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Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

Managed honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies are contracted to pollinate fruit and nut orchards improving crop quality and yield. Colonies placed in orchards are potentially exposed to pyrethroid insecticides used for broad-spectrum pest control. Pyrethroids have been reported to pose minimal risk to bees due to their low application rates in the field and putative repellent properties. This repellency is believed to alter foraging behavior with the benefit of preventing bees from encountering a lethal dose in the field. However, sub-lethal exposure to pyrethroids may adversely impact bee behavior potentially resulting in social dysfunction or disruption of foraging.

This ...


Short Germ Insects Utilize Both The Ancestral And Derived Mode Of Polycomb Group-Mediated Epigenetic Silencing Of Hox Genes, Yuji Matsuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Takahito Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Ishimaru, Sumihare Noji, Aleksander Popadic, Taro Mito 2015 University of Tokushima

Short Germ Insects Utilize Both The Ancestral And Derived Mode Of Polycomb Group-Mediated Epigenetic Silencing Of Hox Genes, Yuji Matsuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Takahito Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Ishimaru, Sumihare Noji, Aleksander Popadic, Taro Mito

Biological Sciences Faculty Research Publications

In insect species that undergo long germ segmentation, such as Drosophila, all segments are specified simultaneously at the early blastoderm stage. As embryogenesis progresses, the expression boundaries of Hox genes are established by repression of gap genes, which is subsequently replaced by Polycomb group (PcG) silencing. At present, however, it is not known whether patterning occurs this way in a more ancestral (short germ) mode of embryogenesis, where segments are added gradually during posterior elongation. In this study, two members of the PcG family, Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12), were analyzed in ...


Seasonal Activity And Sampling Methods For The Dectes Stem Borer, Dectes Texanus Leconte, In Nebraska Soybeans, Zachary D. Rystrom 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Seasonal Activity And Sampling Methods For The Dectes Stem Borer, Dectes Texanus Leconte, In Nebraska Soybeans, Zachary D. Rystrom

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus Leconte, has caused significant economic damage to soybean fields in south central Nebraska during recent years. Most economic injury occurs when soybean plants become susceptible to late season lodging due to larval girdling. Developing a comprehensive management plan for Dectes stem borer in Nebraska is limited by lack of knowledge of seasonal activity and effective sampling plans to monitor adult populations. Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to describe Dectes stem borer adult emergence patterns, female ovipositional period and adult densities in soybean fields. Calendar date predictions for adult emergence varied, while ...


Soil Preferences Of Nicrophorus Beetles And The Effects Of Compaction On Burying Behavior, Kelly A. Willemssens 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Soil Preferences Of Nicrophorus Beetles And The Effects Of Compaction On Burying Behavior, Kelly A. Willemssens

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus Olivier was declared federally endangered in 1989 and many efforts to prevent this species from going extinct are ongoing. The Nicrophorus beetles bury small carcasses for reproductive purposes. They also reside in the soil during times of daily and seasonal inactivity. To better understand why N. americanus is in decline, the importance of soil texture, moisture, vegetation, gravel, the burial depth, and the effect of compaction on their burying behavior was examined.

All tested species preferred moist soils with N. orbicollis having a significant preference for wet (pN. marginatus had a significant preference for ...


Producing Quality Barley For The Malting Industry, Haley H. Oser DPH 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Producing Quality Barley For The Malting Industry, Haley H. Oser Dph

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

The University of Nebraska – Lincoln Doctor of Plant Health program requires each student to fulfill a professional internship over the last summer of the program. For my internship, I worked as a Barley Scientist Intern for MillerCoors and Golden Malting in Golden, Colorado. During this internship I gained a fundamental understanding of malting barley production with a significant emphasis on grain quality. Barley produced for malting must fulfill strict industry quality standards before it is accepted by the head maltsters. These quality standards include: a high germination rate, low moisture content, protein content within an acceptable range and the grain ...


Investigating Notch Signaling And Sequential Segmentation In The Fairy Shrimp, Thamnocephalus Platyurus, Sara Izzat Khalil 2015 Trinity College

Investigating Notch Signaling And Sequential Segmentation In The Fairy Shrimp, Thamnocephalus Platyurus, Sara Izzat Khalil

Senior Theses and Projects

Segmentation is a key feature of arthropod diversity and evolution. In the standard model for arthropod development, Drosophila melanogaster, segments develop simultaneously by a progressive subdivision of the embryo. By contrast, most arthropods add segments sequentially from a posterior region called the growth zone and in a manner similar to vertebrates.

