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De Novo Transcriptome Of The Hemimetabolous German Cockroach (Blattella Germanica), Xiaojie Zhou, Kun Qian, Ying Tong, Junwei Jerry Zhu, Xinghui Qiu, Xiaopeng Zeng 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

De Novo Transcriptome Of The Hemimetabolous German Cockroach (Blattella Germanica), Xiaojie Zhou, Kun Qian, Ying Tong, Junwei Jerry Zhu, Xinghui Qiu, Xiaopeng Zeng

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is an important insect pest that transmits various pathogens mechanically and causes severe allergic diseases. This insect has long served as a model system for studies of insect biology, physiology and ecology. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinder our further understanding about the German cockroach in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. To explore the transcriptome and identify unique sequences of interest, we subjected the B. germanica transcriptome to massively parallel pyrosequencing and generated the first reference transcriptome for B. germanica.

Methodology/Principal Findings: A ...


Natural Egg Sac Clutch Size Of The Brown Widow Spider, Latrodectus Geometricus (Araneae: Theridiidae) In Southern California, Douglas W. R. Danielsen, Daniel E. Clarke, Stephan J. Valle, Amy A. Anselmo, Leonard S. Vincent, Richard S. Vetter 2014 Occidental College

Natural Egg Sac Clutch Size Of The Brown Widow Spider, Latrodectus Geometricus (Araneae: Theridiidae) In Southern California, Douglas W. R. Danielsen, Daniel E. Clarke, Stephan J. Valle, Amy A. Anselmo, Leonard S. Vincent, Richard S. Vetter

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Abstract. We investigated egg sac clutch size of the brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, in southern California from June through October 2012 by counting eggs from 214 field collected egg sacs. Clutch size was fairly constant over this five-month period averaging 129.0 ± 51.0 eggs per sac with the only significant monthly difference being more eggs in September than June. Determining the relatively constant egg production for this period contributed knowledge to another project involving application of pesticide to brown widow egg sacs in attempted control of this newly established invasive pest species.


Molecular Xenomonitoring Using Mosquitoes To Map Lymphatic Filariasis After Mass Drug Administration In American Samoa, Mark A. Schmaedick, Amanda L. Koppel, Nils Pilotte, Melissa Torres, Steven A. Williams, Stephen L. Dobson, Patrick J. Lammie, Kimberly Y. Won 2014 University of Kentucky

Molecular Xenomonitoring Using Mosquitoes To Map Lymphatic Filariasis After Mass Drug Administration In American Samoa, Mark A. Schmaedick, Amanda L. Koppel, Nils Pilotte, Melissa Torres, Steven A. Williams, Stephen L. Dobson, Patrick J. Lammie, Kimberly Y. Won

Entomology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have dramatically reduced lymphatic filariasis (LF) incidence in many areas around the globe, including American Samoa. As infection rates decline and MDA programs end, efficient and sensitive methods for detecting infections are needed to monitor for recrudescence. Molecular methods, collectively termed 'molecular xenomonitoring,' can identify parasite DNA or RNA in human blood-feeding mosquitoes. We tested mosquitoes trapped throughout the inhabited islands of American Samoa to identify areas of possible continuing LF transmission after completion of MDA.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were collected using BG Sentinel traps from most of the villages on American Samoa ...


Rna Interference As A Tool For The Functional Analysis Of Genes In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (Say), Ashley Danielle Yates 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Rna Interference As A Tool For The Functional Analysis Of Genes In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (Say), Ashley Danielle Yates

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring phenomenon in eukaryotes in which a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) suppresses the expression of a target gene. RNAi has markedly changed the way in which functional genetics studies are performed, especially in non-model organisms. In insects, the efficacy of RNAi is influenced by several factors, including the species and the methods of dsRNAs delivery.

The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a pest of the plant family Solanaceae. RNAi in the CPB is of interest for potential use in insect management and as a tool to study the interaction with host plants ...


An Evaluation Of Watermelon (Citrullus Spp.) Germplasm For Additional Sources Of Resistance To The Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae Koch)., Hector Cantu Jr. 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Evaluation Of Watermelon (Citrullus Spp.) Germplasm For Additional Sources Of Resistance To The Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae Koch)., Hector Cantu Jr.

