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Underlying Contribution Of Executive Functioning To Cognition And Academic Achievement In Individuals With Dystrophinopathy, Robert Fee 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Underlying Contribution Of Executive Functioning To Cognition And Academic Achievement In Individuals With Dystrophinopathy, Robert Fee

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Dystrophinopathy is a genetic disorder that results in the lack of or abnormal expression of the protein dystrophin. It is a disorder that alters cell structure and function, impacts the developing brain and brain function, presents with multi-domain cognitive deficits, and influences both mood and behavior. Cognitive impairments appear to be more localized to specific areas of functioning rather than a global deficit; however, deficits have been identified across multiple cognitive domains including language and aspects of executive functioning. A careful examination of the cognitive phenotype and its association to mutations affecting CNS isoforms is necessary to clarify the neuropsychological ...


Integration Of Bmp And Insulin/Igf-1 Signaling Regulates Multiple Homeostatic Functions In Caenorhabditis Elegans, James F. Clark 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Integration Of Bmp And Insulin/Igf-1 Signaling Regulates Multiple Homeostatic Functions In Caenorhabditis Elegans, James F. Clark

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The maintenance of homeostatic functions is key to the survival and well-being of an organism. Regulation of homeostasis relies on varied inputs, both intrinsic and extrinsic, to potentiate a web of interconnected signaling relays. Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) is a well-known regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as having far reaching effects in other homeostatic mechanisms. On the other hand, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta signaling superfamily, is known for its role in differentiation and development, with only recent studies highlighting potential roles in metabolic homeostasis. Here we elucidate new functions ...


Combinatorial Genomic Data Refute The Human Chromosome 2 Evolutionary Fusion And Build A Model Of Functional Design For Interstitial Telomeric Repeats, Jeffrey P. Tomkins 2018 Institute for Creation Research

Combinatorial Genomic Data Refute The Human Chromosome 2 Evolutionary Fusion And Build A Model Of Functional Design For Interstitial Telomeric Repeats, Jeffrey P. Tomkins

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Evolutionists allege that human chromosome 2 is the product of an ancient fusion event in an ancient hominid ancestor descended from apes. However, both the alleged site of fusion and the so-called cryptic centromere of human chromosome 2 are situated inside active genes negating the idea of fusion. Not only are the alleged genomic fossils of fusion representative of functional intragenic sequence, but they are also both highly degenerate versions of their supposed evolutionary beginnings, suggesting something other than an evolutionary origin. Given that these data strongly refute an evolutionary fusion scenario, it behooves creationists to propose an alternative model ...


Integrated Regulation Of Class Ii Human Endogenous Retroviruses In A Breast Cancer Cell Line, Yingguang Liu, Tam D. Nguyen 2018 Liberty University College of Osteopathic Medicine

Integrated Regulation Of Class Ii Human Endogenous Retroviruses In A Breast Cancer Cell Line, Yingguang Liu, Tam D. Nguyen

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are still regarded as foreign invaders by most biologists. Because of structural and positional homology of ERVs in human and ape genomes, they have been considered molecular evidences of common ancestry. Using a breast cancer cell line, we analyzed the regulatory features of a group of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV-K), and found that they contain multiple sequence motifs subjecting them to regulation by sex hormones, a stem cell-specific transcription factor (OCT4), and DNA methylation. Mutation of the OCT4 motif abrogates their response to sex hormones, while methylation of a progesterone-response element enhances receptor-binding. We also found that ...


Adam And Eve, Designed Diversity, And Allele Frequencies, John C. Sanford, Robert W. Carter, Wes Brewer, John Baumgardner, Bruce Potter, Jon Potter 2018 FMS Foundation

Adam And Eve, Designed Diversity, And Allele Frequencies, John C. Sanford, Robert W. Carter, Wes Brewer, John Baumgardner, Bruce Potter, Jon Potter

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Theistic evolutionists present multiple genetic arguments against a literal Adam and Eve. One key argument asserts it would be impossible for a single human couple to give rise to the genetic diversity seen in the modern human population. This implicitly assumes Adam and Eve would have been created without internal genetic diversity. If this were true, all observed variations would have to arise recently via random mutations. This would require incredibly high mutation rates, logically leading to rapid extinction.

