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An Efficient And Sensitive Method For Preparing Cdna Libraries From Scarce Biological Samples, Catherine H. Sterling, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, Victor R. Ambros 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

An Efficient And Sensitive Method For Preparing Cdna Libraries From Scarce Biological Samples, Catherine H. Sterling, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

The preparation and high-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries from samples of small RNA is a powerful tool to quantify known small RNAs (such as microRNAs) and to discover novel RNA species. Interest in identifying the small RNA repertoire present in tissues and in biofluids has grown substantially with the findings that small RNAs can serve as indicators of biological conditions and disease states. Here we describe a novel and straightforward method to clone cDNA libraries from small quantities of input RNA. This method permits the generation of cDNA libraries from sub-picogram quantities of RNA robustly, efficiently and reproducibly. We demonstrate ...


Identifying Glioblastoma Gene Networks Based On Hypergeometric Test Analysis, Vasileios Stathias, Chiara Pastori, Tess Z. Griffin, Ricardo Komotar, Jennifer Clarke, Ming Zhang, Nagi G. Ayad 2014 University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

Identifying Glioblastoma Gene Networks Based On Hypergeometric Test Analysis, Vasileios Stathias, Chiara Pastori, Tess Z. Griffin, Ricardo Komotar, Jennifer Clarke, Ming Zhang, Nagi G. Ayad

Faculty Publications, Department of Statistics

Patient specific therapy is emerging as an important possibility for many cancer patients. However, to identify such therapies it is essential to determine the genomic and transcriptional alterations present in one tumor relative to control samples. This presents a challenge since use of a single sample precludes many standard statistical analysis techniques. We reasoned that one means of addressing this issue is by comparing transcriptional changes in one tumor with those observed in a large cohort of patients analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). To test this directly, we devised a bioinformatics pipeline to identify differentially expressed genes in ...


Regulation Of Phialide Morphogenesis In Aspergillus Nidulans, Hu Yin 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Regulation Of Phialide Morphogenesis In Aspergillus Nidulans, Hu Yin

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Filamentous fungi have two distinctive life cycles, vegetative growth and development for sexual or asexual spore formation. The asexual reproduction in development as conidiation in A. nidulans is the dominant form of producing spores effectively. A complex conidiophore structure is developed during asexual reproduction process. The conidiophore is formed from hyphal cell and consists of stalk, vesicle, metulae, phialide and conidial spores. Phialides are essential sporogenous cells in the conidiophore structure. The growth pattern is switched from acropetal to basipetal between phialide and spores, which makes phialide a unique cell type in A. nidulans and other phialide producing fungi. Study ...


Comparative Genomics Of Microbial Chemoreceptor Sequence, Structure, And Function, Aaron Daniel Fleetwood 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Comparative Genomics Of Microbial Chemoreceptor Sequence, Structure, And Function, Aaron Daniel Fleetwood

Doctoral Dissertations

Microbial chemotaxis receptors (chemoreceptors) are complex proteins that sense the external environment and signal for flagella-mediated motility, serving as the GPS of the cell. In order to sense a myriad of physicochemical signals and adapt to diverse environmental niches, sensory regions of chemoreceptors are frenetically duplicated, mutated, or lost. Conversely, the chemoreceptor signaling region is a highly conserved protein domain. Extreme conservation of this domain is necessary because it determines very specific helical secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of the protein while simultaneously choreographing a network of interactions with the adaptor protein CheW and the histidine kinase CheA. This dichotomous ...


