Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Evaluating Sub-Lethal Effects Of Orchard-Applied Pyrethroids Using Video-Tracking Software To Quantify Honey Bee Behaviors, Erin M. Ingram, Julie Augustin, Marion D. Ellis, Blair Siegfried
Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology
Managed honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies are contracted to pollinate fruit and nut orchards improving crop quality and yield. Colonies placed in orchards are potentially exposed to pyrethroid insecticides used for broad-spectrum pest control. Pyrethroids have been reported to pose minimal risk to bees due to their low application rates in the field and putative repellent properties. This repellency is believed to alter foraging behavior with the benefit of preventing bees from encountering a lethal dose in the field. However, sub-lethal exposure to pyrethroids may adversely impact bee behavior potentially resulting in social dysfunction or disruption of foraging.
Mating For Male-Derived Prostaglandin: A Functional Explanation For The Increased Fecundity Of Mated Female Crickets?, Amy M. Worthington, Russell A. Jurenka, Clint D. Kelly
Russell A. Jurenka
Direct benefits are considered to be the driving force of high female mating rates, yet species in which females do not receive material resources from males still experience increased fitness from mating frequently. One hypothesis suggests that substances within the ejaculate may boost survival or offspring production. If these materials are limiting to females, they will require continual renewal via mating and could provide a functional understanding of how high mating rates lead to increased female fitness. Using the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis, we investigated the sexual transfer of prostaglandin E2, an important mediator of invertebrate reproduction. We determined ...
New Proposed Pesticide Applicator Certification And Training Rule From Epa - Public Comment Period Now Open, 2015 Iowa State University
New Proposed Pesticide Applicator Certification And Training Rule From Epa - Public Comment Period Now Open, Kristine J. P. Schaefer, Elizabeth J. Buffington
Integrated Crop Management News
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has released a proposal for a new certification and training rule for pesticide applicators who apply restricted use pesticides. The current rule has been in place since 1974. According to EPA: “The goal of this proposed rule is to reduce the likelihood of harm from the misapplication of toxic pesticides and ensure a consistent level of protection among states. EPA has determined that use of restricted use pesticides would be safer with increased supervision and oversight.
Corn Rootworm Management Update, 2015 Iowa State University
Corn Rootworm Management Update, Erin W. Hodgson
Integrated Crop Management News
For a second year in a row, corn rootworm abundance is lower than expected in Iowa. This is due, in part, to exceptionally wet spring conditions in 2014. However, scouts and farmers have noticed rebounding populations of adult corn rootworm in the landscape now, especially noting root injury to first-year corn by northern corn rootworm. It is not too early to make management decisions for next year, with the following considerations.
Seasonality Of Forensically Relevant Diptera In Northwestern Indiana, 2015 Purdue University
Seasonality Of Forensically Relevant Diptera In Northwestern Indiana, Sarah M. Stanley, Trevor Stamper
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) estimations are critical to solving cases of equivocal death and the accuracy of these predictions can depend on the understanding of necrophagous fly successional patterns. In order to better understand the successional patterns of necrophagous flies, it is important to know the seasonality of forensically relevant fly species—that is, the baseline pattern of their presence and absence in relation to annually cyclic environmental factors. Since many environmental factors play a role in insect seasonality, it is possible that some of these factors can be summed to create an index that represents seasonality in a simpler ...
Elucidating The Molecular Function Of Reprolysin Metalloproteases In Tick-Host-Pathogen Interaction, 2015 University of Southern Mississippi
Elucidating The Molecular Function Of Reprolysin Metalloproteases In Tick-Host-Pathogen Interaction, Jaclyn Bo Williams
Ticks are ectoparasites that attach to their host for many days to weeks, feeding to engorgement and continuing their species life cycle. The mechanisms behind the successful feeding and manipulation of host immune responses have been associated with the secretion of their specialized saliva. Tick saliva includes a variety of modulatory molecules that must disrupt and counteract defense mechanisms, including a variety of proteases. Reprolysin Metalloproteases, in the Zn2+ dependent family, is secreted as a proenzyme and is shown to have proteolytic activity, degrading fibrinogen and gelatinase activity, as well as disturbing homeostasis12. Previous work with the ...
