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The Effects Of Lampricide 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol Toxicity On The Gills Of Larval Sea Lamprey And Non-Target Rainbow Trout And Lake Sturgeon, Lisa A. Sorensen 2015 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of Lampricide 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol Toxicity On The Gills Of Larval Sea Lamprey And Non-Target Rainbow Trout And Lake Sturgeon, Lisa A. Sorensen

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The pesticide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), is widely used in the Great Lakes to control invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) populations, but much about its sub-lethal effects remains unknown. A better understanding of its toxicity is needed to improve TFM effectiveness and to protect non-target organisms from its potential adverse effects. The objectives of this thesis were to test the following two hypotheses: (1) impairment of mitochondrial ATP production by TFM interferes with ATP-dependent ion-uptake by fish, leading to altered electrolyte balance, and (2) perturbations of gill function by TFM are exacerbated in soft, ion poor water (SW; 40 mg CaCO3 ...


Prostate Field Cancerization -- Thinking Outside The Tumor, Dor Shoshan, Marco Bisoffi 2014 Chapman University

Prostate Field Cancerization -- Thinking Outside The Tumor, Dor Shoshan, Marco Bisoffi

Undergraduate Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Prostate field cancerization (or field effect) is characterized by the presence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to adenocarcinomas. Accordingly, our research indicates deregulated expression of several proteins that define this type of molecular pathology. The scope of the present study was to determine the expression of the key transcription factor and potential marker of field cancerization early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in human prostate tissues derived from prostatectomies and biopsy cores.

EGR-1 was detected by immunofluorescence using a polyclonal anti-human EGR-1 and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibodies. EGR-1 expression was quantitated by determining the pixel count per ...


Low Temperature Tolerance Of Adult Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Ruth Jakobs 2014 Western University

Low Temperature Tolerance Of Adult Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Ruth Jakobs

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The crop pest Drosophila suzukii, native to Southeast Asia, has been found in Ontario since 2010. This raises concern with respect to it establishing permanent populations, however, little is known about its cold tolerance. I investigated the low-temperature tolerance, including phenotypic plasticity, of D. suzukii. While acclimation increased cold tolerance, there was no evidence of short-term cold-hardening. Chill coma occurs at -1.2 °C, which will limit winter activity. Cold shock decreased the reproductive output of females, but this negative effect may be mitigated by re-mating. Drosophila suzukii is chill-susceptible and 80 % of the flies die after exposure to -7 ...


Exploring The Glucocorticoid Actions Of 1Α-Hydroxycorticosterone (1Α-Oh-B) In The Elasmobranch Fishes, Faith Nichole Lambert 2014 The University of Southern Mississippi

Exploring The Glucocorticoid Actions Of 1Α-Hydroxycorticosterone (1Α-Oh-B) In The Elasmobranch Fishes, Faith Nichole Lambert

Master's Theses

The corticosteroid 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1α-OH-B) is unique to the elasmobranch fishes. It is thought that 1α-OH-B acts as both the primary glucocorticoid (GC) and mineralocorticoid (MC) in these fishes, a dual role analogous to that of cortisol in the teleost fishes. The MC characteristics of 1α-OH-B are well supported, but data supporting its GC functions are lacking. In this study, the putative GC actions of 1α-OH-B were examined. The first experiment characterized the physiological stress response of the Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) to air exposure, with particular regards to the roles of corticosteroids and metabolic fuels. Results demonstrate that corticosteroids increase ...


Characterization Of Aldh Positive Cells In The Human Fetal Pancreas, Amanda Oakie 2014 Western University

Characterization Of Aldh Positive Cells In The Human Fetal Pancreas, Amanda Oakie

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an enzyme that regulates differentiation during pancreatic development, but determining the role of ALDH during endocrine differentiation is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to characterize transcription factors (TFs) and putative stem cell surface markers in ALDHhi or ALDHlo populations of the human fetal pancreas (18-22 weeks of age), and examine their expansion and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Cell surface marker analysis demonstrated high co-localization of the stem cell marker CD133 with ALDHhi cells. ALDHhi cells also contained higher expression of islet- associated TFs and insulin. Expansion of sorted ALDHhi cells ...