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Fourteen U.S plant introduction (PI) accessions of C. lanatus var. lanatus (4), C. lanatus var. citroides (5) C. colocynthis (5) and a known susceptible commercial cultivar ‘Sugar Baby’ were evaluated for resistance to the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in a limited free-choice and free-choice bioassay under laboratory conditions. The limited free choice bioassay, involved nine Petri dish cages that held five randomly assigned leaves individually inoculated with two adult females and one adult male. Eggs, larva, and adults were counted over a nine day period. The free choice bioassay involved the even distribution of three mite infested ...


Host Specificity And Ectoparasite Load Of Bat Flies In Utila, Honduras, Courtney Miller 2014 University of New Orleans

Host Specificity And Ectoparasite Load Of Bat Flies In Utila, Honduras, Courtney Miller

Senior Honors Theses

Bat flies (Streblidae) are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites of bats that display varying degrees of host specificity. A total of 265 streblid bat flies were collected from 122 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae and Natalidae from Utila, the smallest bay island of Honduras. Out of four host-parasite associations, three were considered primary. Out of the three bat species analyzed, one had significantly lower parasite prevalence and another had significantly higher parasite load and intensity. Both male and female bats were equally likely to be infested and variables of parasite density did not differ amongst host sex for any species. However ...


Effects Of Plant Virus And Its Insect Vector On Encarsia Formosa, A Biocontrol Agent Of Whiteflies, Xiaoyuan Liu, Wensheng Xiang, Xiaoguo Jiao, Youjun Zhang, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Xuguo Zhou, Shaoli Wang 2014 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Plant Virus And Its Insect Vector On Encarsia Formosa, A Biocontrol Agent Of Whiteflies, Xiaoyuan Liu, Wensheng Xiang, Xiaoguo Jiao, Youjun Zhang, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Xuguo Zhou, Shaoli Wang

Entomology Faculty Publications

In this study, we investigated the tritrophic interactions among a persistently transmitted plant virus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), its insect vector, the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, and a parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, one of the most extensively used biological control agents. As an emerging invasive pest worldwide, the two most damaging whiteflies are B. tabaci B and Q cryptic species. On healthy tomato plants, parasitoid-induced mortality was significantly higher in B. tabaci B than in Q. In contrast, similar mortality levels of B and Q were observed on TYLCV-infected plants. A higher rate of parasitism was consistently observed ...


Patterns Of Flight Behavior And Capacity Of Unmated Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Adults Related To Age, Gender, And Wing Size, Thomas W. Sappington, Charles S. Burks 2014 Iowa State University

Patterns Of Flight Behavior And Capacity Of Unmated Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Adults Related To Age, Gender, And Wing Size, Thomas W. Sappington, Charles S. Burks

Entomology Publications and Papers

The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangeworm of ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d posteclosion was examined using flight mills. As a group, females flew farther and longer than males, but the differences were not statistically significant. Flight speed did not differ between sexes. Flight duration and distance did not differ with age, except that 7-d-old adults performed worse for these parameters than did 1- ...


Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth 2014 Iowa State University

Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth

Entomology Publications and Papers

The recent article by Li et al. (1) lacks adequate evidence to support the authors’ assertion that a plant virus propagates or replicates in honeybees. Instead, it is possible that tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) virions associate with the honeybee and parasitic Varroa mites in the absence of TRSV replication.


Investigations Into Sensory Ecology And Gene Evolution Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Swapna R. Purandare 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigations Into Sensory Ecology And Gene Evolution Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Swapna R. Purandare

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Organisms use environmental cues to gather information required to perform activities that are essential for their survival and reproduction, such as searching for food, avoiding danger, and finding mates. They respond to the acquired information by changing their behavior or physiology, which may result in increased fitness. Due to the fundamental importance of information in an organism’s life, it is important to understand its acquisition, processing, and the organism’s response to it. In the work presented here, we used the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), an insect that produces multiple phenotypes, or morphs, that are genetically identical, but differ ...


