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Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

Managed honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies are contracted to pollinate fruit and nut orchards improving crop quality and yield. Colonies placed in orchards are potentially exposed to pyrethroid insecticides used for broad-spectrum pest control. Pyrethroids have been reported to pose minimal risk to bees due to their low application rates in the field and putative repellent properties. This repellency is believed to alter foraging behavior with the benefit of preventing bees from encountering a lethal dose in the field. However, sub-lethal exposure to pyrethroids may adversely impact bee behavior potentially resulting in social dysfunction or disruption of foraging.

This ...


Elucidating The Molecular Function Of Reprolysin Metalloproteases In Tick-Host-Pathogen Interaction, Jaclyn Williams 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

Elucidating The Molecular Function Of Reprolysin Metalloproteases In Tick-Host-Pathogen Interaction, Jaclyn Williams

Master's Theses

Ticks are ectoparasites that attach to their host for many days to weeks, feeding to engorgement and continuing their species life cycle. The mechanisms behind the successful feeding and manipulation of host immune responses have been associated with the secretion of their specialized saliva. Tick saliva includes a variety of modulatory molecules that must disrupt and counteract defense mechanisms, including a variety of proteases. Reprolysin Metalloproteases, in the Zn2+ dependent family, is secreted as a proenzyme and is shown to have proteolytic activity, degrading fibrinogen and gelatinase activity, as well as disturbing homeostasis12. Previous work with the ...


Who Do You Think You Are? Vonnie, Andreas Haffar, Amber Klootwyk, Julie Doyle 2015 Iowa State University

Who Do You Think You Are? Vonnie, Andreas Haffar, Amber Klootwyk, Julie Doyle

Ethos

The beginning of then six-year-old Ja’Von “Vonnie” Latimore's immense fascination with the insect world all started with the accidental squashing of her sister’s ladybug. She couldn’t resist the temptation to take a stick from the yard, poke the bug apart and examine its parts


Mexican Red Kneed Tarantula (Brachypelma Smithi) Care Manual, Jamie Sincage, Trace Hardin 2015 Disney’s Animal Kingdom

Mexican Red Kneed Tarantula (Brachypelma Smithi) Care Manual, Jamie Sincage, Trace Hardin

Distance Master's Theses in Entomology

Caring for any animal is more of an art than a science. What works for one keeper may not necessarily work for another. This may be based on unnoticed nuances, local climate or weather patterns, the personalities of the individual animals, or other minute details. This is a basic husbandry and breeding guide to the Mexican red knee tarantula (Brachypelma smithi). Any more specifics will have to be discovered personally or discussed with colleagues. Where many vertebrates have been kept in captivity for centuries a lot of invertebrates are relatively new to the husbandry world. Even though humans have kept ...


Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics First Genotyping Of Spodoptera Frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Progeny From Crosses Between Bt-Resistant And Bt-Susceptible Populations, And 65-Locus Discrimination Of Isofamilies, Renee S. Arias, Maribel Portilla, J. D. Ray, Carlos A. Blanco, S. A. Simpson, Brian E. Scheffler 2015 U.S.D.A. National Peanut Res. Lab.

Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics First Genotyping Of Spodoptera Frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Progeny From Crosses Between Bt-Resistant And Bt-Susceptible Populations, And 65-Locus Discrimination Of Isofamilies, Renee S. Arias, Maribel Portilla, J. D. Ray, Carlos A. Blanco, S. A. Simpson, Brian E. Scheffler

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Concerns exist that Bt-resistant populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) found in Puerto Rico, could spread to continental United States, and about the lack of molecular tools to monitor potential crosses or distinguish populations. In this work, the feasibility of genotyping S. frugiperda crosses between Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt) resistant and susceptible populations using simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites) was assessed. Parents and their corresponding progeny (five resistant, five susceptible phenotype) were genotyped using 192 SSRs on three reciprocate crosses alternating male and female from Bt-susceptible and Bt-resistant populations. Oviposition, mortality and fecundity were ...


True White Grub Identification And Management, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Michael Wilson Dunbar, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

True White Grub Identification And Management, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Michael Wilson Dunbar, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Some grub activity in corn has been noted this growing season. Ideally, scouting for true white grubs should occur prior to planting, however, most people do not realize they have an infestation until stand loss occurs. Areas that were previously pasture or sewn to grass should be monitored for their presence. Grubs are more likely to be found in fields close to cottonwood or willow trees. In some instances, the presence of true white grubs within field crops is not well understood.