Biochemical, Physiological, And Anatomical Insights Into Aphid-Bioenergy Switchgrass Interactions, 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Biochemical, Physiological, And Anatomical Insights Into Aphid-Bioenergy Switchgrass Interactions, Travis J. Prochaska
Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology
Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., a perennial, warm-season grass native to North America, is a candidate for development as a bioenergy crop. Previously, warm-season grasses were considered to be relatively pest free in their native habitats. However, recent studies using the hemipteran family Aphididae have shown phloem-feeding insects can lead to significant injury in switchgrass. The objectives of this research were to: 1) gain physiological, biochemical, and anatomical insights into insect-bioenergy switchgrass interactions to determine potential insect resistance mechanisms among susceptible and resistant switchgrass genotypes; and 2) to generate and evaluate diverse segregating populations of switchgrass, both resistant and susceptible, to ...
A Comprehensive Evaluation Of Benthic Invertebrate Communities In The Emory River, Watts Bar Reservoir, Tn, 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
A Comprehensive Evaluation Of Benthic Invertebrate Communities In The Emory River, Watts Bar Reservoir, Tn, Suzanne Jane Young
The release of fly ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant (KIF) on 22 December 2008 discharged approximately 4.1 million cubic meters of coal ash into the adjacent aquatic and terrestrial systems. Previous benthic invertebrate investigations conducted by TVA and collaborative researchers concluded that benthic invertebrates in the Emory River were at moderate risk from ash-related constituents, primarily arsenic, in ash-contaminated sediment that remained in the Emory River following extensive dredging efforts. These conclusions were based on the observation of statistically significant reductions in growth and biomass in laboratory toxicity tests with Emory River sediment. Benthic ...
Evolution And Phylogeny Of The Parasitoid Subfamily Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae), 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Evolution And Phylogeny Of The Parasitoid Subfamily Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae), Jeremy Daniel Blaschke
The first molecular phylogenetic analysis of the agriculturally important parasitoid subfamily Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae) is presented, estimated from 128 worldwide taxa (80 genera) and approximately 7.6 kilobases of nuclear data. Special emphasis is placed on taxa with controversial taxonomic placement. The resultant phylogenetic tree is used to reconstruct ancestral character states, trace the evolution of significant adaptive traits within the Tachinidae, and test hypotheses about the classification of Phasiinae. Subfamily placements of the taxa Eutherini, Epigrimyiini, Litophasia, Strongygastrini, and Parerigonini are confidently resolved, the former three within Dexiinae and the latter two within Phasiinae. Due to sparse molecular evidence ...
The Greenhouse Effect: Decomposition Rates In Human Remains Wrapped In Plastic, 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
The Greenhouse Effect: Decomposition Rates In Human Remains Wrapped In Plastic, Barbara R. Forman
Determining an accurate estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) of human remains is important for several reasons. First, it is used to determine whether the individual is recently deceased, and therefore of medicolegal concern. If so, the estimated PMI is used in narrowing the possible identities of the deceased. PMI can also be used in excluding, or convicting, a murder suspect.
Though deviations may occur, it has been found that PMI can be calculated from the decomposition stages with reasonable accuracy (Galloway 1989, Megyesi 2001, Megyesi et al. 2005, Schiel 2008, Simmons et al. 2010). Some factors, such as low ...