Bemisia Tabaci Q Carrying Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Strongly Suppresses Host Plant Defenses, Xiaobin Shi, Huipeng Pan, Hongyi Zhang, Xiaoguo Jiao, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Yong Fang, Gong Chen, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang 2014 University of Kentucky

Bemisia Tabaci Q Carrying Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Strongly Suppresses Host Plant Defenses, Xiaobin Shi, Huipeng Pan, Hongyi Zhang, Xiaoguo Jiao, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Yong Fang, Gong Chen, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang

Entomology Faculty Publications

The concurrence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) with the spread of its vector Bemisia tabaci Q rather than B in China suggests a more mutualistic relationship between TYLCV and Q. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that viruliferous B and Q have different effects on plant defenses. We found the fecundity of nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous Q and viruliferous B was 11.080, 12.060, 10.760, and 11.220 respectively on plants previously attacked by the other biotype, however, on their respective noninfested control leaves fecundity was 12.000, 10.880, 9.760, and 8.020 respectively ...


Morphometric Studies On Subadult Liza Subviridis And Sillago Sihama From Sonmiani Bay (Miani Hor), Balochistan, Pakistan, Muhammad A. Gondal, Naureen A. Qureshi, Noor U. Saher 2014 Wright State University

Morphometric Studies On Subadult Liza Subviridis And Sillago Sihama From Sonmiani Bay (Miani Hor), Balochistan, Pakistan, Muhammad A. Gondal, Naureen A. Qureshi, Noor U. Saher

Journal of Bioresource Management

Length-weight relationship of Liza subviridis and Sillago sihama (Family: Mugilidae; Class: Pisces and Family: Sillaginidae; Class: Pisces) in subadults sampled from Somiani Bay Balochistan, Pakistan during 2002, 2003 and 2006 was analyzed. Liza subviridis showed positive allometry (3.23) in 2002, and negative allometry during 2003 (2.95) and 2006 (1.95). Sub adults of Sillago sihama showed positive allometry during 2002 (3.10) and 2003 (3.13). An isometric condition (3.02) was observed in the samples of Sillago sihama collected from Bhaira in 2006.


On Individual, Sex And Age Differentiation Of Indian House Crow (Corvus Splendens) Call: A Preliminary Study In Potohar, Pakistan, Waqas Hameed, Inayat Ullah, Safia Janjua, Fakhar -I- Abbas, Afsar Mian 2014 Wright State University

On Individual, Sex And Age Differentiation Of Indian House Crow (Corvus Splendens) Call: A Preliminary Study In Potohar, Pakistan, Waqas Hameed, Inayat Ullah, Safia Janjua, Fakhar -I- Abbas, Afsar Mian

Journal of Bioresource Management

Considering importance of acoustics studies in population biology, 500 calls of the Indian House Crow (Corvus splendens) were recorded in morning - mid-afternoon hours (January-February, 2009) from 23 sites of urban areas of Potahar (Punjab, Pakistan). Calls were recorded using Sony CFS 1030 S sound records (sampling rate = 48 KHz) and edited using Sound Analysis Pro (Version 1.02). software using FFT method rate 50%, data window 9.27 ms, advanced window 1.36 ms. Through editing of calls, we selected 60 (37 ♂♂, 17 ♀♀, 6 Juvenile ♂♂) good quality spectrograms for detailed analysis. Spectrograms were characterized by rapid frequency modulations using 6 ...


Review: Pollination, Pollinated And Pollinators Interaction In Pakistan, Mohammad Irshad, Elizabeth Stephen 2014 Wright State University

Review: Pollination, Pollinated And Pollinators Interaction In Pakistan, Mohammad Irshad, Elizabeth Stephen

Journal of Bioresource Management

The agriculture sector is important in the overall economy and export earnings of Pakistan. Pollination is an essential ecosystem service that depends on symbiosis between species, the pollinated and the pollinator. Animal mediated pollination contributes to the sexual production of over 90% species of modern angiosperms. Effective pollination results in increased crop production, quality improvement and more seed production. Many fruits, vegetables, edible oil crops, stimulant crops and nuts are highly dependent on bee pollination. Worldwide value of pollinators is €153 billion (217 billion US dollars). The production value of pollinated dependent crop in Pakistan is quantified to be 1 ...


Research Note: Contribution To Mushroom Flora Of Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan, Kishwar Sultana, Naveeda Riaz, Gulshan Irshad, Ali Nauman Khan 2014 Wright State University

Research Note: Contribution To Mushroom Flora Of Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan, Kishwar Sultana, Naveeda Riaz, Gulshan Irshad, Ali Nauman Khan

Journal of Bioresource Management

Seven hymenomycetous fungi (mushrooms) were collected from the twin cities area during July 2008. These were identified as the members of the order Agaricales, class Basidiomycetes. They belong to five genera: *Clitocybe fragrans, *Collybia cookie, *Coprinus radians, *Coprinus sterculinus, *Volvariella bingensis, Volvariella parvula, and Termitomyces microcarpus. Five of them, marked with asterisk were reported for the first time from Pakistan.


