Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

5,668 Full-Text Articles 13,210 Authors 1,232,381 Downloads 178 Institutions

All Articles in Physiology

Faceted Search

5,668 full-text articles. Page 1 of 207.

Calcium Signaling In The Sperm Head, Julie Simons, Lisa Fauci 2018 The California Maritime Academy

Calcium Signaling In The Sperm Head, Julie Simons, Lisa Fauci

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Study Into The Reliability Of The Data Flow From Gps Enabled Portable Fitness Devices To The Internet, Philip Shambrook, Patrick J. Lander PhD, Olivia Maclaren 2018 Eastern Institute of Technology (EIT)

A Study Into The Reliability Of The Data Flow From Gps Enabled Portable Fitness Devices To The Internet, Philip Shambrook, Patrick J. Lander Phd, Olivia Maclaren

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(7): 1184-1193, 2018. The growth in availability and affordability of portable fitness devices (PFDs) has facilitated a concomitant growth in the collection and sharing of what are assumed to be reliable measures of exercise and physical activity. This data is increasingly used by fitness trainers to track performance progression, and plan training. Whilst the reliability and validity of these devices has been reported, investigation into the variance in the data at different access points is less well examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of the data flow from global ...


Postpartum Depression: Prevention And Multimodal Therapy, Anca Daniela Stanescu, Denisa Oana Balalau, Liana Ples, Stana Paunica, Cristian Balalau 2018 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucur Maternity Hospital, St. John's Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania

Postpartum Depression: Prevention And Multimodal Therapy, Anca Daniela Stanescu, Denisa Oana Balalau, Liana Ples, Stana Paunica, Cristian Balalau

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

A woman goes through many biological (hormonal, physical), psychological (emotional), and socio-cultural changes during pregnancy. Furthermore, changes also occur in the mother's familial and interpersonal world after childbirth. While some mothers have positive emotions at birth, such as joy and pleasure, others complain of negative experiences varying from sadness and depression to psychosis. Thus, the risk of depression is higher for women during the postpartum period, having a tendency to decrease in most cases over the first 2 weeks after delivery. Unfortunately, this favorable evolution does not happen in about 1 in 4-7 women, who develops postpartum depression. Postpartum ...


Effects Of Changing The Focus Of Attention On Accuracy, Acceleration, And Electromyography In Dart Throwing, Dakota R. Hitchcock, David E. Sherwood 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Effects Of Changing The Focus Of Attention On Accuracy, Acceleration, And Electromyography In Dart Throwing, Dakota R. Hitchcock, David E. Sherwood

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(1): 1120-1135, 2018. Research over the past 15 years or so has shown that an external focus on the effects of one’s movements improves performance relative to an internal focus of attention on bodily actions. More recent research has attempted to discover how the focus of attention (FOA) influences underlying motor control processes by using kinematic and EMG measures. Research has shown that an external FOA reduces EMG activity and the co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle groups relative to an internal FOA. The primary goal of the current study was to determine ...


The Predictability Of Peak Oxygen Consumption Using Submaximal Ratings Of Perceived Exertion In Adolescents, Danilo V. Tolusso, Ward C. Dobbs, Michael Esco 2018 University of Alabama

The Predictability Of Peak Oxygen Consumption Using Submaximal Ratings Of Perceived Exertion In Adolescents, Danilo V. Tolusso, Ward C. Dobbs, Michael Esco

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(4): 1173-1183, 2018. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) extrapolation involves mathematically extending the submaximal relationship between RPE and oxygen consumption (VO2) to maximal intensity. This technique allows practitioners to forego, potentially dangerous, maximal exertion testing while attaining accurate measures of maximal oxygen consumption used for exercise prescription. This method has been proven accurate in adults, but much less in known when applied to an adolescent population. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of the RPE extrapolation as method for estimating VO2max in adolescents. Twenty-two healthy, asymptomatic adolescents performed ...


