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Hermetic On-Farm Storage For Maize Weevil Control In East Africa, Ali Yakubu, Carl J. Bern, Joel R. Coats, Theodore B. Bailey 2016 Iowa State University

Hermetic On-Farm Storage For Maize Weevil Control In East Africa, Ali Yakubu, Carl J. Bern, Joel R. Coats, Theodore B. Bailey

Carl J. Bern

Maize (Zea mays L.) consumption makes up over half of daily caloric intake of persons in East Africa and adequate supply is necessary for food security for subsistence farmers, as well as for domestic stability. Hermetic post-harvest maize storage is an attractive non-chemical control strategy for maize weevil,Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.), which is the principal cause of insect damage to stored maize grain. Laboratory experiments were conducted on instrumented hermetic and non-hermetic containers to measure effects of temperature (10 vs. 27°C) and maize moistures (6.3 to 16%) on maize weevil biology and mortality rate, and to quantify weevil ...


Cuticular Lipid Mass And Desiccation Rates In Glossina Pallidipes: Interpopulation Variation, Russell A. Jurenka, John S. Terblanche, C. Jaco Klok, Steven L. Chown, Elliot S. Krafsur 2016 Iowa State University

Cuticular Lipid Mass And Desiccation Rates In Glossina Pallidipes: Interpopulation Variation, Russell A. Jurenka, John S. Terblanche, C. Jaco Klok, Steven L. Chown, Elliot S. Krafsur

Elliot Krafsur

Tsetse flies, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) are said to have strong dispersal tendencies. Gene flow among these populations is estimated to be the theoretical equivalent of no more than one or two reproducing flies per generation, thereby raising the hypothesis of local regimes of natural selection. Flies were sampled from four environmentally diverse locations in Kenya to determine whether populations are homogeneous in desiccation tolerance and cuticular lipids. Cuticular hydrocarbon fractions known to act as sex pheromones do not differ among populations, thereby eliminating sexual selection as an isolating mechanism. Cuticular lipid quantities vary among populations and are not correlated ...


Breeding Season Avian Community Composition And Prey Availability In Eucalyptus And Slash Pine Plantations Of Southwestern Louisiana, Elizabeth J. Messick 2016 Stephen F. Austin State University

Breeding Season Avian Community Composition And Prey Availability In Eucalyptus And Slash Pine Plantations Of Southwestern Louisiana, Elizabeth J. Messick

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The increased demand for wood products related to industries such as bioenergy and paper has resulted in a need for a consistent supply of raw materials. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) plantations have the potential to boost wood production for pulpwood and biomass feedstocks. Species characteristics such as rapid, indeterminate growth, coppice regrowth, resistance to disease and insects, and tolerance of a range of environmental conditions make these species successful short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs). Camden white gum (Eucalyptus benthamii), a more cold tolerant species, has made management of eucalyptus plantations viable in southern portions of the United States such as the Western ...


Characterization Of The Arthropod Communities And Aphid Feeding Behavior Associated With Perennial Warm-Season Grasses (Poaceae) Composition In Nebraska And Wisconsin, Kathryn M. Keller 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of The Arthropod Communities And Aphid Feeding Behavior Associated With Perennial Warm-Season Grasses (Poaceae) Composition In Nebraska And Wisconsin, Kathryn M. Keller

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., along with two other perennial warm-season grasses, big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) and indiangrass, (Sorghastrum nutans L), compose a majority of the grasses found in North American tall grass prairies and have recently received attention as potential bioenergy feedstock. Limited research has been carried out on the relationship of arthropods on these three warm-season grasses in North America. Due to this limited research, the first objective of this research was to document the arthropods associated with switchgrass, big bluestem and indiangrass in Nebraska and Wisconsin over three sampling seasons. More than 10 arthropod orders and over ...