Recent work, mainly focused on insects, suggests that Notch signaling might play a role in arthropods that segment sequentially. These studies document a potential regulatory similarity between sequentially segmenting arthropods and vertebrates. In vertebrates, somite formation involves a molecular oscillator that functions as a pacemaker, driving periodic expression of ...


Water Vapor Uptake Across The Cocoon Wall Of The Introduced Pine Sawfly Diprion Similis (Hartig) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae, Elizabeth Henderson 2015 Unviversity of Southern Maine

Water Vapor Uptake Across The Cocoon Wall Of The Introduced Pine Sawfly Diprion Similis (Hartig) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae, Elizabeth Henderson

Thinking Matters

For many Holarctic insect species, overwintering in a tightly spun cocoon provides protection against predators and pathogens, physical damage, and extreme fluctuations in environmental conditions. Research with insect cocoons has shown that the physical properties of the cocoon wall play an important role in regulating the diffusion of water vapor and respiratory gases. In an attempt to better understand properties of water vapor diffusion across the cocoon wall, we measured relative amounts of water uptake or loss in overwintering cocoons of the Introduced Pine Sawfly (Diprion similis (Hartig)) in Maine. We also characterized the relative density of silk fibers arranged ...


Behavioural Responses Of Stable Flies To Cattle Manure Slurry Associated Odourants, K. Tangtrakulwanich, T. A. Albuquerque, Gary Brewer, Fred P. Baxendale, Ludek Zurek, Daniel N. Miller, David B. Taylor, Kristina A. Friesen, Junwei J. Zhu 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Behavioural Responses Of Stable Flies To Cattle Manure Slurry Associated Odourants, K. Tangtrakulwanich, T. A. Albuquerque, Gary Brewer, Fred P. Baxendale, Ludek Zurek, Daniel N. Miller, David B. Taylor, Kristina A. Friesen, Junwei J. Zhu

David B. Taylor

Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans [Diptera: Muscidae] L.) are blood-feeding synanthropic pests, which cause significant economic losses in livestock. Stable fly antennae contain olfactory sensilla responsive to host and host environment-associated odours. Field observation indicated that the abundance of stable flies increased significantly in grasslands or crop fields when cattle manure slurry was applied. Major volatile compounds emanating from manure slurry were collected and identified. Behavioural responses of stable flies to those compounds were investigated in laboratory bioassays and field-trapping studies. Results from olfactometer assays revealed that phenol, p-cresol and m-cresol were attractive to adult stable flies. When tested individually, attraction ...


John Brandt Collection, Brantley Palmer 2015 Keene State College

John Brandt Collection, Brantley Palmer

Finding Guides

John Henry Brandt was a professional career officer with the U.S. State Department, the U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Military. His government service includes eight years spent working in Southeast Asia in the 1960's, three years in the Micronesian Islands and ten years in the United States, primarily among the Navajo, Ute, Dakota, Chippewa, Pueblo and Apache. During his service overseas he collected ethnological materials in New Guinea, Micronesia and Southeast Asia. These collections were deposited in the American Museum of National History, the Milwaukee Museum, the Kenosha Museum, the Anthropology Museum of Mexico ...


Prehistoric Earth Oven Facilities And The Pathoecology Of Chagas Disease In The Lower Pecos Canyonlands, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araujo 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Prehistoric Earth Oven Facilities And The Pathoecology Of Chagas Disease In The Lower Pecos Canyonlands, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araujo

Papers in Natural Resources

Understanding the endemic region of a disease is part of developing a concept of the disease’s natural history and its threat to human health in both ancient and modern times. Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and has recently been identified as an emergent disease in North America. Ancient endemicity and reemergence has been demonstrated by an examination of a mummy found on the border between Coahuila, Mexico and Texas, USA. This mummified man, who died over 1000 years ago, exhibits the gross pathology of megacolon, which is consistent with Chagas disease. We are now exploring ...