Session C, 2015 First Place: Polyphemus Pediculus Survivorship In Insect Repellent Treated Water, 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Session C, 2015 First Place: Polyphemus Pediculus Survivorship In Insect Repellent Treated Water, Camila Ferguson, Chloe Blaisdell, Sarah Lundy, Michaela Tersmette
Cranberry Lake Biological Station
At Cranberry Lake, one of the most commonly used topical products is insect repellant. Insect repellents are manufactured with varying percentages of DEET, or no DEET at all. DEET is a synthetic chemical consisting of organic compounds originally intended for jungle warfare. Trace amounts of DEET are found in local waterways throughout the summer, when swimming is a popular activity. This study focuses on Polyphemus pediculus, a zooplankton at the bottom of the aquatic food chain. Polyphemus pediculus is abundant in Cranberry Lake and is an indicator for health and functionality of the lake ecosystem. Three insect repellents containing varying ...
Session C, 2015 Third Place: Tardigrada Prevalence In Moss Cushion Growth Forms Among Habitats At Cranberry Lake, 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Session C, 2015 Third Place: Tardigrada Prevalence In Moss Cushion Growth Forms Among Habitats At Cranberry Lake, Jessica Brown, Ingrid Forward, Hannah Smith
Cranberry Lake Biological Station
Tardigrades (phylum Tardigrada) are most durable animals due to their ability to enter a state of cryptobiosis during extreme conditions. Tardigrades are often found living in mosses due to the mosses’ ability to retain moisture, but can be found in moss in dry habitats due to their ability to survive desiccation. This study assessed the abundance of Tardigrades in moss cushion life forms of marsh, brook, lake shore, and forest habitats. Relative abundance of Tardigrades among sites was quantified, soil pH was measured at each site, and percent moisture at each site was collected. ANOVA and Tukey’s Test were ...
Session C, 2015 Second Place: Habituation Of Creek Chub To A Chemical Alarm Stimulus, 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Session C, 2015 Second Place: Habituation Of Creek Chub To A Chemical Alarm Stimulus, Benjamin Kosalek, Zachary Davis
Cranberry Lake Biological Station
When minnows are attacked, their epithelial cells release a chemical alarm that will alert other minnows to the presence of a predator. Our study was to see if Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) would habituate to the signal if repeatedly exposed in the absence of a predator and thus ignore it. We tested 20 Creek Chub, half getting the treatment of chemical alarm and the other half a control of water. Each fish was individually exposed to their treatment five times. It was found that there was no change in reaction of the experimental group and Creek Chub had a relatively ...
Who Do You Think You Are? Vonnie, 2015 Iowa State University
Who Do You Think You Are? Vonnie, Andreas Haffar, Amber Klootwyk, Julie Doyle
The beginning of then six-year-old Ja’Von “Vonnie” Latimore's immense fascination with the insect world all started with the accidental squashing of her sister’s ladybug. She couldn’t resist the temptation to take a stick from the yard, poke the bug apart and examine its parts
A Mix Of Soybean Defoliators This Summer, 2015 Iowa State University
A Mix Of Soybean Defoliators This Summer, Erin W. Hodgson
Integrated Crop Management News
Some minor defoliators have been noted in soybean this growing season, including caterpillars, beetles, and grasshoppers. Specifically, soybean defoliators observed include green cloverworm, soybean looper, alfalfa caterpillar, imported longhorn weevil, Japanese beetle, and Iowa colaspis beetle. It is important to remember that soybean can tolerate as much as 40% defoliation during vegetative growth stages, and 20% during pod-forming and pod-fillings stages before yield loss occurs. If defoliation is observed during scouting, it is important to identify the insect or combination of insects.
Mexican Red Kneed Tarantula (Brachypelma Smithi) Care Manual, 2015 Disney’s Animal Kingdom
Mexican Red Kneed Tarantula (Brachypelma Smithi) Care Manual, Jamie Sincage, Trace Hardin
Distance Master of Science in Entomology Projects
Caring for any animal is more of an art than a science. What works for one keeper may not necessarily work for another. This may be based on unnoticed nuances, local climate or weather patterns, the personalities of the individual animals, or other minute details. This is a basic husbandry and breeding guide to the Mexican red knee tarantula (Brachypelma smithi). Any more specifics will have to be discovered personally or discussed with colleagues. Where many vertebrates have been kept in captivity for centuries a lot of invertebrates are relatively new to the husbandry world. Even though humans have kept ...
