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Mapping Natural Genetic Variants Associated With Nutrient Response, Kenneth Wilson 2022 Dominican University of California

Mapping Natural Genetic Variants Associated With Nutrient Response, Kenneth Wilson

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Biological Sciences Master's Theses

Phenotypic responses to dietary intake affect every individual, yet individuals consuming similar diets frequently display a myriad of different responses. As diet-related disorders are abundant in humans, understanding the means by which an individual’s genetics dictate these physiological responses is essential. Furthermore, dietary restriction has been shown to dramatically increase the length of lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster, but the exact genetic mechanisms governing this response are still not fully understood. In this study, I have used the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to pinpoint specific quantitative trait loci associated with a number of diet-induced complex traits so as ...


Variability And Genetic Structure Of The Montezuma Quail Cyrtonyx Montezumae In The Northern Limit Of Its Distribution, Eduardo Sánchez Murrieta, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, Alejandro Varela-Romero, Nohelia G. Pacheco Hoyos 2022 Universidad de Sonora

Variability And Genetic Structure Of The Montezuma Quail Cyrtonyx Montezumae In The Northern Limit Of Its Distribution, Eduardo Sánchez Murrieta, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, Alejandro Varela-Romero, Nohelia G. Pacheco Hoyos

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

A species’ geographic distribution of genetic variability is influenced by different factors including size of geographic distribution, dispersal capability, mating system, and migration. For instance, a low migration rate among populations may cause a decrease in genetic variation. Such is the case of the Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae), a popular game bird with a limited flight capacity that prevents long-distance dispersal. In the northern limit of the species’ distribution in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in the United States, the species inhabits oak forests that are separated from one another by deserts. Consequently, Montezuma quail populations are distributed in patches ...


Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age related neurodegenerative disease with pathology that includes amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and non-resolving neuroinflammation. Non-resolving neuroinflammation lasts the entire course of the disease and has deleterious effects and is often thought to accelerate AD pathology. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) have commonly been used as therapeutics to treat pain, inflammation and vascular. NSAIDs work by altering the cyclooxygenase (COX) mediated biosynthesis of prostaglandins which are lipid mediators that have many physiological functions, for example nociception, inflammation and vasodilation. Epidemiological studies support the notion that NSAIDs could be used to treat AD. Yet, clinical trials ...


The Utilization Of Crispr/Cas9 In Monogenic Disorders Authors, Shauna M. Mellor 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Utilization Of Crispr/Cas9 In Monogenic Disorders Authors, Shauna M. Mellor

Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal

This paper is a literature review of various scientific research papers, exploring the recent scientific advancement in the field of genetic engineering. The research presented is a foundational tool, building awareness on the implications of CRISPR/ Cas9 technology. CRISPR/ Cas9 was first discovered through the study of bacterial immune systems, fighting against viral infections. Manipulation of the Cas9 protein would eventually lead to target specific, gene-altering medicines for human organisms. CRISPR/ Cas 9 technology has begun to show promise as an effective treatment for certain monogenic disorders. Despite this, time is required before its efficacy as a proven genetic treatment ...


Investigation Of Neurotransmitter’S Knockdown Effect On Drosophila Melanogaster Female Aggression, Asil N. El Galad 2022 Western University

Investigation Of Neurotransmitter’S Knockdown Effect On Drosophila Melanogaster Female Aggression, Asil N. El Galad

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) is a popular model organism in neurobiology. While aggression has been studied heavily in male drosophila, there's minimal research on aggression in female drosophila. Neurotransmitters influencing aggressive behaviour in female D. melanogaster are poorly understood. Various neurotransmitters such as dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin influence aggression in D. melanogaster Further investigation of the role of neurotransmitters on aggression is thus important. The purpose of our experiment is to observe the effect of the knockdown of dopamine, octopamine and glutamate on aggression in female D. melanogaster.


Using Direct Pcr For Disaster Victim Identification Reference Samples, Mary Habib 2022 CUNY John Jay College

Using Direct Pcr For Disaster Victim Identification Reference Samples, Mary Habib

Student Theses

Forensic genetic testing is an important tool for the identification of victims after a mass fatality event but degradation of remains, presence of PCR inhibitors, and limited amounts of sample can make testing difficult. Standard protocols typically include extraction of genetic material from recovered post-mortem samples, and from ante-mortem reference samples or families of a missing person. This is a time-consuming and laborious process and may result in the loss of trace amounts of DNA available for amplification. Incorporating workflows that bypass the extraction step and directly amplify recovered DNA for short tandem repeat (STR) profile generation has the potential ...


Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advancements in sequencing technologies have revolutionized biological sciences and led to the emergence of a number of fields of research. One such field of research is metagenomics, which is the study of the genomic content of complex communities of bacteria. The goal of this thesis was to contribute computational methodology that can maximize the data generated in these studies and to apply these protocols human and environmental metagenomic samples.

