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The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape 2016 University of Arizona

The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape

International Journal of Speleology

The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA) caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes). A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these ...


Knockdown Of Rna Interference Pathway Genes In Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates A Possible Mechanism Of Resistance To Lethal Dsrna, Ana María Vélez, Chitvan Khajuria, Haichuan Wang, Kenneth E. Narva, Blair D. Siegfried 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Knockdown Of Rna Interference Pathway Genes In Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates A Possible Mechanism Of Resistance To Lethal Dsrna, Ana María Vélez, Chitvan Khajuria, Haichuan Wang, Kenneth E. Narva, Blair D. Siegfried

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA’s and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both ...


Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp 2016 University of Texas at Tyler

Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp

Biology Theses

Diaphorina citri (Hemipteran: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is a phloem-feeding, invasive species endemic to southern Asia that was first identified in the United States in Florida in 1998. Since introduction, D. citri has spread across the major citrus growing regions of the United States. This is of great concern to the citrus industry because D. citri is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus the causal agent of Haunglongbing (HLB). Haunglongbing is the most economically devastating disease of citrus causing an estimated 8.92 billion dollars lost in revenue and 4.62 billion dollars lost in gross domestic product ...


Dynamics Of Two Pathogens In A Single Tick Population, Alexis White 2016 Old Dominion University

Dynamics Of Two Pathogens In A Single Tick Population, Alexis White

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Hands Of The Future, Inc; Junior Nature Club; Living Schoolyards, Zonda K. Bryant 2016 Hands of the Future, Inc

Hands Of The Future, Inc; Junior Nature Club; Living Schoolyards, Zonda K. Bryant

Purdue P-12 Networking Summit & Poster Session

Programs to connect children to nature


Characterization Of Glycine Rich Proteins From The Salivary Glands Of The Lone Star Tick Amblyomma Americanum, Rebekah Lynn Bullard 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Characterization Of Glycine Rich Proteins From The Salivary Glands Of The Lone Star Tick Amblyomma Americanum, Rebekah Lynn Bullard

Dissertations

Ticks are blood sucking arthropods that feed on living hosts for up to three weeks. The ticks secrete a multitude of pharmacologically active proteins into the host during feeding which allow the tick to avoid the host immune response, establish a blood pool, and form a firm attachment. The firm attachment is facilitated by the formation of a cement cone which surrounds the tick mouthparts and intertwine between the host skin layers. In this study, gene expression of 44 A. americanum genes was measured throughout the bloodmeal to reveal the differential expression of these genes. Each of the genes tested ...


Trox Paulseni (Coleoptera: Trogidae), A New Species From Nebraska And Kansas, Usa, Brett C. Ratcliffe 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Trox Paulseni (Coleoptera: Trogidae), A New Species From Nebraska And Kansas, Usa, Brett C. Ratcliffe

Insecta Mundi

Trox paulseni Ratcliffe, new species (Coleoptera: Trogidae), is described from Nebraska and Kansas, USA. A description, diagnosis to separate it from Trox hamatus Robinson (its closest congener), distribution, and illustrations are provided.


The Effects Of Forest Age And Management On Bee Communities Of Production Forests In The Southern United States, Robinson Sudan 2016 University of New Orleans, New Orleans

The Effects Of Forest Age And Management On Bee Communities Of Production Forests In The Southern United States, Robinson Sudan

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Processes structuring bee communities in agricultural landscapes are well-documented compared to those in other anthropogenic landscapes, like production forests. Forests across the temperate zone have historically been under-sampled, in part due to the perception that they provide little habitat to support diverse bee communities. While research suggests that early successional habitats support high levels of bee species richness and abundance, little empirical evidence exists to support the notion that forests, in turn, do not. To understand the relationship between forest successional age and major elements of the bee community, I sampled bees in a southern production pine forest in Hancock ...


Determining The Pollination Mechanism Of A Problematic Invasive Species In The Gulf South: Triadica Sebifera, Jennifer Wester Clark 2016 University of New Orleans

Determining The Pollination Mechanism Of A Problematic Invasive Species In The Gulf South: Triadica Sebifera, Jennifer Wester Clark

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the ecology of invasive species is vital to curb the homogenizing of ecosystems, yet the pollination mechanisms of the Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) in its introduced habitat remain ambiguous. This study examines self-pollination, wind pollination, and flower-visiting insects of tallow in a bottomland hardwood forest and Longleaf pine savannah in the U.S. Gulf South. These data suggest that self-pollination and airborne pollination are possible, but likely rare occurrences, although the possibility of apoxisis was not investigated. Seed production in exclusion experiments was significantly less than in open-pollinated flowers, and wind dispersal of tallow pollen dropped to essentially ...


