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Prehistoric Earth Oven Facilities And The Pathoecology Of Chagas Disease In The Lower Pecos Canyonlands, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araujo 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Prehistoric Earth Oven Facilities And The Pathoecology Of Chagas Disease In The Lower Pecos Canyonlands, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araujo

Papers in Natural Resources

Understanding the endemic region of a disease is part of developing a concept of the disease’s natural history and its threat to human health in both ancient and modern times. Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and has recently been identified as an emergent disease in North America. Ancient endemicity and reemergence has been demonstrated by an examination of a mummy found on the border between Coahuila, Mexico and Texas, USA. This mummified man, who died over 1000 years ago, exhibits the gross pathology of megacolon, which is consistent with Chagas disease. We are now exploring ...


Managing Threats To The Urban Forest: From Dutch Elm Disease To Emerald Ash Borer - Learning From Experience, Christopher J. Borman 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Managing Threats To The Urban Forest: From Dutch Elm Disease To Emerald Ash Borer - Learning From Experience, Christopher J. Borman

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

The urban forest provides important essential services to all municipalities; however, its value is often overlooked. The urban forest contributes to energy savings, environmental benefits, psychological well-being, and social benefits. Managing the urban forest in a sustainable manner is important if we wish to benefit from these services well into the future. Reliable management techniques have been created through previous experiences with pests, and these should be utilized and improved for use on urban forests.

American elm (Ulmus americana L.) was once a major component of the urban forests of North America. In 1927, Dutch elm disease (DED) was introduced ...


Low Temperature Tolerance Of Adult Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Ruth Jakobs 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Low Temperature Tolerance Of Adult Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Ruth Jakobs

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The crop pest Drosophila suzukii, native to Southeast Asia, has been found in Ontario since 2010. This raises concern with respect to it establishing permanent populations, however, little is known about its cold tolerance. I investigated the low-temperature tolerance, including phenotypic plasticity, of D. suzukii. While acclimation increased cold tolerance, there was no evidence of short-term cold-hardening. Chill coma occurs at -1.2 °C, which will limit winter activity. Cold shock decreased the reproductive output of females, but this negative effect may be mitigated by re-mating. Drosophila suzukii is chill-susceptible and 80 % of the flies die after exposure to -7 ...


The Effect Of Agricultural Practices On Sugar Beet Root Aphid (Pemphigus Betae Doane) And Beneficial Epigeal Arthropods, Rudolph J. Pretorius 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effect Of Agricultural Practices On Sugar Beet Root Aphid (Pemphigus Betae Doane) And Beneficial Epigeal Arthropods, Rudolph J. Pretorius

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

This study investigated the effect of several agricultural practices on the sugar beet root aphid (Pemphigus betae Doane) and beneficial epigeal natural enemies in western Nebraska sugar beet agroecosystems. Eight glyphosate-tolerant sugar beet varieties were evaluated under field conditions for their resistance to root aphids. High levels of aphid resistance were detected for some varieties. In conjunction to this, pitfall sampling was conducted to determine the beneficial epigeal natural enemy complex in the area, which could contribute to the management of both root aphids and glyphosate-resistant weeds. Ground beetles comprised an important and abundant component of this fauna, with 79 ...


Mp763: Without Benefit Of Insects: The Story Of Edith M. Patch Of The University Of Maine, K. Elizabeth Gibbs 2014 The University of Maine

Mp763: Without Benefit Of Insects: The Story Of Edith M. Patch Of The University Of Maine, K. Elizabeth Gibbs

Miscellaneous Publications

A biography of noted entomologist Edith M. Patch, focusing on her time and research at the University of Maine


The Seasonality Of Two Parasitoids (Spathius Agrili And Tetrastichus Planipennisi) Of The Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis, And A Survey For Native Natural Enemies Of The Emerald Ash Borer In Eastern Tennessee, Nicholas Andrew Hooie 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

The Seasonality Of Two Parasitoids (Spathius Agrili And Tetrastichus Planipennisi) Of The Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis, And A Survey For Native Natural Enemies Of The Emerald Ash Borer In Eastern Tennessee, Nicholas Andrew Hooie

Masters Theses

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennisi Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species of bark borer native to eastern Asia whose primary habitat and food sources are trees in the genus Fraxinus. EAB is a major pest of all North American Fraxinus species and is responsible for mortality of millions of trees across its current North American range of 23 U.S states and 2 Canadian providences. After the discovery of EAB in Tennessee in 2010, parasitoid releases were started under the national EAB Biological Control Program. A research project was initiated in 2012 to 1) study the seasonality ...