Over-Summering Ecology Of The Wheat Curl Mite (Aceria Tosichella Keifer), Anthony J. McMechan 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Over-Summering Ecology Of The Wheat Curl Mite (Aceria Tosichella Keifer), Anthony J. Mcmechan

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

The wheat-mite-virus complex is a consistent and significant threat to winter wheat production in the western Great Plains. This complex consists of three viruses (Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus that are transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). Yield impacts from this complex are typically associated with the presence of volunteer wheat that emerges prior to harvest as a result of hail occurring during the heading stages of wheat in early summer. Historical literature on pre-harvest germination has been primarily focused on accelerating breeding programs; however, critical gaps in knowledge exist on ...


Effect Of Dung Beetles On Dung Decomposition And Nuntrient Cycling In A Nebraska Rangeland, Kenneth Shay Evans 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Dung Beetles On Dung Decomposition And Nuntrient Cycling In A Nebraska Rangeland, Kenneth Shay Evans

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Management practice can have impacts on the abundance and frequency of dung beetle populations and nutrient cycling in grazing systems. Also, agriculture and livestock production land use is a considerable source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which are known to be one of the causes of global climate change. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dung beetle presence on the fluxes of greenhouse gasses (GHG’s) from dung pats in the semi-arid Sandhills region of Nebraska, by using closed chambers to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2 ...


Corn Following Corn In 2008, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Roger W. Elmore, Antonio P. Mallarino, Palle Pedersen, Alison E. Robertson, John E. Sawyer, Jon J. Tollefson 2016 Iowa State University

Corn Following Corn In 2008, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Roger W. Elmore, Antonio P. Mallarino, Palle Pedersen, Alison E. Robertson, John E. Sawyer, Jon J. Tollefson

John E. Sawyer

Corn following corn is in rough shape in areas across Iowa. Many wonder what is happening. The crop’s condition in general is not normal for this time of year. For example, last Sunday the USDA rated this year’s Iowa corn crop as 54 percent in ‘Good’ to ‘Excellent’ condition and 15 percent is ‘Poor’ or ‘Very Poor.’ Last year 72 percent was rated ‘Good’ to ‘Excellent’ and 5 percent was in ‘Poor’ or ‘Very Poor’ condition during the same week. Average plant height as of Sunday was 24 inches compared to 40 inches at end of the same ...


Seed-Set Evaluation Of Four Male-Sterile, Female-Fertile Soybean Lines Using Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees And Honey Bees As Pollinators, E. Ortiz-Perez, R. M. Mian, R. L. Cooper, T. Mendiola, T. Tew, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer 2016 Iowa State University

Seed-Set Evaluation Of Four Male-Sterile, Female-Fertile Soybean Lines Using Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees And Honey Bees As Pollinators, E. Ortiz-Perez, R. M. Mian, R. L. Cooper, T. Mendiola, T. Tew, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer

Harry Horner

Male-sterile, female-fertile plants were used to produce hybrid soybean seed. Manual cross-pollination using male-sterile plants to produce large quantities of hybrid seed is difficult and time-consuming because of the low success rate in cross-pollination. Insect pollinators may be suitable vectors to transfer pollen, but the most suitable vector for pollen transfer from the male parent to the female parent has not been identified for soybean. The objective of the present study was to evaluate seed-set on four male-sterile, female-fertile soybean lines by using alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata (F.)) and honey bees (Apis mellifera (L.)) as pollinators. Seed-set was evaluated ...


Insect-Mediated Seed-Set Evaluation Of 21 Soybean Lines Segregating For Male Sterility At 10 Different Loci, E. Ortiz-Perez, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer 2016 Iowa State University

Insect-Mediated Seed-Set Evaluation Of 21 Soybean Lines Segregating For Male Sterility At 10 Different Loci, E. Ortiz-Perez, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer

Harry Horner

The first requirement to establish a successful hybrid soybean program is the availability of a stable male-sterile, female-fertile system. Male sterility has been an important tool in soybean breeding programs to improve traits such as yield, seed-protein and seed-oil content, and seed size. However, improvement of seed-set per se on male-sterile plants has not been an important breeding objective. The evaluation of the out-crossing potential of the available male-sterile, female-fertile soybean lines is crucial to determine the future of hybrid soybean. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed-set among 21 soybean lines segregating for male sterility at 10 ...


Dichotomous Key To Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum) Apterous Parthenogenic Instars, Bates College Department of Biology, Daisy Diamond, Daniel Levitis 2016 Bates College

Dichotomous Key To Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum) Apterous Parthenogenic Instars, Bates College Department Of Biology, Daisy Diamond, Daniel Levitis

SCARAB Data Repository

We provide a dichotomous key, with photographs and illustrations, for distinguishing between instars of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) in the developmental pathway leading to the apterous parthenogenetic adult. Lengths of body, antenna and cauda are provided for a sample of each instar.


The Capacity Of Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum) To Degrade Atrazine In A Phytoremediation Setting., Ian J. Murphy, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

The Capacity Of Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum) To Degrade Atrazine In A Phytoremediation Setting., Ian J. Murphy, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Atrazine is a widely used herbicide in agriculture. Non-point source contamination of groundwater and drinking water may pose a significant threat to humans, wildlife, and the environment. Phytoremediation may provide a cost-effective strategy for reducing non-point source contamination of atrazine from agricultural runoff. Previous studies have shown that the rhizosphere of the native prairie grass, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is capable of enhancing the degradation of atrazine in soils. Biodegradation also may occur within the plant biomass; however, the extent to which this occurs has not been studied. We hypothesize that switchgrass has the capacity to degrade atrazine in vivo, in ...


Elemol And Amyris Oil Repel The Ticks Ixodes Scapularis And Amblyomma Americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) In Laboratory Bioassays., J.F. Carroll, G. Paluch, Joel R. Coats, M. Kramer 2016 United States Department of Agriculture

Elemol And Amyris Oil Repel The Ticks Ixodes Scapularis And Amblyomma Americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) In Laboratory Bioassays., J.F. Carroll, G. Paluch, Joel R. Coats, M. Kramer

Joel R. Coats

The essential oil from Amyris balsamifera (Rutaceae) and elemol, a principal constituent of the essential oil of Osage orange, Maclura pomifera (Moraceae) were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick,Ixodes scapularis, and the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Both bioassays took advantage of the tendency of these host-seeking ticks to climb slender vertical surfaces. In one bioassay, the central portion of a vertical strip of filter paper was treated with test solution and ticks placed or allowed to crawl onto the untreated lower portion. In the other ...


Disposition Of Atrazine Metabolites Following Uptake And Degradation Of Atrazine In Switchgrass., Vurtice C. Albright III, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Disposition Of Atrazine Metabolites Following Uptake And Degradation Of Atrazine In Switchgrass., Vurtice C. Albright Iii, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Extensive use of the agricultural herbicide atrazine has led to contamination of numerous ground and surface water bodies. Research has shown that it can have a variety of negative impacts on numerous non-target organisms in the environment. Phytoremediation is one strategy that has been studied to remove atrazine contamination. This paper investigates the hypothesis that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can exude metabolites of atrazine after uptake and degradation, which has been suggested by prior research. Pots planted with switchgrass were treated with a 4 ppm solution of atrazine spiked with [14C]atrazine. After 4 days, switchgrass plants were transplanted to new ...


Fate Of Atrazine In Switchgrass-Soil Column System., Vurtice C. Albright III, Ian J. Murphy, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Fate Of Atrazine In Switchgrass-Soil Column System., Vurtice C. Albright Iii, Ian J. Murphy, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Atrazine, a broad-leaf herbicide, has been used widely to control weeds in corn and other crops for several decades and its extensive used has led to widespread contamination of soils and water bodies. Phytoremediation with switchgrass and other native prairie grasses is one strategy that has been suggested to lessen the impact of atrazine in the environment. The goal of this study is to characterize: (1) the uptake of atrazine into above-ground switchgrass biomass; and (2) the degradation and transformation of atrazine over time. A fate study was performed using mature switchgrass columns treated with an artificially-created agricultural runoff containing ...


Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition By Nootkatone And Carvacrol In Arthropods, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition By Nootkatone And Carvacrol In Arthropods, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

The essential oils from many botanicals have been screened for insecticidal activity. Two constituents of the Alaskan yellow cedar tree, the monoterpenoid carvacrol and the sesquiterpenoid nootkatone, both are toxic against several arthropods. The mode of action through which nootkatone and carvacrol exert their insecticidal activity remains uncertain. It has been hypothesized that they may inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity. The degree of acetylcholinesterase inhibition of carvacrol and nootkatone was compared to that of carbaryl, a known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, in the house fly (Musca domestica), yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) and American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). The ...


The Phenolic Monoterpenoid Carvacrol Inhibits The Binding Of Nicotine To The Housefly Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor, Fan Tong, Aaron D. Gross, Marc C. Dolan, Joel R. Coats 2016 University of Florida

The Phenolic Monoterpenoid Carvacrol Inhibits The Binding Of Nicotine To The Housefly Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor, Fan Tong, Aaron D. Gross, Marc C. Dolan, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Background

The phenolic monoterpenoid carvacrol, which is found in many plant essential oils (thyme, oregano and Alaska yellow cedar), is highly active against pest arthropods, but its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Here, carvacrol is shown to bind in a membrane preparation containing insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). [14C]-Nicotine binding assays with Musca domestica (housefly) nAChRs were used in this study to demonstrate carvacrol's binding to nAChRs, thereby acting as a modulator of the receptors.

Results

Carvacrol showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of [14C]-nicotine binding in a membrane preparation of housefly heads containing nAChRs ...


Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron 2016 Macquarie University, Australia

Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

To what degree are non-human animals conscious? We propose that the most meaningful way to approach this question is from the perspective of functional neurobiology. Here we focus on subjective experience, which is a basic awareness of the world without further reflection on that awareness. This is considered the most basic form of consciousness. Tellingly, this capacity is supported by the integrated midbrain and basal ganglia structures, which are among the oldest and most highly conserved brain systems in vertebrates. A reasonable inference is that the capacity for subjective experience is both widespread and evolutionarily old within the vertebrate lineage ...


Soybean Tolerance To Soybean Aphid (Aphis Glycines Matsumura) Herbivory, Lia Marchi Werle 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Soybean Tolerance To Soybean Aphid (Aphis Glycines Matsumura) Herbivory, Lia Marchi Werle

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

This research examined the soybean aphid tolerant soybean KS4202 and its possible role in soybean aphid management. Studies documented the stage at which the tolerance response was initially expressed, quantified the relationship between cumulative aphid-days (CADs) and yield loss, and determined economic injury levels (EILs) for the soybean aphid tolerant KS4202 soybean. At high aphid infestation levels, aphids negatively impacted yield for KS4202 and K03-4686 (susceptible) plants that were infested at V1 stage; however, KS4202 expressed tolerance to the soybean aphid at low aphid infestation levels. No significant differences in the yield parameters were detected for KS4202 when infested at ...


The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape 2016 University of Arizona

The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape

International Journal of Speleology

The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA) caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes). A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these ...


Knockdown Of Rna Interference Pathway Genes In Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates A Possible Mechanism Of Resistance To Lethal Dsrna, Ana María Vélez, Chitvan Khajuria, Haichuan Wang, Kenneth E. Narva, Blair D. Siegfried 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Knockdown Of Rna Interference Pathway Genes In Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates A Possible Mechanism Of Resistance To Lethal Dsrna, Ana María Vélez, Chitvan Khajuria, Haichuan Wang, Kenneth E. Narva, Blair D. Siegfried

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA’s and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both ...


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