Seasonal Dynamics And Micro-Climatic Preference Of Two Alpine Endemic Hypogean Beetles, Stefano Mammola, Elena Piano, Pier Mauro Giachino, Marco Isaia 2015 University of Turin, Torino

Seasonal Dynamics And Micro-Climatic Preference Of Two Alpine Endemic Hypogean Beetles, Stefano Mammola, Elena Piano, Pier Mauro Giachino, Marco Isaia

International Journal of Speleology

Hypogean beetles generally live in stable environments, characterized by constant temperature and high relative humidity. Changes in the underground microclimatic conditions generally induce local migrations of the beetles through the hypogean environment in search of suitable microhabitats. We studied the seasonal dynamics and the micro-climatic preference of two Alpine endemic hypogean beetles - Sphodropsis ghilianii (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and Dellabeffaella roccae (Coleoptera, Cholevidae) - in the hypogean complex of Pugnetto (Graian Alps, Italy). We surveyed the two species for one year, using baited pitfall traps and measuring temperature and humidity along the two main caves. We used logistic regression mixed models (GLMMs) to ...


In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark 2015 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated ...


Japanese Beetles Begin Emergence, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

Japanese Beetles Begin Emergence, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Japanese beetle is an invasive insect capable of feeding on corn and soybean. This pest has been in Iowa since 1994 but its distribution in field crops is considered sporadic around the state. Statewide populations were low in 2014 and it is unclear if pressure will be significant this year. Literature shows Japanese adults need about 1,030 growing degree days (base 50°F) to complete development and will continue emergence until around 2,150 degree days. Based on accumulating degree day temperatures in 2015, Japanese beetle adults should be active in some areas of southern Iowa this week (Figure ...


Corn Rootworm Egg Hatch Is In Progress, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

Corn Rootworm Egg Hatch Is In Progress, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Corn rootworm egg hatch in Iowa typically occurs from late May to the middle of June, with an average peak hatching date of June 6. In 2015, the average hatching date will be slightly behind normal and approximately the same time as in 2014. Development is driven by soil temperature and measured by growing degree days. Research suggests about 50 percent of egg hatch occurs between 684-767 accumulated degree days (base 52°F, soil). A few areas of Iowa have reached peak corn rootworm egg hatch (Fig. 1), particularly around Muscatine. Many other regions will be reaching 50 percent egg ...


Online Review Course For Iowa Certified Crop Adviser Exam Now Available, Robert G. Hartzler 2015 Iowa State University

Online Review Course For Iowa Certified Crop Adviser Exam Now Available, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, with support from the Iowa Certified Crop Advisers Board, has developed an online review course for individuals taking the Iowa Certified Crop Advisor (CCA) examination.

The course consists of four modules included in the exam:

  1. crop management
  2. pest management
  3. nutrient management
  4. soil and water management.


Creature Contraband, Kelsey Rindfleisch, Amber Klootwyk, Julie Doyle 2015 Iowa State University

Creature Contraband, Kelsey Rindfleisch, Amber Klootwyk, Julie Doyle

Ethos

For some college students, one of the hardest parts of being away from home is being separated from their pets. Coming home after a long day of classes just isn’t the same without your best furry, scaly or feathered friend there to greet you at the door. According to the Department of Residence’s policies, the only pets that students living in on-campus housing are allowed to have are fish—limited to one aquarium per student.


Effects Of Minimum Winter Temperatures On Southern Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus Frontalis) Mortality On Long Island, N.Y., Jessica Cancelliere 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effects Of Minimum Winter Temperatures On Southern Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus Frontalis) Mortality On Long Island, N.Y., Jessica Cancelliere

Distance Master's Theses in Entomology

Dendroctonus frontalis (the southern pine beetle) was discovered on Long Island, New York in 2014. Additional infestations have since been located in upstate New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut and Massachusetts. Previously found as far north as New Jersey and Pennsylvania, this range expansion now represents the current northern distribution limits of D. frontalis. Minimum winter temperatures are a meaningful driver of population dynamics and mortality in D. frontalis, and understanding this relationship at the northern range limits can help forest managers better predict and prepare for outbreaks. Studies addressing the relationship between temperature and beetle mortality, and the thermal buffering ...


Check For Wireworm Injury When Assessing Corn Stands, Rebecca K. Ahlers, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

Check For Wireworm Injury When Assessing Corn Stands, Rebecca K. Ahlers, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Last week, (May 19-22, 2015), some wireworm activity was noted in south-central Iowa. Ideally, scouting for wireworms should occur prior to planting because there are no effective rescue treatments. However, most people don’t see the impact this pest can have on a corn stand until corn plants emerge. While assessing corn stands for black cutworm and armyworm feeding, individuals should also consider assessing for wireworm activity.