Determining The Prevalence And Distribution Of Tick-Borne Pathogens In Southeastern Virginia And Exploring The Transmission Dynamics Of Rickettsia Parkeri In Amblyomma Maculatum, 2015 Old Dominion University
Determining The Prevalence And Distribution Of Tick-Borne Pathogens In Southeastern Virginia And Exploring The Transmission Dynamics Of Rickettsia Parkeri In Amblyomma Maculatum, Chelsea L. Wright Thompson
Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations
Tick-borne pathogens are an increasing threat to human and animal health worldwide. In the United States, cases of Lyme disease, spotted fever rickettsioses, ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are on the rise. Factors related to emergence include appearance of a new pathogen, recognition of an existing pathogen and environmental changes that result in new exposure events. Despite the rise in tick-borne disease incidence within many states, including Virginia, there is a paucity of data related to the prevalence and distribution of ticks and tick-borne pathogens.
The first aim of this dissertation research was to determine the tick-borne pathogen composition within tick populations ...
Perch Selection By Male Dragonflies (Odonata, Anisoptera) Related To Competitive Ability And Species Composition, 2015 Old Dominion University
Perch Selection By Male Dragonflies (Odonata, Anisoptera) Related To Competitive Ability And Species Composition, Jessica L. Beard
Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations
Males of many species of dragonflies (Odonata, Anisoptera) establish territories in aquatic habitats where they compete with other males for access to food and females. Territorial males typically perch on emergent vegetation and chase rival males who intrude into their territories. This dissertation research examined the role of male size in perch height selection, position on the perch, and competitive ability. Four hypotheses were tested: 1) Dragonfly species would vary by size and that territorial species would show sexual size dimorphism (SSD), 2) Perch height selection would be related to dragonfly size, 3) Position on the perch would be related ...
Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics First Genotyping Of Spodoptera Frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Progeny From Crosses Between Bt-Resistant And Bt-Susceptible Populations, And 65-Locus Discrimination Of Isofamilies, 2015 U.S.D.A. National Peanut Res. Lab.
Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics First Genotyping Of Spodoptera Frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Progeny From Crosses Between Bt-Resistant And Bt-Susceptible Populations, And 65-Locus Discrimination Of Isofamilies, Renee S. Arias, Maribel Portilla, J. D. Ray, Carlos A. Blanco, S. A. Simpson, Brian E. Scheffler
Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty
Concerns exist that Bt-resistant populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) found in Puerto Rico, could spread to continental United States, and about the lack of molecular tools to monitor potential crosses or distinguish populations. In this work, the feasibility of genotyping S. frugiperda crosses between Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt) resistant and susceptible populations using simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites) was assessed. Parents and their corresponding progeny (five resistant, five susceptible phenotype) were genotyped using 192 SSRs on three reciprocate crosses alternating male and female from Bt-susceptible and Bt-resistant populations. Oviposition, mortality and fecundity were ...
Hemocyte Differentiation Mediates The Mosquito Late-Phase Immune Response Against Plasmodium In Anopheles Gambiae, 2015 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Hemocyte Differentiation Mediates The Mosquito Late-Phase Immune Response Against Plasmodium In Anopheles Gambiae, Ryan C. Smith, Carolina Barillas-Mury, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena
Ryan C. Smith
Plasmodium parasites must complete development in the mosquito vector for transmission to occur. The mosquito innate immune response is remarkably efficient in limiting parasite numbers. Previous work has identified a LPS-induced TNFα transcription factor (LITAF)-like transcription factor, LITAF-like 3 (LL3), which significantly influences parasite numbers. Here, we demonstrate that LL3 does not influence invasion of the mosquito midgut epithelium or ookinete-to-oocyst differentiation but mediates a late-phase immune response that decreases oocyst survival. LL3 expression in the midgut and hemocytes is activated by ookinete midgut invasion and is independent of the mosquito microbiota, suggesting that LL3 may be a component ...