Characterizing The Aerobic And Anaerobic Energy Costs Of Polynesian Dances, Wei Zhu, David E. Lankford, Joel Reece, Daniel P. Heil 2018 Montana State University - Bozeman

Characterizing The Aerobic And Anaerobic Energy Costs Of Polynesian Dances, Wei Zhu, David E. Lankford, Joel Reece, Daniel P. Heil

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(4): 1156-1172, 2018. This study characterized both aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure (EE) for several Polynesian dances in a group of experienced professional Polynesian dancers. Thirteen men and 17 women were tested using indirect calorimetry to assess aerobic EE (and converted to METs), and fingertip blood lactate to estimate anaerobic EE, during both resting and dancing activities. Total EE was then computed as the sum of both aerobic and anaerobic activity energy expenditure (AEE, or EE above resting). One sample t-tests compared mean MET values for each type of dance to the 3-MET and ...


Foot-To-Foot Bioelectrical Impedance, Air Displacement Plethysmography, And Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry In Resistance-Trained Men And Women, Justin Merrigan, Sina Gallo PhD, Jennifer Fields, Margaret T. Jones PhD 2018 George Mason University

Foot-To-Foot Bioelectrical Impedance, Air Displacement Plethysmography, And Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry In Resistance-Trained Men And Women, Justin Merrigan, Sina Gallo Phd, Jennifer Fields, Margaret T. Jones Phd

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(4): 1145-1155, 2018. Accurate assessment of body composition is important to athletic performance goal setting and nutritional program design. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered the “gold standard” in body composition assessment, yet the cost renders DXA unfeasible for many. Therefore, it is of interest to compare other body composition assessment methods to DXA in resistance-trained individuals whose focus is athletic performance. The purpose of the current study was to determine the agreement in estimates of body composition ((body fat (BF%); fat mass (FM); fat free mass (FFM)) by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; Tanita ...


The Influence Of Tissue Plasminogen Activator I/D Polymorphism On The Tpa Response To Exercise, Adam M. Coughlin 2018 Saginaw Valley State University

The Influence Of Tissue Plasminogen Activator I/D Polymorphism On The Tpa Response To Exercise, Adam M. Coughlin

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(3): 1136-1144, 2018. The purpose was to determine if the Alu-insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism of the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) gene influences the tPA response to maximal exercise. Fifty male subjects (age = 23.6 ± 4.7 yrs) completed a maximal treadmill exercise test. Blood samples were drawn before and immediately after exercise for determination of plasma tPA antigen and activity. Isolated DNA was amplified via polymerase chain reaction, electrophoresed, and visually amplified to determine tPA genotype. Subjects were classified as possessing the D allele (D) (n = 28) or being homozygous for the I ...


Measuring The Impact Of A Weeklong Fall Break On Stress Physiology In First Year Engineering Students, Ayesha Khan, Heather Poole, Elliott A. Beaton 2018 McMaster University

Measuring The Impact Of A Weeklong Fall Break On Stress Physiology In First Year Engineering Students, Ayesha Khan, Heather Poole, Elliott A. Beaton

The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

Canadian post-secondary institutions are increasingly introducing a fall break into their term calendars, with the stated goal of reducing student stress and improving academic success. We conducted a pilot study around the time of this fall break during which we collected saliva samples to measure the ratio of two metabolic hormones (cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) from first-year male engineering students in order to document possible changes in their stress levels before and after the break. Participants self-identified a particular day in the week prior to the break that they considered to be most stressful, followed by a day in the ...


From The Editors: A Guide For Peer Review In The Field Of Exercise Science, Whitley J. Stone, James W. Navalta, Scott Lyons, Mark A. Schafer 2018 University of Central Missouri

From The Editors: A Guide For Peer Review In The Field Of Exercise Science, Whitley J. Stone, James W. Navalta, Scott Lyons, Mark A. Schafer

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(1): 1112-1119, 2018. Since its inception, the mission of the International Journal of Exercise Science (IJES) has been to engage student researchers, to provide an outlet for peer-review and possible publication of their work, and to grant an opportunity for them to gain experience as peer-reviewers. The Editors of IJES take pride in providing these opportunities for student involvement, and we are constantly seeking new and innovative ways to enhance students’ professional development. As our readership has expanded across the globe and our scope has broadened to cross many Kinesiology related disciplines, we believe ...


