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Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

Managed honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies are contracted to pollinate fruit and nut orchards improving crop quality and yield. Colonies placed in orchards are potentially exposed to pyrethroid insecticides used for broad-spectrum pest control. Pyrethroids have been reported to pose minimal risk to bees due to their low application rates in the field and putative repellent properties. This repellency is believed to alter foraging behavior with the benefit of preventing bees from encountering a lethal dose in the field. However, sub-lethal exposure to pyrethroids may adversely impact bee behavior potentially resulting in social dysfunction or disruption of foraging.

This ...


True White Grub Identification And Management, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Michael Wilson Dunbar, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

True White Grub Identification And Management, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Michael Wilson Dunbar, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Some grub activity in corn has been noted this growing season. Ideally, scouting for true white grubs should occur prior to planting, however, most people do not realize they have an infestation until stand loss occurs. Areas that were previously pasture or sewn to grass should be monitored for their presence. Grubs are more likely to be found in fields close to cottonwood or willow trees. In some instances, the presence of true white grubs within field crops is not well understood.


Seasonal Dynamics And Micro-Climatic Preference Of Two Alpine Endemic Hypogean Beetles, Stefano Mammola, Elena Piano, Pier Mauro Giachino, Marco Isaia 2015 University of Turin, Torino

Seasonal Dynamics And Micro-Climatic Preference Of Two Alpine Endemic Hypogean Beetles, Stefano Mammola, Elena Piano, Pier Mauro Giachino, Marco Isaia

International Journal of Speleology

Hypogean beetles generally live in stable environments, characterized by constant temperature and high relative humidity. Changes in the underground microclimatic conditions generally induce local migrations of the beetles through the hypogean environment in search of suitable microhabitats. We studied the seasonal dynamics and the micro-climatic preference of two Alpine endemic hypogean beetles - Sphodropsis ghilianii (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and Dellabeffaella roccae (Coleoptera, Cholevidae) - in the hypogean complex of Pugnetto (Graian Alps, Italy). We surveyed the two species for one year, using baited pitfall traps and measuring temperature and humidity along the two main caves. We used logistic regression mixed models (GLMMs) to ...


In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark 2015 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated ...


Japanese Beetles Begin Emergence, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

Japanese Beetles Begin Emergence, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Japanese beetle is an invasive insect capable of feeding on corn and soybean. This pest has been in Iowa since 1994 but its distribution in field crops is considered sporadic around the state. Statewide populations were low in 2014 and it is unclear if pressure will be significant this year. Literature shows Japanese adults need about 1,030 growing degree days (base 50°F) to complete development and will continue emergence until around 2,150 degree days. Based on accumulating degree day temperatures in 2015, Japanese beetle adults should be active in some areas of southern Iowa this week (Figure ...


Corn Rootworm Egg Hatch Is In Progress, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

Corn Rootworm Egg Hatch Is In Progress, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Corn rootworm egg hatch in Iowa typically occurs from late May to the middle of June, with an average peak hatching date of June 6. In 2015, the average hatching date will be slightly behind normal and approximately the same time as in 2014. Development is driven by soil temperature and measured by growing degree days. Research suggests about 50 percent of egg hatch occurs between 684-767 accumulated degree days (base 52°F, soil). A few areas of Iowa have reached peak corn rootworm egg hatch (Fig. 1), particularly around Muscatine. Many other regions will be reaching 50 percent egg ...


Online Review Course For Iowa Certified Crop Adviser Exam Now Available, Robert G. Hartzler 2015 Iowa State University

Online Review Course For Iowa Certified Crop Adviser Exam Now Available, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, with support from the Iowa Certified Crop Advisers Board, has developed an online review course for individuals taking the Iowa Certified Crop Advisor (CCA) examination.

The course consists of four modules included in the exam:

  1. crop management
  2. pest management
  3. nutrient management
  4. soil and water management.


Creature Contraband, Kelsey Rindfleisch, Amber Klootwyk, Julie Doyle 2015 Iowa State University

Creature Contraband, Kelsey Rindfleisch, Amber Klootwyk, Julie Doyle

Ethos

For some college students, one of the hardest parts of being away from home is being separated from their pets. Coming home after a long day of classes just isn’t the same without your best furry, scaly or feathered friend there to greet you at the door. According to the Department of Residence’s policies, the only pets that students living in on-campus housing are allowed to have are fish—limited to one aquarium per student.