Using Phylogenetically-Informed Annotation (Pia) To Search For Light-Interacting Genes In Transcriptomes From Non-Model Organisms, Daniel L. Speiser, Molly S. Pankey, Alexander K. Zaharoff, Barbara A. Battelle, Heather D. Bracken-Grissom, Jesse W. Breinholt, Seth M. Bybee, Thomas W. Cronin, Anders Garm, Annie R. Lindgren, Nipam H. Patel, Megan L. Porter, Meredith E. Protas, Ajna S. Rivera, Jeanne M. Serb, Kirk S. Zigler, Keith A. Crandall, Todd H. Oakley 2014 University of California - Santa Barbara

Using Phylogenetically-Informed Annotation (Pia) To Search For Light-Interacting Genes In Transcriptomes From Non-Model Organisms, Daniel L. Speiser, Molly S. Pankey, Alexander K. Zaharoff, Barbara A. Battelle, Heather D. Bracken-Grissom, Jesse W. Breinholt, Seth M. Bybee, Thomas W. Cronin, Anders Garm, Annie R. Lindgren, Nipam H. Patel, Megan L. Porter, Meredith E. Protas, Ajna S. Rivera, Jeanne M. Serb, Kirk S. Zigler, Keith A. Crandall, Todd H. Oakley

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Tools for high throughput sequencing and de novo assembly make the analysis of transcriptomes (i.e. the suite of genes expressed in a tissue) feasible for almost any organism. Yet a challenge for biologists is that it can be difficult to assign identities to gene sequences, especially from non-model organisms. Phylogenetic analyses are one useful method for assigning identities to these sequences, but such methods tend to be time-consuming because of the need to re-calculate trees for every gene of interest and each time a new data set is analyzed. In response, we employed existing tools for phylogenetic analysis ...


The Effects Of Hmtba (2-Hydroxy-4-Methylthio-Butanoic Acid) Supplementation On Ruminal Microbial Crude Protein Synthesis And Community Structure In Dairy Cattle, Chad J. R. Jenkins 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Hmtba (2-Hydroxy-4-Methylthio-Butanoic Acid) Supplementation On Ruminal Microbial Crude Protein Synthesis And Community Structure In Dairy Cattle, Chad J. R. Jenkins

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Metabolizable protein (MP) is protein that reaches the small intestine and is available for absorption and utilization by the cow. Dairy rations may be limited in the supply of MP essential to meeting the demands of milk synthesis, however as much as half of the MP flowing to the small intestine may be attributed to microbial origins and is referred to as microbial CP (MCP). Experiment 1 utilized a technique in which DNA was used as a microbial marker to estimate the concentration of bacterial CP (BCP) in the solid and liquid portions of rumen digesta. Rumen digesta was sampled ...


An Analysis Of Mayo Clinic Search Query Logs For Cardiovascular Diseases, Ashutosh Sopan Jadhav, Amit P. Sheth, Jyotishman Pathak 2014 Wright State University - Main Campus

An Analysis Of Mayo Clinic Search Query Logs For Cardiovascular Diseases, Ashutosh Sopan Jadhav, Amit P. Sheth, Jyotishman Pathak

Kno.e.sis Publications

Increasingly, individuals are taking active participation in learning and managing their health by leveraging online resources. Understanding online health information searching behavior can help us to study what health topics users search for and how search queries are formulated. In this work, we analyzed 10 million cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related search queries from MayoClinic.com. We performed semantic analysis on the queries using UMLS MetaMap and analyzed structural and textual properties as well as linguistic characteristics of the queries.


Online Information Searching For Cardiovascular Diseases: An Analysis Of Mayo Clinic Search Query Logs, Ashutosh Sopan Jadhav, Amit P. Sheth, Jyotishman Pathak 2014 Wright State University - Main Campus

Online Information Searching For Cardiovascular Diseases: An Analysis Of Mayo Clinic Search Query Logs, Ashutosh Sopan Jadhav, Amit P. Sheth, Jyotishman Pathak

Kno.e.sis Publications

Since the early 2000’s, Internet usage for health information searching has increased significantly. Studying search queries can help us to understand users “information need” and how do they formulate search queries (“expression of information need”). Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) affect a large percentage of the population, few studies have investigated how and what users search for CVD. We address this knowledge gap in the community by analyzing a large corpus of 10 million CVD related search queries from MayoClinic.com. Using UMLS MetaMap and UMLS semantic types/concepts, we developed a rule-based approach to categorize the queries into 14 ...


