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Rna Interference As A Tool For The Functional Analysis Of Genes In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (Say), Ashley Danielle Yates 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Rna Interference As A Tool For The Functional Analysis Of Genes In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa Decemlineata (Say), Ashley Danielle Yates

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring phenomenon in eukaryotes in which a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) suppresses the expression of a target gene. RNAi has markedly changed the way in which functional genetics studies are performed, especially in non-model organisms. In insects, the efficacy of RNAi is influenced by several factors, including the species and the methods of dsRNAs delivery.

The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a pest of the plant family Solanaceae. RNAi in the CPB is of interest for potential use in insect management and as a tool to study the interaction with host plants ...


An Evaluation Of Watermelon (Citrullus Spp.) Germplasm For Additional Sources Of Resistance To The Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae Koch)., Hector Cantu Jr. 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Evaluation Of Watermelon (Citrullus Spp.) Germplasm For Additional Sources Of Resistance To The Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae Koch)., Hector Cantu Jr.

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Fourteen U.S plant introduction (PI) accessions of C. lanatus var. lanatus (4), C. lanatus var. citroides (5) C. colocynthis (5) and a known susceptible commercial cultivar ‘Sugar Baby’ were evaluated for resistance to the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in a limited free-choice and free-choice bioassay under laboratory conditions. The limited free choice bioassay, involved nine Petri dish cages that held five randomly assigned leaves individually inoculated with two adult females and one adult male. Eggs, larva, and adults were counted over a nine day period. The free choice bioassay involved the even distribution of three mite infested ...


Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth 2014 Iowa State University

Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth

Entomology Publications and Papers

The recent article by Li et al. (1) lacks adequate evidence to support the authors’ assertion that a plant virus propagates or replicates in honeybees. Instead, it is possible that tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) virions associate with the honeybee and parasitic Varroa mites in the absence of TRSV replication.


Investigations Into Sensory Ecology And Gene Evolution Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Swapna R. Purandare 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigations Into Sensory Ecology And Gene Evolution Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Swapna R. Purandare

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Organisms use environmental cues to gather information required to perform activities that are essential for their survival and reproduction, such as searching for food, avoiding danger, and finding mates. They respond to the acquired information by changing their behavior or physiology, which may result in increased fitness. Due to the fundamental importance of information in an organism’s life, it is important to understand its acquisition, processing, and the organism’s response to it. In the work presented here, we used the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), an insect that produces multiple phenotypes, or morphs, that are genetically identical, but differ ...


Morphometric Studies On Subadult Liza Subviridis And Sillago Sihama From Sonmiani Bay (Miani Hor), Balochistan, Pakistan, Muhammad A. Gondal, Naureen A. Qureshi, Noor U. Saher 2014 Wright State University

Morphometric Studies On Subadult Liza Subviridis And Sillago Sihama From Sonmiani Bay (Miani Hor), Balochistan, Pakistan, Muhammad A. Gondal, Naureen A. Qureshi, Noor U. Saher

Journal of Bioresource Management

Length-weight relationship of Liza subviridis and Sillago sihama (Family: Mugilidae; Class: Pisces and Family: Sillaginidae; Class: Pisces) in subadults sampled from Somiani Bay Balochistan, Pakistan during 2002, 2003 and 2006 was analyzed. Liza subviridis showed positive allometry (3.23) in 2002, and negative allometry during 2003 (2.95) and 2006 (1.95). Sub adults of Sillago sihama showed positive allometry during 2002 (3.10) and 2003 (3.13). An isometric condition (3.02) was observed in the samples of Sillago sihama collected from Bhaira in 2006.


On Individual, Sex And Age Differentiation Of Indian House Crow (Corvus Splendens) Call: A Preliminary Study In Potohar, Pakistan, Waqas Hameed, Inayat Ullah, Safia Janjua, Fakhar -I- Abbas, Afsar Mian 2014 Wright State University

On Individual, Sex And Age Differentiation Of Indian House Crow (Corvus Splendens) Call: A Preliminary Study In Potohar, Pakistan, Waqas Hameed, Inayat Ullah, Safia Janjua, Fakhar -I- Abbas, Afsar Mian

Journal of Bioresource Management

Considering importance of acoustics studies in population biology, 500 calls of the Indian House Crow (Corvus splendens) were recorded in morning - mid-afternoon hours (January-February, 2009) from 23 sites of urban areas of Potahar (Punjab, Pakistan). Calls were recorded using Sony CFS 1030 S sound records (sampling rate = 48 KHz) and edited using Sound Analysis Pro (Version 1.02). software using FFT method rate 50%, data window 9.27 ms, advanced window 1.36 ms. Through editing of calls, we selected 60 (37 ♂♂, 17 ♀♀, 6 Juvenile ♂♂) good quality spectrograms for detailed analysis. Spectrograms were characterized by rapid frequency modulations using 6 ...


Review: Pollination, Pollinated And Pollinators Interaction In Pakistan, Mohammad Irshad, Elizabeth Stephen 2014 Wright State University

Review: Pollination, Pollinated And Pollinators Interaction In Pakistan, Mohammad Irshad, Elizabeth Stephen

Journal of Bioresource Management

The agriculture sector is important in the overall economy and export earnings of Pakistan. Pollination is an essential ecosystem service that depends on symbiosis between species, the pollinated and the pollinator. Animal mediated pollination contributes to the sexual production of over 90% species of modern angiosperms. Effective pollination results in increased crop production, quality improvement and more seed production. Many fruits, vegetables, edible oil crops, stimulant crops and nuts are highly dependent on bee pollination. Worldwide value of pollinators is €153 billion (217 billion US dollars). The production value of pollinated dependent crop in Pakistan is quantified to be 1 ...


Research Note: Contribution To Mushroom Flora Of Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan, Kishwar Sultana, Naveeda Riaz, Gulshan Irshad, Ali Nauman Khan 2014 Wright State University

Research Note: Contribution To Mushroom Flora Of Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan, Kishwar Sultana, Naveeda Riaz, Gulshan Irshad, Ali Nauman Khan

Journal of Bioresource Management

Seven hymenomycetous fungi (mushrooms) were collected from the twin cities area during July 2008. These were identified as the members of the order Agaricales, class Basidiomycetes. They belong to five genera: *Clitocybe fragrans, *Collybia cookie, *Coprinus radians, *Coprinus sterculinus, *Volvariella bingensis, Volvariella parvula, and Termitomyces microcarpus. Five of them, marked with asterisk were reported for the first time from Pakistan.


Diagnostic Accuracy Of C-Reactive Protein In Neonatal Sepsis, Sidra Younis, Muhammad Ali Sheikh, Amjad Ali Raza 2014 Wright State University

Diagnostic Accuracy Of C-Reactive Protein In Neonatal Sepsis, Sidra Younis, Muhammad Ali Sheikh, Amjad Ali Raza

Journal of Bioresource Management

Sepsis is the most common cause of neonatal mortality and is responsible for 30-50% of total neonatal deaths each year in developing countries. The objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) in neonatal sepsis. Fifty nine consecutive patients with risk factors and clinical features suggestive of CRP sepsis were selected as per operational definition and fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed physical examination was carried out. Blood sample for culture and CRP was taken from all the patients. Results of blood culture and CRP were noted down in the performa. Statistical analysis ...


Mechanisms Of Differential Toxicity Between Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Castes With An Emphasis On Coumaphos, Lizette Dahlgren 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Mechanisms Of Differential Toxicity Between Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Castes With An Emphasis On Coumaphos, Lizette Dahlgren

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Acaricides are used to treat honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies to control the parasitic Varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman), a worldwide threat to honey bee health. As such, these compounds act as drugs to mitigate bee losses but may also stress the bees. This dissertation quantifies differences between queen and worker tolerance of five acaricides and clarifies the honey bee mechanism of tolerance for coumaphos. Selected acaricides were topically applied to adult queen and worker bees to generate dose-response curves and LD50s. Twenty-four hours after treatment, queens were 3-times more tolerant of tau-fluvalinate and 6-times more ...


Diversity And Ecology Of Host-Seeking Mosquitoes In Irrigated Agro-Ecosystems Of Clay County, Nebraska, Alister K. Bryson 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Diversity And Ecology Of Host-Seeking Mosquitoes In Irrigated Agro-Ecosystems Of Clay County, Nebraska, Alister K. Bryson

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

In the United States, Nebraska has the third highest incidence of human West Nile virus (WNV). Since WNV was first detected in the state in 2002, 3,422 confirmed cases and 57 deaths have been reported. Irrigated agro-ecosystems, which have been associated with elevated WNV incidences in other states, are prevalent in Nebraska. The objectives of this investigation were to 1) characterize mosquito abundance and diversity in irrigated agro-ecosystems, and 2) evaluate associations of two primary vectors of WNV, Culex tarsalis and Culex pipiens, with irrigation methods (sprinkler vs. surface) and crop type (corn vs. soybean). Investigations were conducted ...


Development Modeling Of Lucilia Sericata And Phormia Regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Amanda L. Roe 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Development Modeling Of Lucilia Sericata And Phormia Regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Amanda L. Roe

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The relationship between insect development and temperature has been well established and has a wide range of uses, including using blow flies for postmortem (PMI) interval estimations in death investigations. To use insects in estimating PMI, we must be able to determine the insect age at the time of discovery and backtrack to time of oviposition. Unfortunately, existing development models of forensically important insects are only linear approximations and do not take into account the curvilinear properties experienced at extreme temperatures. A series of experiments were conducted with two species of forensically important blow flies (Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina ...


Evaluating Pollination Ecology Of The Endangered Pityopsis Ruthii (Small) Small (Asteraceae), Philip Anthony Moore 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluating Pollination Ecology Of The Endangered Pityopsis Ruthii (Small) Small (Asteraceae), Philip Anthony Moore

Masters Theses

Pityopsis ruthii (Small) Small, also known as Ruth’s golden aster, is a federally endangered herbaceous perennial, endemic to two river systems, the Hiwassee and the Ocoee, within the Cherokee National Forest, Polk County, Tennessee. There are approximately 13,000 individuals that may be at high risk of short-term extirpation (Thompson and Schwartz, 2006). Little is known of the basic reproduction and life history of P. ruthii. Clebesh and Sloan (1993), Cruzan (2001), Park (1998), and Wadl et al. (2014) found evidence that seed production and seed viability are highly variable. Clebesh and Sloan (1993) indicated that pollinator visitation was ...


Increasing Nursery Crop Canopy Density: Implications For Sustainable Insect Pest Management, Whitney Michelle Yeary 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Increasing Nursery Crop Canopy Density: Implications For Sustainable Insect Pest Management, Whitney Michelle Yeary

Masters Theses

Consumers are attracted to woody ornamental plants that have symmetrical, dense canopies. In order to get the desired canopy density and symmetry, growers often manipulate growth by pruning or applying chemical plant growth regulators. Another method of acquiring a dense plant canopy is for growers to purchase in vitro-propagated liners instead of traditional cutting-propagated liners. This work analyzed the validity of all three methods on several woody ornamental species. Liners from Cutting-propagated (CP) and in vitro-propagated (IVP) sources were purchased and treatments of pruning and PGRs were applied. Pruning only increased the canopy density of rhododendron (Rhododendron L. ‘Roseum Elegans ...


A Male Spider’S Ornamentation Polymorphism Maintained By Opposing Selection With Two Niches, Bo Deng, Alex Estes, Brett Grieb, Douglas Richard, Brittney Hinds, Eileen Hebets 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Male Spider’S Ornamentation Polymorphism Maintained By Opposing Selection With Two Niches, Bo Deng, Alex Estes, Brett Grieb, Douglas Richard, Brittney Hinds, Eileen Hebets

Eileen Hebets Publications

The Levene mechanism to maintain genotypic polymorphism by opposing selection on genotypes in multiple niches was proposed 60 years ago, and yet no systems were found to satisfy the mechanisms rather restrictive conditions. Reported here is such an example that a wolf spider population lives in a habitat of mixed rocks and leafy litter for which the females are phenotypically indistinguishable and the males have two distinct phenotypes subject to opposing selection with respect to the substrates. Census data is best-fitted to a population genetics model of the Levene type. A majority of the best fit support polymorphism, with many ...