Reproductive Timing Of The Scarlet Shiner (Lythrurus Fasciolaris) In Northern Alabama, Bruce Stallsmith, Toacca Taylor, Chelsie Smith 2018 University of Alabama - Huntsville

Reproductive Timing Of The Scarlet Shiner (Lythrurus Fasciolaris) In Northern Alabama, Bruce Stallsmith, Toacca Taylor, Chelsie Smith

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

The Scarlet Shiner (Lythrurus fasciolaris) is a cyprinid species widely distributed in parts of the Ohio, Cumberland and Tennessee river drainages of the United States. The objective of this study was to determine the Scarlet Shiner’s reproductive schedule. Maturation of ovaries and oocytes was determined through the categorization of developmental stages from early maturing to ripe, along with the calculation of monthly gonadosomatic index (GSI) measurements over two reproductive seasons in 2012 and 2015. In both years reproductive competence began in April. Average monthly GSI for females peaked in May, followed by a slow decline through August. Average clutch ...


Mechanisms Underlying Freeze Tolerance In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Jantina Toxopeus 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Underlying Freeze Tolerance In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Jantina Toxopeus

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Freeze tolerance has evolved repeatedly across insects, facilitating survival in low temperature environments. Internal ice formation poses several challenges, but the mechanisms that mitigate these challenges in freeze-tolerant insects are not well understood. To better understand how insects survive freezing, I describe a novel laboratory model, the spring field cricket Gryllus veletis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Following acclimation to six weeks of decreasing temperature and photoperiod (mimicking autumn), G. veletis juveniles becomes moderately freeze-tolerant, surviving freezing at -8 °C for up to one week, and surviving temperatures as low as -12 °C. Acclimation is associated with increased control of the temperature and ...


Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Inflammation Does Not Alter Muscle Spindle Afferent Mechanosensation Or Sensory Integration In The Spinal Cord Of Adult Mice, Dasha Zaytseva, Anusha Allawala, Joy Franco, Shea Putnam, Adam Abtahie, Nina Bubalo, Connor Criddle, Tuan Nguyen, Peter Nguyen, Shreejit Padmanabhan, Puneet Sanghera, Martina Bremer, Tzvia Abramson, Katherine A. Wilkinson 2018 San Jose State University

Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Inflammation Does Not Alter Muscle Spindle Afferent Mechanosensation Or Sensory Integration In The Spinal Cord Of Adult Mice, Dasha Zaytseva, Anusha Allawala, Joy Franco, Shea Putnam, Adam Abtahie, Nina Bubalo, Connor Criddle, Tuan Nguyen, Peter Nguyen, Shreejit Padmanabhan, Puneet Sanghera, Martina Bremer, Tzvia Abramson, Katherine A. Wilkinson

Faculty Publications

Inflammation is known to alter nervous system function, but its effect on muscle spindle afferent mechanosensation and sensory integration in the spinal cord has not been well studied. We tested the hypothesis that systemic inflammation induced by an intraperitoneal injection of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 7.5 × 105 endotoxin units/kg 18 h before experiment) would alter muscle spindle afferent mechanosensation and spinal cord excitability to Group Ia input in male and female adult C57Bl/6 mice. LPS injection caused a systemic immune response, evidenced by decreased white blood cell, monocyte, and lymphocyte concentrations in the blood, increased blood granulocyte ...


Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Inflammation Does Not Alter Muscle Spindle Afferent Mechanosensation Or Sensory Integration In The Spinal Cord Of Adult Mice, Dasha Zaytseva, Anusha Allawala, Joy A. Franco, Shea Putnam, Adam M. Abtahie, Nina Bubalo, Connor R. Criddle, Tuan A. Nguyen, Peter Nguyen, Shreejit Padmanabhan, Puneet Sanghera, Martina Bremer, Tzvia Abramson, Katherine A. Wilkinson 2018 San Jose State University

Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Inflammation Does Not Alter Muscle Spindle Afferent Mechanosensation Or Sensory Integration In The Spinal Cord Of Adult Mice, Dasha Zaytseva, Anusha Allawala, Joy A. Franco, Shea Putnam, Adam M. Abtahie, Nina Bubalo, Connor R. Criddle, Tuan A. Nguyen, Peter Nguyen, Shreejit Padmanabhan, Puneet Sanghera, Martina Bremer, Tzvia Abramson, Katherine A. Wilkinson

Katherine A. Wilkinson

Inflammation is known to alter nervous system function, but its effect on muscle spindle afferent mechanosensation and sensory integration in the spinal cord has not been well studied. We tested the hypothesis that systemic inflammation induced by an intraperitoneal injection of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 7.5 × 105 endotoxin units/kg 18 h before experiment) would alter muscle spindle afferent mechanosensation and spinal cord excitability to Group Ia input in male and female adult C57Bl/6 mice. LPS injection caused a systemic immune response, evidenced by decreased white blood cell, monocyte, and lymphocyte concentrations in the blood, increased blood granulocyte ...


Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Inflammation Does Not Alter Muscle Spindle Afferent Mechanosensation Or Sensory Integration In The Spinal Cord Of Adult Mice, Dasha Zaytseva, Anusha Allawala, Joy A. Franco, Shea Putnam, Adam M. Abtahie, Nina Bubalo, Connor R. Criddle, Tuan A. Nguyen, Peter Nguyen, Shreejit Padmanabhan, Puneet Sanghera, Martina Bremer, Tzvia Abramson, Katherine A. Wilkinson 2018 San Jose State University

Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Inflammation Does Not Alter Muscle Spindle Afferent Mechanosensation Or Sensory Integration In The Spinal Cord Of Adult Mice, Dasha Zaytseva, Anusha Allawala, Joy A. Franco, Shea Putnam, Adam M. Abtahie, Nina Bubalo, Connor R. Criddle, Tuan A. Nguyen, Peter Nguyen, Shreejit Padmanabhan, Puneet Sanghera, Martina Bremer, Tzvia Abramson, Katherine A. Wilkinson

Tzvia Abramson

Inflammation is known to alter nervous system function, but its effect on muscle spindle afferent mechanosensation and sensory integration in the spinal cord has not been well studied. We tested the hypothesis that systemic inflammation induced by an intraperitoneal injection of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 7.5 × 105 endotoxin units/kg 18 h before experiment) would alter muscle spindle afferent mechanosensation and spinal cord excitability to Group Ia input in male and female adult C57Bl/6 mice. LPS injection caused a systemic immune response, evidenced by decreased white blood cell, monocyte, and lymphocyte concentrations in the blood, increased blood granulocyte ...


Voltage Effects On Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Contractions Of Airway Smooth Muscle, Iurii Semenov, Robert Brenner 2018 Old Dominion University

Voltage Effects On Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Contractions Of Airway Smooth Muscle, Iurii Semenov, Robert Brenner

Bioelectrics Publications

Studies have shown that the activity of muscarinic receptors and their affinity to agonists are sensitive to membrane potential. It was reported that in airway smooth muscle (ASM) depolarization evoked by high K+ solution increases contractility through direct effects on M3 muscarinic receptors. In this study, we assessed the physiological relevance of voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors on ASM contractility. Our findings reveal that depolarization by high K+ solution induces contraction in intact mouse trachea predominantly through activation of acetylcholine release from embedded nerves, and to a lesser extent by direct effects on M3 receptors. We therefore devised a pharmacological ...


Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Exports Endocannabinoids To Prevent Inflammation And Maintain Homeostasis, Rose L. Szabady, Christopher Louissaint, Anneke Lubben, Bailu Xie, Shaun Reeksting, Christine Tuohy, Zachary Demma, Sage Foley, Christina S. Faherty, Alejandro Llanos-Chea, Andrew J. Olive, Randall J. Mrsny, Beth A. McCormick 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Exports Endocannabinoids To Prevent Inflammation And Maintain Homeostasis, Rose L. Szabady, Christopher Louissaint, Anneke Lubben, Bailu Xie, Shaun Reeksting, Christine Tuohy, Zachary Demma, Sage Foley, Christina S. Faherty, Alejandro Llanos-Chea, Andrew J. Olive, Randall J. Mrsny, Beth A. Mccormick