Biology And Control Of The Bed Bug Cimex Lectularius L., Kevin Hinson 2015 Clemson University

Biology And Control Of The Bed Bug Cimex Lectularius L., Kevin Hinson

All Dissertations

After vanishing from the public eye for more than 50 years, bed bugs have resurged to become one of the most widely discussed and heavily researched insect pests in the westernized world. Our inability to prevent and successfully treat infestations has been the driving force behind this wave of research. I addressed gaps in our understanding of bed bugs by examining behavioral and life history characteristics, as well as insecticide application responses. I showed that natural-based products are generally ineffective against bed bugs, particularly when used as a residual treatment. I also found that bed bugs may be killed through ...


Invasiveness Of An Exotic Gall Wasp Is Influenced By Interactions With Exotic And Endemic Organisms, Ignazio Graziosi 2015 University of Kentucky

Invasiveness Of An Exotic Gall Wasp Is Influenced By Interactions With Exotic And Endemic Organisms, Ignazio Graziosi

Theses and Dissertations--Entomology

American chestnut was once a crucial component of North American forests, but it was functionally eliminated by the introduction of the chestnut blight fungus. Chestnut is recently experiencing resurgence, but the introduced Asian chestnut gall wasp, a specialist herbivore, threatens chestnut recovery. I characterized this invasion and the interactions developing with host associates as the gall wasp spread in North America. Gall wasp dispersal is attributable to host plant distribution, effects of prevailing winds during adult insect emergence, and to topography. This knowledge may be useful to more accurately predict locations of future gall wasp infestations. Gall wasp invasiveness is ...


Infestation Of Aetalion Reticulatum (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) In Plants Of Euterpe Oleracea Martius (Arecaceae) In Acre State, Brazil, Rodrigo Souza Santos RSS 2015 Embrapa Acre

Infestation Of Aetalion Reticulatum (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) In Plants Of Euterpe Oleracea Martius (Arecaceae) In Acre State, Brazil, Rodrigo Souza Santos Rss

Rodrigo Souza Santos RSS

The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius) is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae) in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with ...


The Efficacy And Non-Target Impacts Of An Organic Disease Management System Containing Biostimulants Compared With Two Sulfur-Based Systems On Four Apple Cultivars In Vermont, Ann L. Hazelrigg 2015 University of Vermont

The Efficacy And Non-Target Impacts Of An Organic Disease Management System Containing Biostimulants Compared With Two Sulfur-Based Systems On Four Apple Cultivars In Vermont, Ann L. Hazelrigg

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Disease management in organic apple orchards in Vermont is focused on controlling diseases with sulfur fungicides. The objective of this two year study was to evaluate the target and non-target effects of an organic disease management system containing agricultural biostimulants compared to two sulfur-based systems on foliar and fruit diseases, pest and beneficial arthropods, tree growth, yield and fruit quality on four cultivars, `Ginger Gold', `Honeycrisp' and `Liberty' and `Zestar!'. Trees were arranged in a complete randomized design of five three-tree replications in a certified organic orchard. The two sulfur-based systems differed in the number of applications; in the third ...


Mechanical Exclusion And Biological Control Strategies For The Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha Halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Rachelyn Dobson 2015 University of Kentucky

Mechanical Exclusion And Biological Control Strategies For The Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha Halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Rachelyn Dobson

Theses and Dissertations--Entomology

The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) is an invasive, agriculturally destructive pest present in most of the United States. Because organic farmers have few effective control options to combat this pest, three potential control options were investigated. Screens of different mesh sizes (0.42cm, 0.32cm, and 0.10cm) that covered vegetable crops were evaluated for their ability to exclude H. halys, allow the entry of beneficial insects, and protect the crop from various types of damage. H. halys and native stink bug egg masses were placed in an organic field and evidence of predation and parasitism from native ...


Taxonomy And Phylogeny Of The Asphondylia Species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Of North American Goldenrods: Challenging Morphology, Complex Host Associations, And Cryptic Speciation, Netta Dorchin, Jeffrey B. Joy, Lukas K. Hilke, Michael J. Wise, Warren G. Abrahamson II 2015 Tel Aviv University

Taxonomy And Phylogeny Of The Asphondylia Species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Of North American Goldenrods: Challenging Morphology, Complex Host Associations, And Cryptic Speciation, Netta Dorchin, Jeffrey B. Joy, Lukas K. Hilke, Michael J. Wise, Warren G. Abrahamson Ii

Warren G. Abrahamson, II

Reproductive isolation and speciation in herbivorous insects may be accomplished via shifts between host-plant resources: either plant species or plant organs. The intimate association between gall-inducing insects and their host plants makes them particularly useful models in the study of speciation. North American goldenrods (Asteraceae: Solidago and Euthamia) support a rich fauna of gall-inducing insects. Although several of these insects have been the subject of studies focusing on speciation and tritrophic interactions, others remain unstudied and undescribed. Among the latter are at least seven species of the large, cosmopolitan gall midge genus Asphondylia Loew (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), the taxonomy and biology ...