Spatiotemporal Variation In Flow-Dependent Recruitment Of Long-Lived Riverine Fish: Model Development And Evaluation, Daisuke Goto, Martin J. Hamel, Jeremy J. Hammen, Mathew L. Rugg, Mark A. Pegg, Valery E. Forbes 2014 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Spatiotemporal Variation In Flow-Dependent Recruitment Of Long-Lived Riverine Fish: Model Development And Evaluation, Daisuke Goto, Martin J. Hamel, Jeremy J. Hammen, Mathew L. Rugg, Mark A. Pegg, Valery E. Forbes

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Abstract Natural flow regimes can play a major role as an overarching ecosystem driver in reproduction and recruitment of riverine fishes. Human needs for freshwater however have altered hydrology of many riverine systems worldwide, threatening fish population sustainability. To understand and predict how spatiotemporal dynamics of flow regimes influence reproductive and recruitment variability, and ultimately population sustainability of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), we develop a spatially explicit (1D) individual-based population model that mechanistically (via energetics-based processes) simulates daily activities (dispersal, spawning, foraging, growth, and survival). With field observations of sturgeon and habitat conditions in a major tributary of the Missouri ...


Characterization Of The Transcriptome, Nucleotide Sequence Polymorphism, And Natural Selection In The Desert Adapted Mouse Peromyscus Eremicus, Matthew D. MacManes, Michael B. Eisen 2014 University of New Hampshire - Main Campus

Characterization Of The Transcriptome, Nucleotide Sequence Polymorphism, And Natural Selection In The Desert Adapted Mouse Peromyscus Eremicus, Matthew D. Macmanes, Michael B. Eisen

Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences Scholarship

As a direct result of intense heat and aridity, deserts are thought to be among the most harsh of environments, particularly for their mammalian inhabitants. Given that osmoregulation can be challenging for these animals, with failure resulting in death, strong selection should be observed on genes related to the maintenance of water and solute balance. One such animal, Peromyscus eremicus, is native to the desert regions of the southwest United States and may live its entire life without oral fluid intake. As a first step toward understanding the genetics that underlie this phenotype, we present a characterization of the P ...


Investigating The Role Of Micrornas In The Response To Nitrogen Deprivation In The Green Alga Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Adam Voshall 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigating The Role Of Micrornas In The Response To Nitrogen Deprivation In The Green Alga Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Adam Voshall

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Microalgae are gaining attention as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel, mainly derived from triacylglycerols (TAG). In many algae, TAG synthesis increases dramatically upon certain stresses but this is often accompanied by growth retardation. Rational improvements to strain productivity are limited by the scant knowledge on algal lipid metabolism and gene regulatory mechanisms. In this context, systems-level approaches aimed at understanding and modeling metabolic and regulatory networks may enable hypothesis-driven genetic engineering strategies. The green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii accumulates significant amounts of TAGs under nutrient starvation and provides a genetically tractable model for manipulating biosynthetic pathways. In order ...


Data Analytics For Power Utility Storm Planning, Lan Lin, Aldo Dagnino, Derek Doran, Swapne Gokhale 2014 Wright State University - Main Campus

Data Analytics For Power Utility Storm Planning, Lan Lin, Aldo Dagnino, Derek Doran, Swapne Gokhale

Kno.e.sis Publications

As the world population grows, recent climatic changes seem to bring powerful storms to populated areas. The impact of these storms on utility services is devastating. Hurricane Sandy is a recent example of the enormous damages that storms can inflict on infrastructure, society, and the economy. Quick response to these emergencies represents a big challenge to electric power utilities. Traditionally utilities develop preparedness plans for storm emergency situations based on the experience of utility experts and with limited use of historical data. With the advent of the Smart Grid, utilities are incorporating automation and sensing technologies in their grids and ...