Yet, Adam and Eve could have been created massively heterozygous. We have argued for over a decade that they could have ...


Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cattle industry worldwide is ravaged by bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a bacterial disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. Recent efforts to design vaccines against M. haemolytica focus on a virulence factor, leukotoxin, in addition to surface lipoproteins. Plant-based protein production is a safe and inexpensive alternative to traditional methods. Edible vaccines deliver antigens to pharyngeal tissues, which can provide local immunization against M. haemolytica prior to its progression into the lungs. In this project, a chimeric protein containing M. haemolytica antigens was produced in tobacco chloroplasts as a candidate edible vaccine for BRD. Attempts were made to transform lettuce chloroplasts ...


Drosophila Species Learn Dialects Through Communal Living, Balint Z. Kacsoh, Julianna Bozler, Giovanni Bosco 2018 Dartmouth College

Drosophila Species Learn Dialects Through Communal Living, Balint Z. Kacsoh, Julianna Bozler, Giovanni Bosco

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Many species are able to share information about their environment by communicating through auditory, visual, and olfactory cues. In Drosophila melanogaster, exposure to para- sitoid wasps leads to a decline in egg laying, and exposed females communicate this threat to naïve flies, which also depress egg laying. We find that species across the genus Drosophila respond to wasps by egg laying reduction, activate cleaved caspase in oocytes, and communicate the presence of wasps to naïve individuals. Communication within a species and between closely related species is efficient, while more distantly related species exhibit partial communication. Remarkably, partial communication between some ...


The Hero Organism And Heroism Science: A New Frontier Of Human Consciousness, Olivia Efthimiou 2018 Murdoch University

The Hero Organism And Heroism Science: A New Frontier Of Human Consciousness, Olivia Efthimiou

Heroism Science: An Interdisciplinary Journal

In the context of a new science of heroism this article presents a brief history of the presence and study of heroism, and an outline of the key characteristics of the modern-day movement of heroism. The potentially wide-reaching impacts of the science of heroism are briefly discussed. The hypothesis of human beings as “hero organisms” is presented, before embarking on a discussion on what it means for each of us to be on our own hero’s journey.


The Search For A Hero Gene: Fact Or Fiction?, Olivia Efthimiou 2018 Murdoch University

The Search For A Hero Gene: Fact Or Fiction?, Olivia Efthimiou

Heroism Science: An Interdisciplinary Journal

The radical entry of heroism research into scientific inquiry presents interesting challenges and possibilities for the study of heroism and the human condition more broadly. This ‘final frontier’ of the enduring phenomenon of heroism stands to offer remarkable, unprecedented, and controversial advances in our understanding of heroic and human behaviour. Is a genetic basis for heroism a real possibility? If so, what would its impacts be? Advances in genomics and increased interest in the fields of epigenetics and neuroplasticity might hold the key to its discovery. This article considers some of the leading emerging research in global health genomics and ...


Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed 2018 York University

Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Eusociality has independently evolved multiple times in the hymenoptera, but the patterns of adaptive molecular evolution underlying the evolution and elaboration of eusociality remain uncertain. Here, we performed a population genomics study of primitively eusocial Polistes (paper wasps), and compared their patterns of molecular evolution to two social bees; Bombus (bumblebees), and Apis (honey bees). This species triad allowed us to study molecular evolution across a gradient of social complexity (Polistes < Bombus < Apis) and compare species pairs that have similar (i.e. Polistes and Bombus) or different (i.e. Polistes and Apis) life histories, while controlling for phylogenetic distance. We ...