Standard metagenomic analyses include a step for binning of assembled contigs, which has previously been shown to exclude mobile genetic elements, and I demonstrated that this phenomenon extends to all conjugative ...


Genetic Determinants Of Primary Nociceptor Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christine Hale 2022 University of Maine

Genetic Determinants Of Primary Nociceptor Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christine Hale

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Abnormal pain affects ~50 million adults nationwide. With many of the current treatment options for chronic pain, such as opioid analgesics, carrying side effects such as the threat for addiction, research into safer and more effective options for chronic pain relief is crucial. Abnormal alterations in nociceptive sensitivity, which is the sensitivity of peripheral sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli, can underlie, and perpetuate chronic pain. However, much is still unknown about the mechanism of how these abnormal alterations in sensitivity occur. To help elucidate genetic components controlling nociceptive sensitivity, the Drosophila melanogaster larval nociception model has been used to ...


Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand 2022 Western

Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A general description of why RNAi based pesticide technology is a breakthrough technology able to target only pests while not harming others. This presentation gives a summary of RNAi technology, the current drawbacks of conventional pesticides, and our research on how RNAi can be used against the two-spotted spidermite; a polyphagic pest that causes significant financial damage to Canadian and worldwide agriculture


My Summer Working With Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Renée A. Smith 2022 Western University

My Summer Working With Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Renée A. Smith

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Two-spotted spider mites are a polyphagous pest, capable of eating a magnitude of food crops which causes a large problem for Canadian agriculture. Their ability to consume various crops stems from their ability to adapt to various chemical defence mechanisms. This ability allows them to acquire resistance to many commonly used pesticides. This has resulted in large infections in Canadian farms with few options to prevent the pests from affecting crop yields. Take a look at my project if you'd like to see how the Grbic lab is working to combat this issue using genetic engineering techniques!


Rna-Interference As A Topical Pesticide, eleanor khochaba 2022 Western University

Rna-Interference As A Topical Pesticide, Eleanor Khochaba

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Tetranychus urticae are a species of pests that are very problematic in agricultural environments, as they cause lots of damage to a wide variety of crops. One step in figuring out a solution to this problem is through the use of RNA interference. After synchronizing the spider mites, they are treated with the dsRNA solution. The dsRNA is cleavage inside the mite, and the siRNA fragments then bind to a target gene in hopes of homologous sequence recognition leading to knockout/deregulation of the target gene. After treatment, the mites are observed for multiple variables, primarily fecundity and survival. If ...


Examining The Effect Of Knocking Down Dopamine Receptors In Fruitless Sexually Dimorphic Neurons On Social Spacing, Avneet A. Sahota 2022 Western University

Examining The Effect Of Knocking Down Dopamine Receptors In Fruitless Sexually Dimorphic Neurons On Social Spacing, Avneet A. Sahota

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Social behaviour is an individual's response to others within a group. From humans to mice to even fruit flies, social behaviour involves interactions with others and their ability to exchange information. Social spacing is a type of social behaviour which measures the distance between two organisms. It is a balance of attractive and repulsive cues which are influenced by genetics and by the external environment. However, individuals with disorders such as autism spectrum or Williams syndrome display abnormal social spacing as they are unable to understand social and non-social cues. Also, dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is a contributing ...


Investigating The Biological Function Of Female-Specific Fruitless Transcripts, Liam McFarlane 2022 Western University

Investigating The Biological Function Of Female-Specific Fruitless Transcripts, Liam Mcfarlane

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

In Drosophila, the fruitless (fru) gene encodes an array of alternatively spliced transcription factors, some of which are sex-specifically spliced. The male-specific transcript (fruM) has been previously determined to be involved in male courtship behaviours. The female counterpart (fruF) however, has been assumed to have no function due to the incorporation of a stop codon near the 5' end of the transcript. Interestingly, RNAseq data shows that expression levels of fruF in females exceeds that of fruM in males in the brain and thoracoabdominal ganglion, bringing to question the designation of fruF as ...


Evaluating Non-Invasive Environmental Methods For Detecting Tropical African Pangolin Species To Inform Conservation Actions, Ichu Godwill Ichu 2022 Mississippi State University

Evaluating Non-Invasive Environmental Methods For Detecting Tropical African Pangolin Species To Inform Conservation Actions, Ichu Godwill Ichu

Theses and Dissertations

Tropical African pangolin species are threatened throughout their range due to habitat loss and illegal take. Limited knowledge on distribution has rendered conservation efforts challenging. Methods commonly used for other wildlife species need to be tested for each pangolin species as each has variable ecologies requiring specific detection and monitoring techniques. This thesis evaluates the efficacy of two non-invasive environmental methods for detecting tropical African pangolin species, and consists of two complementary studies; a proof of concept study using soil sourced eDNA from a white-bellied pangolin enclosure in the Columbus Zoo, Ohio, to detect the species, and a field study ...


