Performance Analysis Of Three Bioinformatic Variant Callers Using A Somatic Reference Standard, 2020 Children's Mercy Kansas City
Performance Analysis Of Three Bioinformatic Variant Callers Using A Somatic Reference Standard, Binu Porath, Binu Porath
No abstract provided.
The Evolving Management Of Aortic Valve Disease: Trends In The Utilization And Cost Of Savr, Tavr, And Medical Therapy, 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center
The Evolving Management Of Aortic Valve Disease: Trends In The Utilization And Cost Of Savr, Tavr, And Medical Therapy, Andrew Goldsweig
Theses & Dissertations
Aortic stenosis (AS) and regurgitation (AR) may be treated with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), transcatheter AVR (TAVR), or medical therapy (MT). Data are lacking regarding usage and cost of SAVR, TAVR, and MT for patients hospitalized with aortic valve disease. From the Nationwide Readmissions Database, we determined utilization and cost trends for SAVR, TAVR, and MT in patients with aortic valve disease admitted 2012-2016 for valve replacement, heart failure, unstable angina, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, or syncope. From 2012 through 2016, there was a 48.1% increase in the number of patients hospitalized for aortic valve disease annually. Overall, 19 ...
Molecular Characterization Of A Gene Encoding Insulin-Like Peptide 5 (Ilp5) In Drosophila Virilis, 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Molecular Characterization Of A Gene Encoding Insulin-Like Peptide 5 (Ilp5) In Drosophila Virilis, Nikolas R. Likourentzos, Jae H. Park
Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee
The study of the insulin-like peptides of Drosophila can provide insight of their similarities to mammalian insulin and their potential usage in treating human insulin-related diseases. In this study, we isolated and characterized cDNA encoding insulin-like peptide (ILP) 5 in D. virilis by using RNA purification, reverse transcription, and RACE protocols. Subsequently, various bioinformatic softwares were employed to predict peptide structure. The ILP5 gene (587 base pairs) codes for 121 amino acids that make up prepro-ILP5. After maturation, functional ILP5 is a peptide of two 25 amino acid chains, A- and B-chain, connected by two disulfide bonds. Sequencing genomic DNA ...
Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cytokine-Treated Tissue-Engineered Cartilage As An In Vitro Model Of Osteoarthritis, 2020 Washington University in St. Louis
Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cytokine-Treated Tissue-Engineered Cartilage As An In Vitro Model Of Osteoarthritis, Jiehan Li
Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations
Osteoarthritis (OA), as the most common form of arthritis and a leading cause of disability worldwide, currently has no disease-modifying drugs. Inflammation plays an important role in cartilage degeneration in OA, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, have been shown to induce degradative changes along with aberrant gene expression in chondrocytes, the only resident cells in cartilage. The goal of this study was to further understand the transcriptomic regulation of tissue-engineered cartilage in response to inflammatory cytokines using an in vitro miPSC model system. We performed RNA sequencing for the IL-1β or TNF-α treated tissue-engineered cartilage derived from murine iPSCs ...
Using Bioinformatics Tools To Evaluate Potential Risks Of Food Allergy And To Predict Microbiome Functionality, 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Using Bioinformatics Tools To Evaluate Potential Risks Of Food Allergy And To Predict Microbiome Functionality, Mohamed Abdelmoteleb
Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology
Novel foods and Genetically Engineered (GE) organisms are being developed for nutritional, industrial, and environmental applications. Dietary interventions have been used recently to mitigate methane emissions in ruminants. In this project, bioinformatics tools have been used to answer two main questions. The first question is the potential allergy risks for consumption of novel foods and GE organisms. The second question is the effects of dietary interventions on microbiome functionality related to methane production in ruminants.
To answer the first question, regulatory authorities in the United States and Europe now expect an evaluation of new proteins in novel foods or genetically ...
Comparative Analysis Of Metabolic Pathways Of Bacteria Used In Fermented Food, 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha
Comparative Analysis Of Metabolic Pathways Of Bacteria Used In Fermented Food, Keanu Hoang, Kiran Bastola
This study presents a novel methodology for analyzing metabolic pathways. Utilizing KEGG REST API through a Biopython package and file parser, data about whether or not a bacteria has an enzyme or not was extracted. The results found that differences in metabolic pathway enrichment values follow along the lines of genera and pathway type. In particular, bacteria found in food spoilage and commercial nitrogen fixing products had high values of enrichment.
A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...
Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network
Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors
There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...
Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov
Open Access Articles
Predatory gastropods of the superfamily Conoidea number over 12,000 living species. The evolutionary success of this lineage can be explained by the ability of conoideans to produce complex venoms for hunting, defense and competitive interactions. Whereas venoms of cone snails (family Conidae) have become increasingly well studied, the venoms of most other conoidean lineages remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we present the venom gland transcriptomes of two species of the genus Clavus that belong to the family Drilliidae. Venom gland transcriptomes of two specimens of Clavus canalicularis, and two specimens of Cv. davidgilmouri were analyzed, leading to ...
Chemical Modifications Of Adenine Base Editor Mrna And Guide Rna Expand Its Application Scope, 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Chemical Modifications Of Adenine Base Editor Mrna And Guide Rna Expand Its Application Scope, Tingting Jiang, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Yueying Cao, Zhiping Weng, Wen Xue
Open Access Articles
CRISPR-Cas9-associated base editing is a promising tool to correct pathogenic single nucleotide mutations in research or therapeutic settings. Efficient base editing requires cellular exposure to levels of base editors that can be difficult to attain in hard-to-transfect cells or in vivo. Here we engineer a chemically modified mRNA-encoded adenine base editor that mediates robust editing at various cellular genomic sites together with moderately modified guide RNA, and show its therapeutic potential in correcting pathogenic single nucleotide mutations in cell and animal models of diseases. The optimized chemical modifications of adenine base editor mRNA and guide RNA expand the applicability of ...