Open Access Articles

Neutrophil influx into the intestinal lumen is a critical response to infectious agents, but is also associated with severe intestinal damage observed in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. The chemoattractant hepoxilin A3, an eicosanoid secreted from intestinal epithelial cells by the apically restricted efflux pump multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), mediates this neutrophil influx. Information about a possible counterbalance pathway that could signal the lack of or resolution of an apical inflammatory signal, however, has yet to be described. We now report a system with such hallmarks. Specifically, we identify endocannabinoids as the first known endogenous substrates of the apically restricted ...


Identification Of A Novel Anoikis Signalling Pathway Using The Fungal Virulence Factor Gliotoxin, Florian Haun, Simon Neumann, Lukas Peintner, Katrin Wieland, Juri Habicht, Carsten Schwan, Kristine Ostevold, Maria Magdalena Koczorowska, Martin Biniossek, Matthias Kist, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Roger J. Davis, Ulrich Maurer, Oliver Schilling, Klaus Aktories, Christoph Borner 2018 Albert Ludwigs University

Identification Of A Novel Anoikis Signalling Pathway Using The Fungal Virulence Factor Gliotoxin, Florian Haun, Simon Neumann, Lukas Peintner, Katrin Wieland, Juri Habicht, Carsten Schwan, Kristine Ostevold, Maria Magdalena Koczorowska, Martin Biniossek, Matthias Kist, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Roger J. Davis, Ulrich Maurer, Oliver Schilling, Klaus Aktories, Christoph Borner

Open Access Articles

Anoikis is a form of apoptosis induced by cell detachment. Integrin inactivation plays a major role in the process but the exact signalling pathway is ill-defined. Here we identify an anoikis pathway using gliotoxin (GT), a virulence factor of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, which causes invasive aspergillosis in humans. GT prevents integrin binding to RGD-containing extracellular matrix components by covalently modifying cysteines in the binding pocket. As a consequence, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is inhibited resulting in dephosphorylation of p190RhoGAP, allowing activation of RhoA. Sequential activation of ROCK, MKK4/MKK7 and JNK then triggers pro-apoptotic phosphorylation of Bim. Cells in ...


Technology-Based Physical Activity Self-Monitoring Among College Students, Zack Papalia, Oliver Wilson, Melissa Bopp, Michele Duffey 2018 Pennsylvania State University

Technology-Based Physical Activity Self-Monitoring Among College Students, Zack Papalia, Oliver Wilson, Melissa Bopp, Michele Duffey

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(7): 1096-1104, 2018. Understanding the relationship between college students’ physical activity (PA) self-monitoring and PA levels has the potential to inform initiatives to promote PA. This study’s purpose was to examine the prevalence of technology-based self-monitoring among college students the potential relationship between device usage, goal setting behaviors, PA enjoyment, and PA levels. An online survey assessed students' demographics, current PA level, technology-based PA self-monitoring, and psychosocial outcomes. Independent t-tests examined differences in PA level and psychosocial outcomes by device use. 55.5% of the final sample (N=1,154) reported technology-based self-monitoring ...


Can Heart Rate Variability Predict The Second Metabolic Threshold In Young Soccer Players?, Gustavo S. Ribeiro, Ubiratan R. Pereira, André L. Lopes 2018 Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre

Can Heart Rate Variability Predict The Second Metabolic Threshold In Young Soccer Players?, Gustavo S. Ribeiro, Ubiratan R. Pereira, André L. Lopes

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(2): 1105-1111, 2018. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an effective method to assess the influence of the autonomic nervous system, which may be directly linked to metabolic demand. The aim of the study was to determine if the second metabolic threshold can be identified by HRV. Thirteen athletes were assessed in cardiopulmonary exercise test with concomitant gas analysis. The RR intervals (RRi) were plotted in a spreadsheet for graphics analysis and the point at which there was a shift in the RRi curve was determined as RRiT2. The second ventilatory threshold (VT2 ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress