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Potent Anti-Seizure Effects Of Locked Nucleic Acid Antagomirs Targeting Mir-134 In Multiple Mouse And Rat Models Of Epilepsy., Cristina R. Reschke, Luiz FA Silva, Braxton A. Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A. Farrell, Donncha F. O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C. Henshall 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Potent Anti-Seizure Effects Of Locked Nucleic Acid Antagomirs Targeting Mir-134 In Multiple Mouse And Rat Models Of Epilepsy., Cristina R. Reschke, Luiz Fa Silva, Braxton A. Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A. Farrell, Donncha F. O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C. Henshall

Physiology and Medical Physics Articles

Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) act on a limited set of neuronal targets, are ineffective in a third of patients with epilepsy, and do not show disease-modifying properties. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate levels of proteins by post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation. MicroRNA-134 is involved in controlling neuronal microstructure and brain excitability and previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA), cholesterol-tagged antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in mouse models of status epilepticus. Translation of these findings would benefit from evidence of efficacy in non-status epilepticus models and validation in ...


The Dangers Of Fat Metabolism And Pufa: Why You Don’T Want To Be A Fat Burner, Kyle J. Mamounis 2017 Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway

The Dangers Of Fat Metabolism And Pufa: Why You Don’T Want To Be A Fat Burner, Kyle J. Mamounis

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Living High And Healthy: Why Coloradans And Others Who Live At High Altitude Live Longer, And What Flatlanders Can Learn From Them, Todd Becker 2017 Getting Stronger blog

Living High And Healthy: Why Coloradans And Others Who Live At High Altitude Live Longer, And What Flatlanders Can Learn From Them, Todd Becker

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio 2017 Dr. Michael Ruscio

Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio

Journal of Evolution and Health

Clinicians have long understood the immense impact the health of our gut has on things like weight, energy, depression, autoimmunity and more. With the recent advancements in microbiota research we have learned much more about this connection. Like never before we understand how we can alleviate chronic health conditions and enhance well-being through improving the health of the gut.

However, with this increased research has also come over speculation and ill-informed recommendations. This has high impact on today's healthcare professional or consumer who could unintentionally do harm. For example by replicating the microbiota of hunter-gatherers of Africa, we could ...


The Impact Of Various Predator Perceptions On Stress Response And Spatial Memory In Birds, Chlöe S. N. Carter 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Impact Of Various Predator Perceptions On Stress Response And Spatial Memory In Birds, Chlöe S. N. Carter

Western Research Forum

The Impact of Various Predator Perceptions on Stress Response and Spatial Memory in Birds

Background

This project will explore the impact of environmental stressors on the cognitive abilities of birds. Predator perception has been demonstrated to elicit a stress response by elevating stress hormones which can alter the behaviour of birds. The aim of this study is to observe if chronic stress from differently perceived threats of predation in an individual’s environment will lead to differences in the spatial memory abilities in two species of birds. I predict that chronic stress resulting from predator stimuli will impair the bird ...


Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer 2017 University of Western Ontario

Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...


Localisation And Protein-Protein Interactions Of The Helicobacter Pylori Taxis Sensor T1pd And Their Connection To Metabolic Functions, Wiebke Behrens, Tobias Schweinitzer, Jonathan L. McMurry, Christine Josenhans 2017 Hannover Medical School

Localisation And Protein-Protein Interactions Of The Helicobacter Pylori Taxis Sensor T1pd And Their Connection To Metabolic Functions, Wiebke Behrens, Tobias Schweinitzer, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Christine Josenhans

Jonathan McMurry

The Helicobacter pylori energy sensor TlpD determines tactic behaviour under low energy conditions and is important in vivo. We explored protein-protein interactions of TlpD and their impact on TlpD localisation and function. Pull-down of tagged TlpD identified protein interaction partners of TlpD, which included the chemotaxis histidine kinase CheAY2, the central metabolic enzyme aconitase (AcnB) and the detoxifying enzyme catalase (KatA). We confirmed that KatA and AcnB physically interact with TlpD. While the TlpD-dependent behavioural response appeared not influenced in the interactor mutants katA and acnB in steady-state behavioural assays, acetone carboxylase subunit (acxC) mutant behaviour was altered. TlpD was ...


The Sh3 Domain Of Unc-89 (Obscurin) Interacts With Paramyosin, A Coiled-Coil Protein, In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Hiroshi Qadota, Jonathan McMurry, Verra M. Ngwa, Et al. 2017 Emory University

The Sh3 Domain Of Unc-89 (Obscurin) Interacts With Paramyosin, A Coiled-Coil Protein, In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Hiroshi Qadota, Jonathan Mcmurry, Verra M. Ngwa, Et Al.

Jonathan McMurry

UNC-89 is a giant polypeptide located at the sarcomeric M-line of Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. The human homologue is obscurin. To understand how UNC-89 is localized and functions, we have been identifying its binding partners. Screening a yeast two-hybrid library revealed that UNC-89 interacts with paramyosin. Paramyosin is an invertebrate-specific coiled-coil dimer protein that is homologous to the rod portion of myosin heavy chains and resides in thick filament cores. Minimally, this interaction requires UNC-89’s SH3 domain and residues 294–376 of paramyosin and has a KD of ∼1.1 μM. In unc-89 loss-of-function mutants that lack the SH3 domain ...


Efn-4 Functions In Lad-2-Mediated Axon Guidance In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alicia A. Schwieterman, Cory J. Donelson, Jonathan L. McMurry, Martin L. Hudson 2017 Kennesaw State University

Efn-4 Functions In Lad-2-Mediated Axon Guidance In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alicia A. Schwieterman, Cory J. Donelson, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Martin L. Hudson

Jonathan McMurry

During development of the nervous system, growing axons rely on guidance molecules to direct axon pathfinding. A well-characterized family of guidance molecules are the membrane-associated ephrins, which together with their cognate Eph receptors, direct axon navigation in a contact-mediated fashion. InC. elegans, the ephrin-Eph signaling system is conserved and is best characterized for their roles in neuroblast migration during early embryogenesis. This study demonstrates a role for theC. elegansephrin EFN-4 in axon guidance. We provide both genetic and biochemical evidence that is consistent with theC. elegansdivergent L1 cell adhesion molecule LAD-2 acting as a non-canonical ephrin receptor to EFN-4 to ...


Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2017 Duke University

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


Psychophysiological Tracking Of A Female Physique Competitor Through Competition Preparation, Brandon Jay Rohrig, Robert W. Pettitt, Cherie Pettitt, Todd Kanzenbach 2017 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Psychophysiological Tracking Of A Female Physique Competitor Through Competition Preparation, Brandon Jay Rohrig, Robert W. Pettitt, Cherie Pettitt, Todd Kanzenbach

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 10(2): 301-311, 2017. Natural physique competitions are based on subjective judgments of how a competitor appears on show day. Prior to competition, there is a prolonged dieting phase referred to as contest preparation. The primary goal is to reduce body fat levels while maintaining skeletal muscle mass. The study tracked the physiological and psychological changes for a 24 year old female preparing for a physique competition. Purpose: The study was conducted to describe the physiological and psychological changes of a female physique competitor who engages in long-term contest preparation. Methods: Diet, body composition, blood ...


Effects Of Hypobaric And Normobaric Hypoxia On Heart Rate And Blood Oxygen Saturation, Madison Brooks Coleman 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Effects Of Hypobaric And Normobaric Hypoxia On Heart Rate And Blood Oxygen Saturation, Madison Brooks Coleman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

There has been recent debate on the difference in physiological response between exposure to normobaric hypoxia (oxygen fraction altered) and hypobaric hypoxia (barometric pressure altered). Purpose: To determine the effects of normobaric normoxia (NN), hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and normobaric hypoxia (NH) on heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) after exercise. Methods: Fifteen recreationally active participants (eight males and seven females) completed three separate 1 h cycling bouts at 70% of their peak aerobic capacity. Following each trial, participants recovered in the supine position for 4 h in NN (975 m), HH (4420 m), or NH (4420 m). SaO ...


Human Stress Protein Response To Exercise And The Environment, Rebecca Cuthbert 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Human Stress Protein Response To Exercise And The Environment, Rebecca Cuthbert

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Stress proteins are molecular chaperones that protect cells from the damaging effects that can be caused by exercise and environmental changes. Cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRP) and RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) protect cells from mild hypothermia and hypoxia. They allow cells to rapidly respond to environmental stresses by regulating gene expression. Heat shock proteins 27, 70, and 90 protect skeletal tissue from exercise and heat stress. They accelerate cellular repair and prevent misfolding of proteins. These proteins, especially CIRP and RBM3, have been studied in cell cultures and animal models, but limited data exist in humans. Purpose: To ...


Oxygen Transport In Normobaric Versus Hypobaric Hypoxia, Christina N. Angeli 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Oxygen Transport In Normobaric Versus Hypobaric Hypoxia, Christina N. Angeli

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

BACKGROUND: Various physiological changes occur in the human body when ascending to altitude. Exposure to hypoxia increases heart rate and decreases arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), with both changes being expedited during exercise. Incremental exercise in ambient conditions decreases muscle oxygenation, specifically with increasing intensity. Previous research has examined heart rate and SaO2 in response to normobaric versus hypobaric hypoxia. However, there is lack of research examining muscle oxygenation in response to these conditions. Therefore, additional research investigating acute responses to normobaric and hypobaric hypoxia during exercise is warranted. PURPOSE: To examine acute responses in arterial and muscle tissue ...


Effects Of Normobaric And Hypobaric Hypoxia On Mitochondrial Related Gene Expression, Robert J. Shute 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Effects Of Normobaric And Hypobaric Hypoxia On Mitochondrial Related Gene Expression, Robert J. Shute

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Environmental stimuli such as temperature and hypoxia can influence cellular signaling in the skeletal muscle. Previously we have reported no changes in gene expression related to mitochondrial development with acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia. However, exposure to hypobaric hypoxia may elicit different physiological responses. Purpose: To determine the response of skeletal muscle mitochondrial related gene expression after 4 h of exposure to normobaric normoxia (NN), normobaric hypoxia (NH), and hypobaric hypoxia (HH) after exercise. Methods: Recreationally trained participants (8 male, 7 female) each completed three trials of 1-h cycling at 70% of Wmax. Following exercise, participants sat in an ...


Responses Of Appetite And Appetite Regulating Hormones To Acute Altitude Exposure, Morgan Busboom 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Responses Of Appetite And Appetite Regulating Hormones To Acute Altitude Exposure, Morgan Busboom

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

PURPOSE: To determine the acute response of appetite and appetite regulating hormones after exposure to simulated altitude in resting conditions. METHODS: Seven male and six female recreationally active subjects (height 178±8.1cm, weight: 77.3±24.8kg, body fat: 18.4±5.7%) participated in two, three-hour trials in an environmental chamber with one trial simulating 5000 m altitude (hypoxic) and the other simulating 350 m altitude (control). Blood samples from the antecubital vein were collected prior to entering the environmental chamber and immediately following the three hours of seated rest. Blood samples were analyzed for serum leptin, adiponectin ...


Comparison Of Whole-Body Cooling Techniques For Athletes And Military Personnel, Emma A. Nye, Lindsey E. Eberman, Kenneth E. Games, Colin Carriker 2017 Indiana State University

Comparison Of Whole-Body Cooling Techniques For Athletes And Military Personnel, Emma A. Nye, Lindsey E. Eberman, Kenneth E. Games, Colin Carriker

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 10(2): 294-300, 2017. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cooling rates of The Polar Life Pod®, a military protocol and cold water immersion. A randomized, repeated measures design was used to compare three treatment options. Participants exercised in an environmental chamber, where they followed a military march protocol on a treadmill, followed by the application of one of three treatments: Cold water immersion tub (5 – 10 °C), Polar Life Pod® (5 – 10 °C), Ice sheets at onset (5 – 10 °C). Mean cooling rate for CWI was 0.072 ºC/min, 0.046ºC ...


Orchard Sports Injury Classification System 10.1 Plus: An End-User Study, Ashley K. Crossway, Kenneth E. Games, Lindsey E. Eberman, Neil Fleming 2017 Indiana State University

Orchard Sports Injury Classification System 10.1 Plus: An End-User Study, Ashley K. Crossway, Kenneth E. Games, Lindsey E. Eberman, Neil Fleming

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 10(2): 284-293, 2017. The purpose of this study was to establish the level of ease of use and effectiveness of the Orchard Sport Injury Classification System (OSICS) 10.1 Plus for recording injuries and interventions. Three hundred and forty-two (males=148, females=192, no response=2; age=30.9±9.5y; experience=9.1±10.5y) athletic trainers (ATs) in the United States completed the survey. Participants were primarily employed in the secondary school (n=135) or collegiate setting (n=171). Participants entered system includes the OSICS 10.1 to catalog injuries and Current ...


A 15-Week Vitamin D Supplementation And Indoor Cycling Intervention Reduces Exercising Heart Rate, With No Effect On Glycaemic Control In Healthy Adults: A Pilot Investigation., Ffion Curtis Dr, Rhys Thatcher Dr 2017 University of Lincoln

A 15-Week Vitamin D Supplementation And Indoor Cycling Intervention Reduces Exercising Heart Rate, With No Effect On Glycaemic Control In Healthy Adults: A Pilot Investigation., Ffion Curtis Dr, Rhys Thatcher Dr

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 10(2): 274-283, 2017 Significant positive correlations are often observed between vitamin D concentrations and physical activity levels. Whilst this may be due to individuals who are physically active spending time outdoors (i.e. increased opportunity for vitamin D synthesis), there is growing evidence to suggest a more complex relationship between vitamin D status, physical fitness and health outcomes. To explore this further thirty-nine healthy adults were randomly allocated to 15 weeks of exercise training (Ex), no training (NoEx), 2000 IU/day vitamin D (VitD) and/or placebo (Pla) supplementation (giving four possible allocations: NoEx ...


Effect Of Caffeine On Near Maximal Blood Pressure And Blood Pressure Recovery In Physically-Active, College-Aged Females, Laura E. Connahan, Christopher A. Ott, Vaughn W. Barry 2017 Middle Tennessee State University

Effect Of Caffeine On Near Maximal Blood Pressure And Blood Pressure Recovery In Physically-Active, College-Aged Females, Laura E. Connahan, Christopher A. Ott, Vaughn W. Barry

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 10(2): 266-273, 2017 The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m2): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg-1 of caffeine at least one hour ...


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