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Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The body size of an organism can be a crucial determinant of access to nutrition, reproductive success and overall survival in the wild. However, how body size of an individual is determined is incompletely understood. Body size is a complex trait determined by multiple pathways and genes, making it difficult to understand the role of individual genes and pathways in determining overall size. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a homolog of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) is a major regulator of body size; functional loss of DBL-1 leads to a small body size. Due to a drastic change in body size in dbl-1 ...


Editor's Note On `Putting Fossils In Trees' Special Issue, April M. Wright 2017 Iowa State University

Editor's Note On `Putting Fossils In Trees' Special Issue, April M. Wright

April Wright

This special issue has its origins with a 2014 symposium organized by myself and my co-editors David W. Bapst, Graeme T. Lloyd and Nicholas J. Matzke at the Society for Vertebrate Paleontology meetings in Berlin, Germany. In the two years prior to 2014, there had been several interesting and important papers published [1] [2] [3][4] about estimating phylogenetic trees incorporating fossil taxa, and particularly involving Bayesian analyses. Some of these papers were written from a neontological perspective, and appeared in journals not often read by paleontologists. We convened our session with a simple idea: to get di#11;erent ...


Topology, Divergence Dates, And Macroevolutionary Inferences Vary Between Different Tip-Dating Approaches Applied To Fossil Theropods (Dinosauria), D. W. Bapst, A. M. Wright, N. J. Matzke, G. T. Lloyd 2017 South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

Topology, Divergence Dates, And Macroevolutionary Inferences Vary Between Different Tip-Dating Approaches Applied To Fossil Theropods (Dinosauria), D. W. Bapst, A. M. Wright, N. J. Matzke, G. T. Lloyd

April Wright

Dated phylogenies of fossil taxa allow palaeobiologists to estimate the timing of major divergences and placement of extinct lineages, and to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Recently developed Bayesian ‘tip-dating’ methods simultaneously infer and date the branching relationships among fossil taxa, and infer putative ancestral relationships. Using a previously published dataset for extinct theropod dinosaurs, we contrast the dated relationships inferred by several tip-dating approaches and evaluate potential downstream effects on phylogenetic comparative methods. We also compare tip-dating analyses to maximum-parsimony trees time-scaled via alternative a posteriori approaches including via the probabilistic cal3 method. Among tip-dating analyses, we find opposing but stronglysupported ...


Ethical Consequences Of Full Human Genome Testing, Michael Lupton 2017 Bond University

Ethical Consequences Of Full Human Genome Testing, Michael Lupton

Michael Lupton

A Genome is the entire set of hereditary instructions for building, running, maintaining an organism and passing on life to the next generation. A Genome is divided into chromosomes, the chromosomes contain genes and the genes are made of DNA. Genomes are found in cells; which are the microscopic structures that make up all organisms. With few exceptions, each of your body’s trillions of cells contains a copy of your genome. The human genome may be commonplace but it is quite powerful, because the information in the genome affects every aspect of a person’s behaviour and physiology. The ...


Using Mathematical Models Of Biological Processes In Genome-Wide Association Studies Of Psychiatric Disorders, Amy Cochran 2017 University of Michigan-Ann Arbor

Using Mathematical Models Of Biological Processes In Genome-Wide Association Studies Of Psychiatric Disorders, Amy Cochran

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Genetics Of Poultry Color In Poultry, C. W. Knox 2017 Iowa State College

The Genetics Of Poultry Color In Poultry, C. W. Knox

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. The chromogen gene for color, CC, acted as a simple dominant.

2. The extension of black pigment, EE, was inherited on a simple monohybrid basis.

3. The heterozygous extension and chromogen genes (Cc Ee) had a balanced relationship. This combination of heterozygous factors weakened the expression of the black melanic pigment in the presence of two or more doses of buff.

4. Buff color was controlled on a dihybrid basis, the following symbols being used, Bu Bu Bu' Bu'.

5. Three or more doses of the buff genes in the presence of homozygous color factors, CC, were epistatic to ...


The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani 2017 University of Maine

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Island populations of terrestrial species have an increased potential, compared to mainland populations, to adapt and diverge, as these populations often are isolated with respect to gene flow from other populations and may be subjected to novel pressures. Indeed, extended isolation of individuals can elicit dramatic changes within populations and is recognized as a common driver of speciation. It is for these reasons that island populations are often a priority for conservation. Plethodontid salamanders are among the most terrestrial of Maine’s amphibians and are not tolerant of prolonged exposure to seawater, and yet, they are found on a number ...


