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Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella 2022 University of New Mexico

Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella

Biology ETDs

At high latitudes, climatic oscillations have triggered repeated episodes of organismal divergence by geographically isolating populations. For terrestrial species, extended isolation in glacial refugia – ice-free regions that enable terrestrial species persistence through glacial maxima – is hypothesized to stimulate allopatric divergence. Alternatively, upon glacial recession, divergent populations expanded from independent glacial refugia and often contacted other diverging populations. In the absence of reproductive isolating mechanisms, this biogeographic process may trigger hybridization and ultimately, gene flow between divergent taxa. My dissertation research aims to understand how these episodic periods of isolation and contact have impacted the evolution of high latitude species. To ...


Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen 2021 University of Toronto

Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Background: 7q11.23 duplication (Dup7) is one of the most frequent recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but based on gold-standard assessments, only 19% of Dup7 carriers have ASD, suggesting that additional genetic factors are necessary to manifest the ASD phenotype. To assess the contribution of additional genetic variants to the Dup7 phenotype, we conducted whole-genome sequencing analysis of 20 Dup7 carriers: nine with ASD (Dup7-ASD) and 11 without ASD (Dup7-non-ASD). Results: We identified three rare variants of potential clinical relevance for ASD: a 1q21.1 microdeletion (Dup7-non-ASD) and two ...


Environmental Rnai Pathways In The Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Mosharrof Mondal, Jacob Peter, Obrie Scarbrough, Alex Flynt 2021 The University of Arizona

Environmental Rnai Pathways In The Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Mosharrof Mondal, Jacob Peter, Obrie Scarbrough, Alex Flynt

Faculty Publications

© 2020, The Author(s).

Background:RNA interference (RNAi) regulates gene expression in most multicellular organisms through binding of small RNA effectors to target transcripts. Exploiting this process is a popular strategy for genetic manipulation and has applications that includes arthropod pest control. RNAi technologies are dependent on delivery method with the most convenient likely being feeding, which is effective in some animals while others are insensitive. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is prime candidate for developing RNAi approaches due to frequent occurrence of conventional pesticide resistance. Using a sequencing-based approach, the fate of ingested RNAs was explored to identify ...


Against The Odds: Hybrid Zones Between Mangrove Killifish Species With Different Mating Systems, Waldir M. Berbel-Filho, Andrey Tatarenkov, George Pacheco, Helder M. V. Espírito-Santo, Mateus G. Lira, Carlos Garcia de Leaniz, John C. Avise, Sergio M. Q. Lima, Carlos M. Rodriguez Lopez, Sofia Consuegra 2021 University of Oklahoma

Against The Odds: Hybrid Zones Between Mangrove Killifish Species With Different Mating Systems, Waldir M. Berbel-Filho, Andrey Tatarenkov, George Pacheco, Helder M. V. Espírito-Santo, Mateus G. Lira, Carlos Garcia De Leaniz, John C. Avise, Sergio M. Q. Lima, Carlos M. Rodriguez Lopez, Sofia Consuegra

Horticulture Faculty Publications

Different mating systems are expected to affect the extent and direction of hybridization. Due to the different levels of sexual conflict, the weak inbreeder/strong outbreeder (WISO) hypothesis predicts that gametes from self-incompatible (SI) species should outcompete gametes from self-compatible (SC) ones. However, other factors such as timing of selfing and unilateral incompatibilities may also play a role on the direction of hybridization. In addition, differential mating opportunities provided by different mating systems are also expected to affect the direction of introgression in hybrid zones involving outcrossers and selfers. Here, we explored these hypotheses with a unique case of recent ...


The Effects Of Ppal-1 In Arabidopsis Gamete Development, Amanda J White, Susana Perez-Martinez, Mark P. Running 2021 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Ppal-1 In Arabidopsis Gamete Development, Amanda J White, Susana Perez-Martinez, Mark P. Running

The Cardinal Edge

Prenylation is a type of post-translational modification in which a 15- or 20-carbon lipid is added to the carboxyl (C) terminus of the protein. Arabidopsis thaliana contains the PROTEIN PRENYLTRANSFERASE ALPHA SUBUNIT-LIKE (PPAL) gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the α-subunits of the three known prenylation enzymes, PFT, PGGT, and Rab-GGT. We previously identified two mutations in PPAL, one of which is ppal-1, which contains a T-DNA insertion in the fourth intron. We have previously observed that self-fertilizing heterozygous ppal-1 plants produce progeny in which homozygous ppal-1 is underrepresented. This project attempts to ascertain possible affects of ppal-1 ...