Check For Wireworm Injury When Assessing Corn Stands, Rebecca K. Ahlers, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

Check For Wireworm Injury When Assessing Corn Stands, Rebecca K. Ahlers, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Last week, (May 19-22, 2015), some wireworm activity was noted in south-central Iowa. Ideally, scouting for wireworms should occur prior to planting because there are no effective rescue treatments. However, most people don’t see the impact this pest can have on a corn stand until corn plants emerge. While assessing corn stands for black cutworm and armyworm feeding, individuals should also consider assessing for wireworm activity.


Stalk Borers Begin Migration To Corn, Erin W. Hodgson, Adam Sisson 2015 Iowa State University

Stalk Borers Begin Migration To Corn, Erin W. Hodgson, Adam Sisson

Integrated Crop Management News

Degree days are a useful tool to estimate when common stalk borer larvae begin moving into cornfields. Start scouting corn for larvae when 1,300-1,400 degree days (base 41°F) have accumulated. Temperatures have been variable this spring and degree days have been slowly increasing. Southeastern Iowa reached this important temperature benchmark this week (Fig. 1) and therefore scouting for migrating larvae in corn should begin now to make timely treatment decisions. Consider applications at peak larval movement, or 1,400-1,700 degree days (base 41°F).


True Armyworms Defoliating Corn Seedlings, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Michael Wilson Dunbar, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

True Armyworms Defoliating Corn Seedlings, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Michael Wilson Dunbar, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

The true armyworm is a migratory pest from the southern U.S. that feeds on the leaf tissue of early and late vegetative corn. Adult true armyworm moths are attracted to fields that contain living ground cover, which include fields with grassy weeds or cover crops such as rye or grass. Fields that are minimum, no-till, or contain a cover crop should be scouted for true armyworms in May and June (Fig. 1). Upon arrival, the female moth will lay eggs onto the living ground cover. After hatching, the young larvae will feed on these plants until the plants are ...


Black Cutworm Scouting 2015, Adam Sisson, Laura C.H. Jesse 2015 Iowa State University

Black Cutworm Scouting 2015, Adam Sisson, Laura C.H. Jesse

Integrated Crop Management News

The black cutworm (BCW) is a migratory pest that cuts corn seedlings and feeds on leaf tissue. Scouting for BCW larvae helps to determine if an insecticide application will be cost effective. When to scout for BCW caterpillars is based on the peak flight of moths and accumulating degree days after the peak flight. A peak flight occurs when eight or more moths are caught over two nights in a wing style trap.


Short Germ Insects Utilize Both The Ancestral And Derived Mode Of Polycomb Group-Mediated Epigenetic Silencing Of Hox Genes, Yuji Matsuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Takahito Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Ishimaru, Sumihare Noji, Aleksander Popadic, Taro Mito 2015 University of Tokushima

Short Germ Insects Utilize Both The Ancestral And Derived Mode Of Polycomb Group-Mediated Epigenetic Silencing Of Hox Genes, Yuji Matsuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Takahito Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Ishimaru, Sumihare Noji, Aleksander Popadic, Taro Mito

Biological Sciences Faculty Research Publications

In insect species that undergo long germ segmentation, such as Drosophila, all segments are specified simultaneously at the early blastoderm stage. As embryogenesis progresses, the expression boundaries of Hox genes are established by repression of gap genes, which is subsequently replaced by Polycomb group (PcG) silencing. At present, however, it is not known whether patterning occurs this way in a more ancestral (short germ) mode of embryogenesis, where segments are added gradually during posterior elongation. In this study, two members of the PcG family, Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12), were analyzed in ...


Seasonal Activity And Sampling Methods For The Dectes Stem Borer, Dectes Texanus Leconte, In Nebraska Soybeans, Zachary D. Rystrom 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Seasonal Activity And Sampling Methods For The Dectes Stem Borer, Dectes Texanus Leconte, In Nebraska Soybeans, Zachary D. Rystrom

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus Leconte, has caused significant economic damage to soybean fields in south central Nebraska during recent years. Most economic injury occurs when soybean plants become susceptible to late season lodging due to larval girdling. Developing a comprehensive management plan for Dectes stem borer in Nebraska is limited by lack of knowledge of seasonal activity and effective sampling plans to monitor adult populations. Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to describe Dectes stem borer adult emergence patterns, female ovipositional period and adult densities in soybean fields. Calendar date predictions for adult emergence varied, while ...


Soil Preferences Of Nicrophorus Beetles And The Effects Of Compaction On Burying Behavior, Kelly A. Willemssens 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Soil Preferences Of Nicrophorus Beetles And The Effects Of Compaction On Burying Behavior, Kelly A. Willemssens

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus Olivier was declared federally endangered in 1989 and many efforts to prevent this species from going extinct are ongoing. The Nicrophorus beetles bury small carcasses for reproductive purposes. They also reside in the soil during times of daily and seasonal inactivity. To better understand why N. americanus is in decline, the importance of soil texture, moisture, vegetation, gravel, the burial depth, and the effect of compaction on their burying behavior was examined.

All tested species preferred moist soils with N. orbicollis having a significant preference for wet (pN. marginatus had a significant preference for ...


Assessment Of Pityophthorus Juglandis Colonization Characteristics And Implications For Further Spread Of Thousand Cankers Disease, Jackson Audley 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Assessment Of Pityophthorus Juglandis Colonization Characteristics And Implications For Further Spread Of Thousand Cankers Disease, Jackson Audley

Masters Theses

Nonnative, invasive forest insect pests are a significant threat to the health of global forest resources. Thousand cankers disease, a recently described disease threatening walnuts, is the result of an invasive insect-pathogen complex in which the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) is a vector to the associated fungal pathogen, Geosmithia morbida. Both are native to the southwestern U.S. into northern Mexico, however, have been found well beyond their historic range, and now threaten black walnut (Juglans nigra) in the eastern U.S. Beetles have likely been spread via the transport of infested walnut logs.

The goal of this ...


Evaluation Of Foraging Patterns Of Linepithema Humile (Mayr), The Argentine Ant, To Improve Bait Placement In Natural Park Habitats, Jinbo Song 2015 Clemson University

Evaluation Of Foraging Patterns Of Linepithema Humile (Mayr), The Argentine Ant, To Improve Bait Placement In Natural Park Habitats, Jinbo Song

All Dissertations

Linepithema humile (Mayr), the Argentine ant, is an invasive ant species and a significant pest in natural and managed habitats of the southeastern United States. In the natural sites of Lake Greenwood State Park (LGSP) in the Piedmont region of South Carolina, L. humile has invaded. Although park personnel treat problem areas with liquid insecticides, control of L. humile through the park areas is minimal. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the optimal foraging distance of L. humile, evaluate over-wintering nest temperatures and foraging activity of L. humile, and evaluate liquid bait placement to control L. humile ...


Life History And Natural Enemies Of Parthenolecanium Spp. In Four Southeastern States, Ernesto Robayo Camacho 2015 Clemson University

Life History And Natural Enemies Of Parthenolecanium Spp. In Four Southeastern States, Ernesto Robayo Camacho

All Dissertations

Soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are some of the most prevalent and difficult to control arthropod pests in urban landscapes of the southern United States. European fruit lecanium, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche), and oak lecanium, Parthenolecanium quercifex (Fitch), are commonly found in mixed populations as pests of oak trees (Quercus spp.) in the region. The phenology and natural enemies of the two species are poorly understood, which in turn hinders pest managers' ability to develop an integrated management program against these species. This research project aims to fill the information gaps concerning the life history and natural enemies of P. corni and ...


A Molecular And Morphological Investigation Of The Springtail Genus Orchesella (Collembola: Entomobryomorpha: Entomobryidae), Catherine Louise Smith 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

A Molecular And Morphological Investigation Of The Springtail Genus Orchesella (Collembola: Entomobryomorpha: Entomobryidae), Catherine Louise Smith

Masters Theses

Chapter 1 is devoted to a molecular overview of the North American members of the springtail genus Orchesella using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Both genes strongly support the presence of four major clades within Orchesella. Chapter 2 is a morphological revision of the species near Orchesella celsa Christiansen & Bellinger. Five new species are described based largely on chaetotaxonomical differences in. Chapter 3 is an investigation into the origins of United States populations of two introduced European members of the genus, Orchesella cincta Linnaeus and Orchesella villosa Linnaeus. Mitochondrial data between populations from the two continents indicates multiple introductions for O ...


Black Cutworm Moths Captured Throughout Midwest, Erin W. Hodgson, Adam Sisson 2015 Iowa State University

Black Cutworm Moths Captured Throughout Midwest, Erin W. Hodgson, Adam Sisson

Integrated Crop Management News

Black cutworm moths (Photo 1) do not overwinter in Iowa and must migrate north annually. Black cutworm moths have been collected in Iowa since the beginning of April 2015. Seeing significant moth captures in early and mid-April is unusual and could indicate a more frequent incidence of vegetative crop injury compared to other years. There have been reports of black cutworm moth trap catches from other states besides Iowa, including Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Kentucky. In some places, such as Indiana, peak flights are being reported. A peak flight is a specific number of moths caught in a trap ...


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