Risk Assessment In Crispr Transgenic Organisms, Jeffrey B. Warner 2017 Murray State University

Risk Assessment In Crispr Transgenic Organisms, Jeffrey B. Warner

Honors College Theses

CRISPR/Cas, a gene editing tool modified from an antiviral response in bacteria, has been demonstrated to faithfully and precisely introduce double strand breaks (DSB’s) in DNA at sites designated by guide RNA’s (gRNA’s). The system is applicable to many model organisms and shows promise in the study of gene function, creation of model organisms, and, importantly, treatment of heritable disease. However, the specificity of the Cas endonuclease is such that DSB’s are often introduced at sites similar to the target sequence, called off-target sites. Minimization of off-target DNA cleavage is important to prevent unknown and ...


Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May 2017 University of Maine

Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, we compared the osmotic stress response of larval and juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at the transcriptomic, metabolomic, and whole organism levels. Blue mussels inhabit coastal areas, where they face climate-induced reductions in nearshore salinity. Despite their ecological and economic importance, scientists do not fully understand the underlying transcriptomic and cellular mechanisms of the osmotic stress response in blue mussels or how the ability to respond to stress changes throughout development. Blue mussels spend the first weeks of life developing through several larval stages in the plankton. These early life history stages are more vulnerable to environmental ...


Differentiating The Neches River Rose Mallow (Hibiscus Dasycalyx) From Its Congeners By Means Of Phylogenetics And Population Genetics, Julia Norrell 2017 University of Texas at Tyler

Differentiating The Neches River Rose Mallow (Hibiscus Dasycalyx) From Its Congeners By Means Of Phylogenetics And Population Genetics, Julia Norrell

Biology Theses

This study used molecular phylogenetic methods to attempt to resolve the taxonomic status of the federally threatened East Texas-endemic wildflower, the Neches River Rose Mallow (Hibiscus dasycalyx). Hibiscus dasycalyx co-occurs with two other closely related congeners that are currently not of conservation concern: the halberdleaf rose mallow (H. laevis); and the crimson-eyed rose mallow (H. moscheutos). This study assessed the phylogeny of these three Hibiscus species, and attempted to determine if there is possible hybridization occurring between them. To this end, Restriction Site Associated DNA Sequencing (RAD-Seq), a Next Generation Sequencing method, was used to generate genome-wide polymorphic genetic data ...


66th National Poultry Breeder Roundtable Poster_Jibin Zhang.Pdf, Jibin Zhang, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

66th National Poultry Breeder Roundtable Poster_Jibin Zhang.Pdf, Jibin Zhang, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Jibin Zhang

Fast-growing modern broilers are susceptible to cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure. To understand the developmental regulation related to these problems, cardiac gene expression in Illinois and Ross broilers was investigated at 6 and 21 days post hatch (dph) using RNA-seq (n=5-6 for each group). Because Illinois is a legacy broiler line with isometric heart growth, and Ross is a modern broiler line with a negative allometric heart growth, comparison of gene expression between the two lines and the two time points provides an avenue to understand genetic regulation underlying their different cardiac development.
Sequence data were mapped to the ...


Rna-Sequencing Reveals Direct Targets Of Tumor Suppressor Mir-203 In Human Mammary Epithelial Cells, Alexander P. Boardman, Victoria E. Pedanou, Tessa M. Simone, Michael R. Green 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rna-Sequencing Reveals Direct Targets Of Tumor Suppressor Mir-203 In Human Mammary Epithelial Cells, Alexander P. Boardman, Victoria E. Pedanou, Tessa M. Simone, Michael R. Green

Senior Scholars Program

Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Since a significant portion of cases present with or progress to metastatic disease, furthering our understanding of metastasis is critical to develop better treatments. Epithelial cells maintain contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) predominantly via integrin engagement, a process required for tissue integrity and barrier function. In non-transformed cells, loss of ECM adhesion promotes a specialized form of programmed cell death, anoikis. In order for efficient metastasis to occur, breast tumor cells must evade anoikis. miR-203, known to be down-regulated in several cancers, was found by our ...


Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther 2017 University of Arkansas

Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2013, Castro et al., produced the first linkage map for primocane-fruiting blackberries using the cross ‘Prime-Jim®’ x ‘Arapaho.’ This mapping population has been maintained since the original experiment with the hopes of conducting future studies. Further research was determined to be needed on the population to better characterize additional phenotypic traits, and since nine years had passed since the seedlings were established, there was a need to assess the continued genetic purity of the population using molecular methods. Phenotypic data was collected to analyze the variation of the population including soluble solids content, titratable acidity, average weight, shape, and ...


Cost Benefit Analysis Of Genetic Markers In Cattle, Josh Crystal 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cost Benefit Analysis Of Genetic Markers In Cattle, Josh Crystal

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

Genetic sequencing in beef cattle (L. Bos Taurus) is expected to aid producers select cattle with traits that enhance profitability. Using data from experimental trials conducted with Angus, Brahman, and their reciprocal cross, this project analyzes the profitability of grazing endophyte infected tall Fescue (L. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) vs. Bermuda grass (L. Cynodon dactylon) pasture. The study is unique in the sense that actual cow-calf breeding failure rates (open cows were not culled) were tracked from 1991 to 1997 on herds that were bred to calf in spring and either exposed to fungal endophyte (L.Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams ...


