-Inflammatory Mediators: Potential New Clues In Sle-Associated Pathogenesis, Melissa E. Munroe, Nathan Pezant, Michael A. Brown, Dustin A. Fife, Joel M. Guthridge, Jennifer A. Kelly, Graham Wiley, Patrick M. Gaffney, Judith A. James, Courtney G. Montgomery 2017 Rowan University

Association Of Ifih1 And Pro-Inflammatory Mediators: Potential New Clues In Sle-Associated Pathogenesis, Melissa E. Munroe, Nathan Pezant, Michael A. Brown, Dustin A. Fife, Joel M. Guthridge, Jennifer A. Kelly, Graham Wiley, Patrick M. Gaffney, Judith A. James, Courtney G. Montgomery

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Antiviral defenses are inappropriately activated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and association between SLE and the antiviral helicase gene, IFIH1, is well established. We sought to extend the previously reported association of pathogenic soluble mediators and autoantibodies with mouse Mda5 to its human ortholog, IFIH1. To better understand the role this gene plays in human lupus, we assessed association of IFIH1 variants with soluble mediators and autoantibodies in 357 European-American SLE patients, first-degree relatives, and unrelated, unaffected healthy controls. Association between each of 135 genotyped SNPs in IFIH1 and four lupus-associated plasma mediators, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β, and IP-10, were investigated ...


Blood Mercury Levels Of Zebra Finches Are Heritable: Implications For The Evolution Of Mercury Resistance, Kenton A. Buck, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, Daniel A. Cristol, John P. Swaddle 2017 College of William and Mary

Blood Mercury Levels Of Zebra Finches Are Heritable: Implications For The Evolution Of Mercury Resistance, Kenton A. Buck, Claire W. Varian-Ramos, Daniel A. Cristol, John P. Swaddle

John Swaddle

Mercury is a ubiquitous metal contaminant that negatively impacts reproduction of wildlife and has many other sub-lethal effects. Songbirds are sensitive bioindicators of mercury toxicity and may suffer population declines as a result of mercury pollution. Current predictions of mercury accumulation and biomagnification often overlook possible genetic variation in mercury uptake and elimination within species and the potential for evolution in affected populations. We conducted a study of dietary mercury exposure in a model songbird species, maintaining a breeding population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) on standardized diets ranging from 0.0–2.4 μg/g methylmercury. We applied a ...


Genetic Architecture And Predictability Of Seedling Root Traits In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Jordon Michael Pace 2017 Iowa State University

Genetic Architecture And Predictability Of Seedling Root Traits In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Jordon Michael Pace

Michael Pace

The maize (Zea mays L.) root system is important for proper growth and productivity of the plant. There is substantial genetic and phenotypic variation for root architecture, which gives opportunity for selection. Root traits, however, have not been used as selection criterion mainly due to the difficulty in measuring, as well as their quantitative mode of inheritance. Studying seedling roots offer an opportunity to study multiple individuals and to enable repeated measurements per year as compared to adult root phenotyping. Here we have evaluated phenotypic and genotypic variation within seedling root traits for two panels of inbred lines. Constructed maize ...


Review Of: The Human Genome Project And Minority Communities - Ethical, Social, And Political Dilemmas (Raymond A. Zilinskas & Peter J. Balint Eds.), Craig Steven Jepson 2017 University of New Hampshire

Review Of: The Human Genome Project And Minority Communities - Ethical, Social, And Political Dilemmas (Raymond A. Zilinskas & Peter J. Balint Eds.), Craig Steven Jepson

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the book: The Human Genome Project and Minority Communities -Ethical, Social, and Political Dilemmas (Raymond A. Zilinskas & Peter J.Balint eds., Praeger Publishers 2001). Preface, index, about the contributors. LC 00-032390; ISBN 0-275-96961-4 [160 pp. $54.50.Cloth, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881].


Review Of: Alan Mchughen, Pandora's Picnic Basket: The Potential And Hazards Of Genetically Modified Foods, Shimona Pratap Singh 2017 University of New Hampshire

Review Of: Alan Mchughen, Pandora's Picnic Basket: The Potential And Hazards Of Genetically Modified Foods, Shimona Pratap Singh

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the book: Alan McHughen, Pandora's Picnic Basket: The Potential and Hazards of Genetically Modified Foods (Oxford University Press 2000).Acknowledgements, introduction, glossary and abbreviations, resources, index. ISBN 0-19-850674-0 [277 pp. $25.00 Cloth, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314].


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