Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Genetics and Genomics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,833 Full-Text Articles 5,481 Authors 326,175 Downloads 103 Institutions

All Articles in Genetics and Genomics

Faceted Search

1,833 full-text articles. Page 1 of 52.

Rna Interference As A Tool For The Functional Analysis Of Genes In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (Say), Ashley Danielle Yates 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Rna Interference As A Tool For The Functional Analysis Of Genes In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (Say), Ashley Danielle Yates

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring phenomenon in eukaryotes in which a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) suppresses the expression of a target gene. RNAi has markedly changed the way in which functional genetics studies are performed, especially in non-model organisms. In insects, the efficacy of RNAi is influenced by several factors, including the species and the methods of dsRNAs delivery.

The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a pest of the plant family Solanaceae. RNAi in the CPB is of interest for potential use in insect management and as a tool to study the interaction with host plants ...


The Evolution Of Genomic Imprinting: Theories, Predictions And Empirical Tests, M M. Patten, L Ross, J P. Curley, David C. Queller, R Bonduriansky, J B. Wolf 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

The Evolution Of Genomic Imprinting: Theories, Predictions And Empirical Tests, M M. Patten, L Ross, J P. Curley, David C. Queller, R Bonduriansky, J B. Wolf

Biology Faculty Publications

The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues’ kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky’s sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager’s maternal–offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal ...


Associations Between Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis System Gene Variants And Cortisol Reactivity In Preschoolers: Main Effects And Gene-Environment Interactions, Haroon I. Sheikh 2014 Western University

Associations Between Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis System Gene Variants And Cortisol Reactivity In Preschoolers: Main Effects And Gene-Environment Interactions, Haroon I. Sheikh

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Exposure to stressful events during early development has consistently been shown to produce long lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may increase vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders. Recently reported genetic association studies indicate that these disorders may be influenced, in part, by gene-environment interactions (GxE) involving polymorphisms within the corticotrophin-releasing hormone and monoaminergic system genes. However, little is known about how genetic variants and life stress work to shape children’s neuroendocrine reactivity and emerging symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to examine main effects of candidate genes and GxE on the neuroendocrine stress response ...


Investigations Into Sensory Ecology And Gene Evolution Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Swapna R. Purandare 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigations Into Sensory Ecology And Gene Evolution Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Swapna R. Purandare

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Organisms use environmental cues to gather information required to perform activities that are essential for their survival and reproduction, such as searching for food, avoiding danger, and finding mates. They respond to the acquired information by changing their behavior or physiology, which may result in increased fitness. Due to the fundamental importance of information in an organism’s life, it is important to understand its acquisition, processing, and the organism’s response to it. In the work presented here, we used the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), an insect that produces multiple phenotypes, or morphs, that are genetically identical, but differ ...


Multiple Transcription Factors Directly Regulate Hox Gene Lin-39 Expression In Ventral Hypodermal Cells Of The C. Elegans Embryo And Larva, Including The Hypodermal Fate Regulators Lin-26 And Elt-6, Wan-Ju Liu, John S. Reece-Hoyes, Albertha J. M. Walhout, David M. Eisenmann 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Multiple Transcription Factors Directly Regulate Hox Gene Lin-39 Expression In Ventral Hypodermal Cells Of The C. Elegans Embryo And Larva, Including The Hypodermal Fate Regulators Lin-26 And Elt-6, Wan-Ju Liu, John S. Reece-Hoyes, Albertha J. M. Walhout, David M. Eisenmann

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo.

RESULTS: We used the ...


The Mechanism Of Small Rna Biogenesis, Degradation, And Function In Arabidopsis, Meng Xie 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Mechanism Of Small Rna Biogenesis, Degradation, And Function In Arabidopsis, Meng Xie

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Eukaryotic small RNAs play important roles in many biological processes through sequence-specific RNA silencing. In plants, there are mainly two small RNAs triggering gene silencing: microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The biogenesis and precise regulation of small RNA abundance are crucial for plant growth, development, genomic stability, and the resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana, the model plant, to study the mechanism of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), in which siRNAs can trigger DNA methylation and gene silencing. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of miRNA biogenesis and degradation. For RdDM ...


An Examination Of The Phylogenetic Diversity Of Green Algae (Chlorophyceae) That Symbiose With Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum) In The Egg Stage., Crystal Xue 2014 University of Connecticut

An Examination Of The Phylogenetic Diversity Of Green Algae (Chlorophyceae) That Symbiose With Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum) In The Egg Stage., Crystal Xue

Honors Scholar Theses

In 1909, the species Oophila amblystomatis Lambert ex Wille was described for green algae that symbiose with salamanders in the egg stage (Wille). There are two hypotheses about the source of algae: 1) that algae enter from the surrounding water once the egg clutch is laid in a pond, and 2) that they are acquired from the maternal reproductive tract. We developed a third hypothesis developed to account for the salamander reproductive cycle. Male salamanders lay spermatophores, which are protein-filled capsules, on plant matter in and around ponds. Spermatophores are exposed to the environment before use by females in internal ...