Using Beet Pulp To Adapt Cattle To Finishing Diets Compared To Traditional Grain Adaptation With Alfalfa Hay, C. J. Schneider, Matt K. Luebbe, K. H. Jenkins, Stephanie A. Furman Furman, Galen E. Erickson, Terry J. Klopfenstein 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Using Beet Pulp To Adapt Cattle To Finishing Diets Compared To Traditional Grain Adaptation With Alfalfa Hay, C. J. Schneider, Matt K. Luebbe, K. H. Jenkins, Stephanie A. Furman Furman, Galen E. Erickson, Terry J. Klopfenstein

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

A study was conducted to compare grain adaptation programs using beet pulp (BP) to traditional grain adaptation with alfalfa hay (AH). Yearling crossbred steers (n = 232; BW = 326 ± 14.5 kg) were separated into 3 weight blocks, stratified by BW, and assigned randomly, within strata, to 18 feedlot pens, with 12 or 13 steers per pen. Treatments were imposed during grain adaptation (21 d) using 3 grain adaptation programs. Within each grain adaptation program, 4 step rations were fed for 3, 4, 7, and 7 d. Each program increased dry-rolled corn inclusion while roughage inclusion decreased. In the control treatment ...


Mutations In Several Auxin Biosynthesis Genes And Their Effects On Plant Phenotypes In Arabidopsis, Gabriela Hernandez, Lauren Huebner, Bethany Karlin Zolman 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Mutations In Several Auxin Biosynthesis Genes And Their Effects On Plant Phenotypes In Arabidopsis, Gabriela Hernandez, Lauren Huebner, Bethany Karlin Zolman

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Auxins are important hormones in plants that regulate growth and development. Disruptions in the auxin biosynthesis pathway result in morphological changes in phenotypes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, including differences in root and leaf formation. Mutations in the Tryptophan Aminotransferase of Arabidopsis (TAA1) and YUCCA (YUC4) genes interfere with the plant's ability to synthesize Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the primary auxin involved in plant development. IBR1 and IBR3 act in the multistep conversion of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to IAA. ILL2, IAR3, and ILR1 hydrolyze IAA-amino acid conjugates into free IAA. The goal of our study was to determine the ...


Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond 2021 University of Texas at Tyler

Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond

Biology Theses

Increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections by antimicrobial resistant pathogens resulting in higher mortality rates and financial burden is of great concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents one of six highly virulent “ESKAPE” pathogens that exhibit considerable intrinsic drug resistance as well as mechanisms for acquiring further resistance. As many of these mechanisms are regulated through gene expression, we sought to identify regulatory strategies and patterns at play in 23 clinical isolates collected from Baku, Azerbaijan and Tyler, Texas, USA. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on six gene targets implicated in resistance and contrasted with antibiotic phenotypes. We found AmpC cephalosporinase ...


Student Perceptions Of Authoring A Publication Stemming From A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (Cure), Ashley N. Turner, Anil K. Challa, Katelyn M. Cooper 2021 Jacksonville State University

Student Perceptions Of Authoring A Publication Stemming From A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (Cure), Ashley N. Turner, Anil K. Challa, Katelyn M. Cooper

Research, Publications & Creative Work

Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) engage students in authentic research experiences in a course format and can sometimes result in the publication of that research. However, little is known about student-author perceptions of CURE publications. In this study, we examined how students perceive they benefit from authoring a CURE publication and what they believe is required for authorship of a manuscript in a peer-reviewed journal. All 16 students who were enrolled in a molecular genetics CURE during their first year of college participated in semistructured interviews during their fourth year. At the time of the interviews, students had been authors ...


Otoliths Of South-Western Australian Fish: A Photographic Catalogue, Chris Dowling, Kim Smith, Elaine Lek, Joshua Brown 2021 DPIRD

Otoliths Of South-Western Australian Fish: A Photographic Catalogue, Chris Dowling, Kim Smith, Elaine Lek, Joshua Brown

Fisheries research reports

Due to the species-specific nature of otoliths and given they are often the only part of the fish preserved when fish die, otolith catalogues can be used in numerous applications, such as diet studies in fish eating animals, including pinnipeds, fish and sea birds; archaeological purposes such as reconstructing indigenous people’s diets from otoliths found in middens or evolutionary history of fish species by comparing fossilized otoliths. Given the unique mixture of subtropical and temperate fish, including many endemic species that occur off the southwest corner of WA having a catalogue for this area is extremely important for people ...


Neurological Gene Jus Is Associated With Aging-Related Muscle Loss In The Fly Model Of Sarcopenia., Soobin An 2021 Kennesaw State University

Neurological Gene Jus Is Associated With Aging-Related Muscle Loss In The Fly Model Of Sarcopenia., Soobin An

Symposium of Student Scholars

Sarcopenia is a health condition in the elderly that is associated with degradation of muscle size, mass, and function. It can cause physical disability and, in extreme cases, death. The genetic aspect of sarcopenia is still not well understood. To shed light on sarcopenia mechanisms, we investigated muscle loss in aging fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. Our hypothesis was that aging-dependent muscle degradation can be affected by suboptimal functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). We used RNA interference and tissue-specific genetic drivers to induce a selective knockdown (KD) of the julius seizure gene (jus), which is associated with neurological phenotypes ...


In Silico Identification Of A Streptococcus Phage From An Unpasteurized Dairy Product, 2021 Kennesaw State University

In Silico Identification Of A Streptococcus Phage From An Unpasteurized Dairy Product

Symposium of Student Scholars

This study aimed to identify novel phages from a West African dairy product, nunu, to better understand the uncharacterized virosphere of a food microbiome. Nunu is a yogurt-like product from spontaneous fermentation of unpasteurized cow milk without a standardized starter culture. Phages and their bacterial hosts make up a microbiome, where their collective metagenome can be studied in silico, or computationally, after next generation sequencing (NGS). The targeted dataset for our study can be found in the Sequence Read Archives under the accession number of ERX2041567. This study utilized several bioinformatics software tools with customized settings: Kraken2, MetaVelvet, Edena, NCBI-BLAST ...


In Silico Isolation Of A Novel Phage For Food Safety Applications Against Pathogenic E. Coli, Daisy McGrath 2021 Kennesaw State University

In Silico Isolation Of A Novel Phage For Food Safety Applications Against Pathogenic E. Coli, Daisy Mcgrath

Symposium of Student Scholars

With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) on metagenomes, the elucidation of all genetic material from microbiomes has prompted a renewed interest towards uncultivated members of the virosphere. We describe the discovery of a novel phage from a metagenomic dataset on the West African fermented dairy product, nunu, with a custom bioinformatics workflow to potentially serve as a biocontrol agent against pathogenic E. coli. Initial dataset of ERR2014814 from NCBI was first subjected to Kraken2 to extract novel sequencing reads for further de novo assembly into contigs by MetaVelvet. Resultant contigs served as potential partial phage genomes, then searched against ...


Examining Effects Of The Dna Regulator Lrp On Quorum Sensing Gene Expression In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Bradley Lumsden 2021 Kennesaw State University

Examining Effects Of The Dna Regulator Lrp On Quorum Sensing Gene Expression In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Bradley Lumsden

Symposium of Student Scholars

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that has the capacity to express multiple virulence factors that are regulated through an extensive quorum sensing network. Three major quorum sensing systems have been identified in Pseudomonas species: the acyl homoserine lactones of las and rhl, and the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS). We seek to investigate the involvement of a global regulator, Lrp with the expression of these three networks. Specifically, we will compare expression levels of las, rhl, and pqs in wild type P. aeruginosa (MPAO1) with an lrp transposon insertion mutant using quantitative PCR. Through this comparative qPCR analysis, we ...


Towards The Identification Of The Soil Fungal Microbiome Community Associated With Longleaf Pine, Joshua Inneh, Grace Krueger, Ian Thomasson, Fletcher Moon, Geoffrey Eger 2021 Kennesaw State University

Towards The Identification Of The Soil Fungal Microbiome Community Associated With Longleaf Pine, Joshua Inneh, Grace Krueger, Ian Thomasson, Fletcher Moon, Geoffrey Eger

Symposium of Student Scholars

This project is part of a larger study looking at the restoration of the Longleaf Pine (LLP) ecosystem in certain Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) in Northwest Georgia. Our long-term aim is to look for potential associations between the aboveground and belowground community structures as the complex system of feedback mechanisms between the soil microbiome, the rhizosphere, and the plant communities is not yet understood.

Soil samples were collected from a total of six plots in the Sheffield WMA located in Paulding County. The samples were collected from north or south facing hillside plots except for in the savanna sites (an ...


A Reevaluation Of The Phylogeography Of The Chattahoochee Slimy Salamander (Plethodon Chattahoochee) Using Next-Generation Genomic Data, Jadin Cross 2021 Kennesaw State University

A Reevaluation Of The Phylogeography Of The Chattahoochee Slimy Salamander (Plethodon Chattahoochee) Using Next-Generation Genomic Data, Jadin Cross

Symposium of Student Scholars

The Plethodon glutinosus species complex is a group of large-bodied, lungless salamanders that are widespread across the eastern United States. Species in this group are morphologically cryptic and were originally delimited using allozyme data, but in most cases, the extent of contemporary gene flow between named taxa has not be rigorously evaluated. The Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia are home to several members of this group—including P. glutinosus, P. teyahalee, P. chlorobryonis, and P. chattahoochee. P. chattahoochee has been found to be especially cryptic both morphologically and genetically as both intraspecific genetic variation and species boundaries within the P ...


The Evolutionary Origins Of Autism Associated Genes And Their Role In Great Ape Socio-Communication, Azeeza Abdulrauf, Martin Hudson, Susan M.E. Smith, Jared P. Taglialatela 2021 Kennesaw State University

The Evolutionary Origins Of Autism Associated Genes And Their Role In Great Ape Socio-Communication, Azeeza Abdulrauf, Martin Hudson, Susan M.E. Smith, Jared P. Taglialatela

Symposium of Student Scholars

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a major role in socio-communicative behavior. For this study, the focus is on autism associated OXTR, AVPR1A, and FOXP2 SNPs, and the role they play in great apes. Prior research on the OXTR, AVPR1A, and FOXP2 SNPs show that they affect behavior skills such as understanding and controlling emotion, understanding the emotions of others, and communications skills. Great apes, such as bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas are the model, since they are our closest relatives in the animal kingdom capable of understanding complex communication. Each gene has at least two SNPS that are investigated in the ...


Higher Entropy Observed In Sars-Cov-2 Genomes From The First Covid-19 Wave In Pakistan, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Asghar Nasir, Kiran I. Masood, Syed Hani Abidi, Syed Faisal Mahmood, Akber Kanji, Safina Abdul Razzak, Waqasuddin Khan, Saba Shahid, Maliha Yameen, Ali Raza, Javaria Ashraf, Zeeshan Ansar Ahmed, Mohammad Buksh Dharejo, Nazneen Islam, Zahra Hasan, Rumina Hasan 2021 Aga Khan University

Higher Entropy Observed In Sars-Cov-2 Genomes From The First Covid-19 Wave In Pakistan, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Asghar Nasir, Kiran I. Masood, Syed Hani Abidi, Syed Faisal Mahmood, Akber Kanji, Safina Abdul Razzak, Waqasuddin Khan, Saba Shahid, Maliha Yameen, Ali Raza, Javaria Ashraf, Zeeshan Ansar Ahmed, Mohammad Buksh Dharejo, Nazneen Islam, Zahra Hasan, Rumina Hasan

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: We investigated the genome diversity of SARS-CoV-2 associated with the early COVID-19 period to investigate evolution of the virus in Pakistan.
Materials and methods: We studied ninety SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated between March and October 2020. Whole genome sequences from our laboratory and available genomes were used to investigate phylogeny, genetic variantion and mutation rates of SARS-CoV-2 strains in Pakistan. Site specific entropy analysis compared mutation rates between strains isolated before and after June 2020.
Results: In March, strains belonging to L, S, V and GH clades were observed but by October, only L and GH strains were present. The ...


Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol 2021 American University in Cairo

Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersaline environments are extreme habitats that can be exploited as biotechnological resources. Here, we characterized a nitrilase (NitraS-ATII) isolated from Atlantis II Deep brine pool. It showed higher thermal stability and heavy metal tolerance compared to a closely related nitrilase.

We also studied integrons in halophiles and hypersaline environments. Integrons are genetic platforms in which an integron integrase (IntI) mediates the excision and integration of gene cassettes at specific recombination sites. In order to search for integrons in halophiles and hypersaline metagenomes, we used a PCR-based approach, in addition to different bioinformatics tools, mainly IntegronFinder.

We found that integrons and ...


The Role Of Pannexin 3 In Forced Exercise Bone Remodelling And Its Potential Implications For Osteoarthritis, Justin Tang 2021 Western University

The Role Of Pannexin 3 In Forced Exercise Bone Remodelling And Its Potential Implications For Osteoarthritis, Justin Tang

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Exercise such as running has been hypothesized to be a factor of osteoarthritis development. However, the relationship is unclear as differences in genetic backgrounds may influence the risk of osteoarthritis (OA). The gene Panx3 codes for the Pannexin 3 protein (PANX3), a mechanically sensitive channel that allows for the passage of various signalling molecules in both chondrocytes and osteoblasts (Boassa et al., 2007; Penuela et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2021). We have previously shown PANX3 to be protective in traumatic osteoarthritis, however beneficial in age-induced osteoarthritis (Moon et al., 2021), suggesting that PANX3s role in osteoarthritis development is ...


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