The Reduction Of Metabolic Cost While Using Handrail Support During Inclined Treadmill Walking Is Dependent On The Handrail-Use Instruction, Cory Hofmann, Connor Dougherty, Hagop Abkarian, Michele Fox, Paul Juris 2014 Western Kentucky University

The Reduction Of Metabolic Cost While Using Handrail Support During Inclined Treadmill Walking Is Dependent On The Handrail-Use Instruction, Cory Hofmann, Connor Dougherty, Hagop Abkarian, Michele Fox, Paul Juris

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 339-345, 2014. Inclined treadmill walking is a commonly performed activity to increase cardiovascular health. Handrail support on a treadmill provides an individual the opportunity to change their posture with respect to the walking surface. Differences in metabolic cost during inclined walking due to postural changes with handrail use are unknown. To test the hypothesis that metabolic cost will differ depending on how handrail support is used, respiratory gas analysis was performed during inclined walking in 13 healthy subjects. Energy expenditure was quantified while each subject walked in four conditions: 5% incline unsupported, 10 ...


Lactate Threshold Comparison In Anaerobic Vs. Aerobic Athletes And Untrained Subjects, Matt Green, Jared Hornsby, Robert Pritchett, Kelley Pritchett 2014 Western Kentucky University

Lactate Threshold Comparison In Anaerobic Vs. Aerobic Athletes And Untrained Subjects, Matt Green, Jared Hornsby, Robert Pritchett, Kelley Pritchett

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 329-338, 2014. This study compared VO2 max, lactate threshold (LT) and VO2 at LT (VO2LT) among aerobic athletes (ARA) (n=10), anaerobic athletes (ANA) (n=9) and untrained participants (UTS) (n=7). From a treadmill test to exhaustion, VO2 max and LT (4 mmol·L-1 blood lactate concentration) were assessed. Analysis of variance showed VO2 max (ml·kg-1·min-1) was significantly greater for ARA (67.6 ± 9.4) than ANA (53.4 ± 6.4) and UTS (44.9 + 6.9), with ANA significantly greater than ...


Intercollegiate Cross Country Competition: Effects Of Warm-Up And Racing On Salivary Levels Of Cortisol And Testosterone, Kathleen V. Casto, Christopher Elliott, David A. Edwards 2014 Western Kentucky University

Intercollegiate Cross Country Competition: Effects Of Warm-Up And Racing On Salivary Levels Of Cortisol And Testosterone, Kathleen V. Casto, Christopher Elliott, David A. Edwards

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 318-328, 2014. Team intercollegiate athletic competition is associated with an increase in salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) in men and women. The present study was designed to determine the hormonal effects of warm-up and racing in cross country runners – a sport that has both individual and team components. Members of the Emory University men’s and women’s varsity cross country teams gave saliva samples before warm-up, after warm-up, and immediately after the finish of each of two intercollegiate invitational meets held one year apart in the same setting (2010, N = 10 ...


Vo2 Reserve Vs. Heart Rate Reserve During Moderate Intensity Treadmill Exercise, Tanner J. Solheim, Brad G. Keller, Charles J. Fountaine 2014 Western Kentucky University

Vo2 Reserve Vs. Heart Rate Reserve During Moderate Intensity Treadmill Exercise, Tanner J. Solheim, Brad G. Keller, Charles J. Fountaine

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 311-317, 2014. ­VO2 and heart rate (HR) are widely used when determining appropriate training intensities for clinical, healthy, and athletic populations. It has been shown that if the % reserve (%R) is used, rather than % of max, HR and VO2 can be used interchangeably to accurately prescribe exercise intensities. Thus, heart rate reserve (HRR) can be prescribed if VO2 reserve (VO2R) is known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare VO2 R and HRR during moderate intensity exercise (50%R). Physically active college students performed a ...


Muscle Activity In Single- Vs. Double-Leg Squats, Bradley A. DeForest, Gregory S. Cantrell, Brian K. Schilling 2014 Western Kentucky University

Muscle Activity In Single- Vs. Double-Leg Squats, Bradley A. Deforest, Gregory S. Cantrell, Brian K. Schilling

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 302-310, 2014. Muscular activity, vertical displacement and ground reaction forces of back squats (BS), rear-leg elevated split squats (RLESS) and split squats (SS) were examined. Nine resistance-trained men reported for two sessions. The first session consisted of the consent process, practice, and BS 1-repetition maximum testing. In the second session, participants performed the three exercises while EMG, displacment and ground reaction force data (one leg on plate) were collected. EMG data were collected from the gluteus maximus (GMX), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis ...