Stalk Borers Begin Migration To Corn, Erin W. Hodgson, Adam Sisson 2015 Iowa State University

Stalk Borers Begin Migration To Corn, Erin W. Hodgson, Adam Sisson

Integrated Crop Management News

Degree days are a useful tool to estimate when common stalk borer larvae begin moving into cornfields. Start scouting corn for larvae when 1,300-1,400 degree days (base 41°F) have accumulated. Temperatures have been variable this spring and degree days have been slowly increasing. Southeastern Iowa reached this important temperature benchmark this week (Fig. 1) and therefore scouting for migrating larvae in corn should begin now to make timely treatment decisions. Consider applications at peak larval movement, or 1,400-1,700 degree days (base 41°F).


True Armyworms Defoliating Corn Seedlings, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Michael Wilson Dunbar, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

True Armyworms Defoliating Corn Seedlings, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Michael Wilson Dunbar, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

The true armyworm is a migratory pest from the southern U.S. that feeds on the leaf tissue of early and late vegetative corn. Adult true armyworm moths are attracted to fields that contain living ground cover, which include fields with grassy weeds or cover crops such as rye or grass. Fields that are minimum, no-till, or contain a cover crop should be scouted for true armyworms in May and June (Fig. 1). Upon arrival, the female moth will lay eggs onto the living ground cover. After hatching, the young larvae will feed on these plants until the plants are ...


Black Cutworm Scouting 2015, Adam Sisson, Laura C.H. Jesse 2015 Iowa State University

Black Cutworm Scouting 2015, Adam Sisson, Laura C.H. Jesse

Integrated Crop Management News

The black cutworm (BCW) is a migratory pest that cuts corn seedlings and feeds on leaf tissue. Scouting for BCW larvae helps to determine if an insecticide application will be cost effective. When to scout for BCW caterpillars is based on the peak flight of moths and accumulating degree days after the peak flight. A peak flight occurs when eight or more moths are caught over two nights in a wing style trap.


Short Germ Insects Utilize Both The Ancestral And Derived Mode Of Polycomb Group-Mediated Epigenetic Silencing Of Hox Genes, Yuji Matsuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Takahito Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Ishimaru, Sumihare Noji, Aleksander Popadic, Taro Mito 2015 University of Tokushima

Short Germ Insects Utilize Both The Ancestral And Derived Mode Of Polycomb Group-Mediated Epigenetic Silencing Of Hox Genes, Yuji Matsuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Takahito Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Ishimaru, Sumihare Noji, Aleksander Popadic, Taro Mito

Biological Sciences Faculty Research Publications

In insect species that undergo long germ segmentation, such as Drosophila, all segments are specified simultaneously at the early blastoderm stage. As embryogenesis progresses, the expression boundaries of Hox genes are established by repression of gap genes, which is subsequently replaced by Polycomb group (PcG) silencing. At present, however, it is not known whether patterning occurs this way in a more ancestral (short germ) mode of embryogenesis, where segments are added gradually during posterior elongation. In this study, two members of the PcG family, Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12), were analyzed in ...


Seasonal Activity And Sampling Methods For The Dectes Stem Borer, Dectes Texanus Leconte, In Nebraska Soybeans, Zachary D. Rystrom 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Seasonal Activity And Sampling Methods For The Dectes Stem Borer, Dectes Texanus Leconte, In Nebraska Soybeans, Zachary D. Rystrom

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus Leconte, has caused significant economic damage to soybean fields in south central Nebraska during recent years. Most economic injury occurs when soybean plants become susceptible to late season lodging due to larval girdling. Developing a comprehensive management plan for Dectes stem borer in Nebraska is limited by lack of knowledge of seasonal activity and effective sampling plans to monitor adult populations. Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to describe Dectes stem borer adult emergence patterns, female ovipositional period and adult densities in soybean fields. Calendar date predictions for adult emergence varied, while ...


Soil Preferences Of Nicrophorus Beetles And The Effects Of Compaction On Burying Behavior, Kelly A. Willemssens 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Soil Preferences Of Nicrophorus Beetles And The Effects Of Compaction On Burying Behavior, Kelly A. Willemssens

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus Olivier was declared federally endangered in 1989 and many efforts to prevent this species from going extinct are ongoing. The Nicrophorus beetles bury small carcasses for reproductive purposes. They also reside in the soil during times of daily and seasonal inactivity. To better understand why N. americanus is in decline, the importance of soil texture, moisture, vegetation, gravel, the burial depth, and the effect of compaction on their burying behavior was examined.

All tested species preferred moist soils with N. orbicollis having a significant preference for wet (pN. marginatus had a significant preference for ...


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