Modeling T Cell Receptor Recognition Of Cd1-Lipid And Mr1-Metabolite Complexes, Brian G. Pierce, Thom Vreven, Zhiping Weng 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Modeling T Cell Receptor Recognition Of Cd1-Lipid And Mr1-Metabolite Complexes, Brian G. Pierce, Thom Vreven, Zhiping Weng

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: T cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize diverse lipid and metabolite antigens presented by MHC-like molecules CD1 and MR1, and the molecular basis of many of these interactions has not been determined. Here we applied our protein docking algorithm TCRFlexDock, previously developed to perform docking of TCRs to peptide-MHC (pMHC) molecules, to predict the binding of alphabeta and gammadelta TCRs to CD1 and MR1, starting with the structures of the unbound molecules.

RESULTS: Evaluating against TCR-CD1d complexes with crystal structures, we achieved near-native structures in the top 20 models for two out of four cases, and an acceptable-rated prediction for ...


Applying Novel Tree-Based Frameworks To Big Data For Classification Of Heart Failure Patients And Prediction Of Clinical Responses, Yan Zhang, Nicholas Downing, Emily Bucholz, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Shu-Xia Li, Tara Liptak, Harlan Krumholz, Mark Gerstein 2014 Yale University

Applying Novel Tree-Based Frameworks To Big Data For Classification Of Heart Failure Patients And Prediction Of Clinical Responses, Yan Zhang, Nicholas Downing, Emily Bucholz, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Shu-Xia Li, Tara Liptak, Harlan Krumholz, Mark Gerstein

Yale Day of Data

Over 5 million Americans suffer from heart failure, a condition with a 5-year survival that eclipses all cancers apart from that of lung cancer. Conventional understanding of heart failure is simplistic: it is viewed as a single syndrome, despite real heterogeneity. In addition, models predicting outcomes focus on dichotomous results, like 30-day readmission. A novel approach to classification of heart failure may improve our ability to target interventions, improve patient experiences, and predict outcomes.

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is a family of administrative claims databases that describes patient demographics, comorbidities, procedures, acute care utilization and outcomes, such as ...


Crisprseek: A Bioconductor Package To Identify Target-Specific Guide Rnas For Crispr-Cas9 Genome-Editing Systems, Lihua Julie Zhu, Benjamin R. Holmes, Neil Aronin, Michael H. Brodsky 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Crisprseek: A Bioconductor Package To Identify Target-Specific Guide Rnas For Crispr-Cas9 Genome-Editing Systems, Lihua Julie Zhu, Benjamin R. Holmes, Neil Aronin, Michael H. Brodsky

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

CRISPR-Cas systems are a diverse family of RNA-protein complexes in bacteria that target foreign DNA sequences for cleavage. Derivatives of these complexes have been engineered to cleave specific target sequences depending on the sequence of a CRISPR-derived guide RNA (gRNA) and the source of the Cas9 protein. Important considerations for the design of gRNAs are to maximize aimed activity at the desired target site while minimizing off-target cleavage. Because of the rapid advances in the understanding of existing CRISPR-Cas9-derived RNA-guided nucleases and the development of novel RNA-guided nuclease systems, it is critical to have computational tools that can accommodate a ...


Evaluation Of Microarray-Based Dna Methylation Measurement Using Technical Replicates: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (Aric) Study, Maitreyee Bose, Chong Wu, James S. Pankow, Ellen W. Demerath, Jan Bressler, Myriam Fornage, Megan L. Grove, Thomas H. Mosley, Chindo Hicks, Kari North, Wen Hong Kao, Yu Zhang, Eric Boerwinkle, Weihua Guan 2014 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Evaluation Of Microarray-Based Dna Methylation Measurement Using Technical Replicates: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (Aric) Study, Maitreyee Bose, Chong Wu, James S. Pankow, Ellen W. Demerath, Jan Bressler, Myriam Fornage, Megan L. Grove, Thomas H. Mosley, Chindo Hicks, Kari North, Wen Hong Kao, Yu Zhang, Eric Boerwinkle, Weihua Guan

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: DNA methylation is a widely studied epigenetic phenomenon; alterations in methylation patterns influence human phenotypes and risk of disease. As part of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 (HM450) BeadChip was used to measure DNA methylation in peripheral blood obtained from ~3000 African American study participants. Over 480,000 cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotide sites were surveyed on the HM450 BeadChip. To evaluate the impact of technical variation, 265 technical replicates from 130 participants were included in the study.