Methods And Tools To Improve Performance Of Plant Genome Analysis, Drew Ferrell 2022 Mississippi State University

Methods And Tools To Improve Performance Of Plant Genome Analysis, Drew Ferrell

Theses and Dissertations

Multi -omics data analysis and integration facilitates hypothesis building toward an understanding of genes and pathway responses driven by environments. Methods designed to estimate and analyze gene expression, with regard to treatments or conditions, can be leveraged to understand gene-level responses in the cell. However, genes often interact and signal within larger structures such as pathways and networks. Complex studies guided toward describing dynamic genetic pathways and networks require algorithms or methods designed for inference based on gene interactions and related topologies. Classes of algorithms and methods may be integrated into generalized workflows for comparative genomics studies, as multi -omics ...


A Genomic Investigation Of Divergence Between Tuna Species, Pavel V. Dimens 2022 University of Southern Mississippi

A Genomic Investigation Of Divergence Between Tuna Species, Pavel V. Dimens

Dissertations

Effective management and conservation of marine pelagic fishes is heavily dependent on a robust understanding of their population structure, their evolutionary history, and the delineation of appropriate management units. The Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and the Blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus) are two exploited epipelagic marine species with overlapping ranges in the tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean. This work analyzed genome-wide genetic variation of both species in the Atlantic basin to investigate the occurrence of population subdivision and adaptive variation. A de novo assembly of the Blackfin tuna genome was generated using Illumina paired-end sequencing data and applied as a reference ...


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME ...


Primary Myoblasts From Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Fetal Sheep Exhibit Intrinsic Dysfunction Of Proliferation And Differentiation That Coincides With Enrichment Of Inflammatory Cytokine Signaling Pathways, Robert J. Posont, Micah S. Most, Caitlin Cadaret, Eileen Marks-Nelson, Kiristen A. Beede, Sean W. Limesand, Ty B. Schmidt, Jessica L. Petersen, Dustin T. Yates 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Primary Myoblasts From Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Fetal Sheep Exhibit Intrinsic Dysfunction Of Proliferation And Differentiation That Coincides With Enrichment Of Inflammatory Cytokine Signaling Pathways, Robert J. Posont, Micah S. Most, Caitlin Cadaret, Eileen Marks-Nelson, Kiristen A. Beede, Sean W. Limesand, Ty B. Schmidt, Jessica L. Petersen, Dustin T. Yates

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is linked to lifelong reductions in muscle mass due to intrinsic functional deficits in myoblasts, but the mechanisms underlying these deficits are not known. Our objective was to determine if the deficits were associated with changes in inflammatory and adrenergic regulation of IUGR myoblasts, as was previously observed in IUGR muscle. Primary myoblasts were isolated from IUGR fetal sheep produced by hyperthermia-induced placental insufficiency (PI-IUGR; n = 9) and their controls (n = 9) and from IUGR fetal sheep produced by maternofetal inflammation (MI-IUGR; n = 6) and their controls (n = 7). Proliferation rates were less (P < 0.05) for PI-IUGR myoblasts than their controls and were not affected by incubation with IL-6, TNF-α, norepinephrine, or insulin. IκB kinase inhibition reduced (P < 0.05) proliferation of control myoblasts modestly in basal media but substantially in TNF-α-added media and reduced (P ...


A Bioinformatics Analysis Of Microbial Diversity And Its Correlation With Human Lifestyle, Diet, And Health Variables, Alivia Ankrum, Kate Cooper 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

A Bioinformatics Analysis Of Microbial Diversity And Its Correlation With Human Lifestyle, Diet, And Health Variables, Alivia Ankrum, Kate Cooper

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

The abundant impact of microbiota on human physiology suggests a need for exploration into their impact on human health and disease. The American Gut Project (AGP) was established to aggregate microbiome sequencing data as well as health, diet, and lifestyle metadata. This study proposes to identify taxonomic species and build a phylogenetic tree representation from the AGP participant sample collection as well as find their respective alpha and beta diversity of all metadata variables based on patient questionnaire data. Additionally, this study will involve a chimeric sequence extraction from the 16S rRNA sequences of the AGP. The expected results are ...


Genomic Analysis And Characterization Of Surface Properties Of Naphthalene Degrading Acinetobacter Isolates, Gunn Emilie Berge 2022 University of South Alabama

Genomic Analysis And Characterization Of Surface Properties Of Naphthalene Degrading Acinetobacter Isolates, Gunn Emilie Berge

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


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