Field Abundance And Performance Of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) On Soybean Aphid, James O. Eckberg, Julie A. Peterson, Colin P. Borsh, Joe M. Kaser, Gregg A. Johnson, John C. Luhman, Donald L. Wyse, George E. Heimpel 2014 University of Minnesota

Field Abundance And Performance Of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) On Soybean Aphid, James O. Eckberg, Julie A. Peterson, Colin P. Borsh, Joe M. Kaser, Gregg A. Johnson, John C. Luhman, Donald L. Wyse, George E. Heimpel

West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte

The management of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumara is a major challenge to soybean production in the north-central United States. The identification and characterization of the insect predator community has informed integrated pest management strategies by providing insight on predators that can suppress soybean aphid populations. Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) are known predators of A. glycines, but more information is needed on their diversity, abundance, and performance to evaluate their importance as biological control agents of A. glycines. In this study, syrphid abundance was evaluated across two growing seasons in four soybean fields in east-central Minnesota. Six methods were used ...


Dangerous Mating Systems: Signal Complexity, Signal Content And Neural Capacity In Spiders, Marie E. Herberstein, Anne E. Wignall, Eileen Hebets, Jutta M. Schneider 2014 Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

Dangerous Mating Systems: Signal Complexity, Signal Content And Neural Capacity In Spiders, Marie E. Herberstein, Anne E. Wignall, Eileen Hebets, Jutta M. Schneider

Eileen Hebets Publications

Spiders are highly efficient predators in possession of exquisite sensory capacities for ambushing prey, combined with machinery for launching rapid and determined attacks. As a consequence, any sexually motivated approach carries a risk of ending up as prey rather than as a mate. Sexual selection has shaped courtship to effectively communicate the presence, identity, motivation and/or quality of potential mates, which help ameliorate these risks. Spiders communicate this information via several sensory channels, including mechanical (e.g. vibrational), visual and/or chemical, with examples of multimodal signaling beginning to emerge in the literature. The diverse environments that spiders inhabit ...


De Novo Transcriptome Of The Hemimetabolous German Cockroach (Blattella Germanica), Xiaojie Zhou, Kun Qian, Ying Tong, Junwei Jerry Zhu, Xinghui Qiu, Xiaopeng Zeng 2014 Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention

De Novo Transcriptome Of The Hemimetabolous German Cockroach (Blattella Germanica), Xiaojie Zhou, Kun Qian, Ying Tong, Junwei Jerry Zhu, Xinghui Qiu, Xiaopeng Zeng

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is an important insect pest that transmits various pathogens mechanically and causes severe allergic diseases. This insect has long served as a model system for studies of insect biology, physiology and ecology. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinder our further understanding about the German cockroach in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. To explore the transcriptome and identify unique sequences of interest, we subjected the B. germanica transcriptome to massively parallel pyrosequencing and generated the first reference transcriptome for B. germanica.

Methodology/Principal Findings: A ...


Natural Egg Sac Clutch Size Of The Brown Widow Spider, Latrodectus Geometricus (Araneae: Theridiidae) In Southern California, Douglas W. R. Danielsen, Daniel E. Clarke, Stephan J. Valle, Amy A. Anselmo, Leonard S. Vincent, Richard S. Vetter 2014 Fullerton College

Natural Egg Sac Clutch Size Of The Brown Widow Spider, Latrodectus Geometricus (Araneae: Theridiidae) In Southern California, Douglas W. R. Danielsen, Daniel E. Clarke, Stephan J. Valle, Amy A. Anselmo, Leonard S. Vincent, Richard S. Vetter

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Abstract. We investigated egg sac clutch size of the brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, in southern California from June through October 2012 by counting eggs from 214 field collected egg sacs. Clutch size was fairly constant over this five-month period averaging 129.0 ± 51.0 eggs per sac with the only significant monthly difference being more eggs in September than June. Determining the relatively constant egg production for this period contributed knowledge to another project involving application of pesticide to brown widow egg sacs in attempted control of this newly established invasive pest species.