Understanding How Honey Bee Flight And Senescence Are Connected Through Oxidative Stress., Joseph Margotta 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Understanding How Honey Bee Flight And Senescence Are Connected Through Oxidative Stress., Joseph Margotta

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

The goal of this dissertation was to exploit the tractability of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) to understand how the physiological and cellular mechanisms that determine the onset and duration of senescence are shaped by behavioral development and behavioral intensity. These data reveal how behavior can damage cells and consequently limit lifespan. The honey bee represents the ideal model to address these factors because age, behavior, functional senescence, and lifespan are easily manipulated independently of each other while in its natural environment. I determined if there was a cause-effect relationship between honey bee flight and oxidative stress by comparing damage ...


Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) And The Long-Tongued Fly Pollination Guild: Coevolution And Polymorphism In A Specialized Pollination System, Emily M. Blank 2014 University of Connecticut

Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) And The Long-Tongued Fly Pollination Guild: Coevolution And Polymorphism In A Specialized Pollination System, Emily M. Blank

Honors Scholar Theses

In South Africa, a group of long-tongued flies and the flowering plants they pollinate form a unique and diverse pollination guild system almost entirely endemic to the Greater Cape Floristic Region. This system makes up only a small portion of the biodiversity of the Region, but it is likely a key to understanding the evolutionary processes that have lead to the observed biodiversity. Aside from its unusual pollinators, this guild system is of particular interest due to the extremely labile morphology of both the fly species and the associated flowering plant species, which geographically vary significantly in proboscis lengths and ...


Testing For Positive Edge Responses In A Fragmented Landscape In The Eastern Tiger (Papilio Glaucus) And The Spicebush (P. Troilus) Swallowtail Butterflies, Jenna C. Siu 2014 Western University

Testing For Positive Edge Responses In A Fragmented Landscape In The Eastern Tiger (Papilio Glaucus) And The Spicebush (P. Troilus) Swallowtail Butterflies, Jenna C. Siu

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Landscape changes such as habitat fragmentation and habitat loss are contributing to a global decline in biodiversity. While habitat fragmentation research has mainly focused on species that avoid edges, or the boundaries between different landcover types (negative edge response), a hypothesized resource distribution model predicts that species that require complementary resources in different landcovers will be most abundant at edges (positive edge response). Adults of Eastern Tiger (Papilio glaucus) and Spicebush (P. troilus) swallowtail butterflies require forests for oviposition sites and meadows for nectar resources. I examined the relative abundance and flight orientation of both species in relation to the ...


Overview Of The Integrated Pest Management (Ipm) Terrain And Activities In Furtherance Of The Walmart Initiative To Purchase Fresh Vegetables From Local Growers In Alabama, Franklin Quarcoo, Conrad Bonsi 2014 Tuskegee University

Overview Of The Integrated Pest Management (Ipm) Terrain And Activities In Furtherance Of The Walmart Initiative To Purchase Fresh Vegetables From Local Growers In Alabama, Franklin Quarcoo, Conrad Bonsi

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Tuskegee University has been providing various types of technical expertise to limited resource farmers who have been supplying Walmart with collard greens, watermelons and purple hull peas. A number of pests bedevil the cultivation of these crops; cost-effective management methods for these pests are needed. The objectives of this paper are to document the IPM activities associated with supplying produce to Walmart; summarize pest problems encountered on the afore-stated crops; recommend IPM methods suitable for limited resource farmers; and suggest other activities that ensure that farmers incur even less pest-related crop losses. Anthracnose was the major pest encountered on watermelons ...


A Review Of New World Laemophloeus Dejean (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae): 2. Neotropical Species With Antennal Club Of Three Antennomeres, Michael C. Thomas 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Review Of New World Laemophloeus Dejean (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae): 2. Neotropical Species With Antennal Club Of Three Antennomeres, Michael C. Thomas

Insecta Mundi

Eleven Neotropical species of Laemophloeus Dejean with antennal clubs composed of three antennomeres are reviewed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Six of the species are described as new: L. capitesculptus Thomas, n. sp., L. corporeflavus Thomas, n. sp., L. dozieri Thomas, n. sp., L. insulatestudinorum Thomas, n. sp., L. planaclavatus Thomas, n. sp., and L. taurus Thomas, n. sp. Four new synonymies are proposed: L. catharinensis Kessel (=L. incisus Sharp), new synonym; L. similans Kessel (=L. incisus Sharp), new synonym; L. distinguendus Sharp (=L. megacephalus Grouvelle), new synonym, and L. chevrolati Grouvelle (=L. lecontei Grouvelle), new synonym. A key to the species ...


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