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Corn Following Corn In 2008, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Roger W. Elmore, Antonio P. Mallarino, Palle Pedersen, Alison E. Robertson, John E. Sawyer, Jon J. Tollefson 2016 Iowa State University

Corn Following Corn In 2008, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Roger W. Elmore, Antonio P. Mallarino, Palle Pedersen, Alison E. Robertson, John E. Sawyer, Jon J. Tollefson

John E. Sawyer

Corn following corn is in rough shape in areas across Iowa. Many wonder what is happening. The crop’s condition in general is not normal for this time of year. For example, last Sunday the USDA rated this year’s Iowa corn crop as 54 percent in ‘Good’ to ‘Excellent’ condition and 15 percent is ‘Poor’ or ‘Very Poor.’ Last year 72 percent was rated ‘Good’ to ‘Excellent’ and 5 percent was in ‘Poor’ or ‘Very Poor’ condition during the same week. Average plant height as of Sunday was 24 inches compared to 40 inches at end of the same ...


Seed-Set Evaluation Of Four Male-Sterile, Female-Fertile Soybean Lines Using Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees And Honey Bees As Pollinators, E. Ortiz-Perez, R. M. Mian, R. L. Cooper, T. Mendiola, T. Tew, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer 2016 Iowa State University

Seed-Set Evaluation Of Four Male-Sterile, Female-Fertile Soybean Lines Using Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees And Honey Bees As Pollinators, E. Ortiz-Perez, R. M. Mian, R. L. Cooper, T. Mendiola, T. Tew, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer

Harry Horner

Male-sterile, female-fertile plants were used to produce hybrid soybean seed. Manual cross-pollination using male-sterile plants to produce large quantities of hybrid seed is difficult and time-consuming because of the low success rate in cross-pollination. Insect pollinators may be suitable vectors to transfer pollen, but the most suitable vector for pollen transfer from the male parent to the female parent has not been identified for soybean. The objective of the present study was to evaluate seed-set on four male-sterile, female-fertile soybean lines by using alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata (F.)) and honey bees (Apis mellifera (L.)) as pollinators. Seed-set was evaluated ...


Insect-Mediated Seed-Set Evaluation Of 21 Soybean Lines Segregating For Male Sterility At 10 Different Loci, E. Ortiz-Perez, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer 2016 Iowa State University

Insect-Mediated Seed-Set Evaluation Of 21 Soybean Lines Segregating For Male Sterility At 10 Different Loci, E. Ortiz-Perez, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer

Harry Horner

The first requirement to establish a successful hybrid soybean program is the availability of a stable male-sterile, female-fertile system. Male sterility has been an important tool in soybean breeding programs to improve traits such as yield, seed-protein and seed-oil content, and seed size. However, improvement of seed-set per se on male-sterile plants has not been an important breeding objective. The evaluation of the out-crossing potential of the available male-sterile, female-fertile soybean lines is crucial to determine the future of hybrid soybean. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed-set among 21 soybean lines segregating for male sterility at 10 ...


Dichotomous Key To Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum) Apterous Parthenogenic Instars, Bates College Department of Biology, Daisy Diamond, Daniel Levitis 2016 Bates College

Dichotomous Key To Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum) Apterous Parthenogenic Instars, Bates College Department Of Biology, Daisy Diamond, Daniel Levitis

SCARAB Data Repository

We provide a dichotomous key, with photographs and illustrations, for distinguishing between instars of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) in the developmental pathway leading to the apterous parthenogenetic adult. Lengths of body, antenna and cauda are provided for a sample of each instar.


The Capacity Of Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum) To Degrade Atrazine In A Phytoremediation Setting., Ian J. Murphy, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

The Capacity Of Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum) To Degrade Atrazine In A Phytoremediation Setting., Ian J. Murphy, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Atrazine is a widely used herbicide in agriculture. Non-point source contamination of groundwater and drinking water may pose a significant threat to humans, wildlife, and the environment. Phytoremediation may provide a cost-effective strategy for reducing non-point source contamination of atrazine from agricultural runoff. Previous studies have shown that the rhizosphere of the native prairie grass, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is capable of enhancing the degradation of atrazine in soils. Biodegradation also may occur within the plant biomass; however, the extent to which this occurs has not been studied. We hypothesize that switchgrass has the capacity to degrade atrazine in vivo, in ...