Molecular Xenomonitoring Using Mosquitoes To Map Lymphatic Filariasis After Mass Drug Administration In American Samoa, Mark A. Schmaedick, Amanda L. Koppel, Nils Pilotte, Melissa Torres, Steven A. Williams, Stephen L. Dobson, Patrick J. Lammie, Kimberly Y. Won 2014 American Samoa Community College

Molecular Xenomonitoring Using Mosquitoes To Map Lymphatic Filariasis After Mass Drug Administration In American Samoa, Mark A. Schmaedick, Amanda L. Koppel, Nils Pilotte, Melissa Torres, Steven A. Williams, Stephen L. Dobson, Patrick J. Lammie, Kimberly Y. Won

Entomology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have dramatically reduced lymphatic filariasis (LF) incidence in many areas around the globe, including American Samoa. As infection rates decline and MDA programs end, efficient and sensitive methods for detecting infections are needed to monitor for recrudescence. Molecular methods, collectively termed 'molecular xenomonitoring,' can identify parasite DNA or RNA in human blood-feeding mosquitoes. We tested mosquitoes trapped throughout the inhabited islands of American Samoa to identify areas of possible continuing LF transmission after completion of MDA.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were collected using BG Sentinel traps from most of the villages on American Samoa ...


Host Specificity And Ectoparasite Load Of Bat Flies In Utila, Honduras, Courtney Miller 2014 University of New Orleans

Host Specificity And Ectoparasite Load Of Bat Flies In Utila, Honduras, Courtney Miller

Senior Honors Theses

Bat flies (Streblidae) are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites of bats that display varying degrees of host specificity. A total of 265 streblid bat flies were collected from 122 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae and Natalidae from Utila, the smallest bay island of Honduras. Out of four host-parasite associations, three were considered primary. Out of the three bat species analyzed, one had significantly lower parasite prevalence and another had significantly higher parasite load and intensity. Both male and female bats were equally likely to be infested and variables of parasite density did not differ amongst host sex for any species. However ...


Rna Interference As A Tool For The Functional Analysis Of Genes In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (Say), Ashley Danielle Yates 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rna Interference As A Tool For The Functional Analysis Of Genes In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (Say), Ashley Danielle Yates

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring phenomenon in eukaryotes in which a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) suppresses the expression of a target gene. RNAi has markedly changed the way in which functional genetics studies are performed, especially in non-model organisms. In insects, the efficacy of RNAi is influenced by several factors, including the species and the methods of dsRNAs delivery.

The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a pest of the plant family Solanaceae. RNAi in the CPB is of interest for potential use in insect management and as a tool to study the interaction with host plants ...


An Evaluation Of Watermelon (Citrullus Spp.) Germplasm For Additional Sources Of Resistance To The Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae Koch)., Hector Cantu Jr. 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

An Evaluation Of Watermelon (Citrullus Spp.) Germplasm For Additional Sources Of Resistance To The Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae Koch)., Hector Cantu Jr.

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Fourteen U.S plant introduction (PI) accessions of C. lanatus var. lanatus (4), C. lanatus var. citroides (5) C. colocynthis (5) and a known susceptible commercial cultivar ‘Sugar Baby’ were evaluated for resistance to the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in a limited free-choice and free-choice bioassay under laboratory conditions. The limited free choice bioassay, involved nine Petri dish cages that held five randomly assigned leaves individually inoculated with two adult females and one adult male. Eggs, larva, and adults were counted over a nine day period. The free choice bioassay involved the even distribution of three mite infested ...


Effects Of Plant Virus And Its Insect Vector On Encarsia Formosa, A Biocontrol Agent Of Whiteflies, Xiaoyuan Liu, Wensheng Xiang, Xiaoguo Jiao, Youjun Zhang, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Xuguo Zhou, Shaoli Wang 2014 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Effects Of Plant Virus And Its Insect Vector On Encarsia Formosa, A Biocontrol Agent Of Whiteflies, Xiaoyuan Liu, Wensheng Xiang, Xiaoguo Jiao, Youjun Zhang, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Xuguo Zhou, Shaoli Wang

Entomology Faculty Publications

In this study, we investigated the tritrophic interactions among a persistently transmitted plant virus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), its insect vector, the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, and a parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, one of the most extensively used biological control agents. As an emerging invasive pest worldwide, the two most damaging whiteflies are B. tabaci B and Q cryptic species. On healthy tomato plants, parasitoid-induced mortality was significantly higher in B. tabaci B than in Q. In contrast, similar mortality levels of B and Q were observed on TYLCV-infected plants. A higher rate of parasitism was consistently observed ...


Patterns Of Flight Behavior And Capacity Of Unmated Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Adults Related To Age, Gender, And Wing Size, Thomas W. Sappington, Charles S. Burks 2014 Iowa State University

Patterns Of Flight Behavior And Capacity Of Unmated Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Adults Related To Age, Gender, And Wing Size, Thomas W. Sappington, Charles S. Burks

Entomology Publications and Papers

The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangeworm of ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d posteclosion was examined using flight mills. As a group, females flew farther and longer than males, but the differences were not statistically significant. Flight speed did not differ between sexes. Flight duration and distance did not differ with age, except that 7-d-old adults performed worse for these parameters than did 1- ...


Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth 2014 Iowa State University

Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth

Entomology Publications and Papers

The recent article by Li et al. (1) lacks adequate evidence to support the authors’ assertion that a plant virus propagates or replicates in honeybees. Instead, it is possible that tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) virions associate with the honeybee and parasitic Varroa mites in the absence of TRSV replication.


Investigations Into Sensory Ecology And Gene Evolution Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Swapna R. Purandare 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigations Into Sensory Ecology And Gene Evolution Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Swapna R. Purandare

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Organisms use environmental cues to gather information required to perform activities that are essential for their survival and reproduction, such as searching for food, avoiding danger, and finding mates. They respond to the acquired information by changing their behavior or physiology, which may result in increased fitness. Due to the fundamental importance of information in an organism’s life, it is important to understand its acquisition, processing, and the organism’s response to it. In the work presented here, we used the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), an insect that produces multiple phenotypes, or morphs, that are genetically identical, but differ ...


Bemisia Tabaci Q Carrying Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Strongly Suppresses Host Plant Defenses, Xiaobin Shi, Huipeng Pan, Hongyi Zhang, Xiaoguo Jiao, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Yong Fang, Gong Chen, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang 2014 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Bemisia Tabaci Q Carrying Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Strongly Suppresses Host Plant Defenses, Xiaobin Shi, Huipeng Pan, Hongyi Zhang, Xiaoguo Jiao, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Yong Fang, Gong Chen, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang

Entomology Faculty Publications

The concurrence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) with the spread of its vector Bemisia tabaci Q rather than B in China suggests a more mutualistic relationship between TYLCV and Q. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that viruliferous B and Q have different effects on plant defenses. We found the fecundity of nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous Q and viruliferous B was 11.080, 12.060, 10.760, and 11.220 respectively on plants previously attacked by the other biotype, however, on their respective noninfested control leaves fecundity was 12.000, 10.880, 9.760, and 8.020 respectively ...


Morphometric Studies On Subadult Liza Subviridis And Sillago Sihama From Sonmiani Bay (Miani Hor), Balochistan, Pakistan, Muhammad A. Gondal, Naureen A. Qureshi, Noor U. Saher 2014 University of Karachi

Morphometric Studies On Subadult Liza Subviridis And Sillago Sihama From Sonmiani Bay (Miani Hor), Balochistan, Pakistan, Muhammad A. Gondal, Naureen A. Qureshi, Noor U. Saher

Journal of Bioresource Management

Length-weight relationship of Liza subviridis and Sillago sihama (Family: Mugilidae; Class: Pisces and Family: Sillaginidae; Class: Pisces) in subadults sampled from Somiani Bay Balochistan, Pakistan during 2002, 2003 and 2006 was analyzed. Liza subviridis showed positive allometry (3.23) in 2002, and negative allometry during 2003 (2.95) and 2006 (1.95). Sub adults of Sillago sihama showed positive allometry during 2002 (3.10) and 2003 (3.13). An isometric condition (3.02) was observed in the samples of Sillago sihama collected from Bhaira in 2006.


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