Denoising Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data, Felix Offei 2017 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Denoising Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data, Felix Offei

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein identification using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has proven to be an effective way to identify proteins in a biological sample. An observed spectrum is constructed from the data produced by the tandem mass spectrometer. A protein can be identified if the observed spectrum aligns with the theoretical spectrum. However, data generated by the tandem mass spectrometer are affected by errors thus making protein identification challenging in the field of proteomics. Some of these errors include wrong calibration of the instrument, instrument distortion and noise. In this thesis, we present a pre-processing method, which focuses on the removal of ...


Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleukin-8 Receptor Genes Are Related To Production Traits And Hair Coat Score In Crossbred Cattle, Avery Deaton 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleukin-8 Receptor Genes Are Related To Production Traits And Hair Coat Score In Crossbred Cattle, Avery Deaton

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of this thesis was to identify polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR2) genes and to associate genotypes between the above mentioned polymorphisms and production traits in crossbred cattle. The hypothesis was that polymorphisms will exist for GR and CXCR2 genes and will be linked to production traits. Glucocorticoid receptors have been positively associated with higher milk yields, lactose content, feed intake, and feed conversion rates. Interleukin-8 genes are part of the innate immune response and help with many aspects of female reproduction health, such as protecting the embryo from the maternal immune system during ...


Investigating The Genetic Basis For Hominoid Taillessness, Samantha M. Tickey-McCrane, Holly Dunsworth, Johanna E. Wegener 2017 University of Rhode Island

Investigating The Genetic Basis For Hominoid Taillessness, Samantha M. Tickey-Mccrane, Holly Dunsworth, Johanna E. Wegener

Senior Honors Projects

Investigating the Genetic Basis for Hominoid Taillessness:

A Comparative Genetic Approach Across Ten Catarrhine Taxa

Samantha Tickey-McCrane1,2, Johanna E. Wegener2, and Holly Dunsworth1

Honors Thesis Abstract Written by Samantha Tickey-McCrane, Departments of Anthropology & Biology

Advisor: Dr. Holly Dunsworth, Department of Anthropology

How did hominoid tail loss occur? My goals are to test phylogenetic and adaptive hypotheses for tail length variation among macaques, and use those insights to reconstruct the evolution of hominoid taillessness. Further, I aim to ultimately uncover which candidate genes or pathways may be responsible for catarrhine tail loss, and what other traits may be affected by ...


Transcriptomic Effects Of Dispersed Oil In A Non-Model Decapod Crustacean, Hernan Vazquez-Miranda, Brent Thoma, Juliet Wong, Darryl Felder, Keith A. Crandall, Heather Bracken-Grissom 2017 George Washington University

Transcriptomic Effects Of Dispersed Oil In A Non-Model Decapod Crustacean, Hernan Vazquez-Miranda, Brent Thoma, Juliet Wong, Darryl Felder, Keith A. Crandall, Heather Bracken-Grissom

Computational Biology Institute

Background. Oil spills are major environmental disasters. Dispersants help control spills, as they emulsify oil into droplets to speed bioremediation. Although dispersant toxicity is controversial, the genetic consequences and damages of dispersed oil exposure are poorly understood. We used RNA-seq to measure gene expression of flatback mudcrabs (Eurypanopeus depressus, Decapoda, Brachyura, Panopeidae) exposed to dispersed oil.

Methods. Our experimental design included two control types, oil-only, and oil-dispersant treatments with three replicates each. We prepared 100 base pair-ended libraries from total RNA and sequenced them in one Illumina HiSeq2000 lane. We assembled a reference transcriptome with all replicates per treatment, assessed ...


Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud 2017 University of Tennessee

Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


A Behavioral Prerequisite For The Genetic Analysis Of Auditory Feature Detection Mechanisms In Female Crickets, Rebecca L. Blisko 2017 University of Rhode Island

A Behavioral Prerequisite For The Genetic Analysis Of Auditory Feature Detection Mechanisms In Female Crickets, Rebecca L. Blisko

Senior Honors Projects

Sexual dimorphism is exhibited across all cricket species and is a central aspect of the mating processes of these insects. Only male crickets possess wing structures and pattern generators in the central nervous system that allow them to produce a mating call that is unique to their species in order to attract conspecific females. Conspecific females possess an auditory feature detection circuit in the central nervous system that is capable of detecting the species-specific frequency and temporal pattern of sound pulses within a male call. In order for dimorphic differences in mating behavior to result in successful continuation of a ...


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