Transcriptome Analysis Of Sea Lamprey Embryogenesis, Zakary Ilya Yermolenko 2014 Seton Hall University

Transcriptome Analysis Of Sea Lamprey Embryogenesis, Zakary Ilya Yermolenko

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has survived throughout evolution for hundreds of millions of years. It is considered an invasive species to the Great Lakes that has caused dramatic changes in the ecosystem for fish communities resulting in the collapse of a fishing industry that was previously valued at billions of dollars. Successful management of the sea lamprey is essential to a sustainable fishing industry and biodiversity. Therefore sea lamprey embryos were studied at various stages of development by growing them in a simulated habitat. RNAs from adult female ovaries and embryos at different time points during embryogenesis were extracted ...


The Association Between The Il-1 Pathway, Isaac C. Wun 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

The Association Between The Il-1 Pathway, Isaac C. Wun

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a potentially lethal malignancy that warrants attention and further research, as it is known to that there is an increasing rate of incidence in theUnited States, and it is also known that exposure to UV light is its most crucial risk factor, and family history of melanoma is also an important risk factor. Melanoma is an aggressive and lethal cancer in humans. There are an estimated new 132,000 melanoma cases annually worldwide, and the trend has doubled in the past 20 years. However, attempts to treat melanoma have encountered considerable resistance and remained ineffective ...


Lifecycle Efficiency Of Mice Divergently Selected For Heat Loss, Adrienne Bhatnagar 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Lifecycle Efficiency Of Mice Divergently Selected For Heat Loss, Adrienne Bhatnagar

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Divergent selection for heat loss as an indication of maintenance energy requirements in mice resulted in a low (ML) and high maintenance line (MH), and an intermediate control line (MC). Improved feed efficiency has been observed in ML mice, which would be economically beneficial in livestock species. However, previous work showed evidence of unfavorable correlated responses to selection in ML mice compared to MH mice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to model a lifecycle similar to a livestock production system using these lines and determine if these correlated responses diminish the benefit of improved feed efficiency by calculating ...


Clpxp Modulates Cell Growth And Morphology In Cell Shape Mutants Of E.Coli, Ryann Murphy 2014 University of Rhode Island

Clpxp Modulates Cell Growth And Morphology In Cell Shape Mutants Of E.Coli, Ryann Murphy

Senior Honors Projects

ClpXP modulates cell growth and morphology in cell shape mutants of E. coli

Ryann Murphy1 and Jodi L. Camberg1

1University of Rhode Island, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Kingston, RI, 02881

Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs) are a family of prokaryotic membrane proteins named for their propensity to bind the antibiotic penicillin and are involved in remodeling and deposition of peptidoglycan. In wild type Escherichia coli cells, the uniform rod shape is conserved across generations. E.coli cells containing multiple deletions of Low Molecular Weight (LMW) PBPs exhibit irregular shapes. LMW PBP5 (dacA) is a potential substrate ...


Student Identity Considerations And Implications Associated With Socioscientific Issues Instruction, Mitchel James Ruzek 2014 University of South Florida

Student Identity Considerations And Implications Associated With Socioscientific Issues Instruction, Mitchel James Ruzek

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this investigation was to explore how aspects of identity, perceived levels of controversy, and the strength of a student's attachment to their controversial identity relate to conceptual understanding and knowledge acquisition during socioscientific issues (SSI) based instruction in a biology classroom. The knowledge gained from this study will have the capacity to enhance our understanding of the role that attachment to identity plays during SSI negotiation. Additionally, insight was gained into the role played by aspects of identity in conceptual understanding of scientifically controversial topics during SSI based instruction.

This study contributed to the existing knowledge ...


Is Sickle Cell Trait As Benign As Is Usually Assumed?, Carroll Nicole Flansburg 2014 University of South Florida

Is Sickle Cell Trait As Benign As Is Usually Assumed?, Carroll Nicole Flansburg

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Introduction Sickle cell trait carriers may experience sickling events, which can cause severe health problems. Some sickle cell haplotypes contain genetic modifiers that are associated with increased levels of fetal hemoglobin, which is resistant to sickling. The aim of this study is to determine if sickle cell trait individuals who do not carry these modifiers are more likely to experience sickling episodes than those who do carry the modifiers.

Methods: Participants were eligible for inclusion in this study if they were male, 18 years of age or older, a sickle cell trait carrier, and had previously played any level ...


Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, kimberly.busiek@gmail.com K. Busiek 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Division of a bacterial cell into two equal daughter cells requires precise assembly and constriction of the division machinery, or divisome. The Escherichia coli divisome includes nearly a dozen essential cell division proteins that assemble at midcell between segregating sister chromosomes. FtsZ, a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin, is the first essential cell division protein to localize at midcell where it polymerizes into a ring-shaped scaffold (Z ring). Establishment of the Z ring is required for recruitment of downstream cell division proteins including FtsA, a cytoplasmic protein that tethers the Z ring to the inner membrane. Following localization of FtsA and ...


Genetic Resistance To Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis Associated With Bovine Cxcr1, Olivia Jean Crisp 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Genetic Resistance To Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis Associated With Bovine Cxcr1, Olivia Jean Crisp

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


A Proteomics Approach To Elucidate Enhancer-Mediated Gene Activation And Chromatin Topology, Grace Kroner 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

A Proteomics Approach To Elucidate Enhancer-Mediated Gene Activation And Chromatin Topology, Grace Kroner

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters & Abstracts

The molecular mechanisms that govern enhancer-mediated chromatin remodeling for gene activation and transcription are poorly understood. Our lab has recently identified an evolutionarily conserved non-coding element named 923 as a regulatory enhancer within the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC) locus. The EDC, located on human chromosome 1q21, encodes genes required for skin barrier function. Although our studies identify a mechanistic role for AP-1/c-Jun transcription factor binding to 923 in mediating EDC chromatin remodeling and relevant gene activation, residual 923 enhancer activity and chromatin looping continues to persist upon AP-1/c-Jun inhibition. Thus, the precise mechanism that links promoters in the ...


Isolation & Characterization Of The Novel Bacteriophage Gaius, Rohan Khazanchi, John A. Nahon, Anna M. Kolasa, Elisa S. De Togni 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

Isolation & Characterization Of The Novel Bacteriophage Gaius, Rohan Khazanchi, John A. Nahon, Anna M. Kolasa, Elisa S. De Togni

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters & Abstracts

There are an estimated 1031 species of bacteriophages in the Earth’s biome. As a result, understanding the immense diversity of bacteriophages is a topic of great interest. We isolated a novel mycobacteriophage, called Gaius, from soil collected near the Watershed Nature Center in Edwardsville, IL. We enriched our soil sample using Mycobacterium smegmatis, and after purification, its plaque morphology was characteristic of a temperate phage. Following purification, we used electron microscope imaging to find Gaius’ physical structure to be similar to other members of the A4 subcluster. We sequenced Gaius’ genome using the Pacific Biosystems Sequencing technique, making ...


Defining Functional Dna Elements In The Human Genome, Manolis Kellis, Barbara Wold, Michael P. Snyder, Bradley E. Bernstein, Anshul Kundaje, Georgi K. Marinov, Lucas D. Ward, Job Dekker, Zhiping Weng, Ross C. Hardison, ENCODE Project Consortium 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Defining Functional Dna Elements In The Human Genome, Manolis Kellis, Barbara Wold, Michael P. Snyder, Bradley E. Bernstein, Anshul Kundaje, Georgi K. Marinov, Lucas D. Ward, Job Dekker, Zhiping Weng, Ross C. Hardison, Encode Project Consortium

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

With the completion of the human genome sequence, attention turned to identifying and annotating its functional DNA elements. As a complement to genetic and comparative genomics approaches, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project was launched to contribute maps of RNA transcripts, transcriptional regulator binding sites, and chromatin states in many cell types. The resulting genome-wide data reveal sites of biochemical activity with high positional resolution and cell type specificity that facilitate studies of gene regulation and interpretation of noncoding variants associated with human disease. However, the biochemically active regions cover a much larger fraction of the genome than do evolutionarily ...


Heterochromatin Associated Protein Hcf2 Localization And Gene Expression In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Ji Youn Maeng, Sydney Kapp 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

Heterochromatin Associated Protein Hcf2 Localization And Gene Expression In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Ji Youn Maeng, Sydney Kapp

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters & Abstracts

Hcf2 or heterochromatin factor protein 2 is a heterochromatin associated protein predicted to be involved in chromatin dynamics during conjugation of Tetrahymena thermophila. Hcf2's exclusive expression in macronucleus and its unique punctated localization pattern during early conjugation suggest Hcf's potential contribution to DNA rearrangement in the somatic macronucleus.


Arabidopsis Thaliana-Spider Mite Interaction: Plant Perception, Signalling, And Response, Kristie A. Bruinsma 2014 Western University

Arabidopsis Thaliana-Spider Mite Interaction: Plant Perception, Signalling, And Response, Kristie A. Bruinsma

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a cell-content feeding chelicerate herbivore, feeding on over 1000 plant species, one of which is Arabidopsis thaliana. This research uses microarray data from two A. thaliana accessions that differ in susceptibility to spider mite feeding to identify how the plant defends itself against this herbivore. Mutant analysis of induced plant defense pathways and physiological assays of mite performance indicate that A. thaliana utilizes: a) damage associated molecular pattern receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, to aid in perception of attack; b) jasmonic acid as the key phytohormone involved in resistance signalling; and c) indole glucosinolates ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress