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Intercollegiate Cross Country Competition: Effects Of Warm-Up And Racing On Salivary Levels Of Cortisol And Testosterone, Kathleen V. Casto, Christopher Elliott, David A. Edwards 2014 Western Kentucky University

Intercollegiate Cross Country Competition: Effects Of Warm-Up And Racing On Salivary Levels Of Cortisol And Testosterone, Kathleen V. Casto, Christopher Elliott, David A. Edwards

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 318-328, 2014. Team intercollegiate athletic competition is associated with an increase in salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) in men and women. The present study was designed to determine the hormonal effects of warm-up and racing in cross country runners – a sport that has both individual and team components. Members of the Emory University men’s and women’s varsity cross country teams gave saliva samples before warm-up, after warm-up, and immediately after the finish of each of two intercollegiate invitational meets held one year apart in the same setting (2010, N = 10 ...


Vo2 Reserve Vs. Heart Rate Reserve During Moderate Intensity Treadmill Exercise, Tanner J. Solheim, Brad G. Keller, Charles J. Fountaine 2014 Western Kentucky University

Vo2 Reserve Vs. Heart Rate Reserve During Moderate Intensity Treadmill Exercise, Tanner J. Solheim, Brad G. Keller, Charles J. Fountaine

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 311-317, 2014. ­VO2 and heart rate (HR) are widely used when determining appropriate training intensities for clinical, healthy, and athletic populations. It has been shown that if the % reserve (%R) is used, rather than % of max, HR and VO2 can be used interchangeably to accurately prescribe exercise intensities. Thus, heart rate reserve (HRR) can be prescribed if VO2 reserve (VO2R) is known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare VO2 R and HRR during moderate intensity exercise (50%R). Physically active college students performed a ...


Muscle Activity In Single- Vs. Double-Leg Squats, Bradley A. DeForest, Gregory S. Cantrell, Brian K. Schilling 2014 Western Kentucky University

Muscle Activity In Single- Vs. Double-Leg Squats, Bradley A. Deforest, Gregory S. Cantrell, Brian K. Schilling

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 302-310, 2014. Muscular activity, vertical displacement and ground reaction forces of back squats (BS), rear-leg elevated split squats (RLESS) and split squats (SS) were examined. Nine resistance-trained men reported for two sessions. The first session consisted of the consent process, practice, and BS 1-repetition maximum testing. In the second session, participants performed the three exercises while EMG, displacment and ground reaction force data (one leg on plate) were collected. EMG data were collected from the gluteus maximus (GMX), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis ...


Occupational Sitting And Physical Activity Among University Employees, Charles J. Fountaine, Meredith Piacentini, Gary A. Liguori 2014 Western Kentucky University

Occupational Sitting And Physical Activity Among University Employees, Charles J. Fountaine, Meredith Piacentini, Gary A. Liguori

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 295-301, 2014. The prevalence of overweight and obese in the U.S. has been thoroughly documented. With the advent of inactivity physiology research and the subsequent interest in sedentary behavior, the work environment has come under closer scrutiny as a potential opportunity to reverse inactivity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the sitting and physical activity (PA) habits among different classifications of university employees. University employees (n=625) completed an online survey based on the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ). Participants were instructed to describe time spent sitting ...


Time Spent In Mvpa During Exergaming With Xbox Kinect In Sedentary College Students, Chie Yang, Zachary Wickert, Samantha Roedel, Alexandria Berg, Alex Rothbauer, Marquell Johnson, Donald Bredle 2014 Western Kentucky University

Time Spent In Mvpa During Exergaming With Xbox Kinect In Sedentary College Students, Chie Yang, Zachary Wickert, Samantha Roedel, Alexandria Berg, Alex Rothbauer, Marquell Johnson, Donald Bredle

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 286-294, 2014. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the amount of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during a 30-minute bout of exergaming with the Xbox Kinect game console in sedentary college-aged students. A secondary purpose was to examine enjoyment level of participation in the selected exergame. Twenty college-aged students (14 females and 6 males) who self-reported being physically inactive and having no prior experience with the Xbox Kinect game “Your Shape Fitness Evolved 2012” Break a Sweat activity participated in the study. Participants came into the lab on ...


Can Resistance Training Contribute To The Aerobic Components Of The Physical Activity Guidelines?, Travis J. Hrubeniuk, Neal Prokop, Semone Myrie, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard 2014 Western Kentucky University

Can Resistance Training Contribute To The Aerobic Components Of The Physical Activity Guidelines?, Travis J. Hrubeniuk, Neal Prokop, Semone Myrie, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 278-285, 2014. To evaluate if resistance training can reach Moderate to Vigorous Intensity (MVI) and contribute to the aerobic component of the international physical activity guidelines. Sixteen participants aged between 20 and 35 were recruited. Heart rate was recorded by heart rate monitor during a resistance training program. Based on maximal heart rate, time spent at MVI (55-69% of maximal heart rate) was calculated. Participants displayed a HR equal or above MVI for 51.5% ± 21.7% of time. When stratifying by lower and upper body sessions, that proportion was median (25-75th); 75 ...


The Acute Effects Of A Dynamic Stretching Protocol On Wingate Performance, Autumn S. Gipson Ms., Jamarious Jones, Elise N. Ritchey, Colby Murphy, Hope Grimes, John M. Coons 2014 Western Kentucky University

The Acute Effects Of A Dynamic Stretching Protocol On Wingate Performance, Autumn S. Gipson Ms., Jamarious Jones, Elise N. Ritchey, Colby Murphy, Hope Grimes, John M. Coons

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 271-277, 2014. Stretching before performing anaerobic activity has been a highly debated subject, with studies finding differing results depending on the type (static, dynamic, etc.) and duration of the stretch. Furthermore, the effects of dynamic stretching (DS) on anaerobic performance have been minimally researched. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects a DS protocol had on power performance using a Wingate test (WAnT). College-aged male subjects were recruited for this study. Prior to experimental trials, subjects performed a familiarity WAnT trial. Subjects then performed the WAnT two more times, once ...


The Relationship Between Change Of Direction Speed In The Frontal Plane, Power, Reactive Strength, And Strength, Brian T. McCormick, James C. Hannon, Charlie A. Hicks-Little, Maria Newton, Barry Shultz, Nicole Detling, Warren B. Young 2014 Western Kentucky University

The Relationship Between Change Of Direction Speed In The Frontal Plane, Power, Reactive Strength, And Strength, Brian T. Mccormick, James C. Hannon, Charlie A. Hicks-Little, Maria Newton, Barry Shultz, Nicole Detling, Warren B. Young

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 260-270, 2014. Change-of-direction speed (CODS) is an important quality to performance in multi-direction sports. The relationship between CODS in the frontal plane and power, strength, and reactive strength is largely unstudied. Twenty-three male college students participated in this study. The study used a Pearson’s product-moment correlation to measure the relationship between CODS, power, strength, and reactive strength. A lateral shuffle test was used as the measure of CODS. A lateral hop for distance was used as the measure of power in the frontal plane. A countermovement vertical jump test was used as ...


Sleep Patterns In Collegiate Dancers, Beth Nicks, Jacque Price 2014 Chapman University

Sleep Patterns In Collegiate Dancers, Beth Nicks, Jacque Price

e-Research: A Journal of Undergraduate Work

As college dance majors, the investigators have witnessed firsthand the effects that sleep and the lack thereof can have on the performance quality of University level dancing. It has been shown that lack of sleep can compromise nearly every physiological process such as memory, coordination, metabolism, and new learning (Wozny 2008). Studies on disruptions of the human circadian rhythms have shown that athletes involved in endeavors where sleep is restricted or totally deprived have severe consequences on behavior and performance. (Edwards 2007). However, the environment of college dance programs is different than athletics due to there being no off season ...


The Effect Of Maternal Aldosterone Levels On The Expression Of 11b-Hsd Isoenzymes In Normal And Hypertensive Rat Placentae, Nicole Jorissen 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Effect Of Maternal Aldosterone Levels On The Expression Of 11b-Hsd Isoenzymes In Normal And Hypertensive Rat Placentae, Nicole Jorissen

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

In this project, we developed a Western blotting procedure to semi-quantitate levels of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 in whole cell extracts. Then, we applied this technique to analyze the effect of reduced maternal aldosterone levels on the expression of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 isoenzymes in the placental tissue in both normal and hypertensive rats. These enzymes control levels of glucocorticoids which compete for aldosterone’s mineralocorticoid receptor. Overstimulation of this receptor results in hypertension. If aldosterone levels decrease, levels of the enzymes controlling active glucocorticoid concentrations might change to compensate for the lowered aldosterone levels. Decreased placental 11β-HSD2 expression could affect hypertension ...


Cryopreservation Of Hepatocyte (Hepg2) Cell Monolayers: Impact Of Trehalose, Blake Stokich, Quinn Osgood, David Grimm, Shhyam Moorthy, Nilay Chakraborty, Michael A. Menze 2014 Eastern Illinois University

Cryopreservation Of Hepatocyte (Hepg2) Cell Monolayers: Impact Of Trehalose, Blake Stokich, Quinn Osgood, David Grimm, Shhyam Moorthy, Nilay Chakraborty, Michael A. Menze

Michael Menze

A simple method to cryogenically preserve hepatocyte monolayers is currently not available but such a technique would facilitate numerous applications in the field of biomedical engineering, cell line development, and drug screening. We investigated the effect of trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) in cryopreservation of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in suspension and monolayer formats. HepG2 cell monolayers were incubated for 24 h at varying concentrations of trehalose (50–150 mM) prior to cryopreservation to identify the optimum concentration for such preincubation. When trehalose alone was used as the cryoprotective agent (CPA), cells in monolayer format did not survive freezing ...


Role Of C-Kit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase On Ins-1 Cell Vegf-A Expression In Vitro, Alexei Popell 2014 Western University

Role Of C-Kit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase On Ins-1 Cell Vegf-A Expression In Vitro, Alexei Popell

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Interactions between Stem Cell Factor (SCF) and c-Kit are critical in maintaining β-cell survival and function. VEGF-A, essential in facilitating islet vasculature formation, is secreted by β-cells. This work investigates the mechanisms by which c-Kit regulates VEGF-A production in β-cells, using a rat insulinoma (INS-1) cell line as an in vitro model. Cells were treated with recombinant hSCF or cultured with c-Kit (r) siRNA for 72 h. VEGF-A accumulation in the culture medium was measured by ELISA, while qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses were also performed. SCF augmented VEGF-A production in a time-dependent (p < 0.05 vs. control at 6 h and 24 h), and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.01 vs. control at 30-100 ng/mL). SCF stimulation increased phosphorylation of proteins along the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway (p < 0.05 vs. control groups), and decreased phosphorylation following siRNA treatment. Our results indicate that c-Kit exerts a regulatory effect on VEGF-A production in β-cells.


Aminocyclopyrachlor Efficacy For Non-Cropland Weed Control, José Javier Vargas Almodóvar 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Aminocyclopyrachlor Efficacy For Non-Cropland Weed Control, José Javier Vargas Almodóvar

Masters Theses

The production of chemicals for crop protection purposes evolved after World War II with the commercialization of the auxin herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. Their utility and effectiveness created an interest for North American and European companies to develop and research thousands of agrochemicals available today.

Recently discovered and introduced to the market by DuPont Crop Protection, aminocyclopyrachlor is the first broad spectrum synthetic auxin herbicide in this chemical class, and is structurally similar to the auxin herbicides: aminopyralid, clopyralid and picloram. Aminocyclopyrachlor has activity on broadleaf weed species with limited activity on monocot species. Aminocyclopyrachlor is absorbed via plant ...


A Comparison Of Fatigue During Cardiocerebral Resuscitation With Different Compression Rates Among Layperson And Professional Rescuers, Christopher Cassidy 2014 California Polytechnic State University

A Comparison Of Fatigue During Cardiocerebral Resuscitation With Different Compression Rates Among Layperson And Professional Rescuers, Christopher Cassidy

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Quality chest compressions during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) are vital to maintaining adequate perfusion of oxygenated blood to the organs of the body to sustain life. Over the years, the compression rate recommended in Basic Life Support (BLS)/ Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) protocols for the best possible outcome has risen, and with that increase there are questions regarding rescuer fatigue and the effectiveness of compressions. Layperson and professional rescuers, answering to an emergency, both maintain continuous chest compressions until advanced life support arrives. Depending on the location, this arrival time would most likely be longer than the two minute standard ...


The Role Of C-Kit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase In Beta-Cell Proliferation, Function And Survival, Zhi Chao Feng 2014 Western University

The Role Of C-Kit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase In Beta-Cell Proliferation, Function And Survival, Zhi Chao Feng

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, interacts with Stem Cell Factor (SCF), mediating cell differentiation, function, and survival. c-Kit is critical for the development and maintenance of beta-cell function in both rodents and humans. The mutation of c-Kit at W locus (c-KitWv/+) in mice results in an early onset of diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms by which c-Kit deficiency leads to beta-cell failure are unknown. Therefore, studying SCF/c-Kit downstream signaling pathways is essential to understanding the precise mechanism by which c-Kit regulates beta-cell survival and function in vivo.

We identified that dysregulated Akt/Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (Gsk3β)/cyclin ...


Characterization Of Blood-Derived Human Progenitor Cells For Vascular Regeneration, David Putman 2014 Western University

Characterization Of Blood-Derived Human Progenitor Cells For Vascular Regeneration, David Putman

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Despite advances in treatment of ischemic diseases including myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) there remains a need for effective revascularization therapies. Although early cell therapy trials investigated use of MNC from autologous bone marrow, emerging evidence indicates that purified progenitor cell populations are required to induce optimal vascular regeneration. In addition, autologous cells show reduced efficacy due to CVD-related progenitor dysfunction. This thesis presents preclinical studies characterizing several blood-derived cell types for the development of cellular therapies to treat PAD, focusing on the use of allogeneic umbilical ...


The Effect Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Genotype On Aerobic Capacity Following High Intensity Interval Training, Nicole Goddard, Matthew Baker, Tim Higgins, Christian Cobbold 2014 Western Kentucky University

The Effect Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Genotype On Aerobic Capacity Following High Intensity Interval Training, Nicole Goddard, Matthew Baker, Tim Higgins, Christian Cobbold

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(3) : 250-259, 2014. Obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity can reduce T2DM and CVD risk, and increase aerobic capacity, a significant predictor of all-cause mortality and morbidity. High intensity interval training (HIIT) produces similar improvements in aerobic capacity to continuous moderate exercise (CME). Different genotypes of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) have been implicated in improving aerobic capacity and therefore predicted health. This study investigated the effects of different ACE genotypes on the impact of 6 weeks of HIIT on aerobic capacity, and thus ...


Drosophila Sirt2/Mammalian Sirt3 Deacetylates Atp Synthase Beta And Regulates Complex V Activity, Motiur Rahman, Niraj K. Nirala, Alka Singh, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kaori Taguchi, Takeshi Bamba, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Leslie M. Shaw, David G. Lambright, Jairaj K. Acharya, Usha R. Acharya 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Drosophila Sirt2/Mammalian Sirt3 Deacetylates Atp Synthase Beta And Regulates Complex V Activity, Motiur Rahman, Niraj K. Nirala, Alka Singh, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kaori Taguchi, Takeshi Bamba, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Leslie M. Shaw, David G. Lambright, Jairaj K. Acharya, Usha R. Acharya

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase beta, the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial complex V, synthesizes ATP. We show that ATP synthase beta is deacetylated by a human nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent protein deacetylase, sirtuin 3, and its Drosophila melanogaster homologue, dSirt2. dsirt2 mutant flies displayed increased acetylation of specific Lys residues in ATP synthase beta and decreased complex V activity. Overexpression of dSirt2 increased complex V activity. Substitution of Lys 259 and Lys 480 with Arg in human ATP synthase beta, mimicking deacetylation, increased complex V activity, whereas substitution with Gln, mimicking acetylation, decreased activity. Mass spectrometry and proteomic experiments from ...


Contributions Of After School Programs To The Development Of Fundamental Movement Skills In Children, E Jean Burrows, Melanie R. Keats, Angela M. Kolen 2014 Western Kentucky University

Contributions Of After School Programs To The Development Of Fundamental Movement Skills In Children, E Jean Burrows, Melanie R. Keats, Angela M. Kolen

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(3) : 236-249, 2014. Fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency or the ability to perform basic skills (e.g., throwing, catching and jumping) has been linked to participation in lifelong physical activity. FMS proficiency amongst children has declined in the previous 15 years, with more children performing FMS at a low-mastery level. These declines may help explain the insufficient levels of participation in health promoting physical activity seen in today’s youth. The after school time period (e.g., 3 to 6 p.m.), is increasingly considered an opportune time for physical activity interventions. To date ...


The Energy Expenditure Of Recreational Ballroom Dance, D. E. Lankford, T. W. Bennion, J. King, N. Hessing, L Lee, D. P. Heil 2014 Western Kentucky University

The Energy Expenditure Of Recreational Ballroom Dance, D. E. Lankford, T. W. Bennion, J. King, N. Hessing, L Lee, D. P. Heil

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(3) : 228-235, 2014. The popularity of recreational ballroom dancing has increased dramatically in recent years. Yet, relatively little information is known regarding the physiological demands of ballroom dancing. The purpose of this study was to determine the energy requirements for recreational ballroom dancing. 24 participants volunteered including 12 women (mean ± SD: 21 ± 3 yrs, 165.8 ± 7.4 cm, 56.8 ± 11.1 kg) and 12 men (23 ± 1 yr, 175.5 ± 8.4 cm, 78.1 ± 15.6 kg). Gas exchange was recorded using a portable metabolic system during a series of five ...


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