Elemol And Amyris Oil Repel The Ticks Ixodes Scapularis And Amblyomma Americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) In Laboratory Bioassays., J.F. Carroll, G. Paluch, Joel R. Coats, M. Kramer 2016 United States Department of Agriculture

Elemol And Amyris Oil Repel The Ticks Ixodes Scapularis And Amblyomma Americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) In Laboratory Bioassays., J.F. Carroll, G. Paluch, Joel R. Coats, M. Kramer

Joel R. Coats

The essential oil from Amyris balsamifera (Rutaceae) and elemol, a principal constituent of the essential oil of Osage orange, Maclura pomifera (Moraceae) were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick,Ixodes scapularis, and the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Both bioassays took advantage of the tendency of these host-seeking ticks to climb slender vertical surfaces. In one bioassay, the central portion of a vertical strip of filter paper was treated with test solution and ticks placed or allowed to crawl onto the untreated lower portion. In the other ...


Disposition Of Atrazine Metabolites Following Uptake And Degradation Of Atrazine In Switchgrass., Vurtice C. Albright III, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Disposition Of Atrazine Metabolites Following Uptake And Degradation Of Atrazine In Switchgrass., Vurtice C. Albright Iii, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Extensive use of the agricultural herbicide atrazine has led to contamination of numerous ground and surface water bodies. Research has shown that it can have a variety of negative impacts on numerous non-target organisms in the environment. Phytoremediation is one strategy that has been studied to remove atrazine contamination. This paper investigates the hypothesis that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can exude metabolites of atrazine after uptake and degradation, which has been suggested by prior research. Pots planted with switchgrass were treated with a 4 ppm solution of atrazine spiked with [14C]atrazine. After 4 days, switchgrass plants were transplanted to new ...


Fate Of Atrazine In Switchgrass-Soil Column System., Vurtice C. Albright III, Ian J. Murphy, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Fate Of Atrazine In Switchgrass-Soil Column System., Vurtice C. Albright Iii, Ian J. Murphy, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Atrazine, a broad-leaf herbicide, has been used widely to control weeds in corn and other crops for several decades and its extensive used has led to widespread contamination of soils and water bodies. Phytoremediation with switchgrass and other native prairie grasses is one strategy that has been suggested to lessen the impact of atrazine in the environment. The goal of this study is to characterize: (1) the uptake of atrazine into above-ground switchgrass biomass; and (2) the degradation and transformation of atrazine over time. A fate study was performed using mature switchgrass columns treated with an artificially-created agricultural runoff containing ...


Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition By Nootkatone And Carvacrol In Arthropods, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition By Nootkatone And Carvacrol In Arthropods, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

The essential oils from many botanicals have been screened for insecticidal activity. Two constituents of the Alaskan yellow cedar tree, the monoterpenoid carvacrol and the sesquiterpenoid nootkatone, both are toxic against several arthropods. The mode of action through which nootkatone and carvacrol exert their insecticidal activity remains uncertain. It has been hypothesized that they may inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity. The degree of acetylcholinesterase inhibition of carvacrol and nootkatone was compared to that of carbaryl, a known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, in the house fly (Musca domestica), yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) and American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). The ...


The Phenolic Monoterpenoid Carvacrol Inhibits The Binding Of Nicotine To The Housefly Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor, Fan Tong, Aaron D. Gross, Marc C. Dolan, Joel R. Coats 2016 University of Florida

The Phenolic Monoterpenoid Carvacrol Inhibits The Binding Of Nicotine To The Housefly Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor, Fan Tong, Aaron D. Gross, Marc C. Dolan, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Background

The phenolic monoterpenoid carvacrol, which is found in many plant essential oils (thyme, oregano and Alaska yellow cedar), is highly active against pest arthropods, but its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Here, carvacrol is shown to bind in a membrane preparation containing insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). [14C]-Nicotine binding assays with Musca domestica (housefly) nAChRs were used in this study to demonstrate carvacrol's binding to nAChRs, thereby acting as a modulator of the receptors.

Results

Carvacrol showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of [14C]-nicotine binding in a membrane preparation of housefly heads containing nAChRs ...


Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron 2016 Macquarie University, Australia

Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

To what degree are non-human animals conscious? We propose that the most meaningful way to approach this question is from the perspective of functional neurobiology. Here we focus on subjective experience, which is a basic awareness of the world without further reflection on that awareness. This is considered the most basic form of consciousness. Tellingly, this capacity is supported by the integrated midbrain and basal ganglia structures, which are among the oldest and most highly conserved brain systems in vertebrates. A reasonable inference is that the capacity for subjective experience is both widespread and evolutionarily old within the vertebrate lineage ...


The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape 2016 University of Arizona

The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape

International Journal of Speleology

The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA) caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes). A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these ...


Knockdown Of Rna Interference Pathway Genes In Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates A Possible Mechanism Of Resistance To Lethal Dsrna, Ana María Vélez, Chitvan Khajuria, Haichuan Wang, Kenneth E. Narva, Blair D. Siegfried 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Knockdown Of Rna Interference Pathway Genes In Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates A Possible Mechanism Of Resistance To Lethal Dsrna, Ana María Vélez, Chitvan Khajuria, Haichuan Wang, Kenneth E. Narva, Blair D. Siegfried

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA’s and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both ...


Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp 2016 University of Texas at Tyler

Exploration Of Chemical And Biological Management Strategies For Diaphorina Citri The Primary Vector Of Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus, Gretta Marie Sharp

Biology Theses

Diaphorina citri (Hemipteran: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is a phloem-feeding, invasive species endemic to southern Asia that was first identified in the United States in Florida in 1998. Since introduction, D. citri has spread across the major citrus growing regions of the United States. This is of great concern to the citrus industry because D. citri is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus the causal agent of Haunglongbing (HLB). Haunglongbing is the most economically devastating disease of citrus causing an estimated 8.92 billion dollars lost in revenue and 4.62 billion dollars lost in gross domestic product ...


Dynamics Of Two Pathogens In A Single Tick Population, Alexis White 2016 Old Dominion University

Dynamics Of Two Pathogens In A Single Tick Population, Alexis White

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Hands Of The Future, Inc; Junior Nature Club; Living Schoolyards, Zonda K. Bryant 2016 Hands of the Future, Inc

Hands Of The Future, Inc; Junior Nature Club; Living Schoolyards, Zonda K. Bryant

Purdue P-12 Networking Summit & Poster Session

Programs to connect children to nature


Trox Paulseni (Coleoptera: Trogidae), A New Species From Nebraska And Kansas, Usa, Brett C. Ratcliffe 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Trox Paulseni (Coleoptera: Trogidae), A New Species From Nebraska And Kansas, Usa, Brett C. Ratcliffe

Insecta Mundi

Trox paulseni Ratcliffe, new species (Coleoptera: Trogidae), is described from Nebraska and Kansas, USA. A description, diagnosis to separate it from Trox hamatus Robinson (its closest congener), distribution, and illustrations are provided.


The Effects Of Forest Age And Management On Bee Communities Of Production Forests In The Southern United States, Robinson Sudan 2016 University of New Orleans, New Orleans

The Effects Of Forest Age And Management On Bee Communities Of Production Forests In The Southern United States, Robinson Sudan

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Processes structuring bee communities in agricultural landscapes are well-documented compared to those in other anthropogenic landscapes, like production forests. Forests across the temperate zone have historically been under-sampled, in part due to the perception that they provide little habitat to support diverse bee communities. While research suggests that early successional habitats support high levels of bee species richness and abundance, little empirical evidence exists to support the notion that forests, in turn, do not. To understand the relationship between forest successional age and major elements of the bee community, I sampled bees in a southern production pine forest in Hancock ...


Determining The Pollination Mechanism Of A Problematic Invasive Species In The Gulf South: Triadica Sebifera, Jennifer Wester Clark 2016 University of New Orleans

Determining The Pollination Mechanism Of A Problematic Invasive Species In The Gulf South: Triadica Sebifera, Jennifer Wester Clark

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the ecology of invasive species is vital to curb the homogenizing of ecosystems, yet the pollination mechanisms of the Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) in its introduced habitat remain ambiguous. This study examines self-pollination, wind pollination, and flower-visiting insects of tallow in a bottomland hardwood forest and Longleaf pine savannah in the U.S. Gulf South. These data suggest that self-pollination and airborne pollination are possible, but likely rare occurrences, although the possibility of apoxisis was not investigated. Seed production in exclusion experiments was significantly less than in open-pollinated flowers, and wind dispersal of tallow pollen dropped to essentially ...


Characterization Of Glycine Rich Proteins From The Salivary Glands Of The Lone Star Tick Amblyomma Americanum, Rebekah Lynn Bullard 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Characterization Of Glycine Rich Proteins From The Salivary Glands Of The Lone Star Tick Amblyomma Americanum, Rebekah Lynn Bullard

Dissertations

Ticks are blood sucking arthropods that feed on living hosts for up to three weeks. The ticks secrete a multitude of pharmacologically active proteins into the host during feeding which allow the tick to avoid the host immune response, establish a blood pool, and form a firm attachment. The firm attachment is facilitated by the formation of a cement cone which surrounds the tick mouthparts and intertwine between the host skin layers. In this study, gene expression of 44 A. americanum genes was measured throughout the bloodmeal to reveal the differential expression of these genes. Each of the genes tested ...


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