A Brief History Of Corn: Looking Back To Move Forward, Jon Derek Pruitt 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Brief History Of Corn: Looking Back To Move Forward, Jon Derek Pruitt

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Maize was domesticated from teosinte in Mexico some 7,000 to 10,000 years ago and quickly spread through the Americas. It has become one of the most important crops at a local and global level. Two types, Northern Flint corn and Southern Dent corns provided the basis of the genetic background of modern maize hybrids. The development of hybrids, first double-cross and later single-cross hybrids, along with a transition to high input farming provided huge yield increases, which have continued to improve with improving technology.

Increase in maize production also caused a rise in Western corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera ...


A New Species Of Dinonigidius De Lisle From Sri Lanka (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), M. J. Paulsen 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A New Species Of Dinonigidius De Lisle From Sri Lanka (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), M. J. Paulsen

Insecta Mundi

Dinonigidius bartolozzii Paulsen, new species, (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) is described from Sri Lanka, and compared with the only other species of the genus, D. ahenobarbus de Lisle from India.


Relationships Between Nutrients, Periphyton Abundance, And Benthic Macroinvertebrate Scrapers In Ozark Highland Streams, Harrison Smith 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Relationships Between Nutrients, Periphyton Abundance, And Benthic Macroinvertebrate Scrapers In Ozark Highland Streams, Harrison Smith

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

We collected samples from seven Arkansas streams during the months of August 2014 and February 2015 with the objective of determining possible relationships between nutrients, periphyton abundance and benthic macroinvertebrates. We hypothesized that periphyton would be positively associated with nutrients, and that increases in periphyton biomass would increase the abundance and diversity of benthic scraper families. Samples were collected from three transects at each site. The periphyton was analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and ash free dry mass and Chl-a content. Macroinvertebrates families belonging to the feeding group of grazers/scrapers were compared with water column and periphyton nutrient concentrations ...


Nocturnal Foraging Enhanced By Enlarged Secondary Eyes In A Net-Casting Spider, Jay A. Stafstrom, Eileen A. Hebets 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Nocturnal Foraging Enhanced By Enlarged Secondary Eyes In A Net-Casting Spider, Jay A. Stafstrom, Eileen A. Hebets

Eileen Hebets Publications

Animals that possess extreme sensory structures are predicted to have a related extreme behavioral function. This study focuses on one such extreme sensory structure—the posterior median eyes of the net-casting spider Deinopis spinosa. Although past research has implicated the importance of vision in the nocturnal foraging habits of Deinopis, no direct link between vision in the enlarged eyes and nocturnal foraging has yet been made. To directly test the hypothesis that the enlarged posterior median eyes facilitate visually based nocturnal prey capture, we conducted repeated-measures, visual occlusion trials in both natural and laboratory settings. Our results indicate that D ...


Natural Selection By Insect Pollinators And Seed Predators On Floral Head Traits Of Helianthus Grosseserratus (Sawtooth Sunflower), Jason Stephen Servi 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Natural Selection By Insect Pollinators And Seed Predators On Floral Head Traits Of Helianthus Grosseserratus (Sawtooth Sunflower), Jason Stephen Servi

Theses and Dissertations

Flowering plants must invest energy and resources to produce floral displays that are attractive to pollinators, but these same displays may also attract detrimental insects. How floral traits are shaped by the preferences of both pollinators and herbivores/seed predators is not fully understood. Using Helianthus grosseserratus (sawtooth sunflower) as my study species, I investigated these conflicting selective pressures on floral head traits through a 2-year study in a large, unbroken tract of mesic prairie in Wisconsin. In the first season, I followed individual heads over time and recorded insect visitation patterns and phenological changes to floral head traits. I ...


Height Perception Of Bed Bugs, Cimex Lectularius, Loren D. Hall 2016 Southern Adventist University

Height Perception Of Bed Bugs, Cimex Lectularius, Loren D. Hall

Senior Research Projects

It has been demonstrated that there is no significant difference in Bed bug preference for colored columns of two heights and that Bed bugs tend to hide in harborages when not stimulated. More information, however, is still needed on their visual perception and general behavior. The following study investigated height perception of Bed bugs by determining the total number of bugs that migrated toward Bed bug interceptors representing different elevations over several trials. A significant difference was found between the number of bugs that migrated toward the control and experimental elevations (3”, 6”, 9”) and the number that migrated toward ...


