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Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

Managed honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies are contracted to pollinate fruit and nut orchards improving crop quality and yield. Colonies placed in orchards are potentially exposed to pyrethroid insecticides used for broad-spectrum pest control. Pyrethroids have been reported to pose minimal risk to bees due to their low application rates in the field and putative repellent properties. This repellency is believed to alter foraging behavior with the benefit of preventing bees from encountering a lethal dose in the field. However, sub-lethal exposure to pyrethroids may adversely impact bee behavior potentially resulting in social dysfunction or disruption of foraging.

This ...


New Proposed Pesticide Applicator Certification And Training Rule From Epa - Public Comment Period Now Open, Kristine J. P. Schaefer, Elizabeth J. Buffington 2015 Iowa State University

New Proposed Pesticide Applicator Certification And Training Rule From Epa - Public Comment Period Now Open, Kristine J. P. Schaefer, Elizabeth J. Buffington

Integrated Crop Management News

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has released a proposal for a new certification and training rule for pesticide applicators who apply restricted use pesticides. The current rule has been in place since 1974. According to EPA: “The goal of this proposed rule is to reduce the likelihood of harm from the misapplication of toxic pesticides and ensure a consistent level of protection among states. EPA has determined that use of restricted use pesticides would be safer with increased supervision and oversight.


Corn Rootworm Management Update, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

Corn Rootworm Management Update, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

For a second year in a row, corn rootworm abundance is lower than expected in Iowa. This is due, in part, to exceptionally wet spring conditions in 2014. However, scouts and farmers have noticed rebounding populations of adult corn rootworm in the landscape now, especially noting root injury to first-year corn by northern corn rootworm. It is not too early to make management decisions for next year, with the following considerations.


Elucidating The Molecular Function Of Reprolysin Metalloproteases In Tick-Host-Pathogen Interaction, Jaclyn Bo Williams 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

Elucidating The Molecular Function Of Reprolysin Metalloproteases In Tick-Host-Pathogen Interaction, Jaclyn Bo Williams

Master's Theses

Ticks are ectoparasites that attach to their host for many days to weeks, feeding to engorgement and continuing their species life cycle. The mechanisms behind the successful feeding and manipulation of host immune responses have been associated with the secretion of their specialized saliva. Tick saliva includes a variety of modulatory molecules that must disrupt and counteract defense mechanisms, including a variety of proteases. Reprolysin Metalloproteases, in the Zn2+ dependent family, is secreted as a proenzyme and is shown to have proteolytic activity, degrading fibrinogen and gelatinase activity, as well as disturbing homeostasis12. Previous work with the ...


Session C, 2015 First Place: Polyphemus Pediculus Survivorship In Insect Repellent Treated Water, Camila Ferguson, Chloe Blaisdell, Sarah Lundy, Michaela Tersmette 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Session C, 2015 First Place: Polyphemus Pediculus Survivorship In Insect Repellent Treated Water, Camila Ferguson, Chloe Blaisdell, Sarah Lundy, Michaela Tersmette

Cranberry Lake Biological Station

At Cranberry Lake, one of the most commonly used topical products is insect repellant. Insect repellents are manufactured with varying percentages of DEET, or no DEET at all. DEET is a synthetic chemical consisting of organic compounds originally intended for jungle warfare. Trace amounts of DEET are found in local waterways throughout the summer, when swimming is a popular activity. This study focuses on Polyphemus pediculus, a zooplankton at the bottom of the aquatic food chain. Polyphemus pediculus is abundant in Cranberry Lake and is an indicator for health and functionality of the lake ecosystem. Three insect repellents containing varying ...


Session C, 2015 Third Place: Tardigrada Prevalence In Moss Cushion Growth Forms Among Habitats At Cranberry Lake, Jessica Brown, Ingrid Forward, Hannah Smith 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Session C, 2015 Third Place: Tardigrada Prevalence In Moss Cushion Growth Forms Among Habitats At Cranberry Lake, Jessica Brown, Ingrid Forward, Hannah Smith

Cranberry Lake Biological Station

Tardigrades (phylum Tardigrada) are most durable animals due to their ability to enter a state of cryptobiosis during extreme conditions. Tardigrades are often found living in mosses due to the mosses’ ability to retain moisture, but can be found in moss in dry habitats due to their ability to survive desiccation. This study assessed the abundance of Tardigrades in moss cushion life forms of marsh, brook, lake shore, and forest habitats. Relative abundance of Tardigrades among sites was quantified, soil pH was measured at each site, and percent moisture at each site was collected. ANOVA and Tukey’s Test were ...


Session C, 2015 Second Place: Habituation Of Creek Chub To A Chemical Alarm Stimulus, Benjamin Kosalek, Zachary Davis 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Session C, 2015 Second Place: Habituation Of Creek Chub To A Chemical Alarm Stimulus, Benjamin Kosalek, Zachary Davis

Cranberry Lake Biological Station

When minnows are attacked, their epithelial cells release a chemical alarm that will alert other minnows to the presence of a predator. Our study was to see if Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) would habituate to the signal if repeatedly exposed in the absence of a predator and thus ignore it. We tested 20 Creek Chub, half getting the treatment of chemical alarm and the other half a control of water. Each fish was individually exposed to their treatment five times. It was found that there was no change in reaction of the experimental group and Creek Chub had a relatively ...


Who Do You Think You Are? Vonnie, Andreas Haffar, Amber Klootwyk, Julie Doyle 2015 Iowa State University

Who Do You Think You Are? Vonnie, Andreas Haffar, Amber Klootwyk, Julie Doyle

Ethos

The beginning of then six-year-old Ja’Von “Vonnie” Latimore's immense fascination with the insect world all started with the accidental squashing of her sister’s ladybug. She couldn’t resist the temptation to take a stick from the yard, poke the bug apart and examine its parts


A Mix Of Soybean Defoliators This Summer, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

A Mix Of Soybean Defoliators This Summer, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Some minor defoliators have been noted in soybean this growing season, including caterpillars, beetles, and grasshoppers. Specifically, soybean defoliators observed include green cloverworm, soybean looper, alfalfa caterpillar, imported longhorn weevil, Japanese beetle, and Iowa colaspis beetle. It is important to remember that soybean can tolerate as much as 40% defoliation during vegetative growth stages, and 20% during pod-forming and pod-fillings stages before yield loss occurs. If defoliation is observed during scouting, it is important to identify the insect or combination of insects.


Mexican Red Kneed Tarantula (Brachypelma Smithi) Care Manual, Jamie Sincage, Trace Hardin 2015 Disney’s Animal Kingdom

Mexican Red Kneed Tarantula (Brachypelma Smithi) Care Manual, Jamie Sincage, Trace Hardin

Distance Master's Theses in Entomology

Caring for any animal is more of an art than a science. What works for one keeper may not necessarily work for another. This may be based on unnoticed nuances, local climate or weather patterns, the personalities of the individual animals, or other minute details. This is a basic husbandry and breeding guide to the Mexican red knee tarantula (Brachypelma smithi). Any more specifics will have to be discovered personally or discussed with colleagues. Where many vertebrates have been kept in captivity for centuries a lot of invertebrates are relatively new to the husbandry world. Even though humans have kept ...


Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics First Genotyping Of Spodoptera Frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Progeny From Crosses Between Bt-Resistant And Bt-Susceptible Populations, And 65-Locus Discrimination Of Isofamilies, Renee S. Arias, Maribel Portilla, J. D. Ray, Carlos A. Blanco, S. A. Simpson, Brian E. Scheffler 2015 U.S.D.A. National Peanut Res. Lab.

Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics First Genotyping Of Spodoptera Frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Progeny From Crosses Between Bt-Resistant And Bt-Susceptible Populations, And 65-Locus Discrimination Of Isofamilies, Renee S. Arias, Maribel Portilla, J. D. Ray, Carlos A. Blanco, S. A. Simpson, Brian E. Scheffler

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Concerns exist that Bt-resistant populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) found in Puerto Rico, could spread to continental United States, and about the lack of molecular tools to monitor potential crosses or distinguish populations. In this work, the feasibility of genotyping S. frugiperda crosses between Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt) resistant and susceptible populations using simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites) was assessed. Parents and their corresponding progeny (five resistant, five susceptible phenotype) were genotyped using 192 SSRs on three reciprocate crosses alternating male and female from Bt-susceptible and Bt-resistant populations. Oviposition, mortality and fecundity were ...


Perch Selection By Male Dragonflies (Odonata, Anisoptera) Related To Competitive Ability And Species Composition, Jessica L. Beard 2015 Old Dominion University

Perch Selection By Male Dragonflies (Odonata, Anisoptera) Related To Competitive Ability And Species Composition, Jessica L. Beard

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Males of many species of dragonflies (Odonata, Anisoptera) establish territories in aquatic habitats where they compete with other males for access to food and females. Territorial males typically perch on emergent vegetation and chase rival males who intrude into their territories. This dissertation research examined the role of male size in perch height selection, position on the perch, and competitive ability. Four hypotheses were tested: 1) Dragonfly species would vary by size and that territorial species would show sexual size dimorphism (SSD), 2) Perch height selection would be related to dragonfly size, 3) Position on the perch would be related ...


Determining The Prevalence And Distribution Of Tick-Borne Pathogens In Southeastern Virginia And Exploring The Transmission Dynamics Of Rickettsia Parkeri In Amblyomma Maculatum, Chelsea L. Wright Thompson 2015 Old Dominion University

Determining The Prevalence And Distribution Of Tick-Borne Pathogens In Southeastern Virginia And Exploring The Transmission Dynamics Of Rickettsia Parkeri In Amblyomma Maculatum, Chelsea L. Wright Thompson

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Tick-borne pathogens are an increasing threat to human and animal health worldwide. In the United States, cases of Lyme disease, spotted fever rickettsioses, ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are on the rise. Factors related to emergence include appearance of a new pathogen, recognition of an existing pathogen and environmental changes that result in new exposure events. Despite the rise in tick-borne disease incidence within many states, including Virginia, there is a paucity of data related to the prevalence and distribution of ticks and tick-borne pathogens.

The first aim of this dissertation research was to determine the tick-borne pathogen composition within tick populations ...


True White Grub Identification And Management, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Michael Wilson Dunbar, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

True White Grub Identification And Management, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Michael Wilson Dunbar, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Some grub activity in corn has been noted this growing season. Ideally, scouting for true white grubs should occur prior to planting, however, most people do not realize they have an infestation until stand loss occurs. Areas that were previously pasture or sewn to grass should be monitored for their presence. Grubs are more likely to be found in fields close to cottonwood or willow trees. In some instances, the presence of true white grubs within field crops is not well understood.


Seasonal Dynamics And Micro-Climatic Preference Of Two Alpine Endemic Hypogean Beetles, Stefano Mammola, Elena Piano, Pier Mauro Giachino, Marco Isaia 2015 University of Turin, Torino

Seasonal Dynamics And Micro-Climatic Preference Of Two Alpine Endemic Hypogean Beetles, Stefano Mammola, Elena Piano, Pier Mauro Giachino, Marco Isaia

International Journal of Speleology

Hypogean beetles generally live in stable environments, characterized by constant temperature and high relative humidity. Changes in the underground microclimatic conditions generally induce local migrations of the beetles through the hypogean environment in search of suitable microhabitats. We studied the seasonal dynamics and the micro-climatic preference of two Alpine endemic hypogean beetles - Sphodropsis ghilianii (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and Dellabeffaella roccae (Coleoptera, Cholevidae) - in the hypogean complex of Pugnetto (Graian Alps, Italy). We surveyed the two species for one year, using baited pitfall traps and measuring temperature and humidity along the two main caves. We used logistic regression mixed models (GLMMs) to ...


In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark 2015 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated ...


Session A, 2015 First Place: Whatever The Case May Be: Investigating Trichoptera Diversity In Three Adirondack Streams, Emily Artruc, Grace Gustke, Samantha Hollister, Johanna Little, Miranda Tanner 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Session A, 2015 First Place: Whatever The Case May Be: Investigating Trichoptera Diversity In Three Adirondack Streams, Emily Artruc, Grace Gustke, Samantha Hollister, Johanna Little, Miranda Tanner

Cranberry Lake Biological Station

Caddisfly larvae are used as an indicator species for stream health. Anthropogenic development and pollution threaten the quality of streams and the diversity of macroinvertebrates such as caddisflies. The larvae develop in the stream in cases built from sand and organic matter and adults remain near the stream. We hypothesize that the diversity of larvae will be the same as the diversity of adults in three streams at Cranberry Lake Biological Station. Larvae were collected at ten sites in three streams near the campus using d-nets and forceps. Adults were caught at one site at each stream at night using ...


Session A, 2015 Second Place: The Art Of War Against Tabanidae, A Survey Of Tabanidae At The Cranberry Lake Biological Station, Nathan Morse, Chelsie Beard, Macie Edwards 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Session A, 2015 Second Place: The Art Of War Against Tabanidae, A Survey Of Tabanidae At The Cranberry Lake Biological Station, Nathan Morse, Chelsie Beard, Macie Edwards

Cranberry Lake Biological Station

Some of the most notorious insect pests in the world are members of the family Tabanidae. At the Cranberry Lake Biological Station, several species of Tabanidae’s occupy the area and use the students for blood meals, before depositing their eggs on plants overhanging water. To investigate solutions to this parasitism of CLBS, we placed an experimental trap alongside the standard Malaise trap at two locations, in an attempt to determine their habitat preferences and time of peak activity. We recorded the number of flies in each trap every two hours, over a twelve hour period. We also conducted a ...


Session A, 2015 Third Place: The Effects Of Canopy Gaps On Percent Cover And Species Richness Of Vascular Understory Vegetation In Northern Hardwood Forests, Sienna McDonald, Nicholas Dietschler, Emmett Daly 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Session A, 2015 Third Place: The Effects Of Canopy Gaps On Percent Cover And Species Richness Of Vascular Understory Vegetation In Northern Hardwood Forests, Sienna Mcdonald, Nicholas Dietschler, Emmett Daly

Cranberry Lake Biological Station

This study quantifies percent cover and species richness in forest gaps and closed canopy communities of an even aged northern hardwood forest. The plant community of interest consists of vascular plants in the herbaceous layer, within one meter of the forest floor. The study was performed in the Charles Lathrop Pack Experimental Forest at the Cranberry Lake Biological Station. Six sample sites were chosen each with two sub-plots that consisted of a gap and a closed canopy location. At each of the sub-plots, percent canopy, percent ground cover and species richness were measured. The average difference in percent cover at ...


Japanese Beetles Begin Emergence, Erin W. Hodgson 2015 Iowa State University

Japanese Beetles Begin Emergence, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Japanese beetle is an invasive insect capable of feeding on corn and soybean. This pest has been in Iowa since 1994 but its distribution in field crops is considered sporadic around the state. Statewide populations were low in 2014 and it is unclear if pressure will be significant this year. Literature shows Japanese adults need about 1,030 growing degree days (base 50°F) to complete development and will continue emergence until around 2,150 degree days. Based on accumulating degree day temperatures in 2015, Japanese beetle adults should be active in some areas of southern Iowa this week (Figure ...


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