Results: For each CpG site, we calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to compare variation of methylation ...


A Keyword Sense Disambiguation Based Approach For Noise Filtering In Twitter, Sanjaya Wijeratne, Bahareh R. Heravi 2014 Wright State University - Main Campus

A Keyword Sense Disambiguation Based Approach For Noise Filtering In Twitter, Sanjaya Wijeratne, Bahareh R. Heravi

Kno.e.sis Publications

In this paper, we describe an approach to filter out noisy data generated by keywords-based tweet filtering methods by performing Word Sense Disambiguation on those keywords used to collect tweets. We present the noise filtering problem as a binary classification problem and discuss our evaluation strategy which is to be carried out in future.


Graphical User Interface On Analysis Of Mechanics And Dynamics Of Biopolymers In Living Cells, Peter D. Russel, Shubham Agrawal, Taeyoon Kim, Abdel-Rahman Hassan 2014 Purdue University

Graphical User Interface On Analysis Of Mechanics And Dynamics Of Biopolymers In Living Cells, Peter D. Russel, Shubham Agrawal, Taeyoon Kim, Abdel-Rahman Hassan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The mechanical properties of cells depend on the qualities of filamentous-actin (f-actin for short), among other cytoskeletal polymers. The ability to quickly determine f-actin qualities in a sample will help cellular biologists with cytoskeletal protein research. The goal of this project is to create a Matlab program which would allow researchers to determine, with limited manual input, the average filament length and persistence lengths of selected filaments. Through the graphical user interface, the user loads the image stack and can optimize the tracking result by altering several expectations of the program such as the expected contrast between the filament and ...


Analysis Of Mechanics And Dynamics Of Biopolymers In Living Cells, Shubham Agrawal, Peter D. Russel, Abdel-Rahman Hassan, Taeyoon Kim 2014 Purdue University

Analysis Of Mechanics And Dynamics Of Biopolymers In Living Cells, Shubham Agrawal, Peter D. Russel, Abdel-Rahman Hassan, Taeyoon Kim

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

F-actin polymers in the cytoskeleton provide mechanical strength and deformability to cells. Thus, understanding their dynamic responses to intracellular and extracellular cues is of critical importance for studying the biological and mechanical behaviors of cells. Unfortunately, to date, no computer software can provide researchers with adequate means to measure these responses since in vivo F-actin cytoskeleton is quite dynamic and complex unlike in vitro actin networks. We aim at developing a tool which would allow researchers to semi-automatically analyze time-lapse microscope images of these F-actin polymers and thus evaluate the length and stochastic dynamics of F-actins (filament elongation, shrinkage and ...


Applications And Improvements In The Molecular Modeling Of Protein And Ligand Interactions, Jason Bret Harris 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Applications And Improvements In The Molecular Modeling Of Protein And Ligand Interactions, Jason Bret Harris

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding protein and ligand interactions is fundamental to treat disease and avoid toxicity in biological organisms. Molecular modeling is a helpful but imperfect tool used in computer-aided toxicology and drug discovery. In this work, molecular docking and structural informatics have been integrated with other modeling methods and physical experiments to better understand and improve predictions for protein and ligand interactions. Results presented as part of this research include:

1.) an application of single-protein docking for an intermediate state structure, specifically, modeling an intermediate state structure of alpha-1-antitrypsin and using the resulting model to virtually screen for chemical inhibitors that can ...


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