Diagnostic Accuracy Of C-Reactive Protein In Neonatal Sepsis, Sidra Younis, Muhammad Ali Sheikh, Amjad Ali Raza 2014 Wright State University

Diagnostic Accuracy Of C-Reactive Protein In Neonatal Sepsis, Sidra Younis, Muhammad Ali Sheikh, Amjad Ali Raza

Journal of Bioresource Management

Sepsis is the most common cause of neonatal mortality and is responsible for 30-50% of total neonatal deaths each year in developing countries. The objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) in neonatal sepsis. Fifty nine consecutive patients with risk factors and clinical features suggestive of CRP sepsis were selected as per operational definition and fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed physical examination was carried out. Blood sample for culture and CRP was taken from all the patients. Results of blood culture and CRP were noted down in the performa. Statistical analysis ...


Mechanisms Of Differential Toxicity Between Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Castes With An Emphasis On Coumaphos, Lizette Dahlgren 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Mechanisms Of Differential Toxicity Between Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Castes With An Emphasis On Coumaphos, Lizette Dahlgren

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Acaricides are used to treat honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies to control the parasitic Varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. As such, these compounds act as drugs to mitigate bee losses but may also stress the bees. This dissertation quantifies differences between queen and worker tolerance of five acaricides and clarifies the honey bee mechanism of tolerance for coumaphos. Selected acaricides were topically applied to adult queen and worker bees to generate dose-response curves and LD50s. Twenty-four hours after treatment, queens were 3-times more tolerant of tau-fluvalinate and 6-times more ...


Diversity And Ecology Of Host-Seeking Mosquitoes In Irrigated Agro-Ecosystems Of Clay County, Nebraska, Alister K. Bryson 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Diversity And Ecology Of Host-Seeking Mosquitoes In Irrigated Agro-Ecosystems Of Clay County, Nebraska, Alister K. Bryson

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

In the United States, Nebraska has the third highest incidence of human West Nile virus (WNV). Since WNV was first detected in the state in 2002, 3,422 confirmed cases and 57 deaths have been reported. Irrigated agro-ecosystems, which have been associated with elevated WNV incidences in other states, are prevalent in Nebraska. The objectives of this investigation were to 1) characterize mosquito abundance and diversity in irrigated agro-ecosystems, and 2) evaluate associations of two primary vectors of WNV, Culex tarsalis and Culex pipiens, with irrigation methods (sprinkler vs. surface) and crop type (corn vs. soybean). Investigations were conducted ...


Development Modeling Of Lucilia Sericata And Phormia Regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Amanda L. Roe 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Development Modeling Of Lucilia Sericata And Phormia Regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Amanda L. Roe

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The relationship between insect development and temperature has been well established and has a wide range of uses, including using blow flies for postmortem (PMI) interval estimations in death investigations. To use insects in estimating PMI, we must be able to determine the insect age at the time of discovery and backtrack to time of oviposition. Unfortunately, existing development models of forensically important insects are only linear approximations and do not take into account the curvilinear properties experienced at extreme temperatures. A series of experiments were conducted with two species of forensically important blow flies (Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina ...


Increasing Nursery Crop Canopy Density: Implications For Sustainable Insect Pest Management, Whitney Michelle Yeary 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Increasing Nursery Crop Canopy Density: Implications For Sustainable Insect Pest Management, Whitney Michelle Yeary

Masters Theses

Consumers are attracted to woody ornamental plants that have symmetrical, dense canopies. In order to get the desired canopy density and symmetry, growers often manipulate growth by pruning or applying chemical plant growth regulators. Another method of acquiring a dense plant canopy is for growers to purchase in vitro-propagated liners instead of traditional cutting-propagated liners. This work analyzed the validity of all three methods on several woody ornamental species. Liners from Cutting-propagated (CP) and in vitro-propagated (IVP) sources were purchased and treatments of pruning and PGRs were applied. Pruning only increased the canopy density of rhododendron (Rhododendron L. ‘Roseum Elegans ...


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