Occupational Sitting And Physical Activity Among University Employees, Charles J. Fountaine, Meredith Piacentini, Gary A. Liguori 2014 Western Kentucky University

Occupational Sitting And Physical Activity Among University Employees, Charles J. Fountaine, Meredith Piacentini, Gary A. Liguori

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 295-301, 2014. The prevalence of overweight and obese in the U.S. has been thoroughly documented. With the advent of inactivity physiology research and the subsequent interest in sedentary behavior, the work environment has come under closer scrutiny as a potential opportunity to reverse inactivity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the sitting and physical activity (PA) habits among different classifications of university employees. University employees (n=625) completed an online survey based on the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ). Participants were instructed to describe time spent sitting ...


Time Spent In Mvpa During Exergaming With Xbox Kinect In Sedentary College Students, Chie Yang, Zachary Wickert, Samantha Roedel, Alexandria Berg, Alex Rothbauer, Marquell Johnson, Donald Bredle 2014 Western Kentucky University

Time Spent In Mvpa During Exergaming With Xbox Kinect In Sedentary College Students, Chie Yang, Zachary Wickert, Samantha Roedel, Alexandria Berg, Alex Rothbauer, Marquell Johnson, Donald Bredle

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 286-294, 2014. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the amount of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during a 30-minute bout of exergaming with the Xbox Kinect game console in sedentary college-aged students. A secondary purpose was to examine enjoyment level of participation in the selected exergame. Twenty college-aged students (14 females and 6 males) who self-reported being physically inactive and having no prior experience with the Xbox Kinect game “Your Shape Fitness Evolved 2012” Break a Sweat activity participated in the study. Participants came into the lab on ...


Can Resistance Training Contribute To The Aerobic Components Of The Physical Activity Guidelines?, Travis J. Hrubeniuk, Neal Prokop, Semone Myrie, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard 2014 Western Kentucky University

Can Resistance Training Contribute To The Aerobic Components Of The Physical Activity Guidelines?, Travis J. Hrubeniuk, Neal Prokop, Semone Myrie, Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 278-285, 2014. To evaluate if resistance training can reach Moderate to Vigorous Intensity (MVI) and contribute to the aerobic component of the international physical activity guidelines. Sixteen participants aged between 20 and 35 were recruited. Heart rate was recorded by heart rate monitor during a resistance training program. Based on maximal heart rate, time spent at MVI (55-69% of maximal heart rate) was calculated. Participants displayed a HR equal or above MVI for 51.5% ± 21.7% of time. When stratifying by lower and upper body sessions, that proportion was median (25-75th); 75 ...


The Acute Effects Of A Dynamic Stretching Protocol On Wingate Performance, Autumn S. Gipson Ms., Jamarious Jones, Elise N. Ritchey, Colby Murphy, Hope Grimes, John M. Coons 2014 Western Kentucky University

The Acute Effects Of A Dynamic Stretching Protocol On Wingate Performance, Autumn S. Gipson Ms., Jamarious Jones, Elise N. Ritchey, Colby Murphy, Hope Grimes, John M. Coons

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 271-277, 2014. Stretching before performing anaerobic activity has been a highly debated subject, with studies finding differing results depending on the type (static, dynamic, etc.) and duration of the stretch. Furthermore, the effects of dynamic stretching (DS) on anaerobic performance have been minimally researched. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects a DS protocol had on power performance using a Wingate test (WAnT). College-aged male subjects were recruited for this study. Prior to experimental trials, subjects performed a familiarity WAnT trial. Subjects then performed the WAnT two more times, once ...


The Relationship Between Change Of Direction Speed In The Frontal Plane, Power, Reactive Strength, And Strength, Brian T. McCormick, James C. Hannon, Charlie A. Hicks-Little, Maria Newton, Barry Shultz, Nicole Detling, Warren B. Young 2014 Western Kentucky University

The Relationship Between Change Of Direction Speed In The Frontal Plane, Power, Reactive Strength, And Strength, Brian T. Mccormick, James C. Hannon, Charlie A. Hicks-Little, Maria Newton, Barry Shultz, Nicole Detling, Warren B. Young

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 7(4) : 260-270, 2014. Change-of-direction speed (CODS) is an important quality to performance in multi-direction sports. The relationship between CODS in the frontal plane and power, strength, and reactive strength is largely unstudied. Twenty-three male college students participated in this study. The study used a Pearson’s product-moment correlation to measure the relationship between CODS, power, strength, and reactive strength. A lateral shuffle test was used as the measure of CODS. A lateral hop for distance was used as the measure of power in the frontal plane. A countermovement vertical jump test was used as ...


Sleep Patterns In Collegiate Dancers, Beth Nicks, Jacque Price 2014 Chapman University

Sleep Patterns In Collegiate Dancers, Beth Nicks, Jacque Price

e-Research: A Journal of Undergraduate Work

As college dance majors, the investigators have witnessed firsthand the effects that sleep and the lack thereof can have on the performance quality of University level dancing. It has been shown that lack of sleep can compromise nearly every physiological process such as memory, coordination, metabolism, and new learning (Wozny 2008). Studies on disruptions of the human circadian rhythms have shown that athletes involved in endeavors where sleep is restricted or totally deprived have severe consequences on behavior and performance. (Edwards 2007). However, the environment of college dance programs is different than athletics due to there being no off season ...


The Effect Of Maternal Aldosterone Levels On The Expression Of 11b-Hsd Isoenzymes In Normal And Hypertensive Rat Placentae, Nicole Jorissen 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Effect Of Maternal Aldosterone Levels On The Expression Of 11b-Hsd Isoenzymes In Normal And Hypertensive Rat Placentae, Nicole Jorissen

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

In this project, we developed a Western blotting procedure to semi-quantitate levels of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 in whole cell extracts. Then, we applied this technique to analyze the effect of reduced maternal aldosterone levels on the expression of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 isoenzymes in the placental tissue in both normal and hypertensive rats. These enzymes control levels of glucocorticoids which compete for aldosterone’s mineralocorticoid receptor. Overstimulation of this receptor results in hypertension. If aldosterone levels decrease, levels of the enzymes controlling active glucocorticoid concentrations might change to compensate for the lowered aldosterone levels. Decreased placental 11β-HSD2 expression could affect hypertension ...


Cryopreservation Of Hepatocyte (Hepg2) Cell Monolayers: Impact Of Trehalose, Blake Stokich, Quinn Osgood, David Grimm, Shhyam Moorthy, Nilay Chakraborty, Michael A. Menze 2014 Eastern Illinois University

Cryopreservation Of Hepatocyte (Hepg2) Cell Monolayers: Impact Of Trehalose, Blake Stokich, Quinn Osgood, David Grimm, Shhyam Moorthy, Nilay Chakraborty, Michael A. Menze

Michael Menze

A simple method to cryogenically preserve hepatocyte monolayers is currently not available but such a technique would facilitate numerous applications in the field of biomedical engineering, cell line development, and drug screening. We investigated the effect of trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) in cryopreservation of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in suspension and monolayer formats. HepG2 cell monolayers were incubated for 24 h at varying concentrations of trehalose (50–150 mM) prior to cryopreservation to identify the optimum concentration for such preincubation. When trehalose alone was used as the cryoprotective agent (CPA), cells in monolayer format did not survive freezing ...


Role Of C-Kit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase On Ins-1 Cell Vegf-A Expression In Vitro, Alexei Popell 2014 Western University

Role Of C-Kit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase On Ins-1 Cell Vegf-A Expression In Vitro, Alexei Popell

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Interactions between Stem Cell Factor (SCF) and c-Kit are critical in maintaining β-cell survival and function. VEGF-A, essential in facilitating islet vasculature formation, is secreted by β-cells. This work investigates the mechanisms by which c-Kit regulates VEGF-A production in β-cells, using a rat insulinoma (INS-1) cell line as an in vitro model. Cells were treated with recombinant hSCF or cultured with c-Kit (r) siRNA for 72 h. VEGF-A accumulation in the culture medium was measured by ELISA, while qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses were also performed. SCF augmented VEGF-A production in a time-dependent (p < 0.05 vs. control at 6 h and 24 h), and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.01 vs. control at 30-100 ng/mL). SCF stimulation increased phosphorylation of proteins along the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway (p < 0.05 vs. control groups), and decreased phosphorylation following siRNA treatment. Our results indicate that c-Kit exerts a regulatory effect on VEGF-A production in β-cells.


Aminocyclopyrachlor Efficacy For Non-Cropland Weed Control, José Javier Vargas Almodóvar 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Aminocyclopyrachlor Efficacy For Non-Cropland Weed Control, José Javier Vargas Almodóvar

Masters Theses

The production of chemicals for crop protection purposes evolved after World War II with the commercialization of the auxin herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. Their utility and effectiveness created an interest for North American and European companies to develop and research thousands of agrochemicals available today.

Recently discovered and introduced to the market by DuPont Crop Protection, aminocyclopyrachlor is the first broad spectrum synthetic auxin herbicide in this chemical class, and is structurally similar to the auxin herbicides: aminopyralid, clopyralid and picloram. Aminocyclopyrachlor has activity on broadleaf weed species with limited activity on monocot species. Aminocyclopyrachlor is absorbed via plant ...


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