Comparisons Of Antifeedancy And Spatial Repellency Of Three Natural Product Repellents Against Horn Flies, Haematobia Irritans (Diptera:Muscidae), Junwei J. Zhu, Gary J. Brewer, David J. Boxler, Kristina A. Friesen, David B. Taylor 2015 USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit

Comparisons Of Antifeedancy And Spatial Repellency Of Three Natural Product Repellents Against Horn Flies, Haematobia Irritans (Diptera:Muscidae), Junwei J. Zhu, Gary J. Brewer, David J. Boxler, Kristina A. Friesen, David B. Taylor

David B. Taylor

BACKGROUND: Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown promising results in reducing fly biting. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and longevity of recently identified natural product repellents against horn flies. RESULTS: Catnip oil, geraniol and C8910 acids reduced horn fly feeding in a laboratory bioassay and also exhibited spatial repellency in the olfactometer. Residual activity was observed for up to 3 days in ...


Carbon Dioxide Sensitivity In Two Disjunct Populations Of The Pitcher-Plant Mosquito, Wyeomyia Smithii, Daniel L. Allen Jr. 2015 Georgia Southern University

Carbon Dioxide Sensitivity In Two Disjunct Populations Of The Pitcher-Plant Mosquito, Wyeomyia Smithii, Daniel L. Allen Jr.

University Honors Program Theses

The pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, utilizes carbon dioxide receptors primarily on their maxillary palps to seek potential hosts for blood meals. Two disjunct populations of W. smithii were analyzed to test for differences in carbon dioxide sensitivity that would correlate to varying levels of autogeny, ranging from the autogenous Northern populations (from North Carolina through Canada) to the anautonenous Southern populations (Florida – Louisiana), with the Georgia population exhibiting a shift from autogeny to anautogeny over the past two decades. I compared Georgia (Tattnall Co.) and Florida populations using blood feeding assays and olfactometry assays. Willingness to blood feed was assessed ...


Evaluating A Novel Endophytic Grass For Its Potential To Reduce Invertebrate Populations And Associated Bird Strike Risk At Airports, Diana M. Miller 2015 University of Kentucky

Evaluating A Novel Endophytic Grass For Its Potential To Reduce Invertebrate Populations And Associated Bird Strike Risk At Airports, Diana M. Miller

Theses and Dissertations--Entomology

Aircraft strikes are a significant safety hazard on airports worldwide. Wildlife management at airfields is the most effective tactic to reduce airstrike risk – to modify the habitat to be undesirable to animals. Tall fescue grasses containing a fungal symbiont may serve that purpose. They produce alkaloids that convey resistance to some grass-feeding invertebrates, which might in turn reduce incidence of insectivorous birds. A commercial endophytic grass (Avanex™) consisting of ‘Jackal’ tall fescue infected with a unique endophyte (AR 601) is purported to contain especially high levels of alkaloids and to reduce bird populations if planted at airports. I evaluated it ...


Factors Affecting The Spatial Distribution Of Oviposition Sites For Tandem Black Saddlebags Dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae), Jessica L. Thornton, Paul V. Switzer 2015 Eastern Illinois University

Factors Affecting The Spatial Distribution Of Oviposition Sites For Tandem Black Saddlebags Dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae), Jessica L. Thornton, Paul V. Switzer

Paul V. Switzer

Oviposition site location may be affected by (1) factors influencing the costs and benefits to the offspring (e.g., resource availability, competition, predation risk) and (2) factors influencing the costs and benefits to the female (e.g., predation risk or mate ha- rassment). In cases in which both the male and female are involved in locating a site, costs and benefits may differ for each parent and the resulting oviposition site location may represent the outcome of selection pressures on one or both of them. We studied oviposi- tion behavior in the black saddlebags dragonfly (Tramea lacerata Hagen), a species ...


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