Managing Drought Stress In California Agricultural Systems, Gregory D. Brittain Jr. 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Managing Drought Stress In California Agricultural Systems, Gregory D. Brittain Jr.

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

California is currently facing a historic drought, and this has led many farmers in the state to severely cut back on irrigation. Optimal use of water for irrigation requires a comprehensive understanding of how plants respond physiologically to water stress (Chapter 1). By monitoring water requirements in crops and managing irrigation to meet those requirements, growers can significantly reduce water use (Chapter 2). This can be done through improving application efficiency of irrigation technology as well as increasing the water use efficiency of the crops themselves. Deficit irrigation practices can be used to manipulate the physiology of water use in ...


Ecological Risks Of The Conventional Insecticide/Fungicide Seed Treatment Mixture Of Thiamethoxam And Mefenoxam In Soybean On Beneficial Insects, Carolina Camargo 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Ecological Risks Of The Conventional Insecticide/Fungicide Seed Treatment Mixture Of Thiamethoxam And Mefenoxam In Soybean On Beneficial Insects, Carolina Camargo

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

The impact of neonicotinoid seed treatments on beneficial insects has been a controversial topic during the last years. While neonicotinoids are usually used as mixtures with systemic fungicides, few studies have examined the impact of the mixtures on beneficial insects. Pesticide mixtures can have synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects on the toxicity of neonicotinoids on non-target species.

Thiamethoxam with mefenoxam is the most used neonicotinoid insecticide/fungicide mixture applied to soybean. Based on the systemic nature of thiamethoxam and mefenoxam, residues of this insecticide/fungicide mixture can be present in soybean vegetative and floral tissue with potential impacts to beneficial ...


Export Of Insect Ecosystem Services From Hayed Native Prairie, Wayne J. Ohnesorg 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Export Of Insect Ecosystem Services From Hayed Native Prairie, Wayne J. Ohnesorg

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Natural areas, such as prairie, have the potential to provide the benefits of pest suppression and pollination for agricultural production. In Nebraska, prairie is often used for hay production. The impact of prairie hay production management practices on beneficial arthropods is not well understood. Four prairie hay meadows adjacent to row crop fields were selected in northeast Nebraska. The goal was to assess the impact of haying them on beneficial arthropods and the movement of natural enemies into adjacent crop fields. Three management practices were evaluated for hay harvested from prairie meadows one cut per growing season, two cuts per ...


Arthropods Infesting Small Mammals (Insectivora And Rodentia) Near Cedar Point Biological Station In Southwestern Nebraska, Lindsey Howell, Katelyn Jelden, S. Elizabeth Rácz, Scott L. Gardner, Donald D. Gettinger 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Arthropods Infesting Small Mammals (Insectivora And Rodentia) Near Cedar Point Biological Station In Southwestern Nebraska, Lindsey Howell, Katelyn Jelden, S. Elizabeth Rácz, Scott L. Gardner, Donald D. Gettinger

Insecta Mundi

Cedar Point Biological Station (CPBS) is located in the mixed grass prairie of the central Great Plains, at the transition between the subregions known as the “tall grass” and “short grass” prairies. Adding to the habitat diversity, there are wetlands and riparian habitats associated with the North Platte River and the edge of the Sandhills region of north central Nebraska. This concurrence of habitats supports a diverse small mammal community. The purpose of this paper is to assemble all published information on ectoparasites associated with small mammals (Insectivora, Rodentia) of southwestern Nebraska, and to report the results of an intensive ...


Mapping Tick Abundance In Ozark Forests, Thomas Van Horn 2016 Arts and Sciences

Mapping Tick Abundance In Ozark Forests, Thomas Van Horn

Thomas Van Horn

The Lone Star Tick (Amblyomma americanum) is a common outdoor pest in the Missouri Ozarks and the vector of several pathogens that cause disease in humans, including Monocytic Ehrlichiosis, Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI), and a recently identified red meat allergy. This tick is an active questing species that primarily feeds on deer and small mammals and frequently comes in contact with humans. While much is known about the life cycle and host preference of A. americanum, few have examined the landscape-scale abundance of this vector species. In this preliminary study, we investigated the abundance of tick species at the ...


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