Functional Polymorphisms Of Alcohol Metabolism Genes And Their Protection Against Alcoholism Via Gene Therapy: A Systematic Review, Olivia Tzeng 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Functional Polymorphisms Of Alcohol Metabolism Genes And Their Protection Against Alcoholism Via Gene Therapy: A Systematic Review, Olivia Tzeng

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Around 45% of East Asians are unable to fully metabolize ethanol due to functional

polymorphisms of alcohol metabolism genes, specifically alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). These individuals display high levels of toxic blood acetaldehyde when consuming alcohol, causing symptoms such as tachycardia, vomiting, and flushing. The studies included in this review examine how functional polymorphisms of ADH and ALDH protect against alcoholism in addition to how polymorphisms can be utilized as protection against alcoholism via gene therapy. The studies included found that carriers of the ADH and ALDH polymorphisms were 66 to 99% genetically protected against alcoholism. Through ...


Put Your Phone Down: Effects Of Cellular Radiation On Drosophila Melanogaster, Anna Sapone, Michael Wilson, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Put Your Phone Down: Effects Of Cellular Radiation On Drosophila Melanogaster, Anna Sapone, Michael Wilson, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this project, we aimed to answer the question: Does cellular radiation affect offspring production and expression of the Rad51 gene in the organism Drosophila melanogaster? It was hypothesized that if Drosophila larvae were exposed to cellular radiation, the total offspring production would decrease, along with a corresponding increase in Rad51 expression. The Rad51 protein is crucial to the propagation of strand invasion and exchange steps in homologous recombination, resulting in the repair of double stranded DNA breaks. To test our hypothesis, we exposed the experimental group of Drosophila larvae to doses of cellular radiation emitted from an iPhone 6 ...


Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophila Melanogaster, Brandon Adair, Tamra E. Jones, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophila Melanogaster, Brandon Adair, Tamra E. Jones, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

Manganese is prevalent in Montana, and Manganese toxicity symptomatically resembles Parkinsons disease. The goal of this project was to determine whether exposure to high levels of Manganese affects the Dopamine synthesis pathway. For our experiment, we chose to measure the expression of the ple gene in Drosophila melanogaster that were exposed to Manganese during development. The ple gene codes for Tyrosine Hydroxylase, an enzyme that functions in the first rate-limiting step of Dopamine synthesis. We hypothesized that an abundance of Manganese would result in decreased expression of ple in larvae and observable motor function deficits among adult flies. To carry ...


Effect Of Alcohol On Pfk1 Gene Expression And Feeding Activity In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Evelyn Sowers, Alex Skoulis, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effect Of Alcohol On Pfk1 Gene Expression And Feeding Activity In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Evelyn Sowers, Alex Skoulis, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The purpose of this experiment was to test whether alcohol induces starvation conditions in Tetrahymena thermophila. For this experiment, it was hypothesized that alcohol induces starvation due to a lack of energy available in the organism for feeding. This hypothesis was tested by monitoring food vacuole formation and expression of the PFK1 gene in Tetrahymena that were exposed to alcohol. The PFK-1 gene was chosen because its encoded protein plays an essential role in cellular metabolism. For the experiment, control and experimental cultures of Tetrahymena themophila were maintained in a nutrient rich media, with the media of the experimental group ...


The Effect Of Exposure To Ionizing Radiation On Cwf16 Expression In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Shelby Olsen, David Woolston 2018 Carroll College

The Effect Of Exposure To Ionizing Radiation On Cwf16 Expression In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Shelby Olsen, David Woolston

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The following research seeks to determine whether exposure to ultraviolet radiation will induce an increase in the expression of the Cwf16 gene in Tetrahymena thermophila. Cwf16 is a homolog of Ccgc94, whose gene product is a functioning member of the Prp19 complex, a protein complex which protects cells from committing apoptosisprogrammed cell deathdue to exposure to ionizing radiation. The homology between Cwf16 and Ccgc94 yields the hypothesis that Cwf16 expression in T. thermophila will increase in response to UV radiation exposure in a similar mechanism to that observed the Ccgc94 system. In the present research, T. thermophila cultures were randomly ...


Analysis Of Fbp1 Gene Expression In Uv Light-Exposed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cultures, Colby Henry, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Analysis Of Fbp1 Gene Expression In Uv Light-Exposed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cultures, Colby Henry, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this study, Tetrahymena thermophila cultures were exposed to an acute treatment of UV light and expression of the FBP1 gene was examined. The FBP1 gene encodes Fructose- 1,6-biphosphatase which plays an important role in the process of gluconeogenesis. It was hypothesized that exposure of Tetrahymena to UV light would cause an upregulation in DNA repair enzymes, thereby causing these cells to require higher levels of glucose. The higher demand for glucose would then result in the upregulation of gluconeogenesis and FBP1. Following acute exposure of Tetrahymena cultures to UV light, the expression of FBP1 was analyzed using reverse ...


Uv Light Exposure And Tetrahymena Thermophilia: Expression Of The Phr2 Gene, Molly Moloney, Tanner Gustavsen, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Uv Light Exposure And Tetrahymena Thermophilia: Expression Of The Phr2 Gene, Molly Moloney, Tanner Gustavsen, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The PHR2 (photolyase repair) gene functions in the repair of DNA in Tetrahymena thermophila. It was hypothesized that when Tetrahymena cultures are exposed to UV light, increased expression of PHR2 would occur in response to the damage incurred. UV light has been known to cause the formation of pyrimidine dimers and other disruptions in DNA. Through two rounds of experimentation, the acute impact of UV light exposure was monitored. The cultures underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and semi-quantitative PCR analysis. We predicted that UV exposure would result in the increased expression of PHR2.


Effects Of Sulfur Dioxide On Abda Gene Expression And Larval Development In Drosophila Melanogaster, Emma Esposito, Keenan McNally, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effects Of Sulfur Dioxide On Abda Gene Expression And Larval Development In Drosophila Melanogaster, Emma Esposito, Keenan Mcnally, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this experiment, we tested the effects sulfur dioxide exposure had on abd-A gene expression and larval development in Drosophila melanogaster. Previous studies showed that sulfur dioxide exposure inhibits development of gonads in adult flies and increases development time. We hypothesized that expression of abd-A would decrease in developing Drosophila exposed to sulfur dioxide. The abd-A gene is in the Hox gene family, which functions in the development of body segmentation. The abd-A gene is specific to the abdominal region of the fly, and is also important to the development of gonads and fat bodies. To test our hypothesis, we ...


The Effect Of Metal Pollutants On Cell Growth And Ttherm0058490expressionint Etrahymenathermophila, Inderbir Bains, William French, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

The Effect Of Metal Pollutants On Cell Growth And Ttherm0058490expressionint Etrahymenathermophila, Inderbir Bains, William French, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this experiment, we sought to answer the following question: Do higher levels of metal exposure affect expression of the TTHERM 00584900 gene in Tetrahymena thermophila? The TTHERM 00584900 gene produces an ATP-binding cassette protein that is responsible for removing metals and metalloids from Tetrahymena thermophila. It is hypothesized that the expression of TTHERM 00584900 will increase with exposure to metals. In order to test this hypothesis, Tetrahymena thermophila were randomly assigned to either a control group, which was cultured in a normal growth medium, or a treatment group, whichin addition to the medium was exposed to water contaminated with ...


Impacts Of Environmental Motion On Cdc2 Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Jack Rees, Keaton Brady, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Impacts Of Environmental Motion On Cdc2 Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Jack Rees, Keaton Brady, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this experiment, the eect of constant motion on expression of the cell cycle control gene CDC2 was examined in the organism Tetrahymena thermophila. We hypothesized that CDC2 expression would decrease with a corresponding increase in movement within the Tetrahymena culture environment. The CDC2 protein is primarily used in the replication of eukaryotic DNA because of its connection to HHO1, an important factor in transcriptional regulation. If the cells were subject to vegetative growth in which there are no stressors put on the cell, then HHO1 becomes phosphorylated to prevent it from interacting with chromatin. Because CDC2 is important in ...


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