469— Life Or Death: Decision Making In Sexual Disease Treatment Matters, 2020 SUNY Geneseo
469— Life Or Death: Decision Making In Sexual Disease Treatment Matters, Jason Ipolito
Syphilis is an STI that has recently made a resurgence in homosexual populations. When infected, a patient has two options: seek treatment immediately or do not seek treatment. I used a system of differential equations that includes susceptible, exposed, treatment receptive, treatment non-receptive, cured, and dead state variables in order to determine the relationships among transmission rate, treatment options, and death rate. My model suggests that an individual’s treatment option has a larger effect on death rate than the transmission rate inherent to the disease. The model also contains two sets of equilibria: an unstable trivial disease free condition ...
Mhcherrypan, A Novel Model To Predict The Binding Affinity Of Pan-Specific Class I Hla-Peptide, 2020 The University of Western Ontario
Mhcherrypan, A Novel Model To Predict The Binding Affinity Of Pan-Specific Class I Hla-Peptide, Xuezhi Xie
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex plays an essential role in regulating the immune system in humans. Accurate prediction of peptide binding with HLA can efficiently help to identify those neoantigens, which potentially make a big difference in immune drug development. HLA is one of the most polymorphic genetic systems in humans, and thousands of HLA allelic versions exist. Due to the high polymorphism of HLA complex, it is still pretty difficult to accurately predict the binding affinity. In this thesis, we presented a new algorithm to combine convolutional neural network and long short-term memory to solve this ...
Progress Presentation On The Proposed Function Of Protein 4diu Through Bioinformatics Analyses, Melissa Hoff
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Presentations
The BASIL project is a scientific inquiry project that aims to determine the function of a protein from its structure. Biochemistry students completed wet lab work, while structural biology students worked in silico. The purpose of this study was to determine the function of the protein with PDB ID: 4DIU. Bioinformatics analyses were completed using several databases: BLAST, Dali, Pfam, and Moltimate, and imaging of the protein was completed using PyMOL software. The BLAST database aligned the primary sequence with known protein sequences. The Dali database compared protein structure with known structures through global alignment. The Pfam database matched our ...
Dolphinnext: A Distributed Data Processing Platform For High Throughput Genomics, 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Dolphinnext: A Distributed Data Processing Platform For High Throughput Genomics, Onur Yukselen, Osman Turkyilmaz, Ahmet R. Ozturk, Manuel Garber, Alper Kucukural
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: The emergence of high throughput technologies that produce vast amounts of genomic data, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) is transforming biological research. The dramatic increase in the volume of data, the variety and continuous change of data processing tools, algorithms and databases make analysis the main bottleneck for scientific discovery. The processing of high throughput datasets typically involves many different computational programs, each of which performs a specific step in a pipeline. Given the wide range of applications and organizational infrastructures, there is a great need for highly parallel, flexible, portable, and reproducible data processing frameworks. Several platforms currently ...
Single-Cell Analysis Of Upper Airway Cells Reveals Host-Viral Dynamics In Influenza Infected Adults, 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Single-Cell Analysis Of Upper Airway Cells Reveals Host-Viral Dynamics In Influenza Infected Adults, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Pranitha Vangala, Elisa Donnard, Ping Liu, Patrick Mcdonel, Jose Ordovas Montanes, Alex K. Shalek, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Manuel Garber
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
Influenza virus infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Research using cultured cells, bulk tissue, and animal models cannot fully capture human disease dynamics. Many aspects of virus-host interactions in a natural setting remain unclear, including the specific cell types that are infected and how they and neighboring bystander cells contribute to the overall antiviral response. To address these questions, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) on cells from freshly collected nasal washes from healthy human donors and donors diagnosed with acute influenza during the 2017-18 season. We describe a previously uncharacterized goblet cell population, specific to infected individuals ...
Environmental Dna Metabarcoding Detects Mammal Use Of Stock Tanks And Natural Springs On The Prescott National Forest, 2020 Montana State University - Billings
Environmental Dna Metabarcoding Detects Mammal Use Of Stock Tanks And Natural Springs On The Prescott National Forest, K. A. Smith, Berenice Carreras Mendiolea, C. E. Benson, F. B. Anaya
Discovery Day - Prescott
Recent research has shown the viability of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis as a tool for identifying species presence in aquatic ecosystems. However, there is limited research indicating the feasibility of eDNA as a survey tool in water sources such as springs and stock tanks. Because of the scarcity of water in the high desert landscape of Arizona, natural springs and stock tanks are an important water resource. In this study, we examined whether 16S rRNA metabarcoding could detect mammal eDNA in springs and stock tanks in the Prescott National Forest. During summer 2019, we collected and analyzed water samples at ...
Cylindrical Similarity Measurement For Helices In Medium-Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopy Density Maps, 2020 Old Dominion University
Cylindrical Similarity Measurement For Helices In Medium-Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopy Density Maps, Salim Sazzed, Peter Scheible, Maytha Alshammari, Willy Wriggers, Jing He
College of Sciences Posters
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps at medium resolution (5-10 Å) reveal secondary structural features such as α-helices and β-sheets, but they lack the side chains details that would enable a direct structure determination. Among the more than 800 entries in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) of medium-resolution density maps that are associated with atomic models, a wide variety of similarities can be observed between maps and models. To validate such atomic models and to classify structural features, a local similarity criterion, the F1 score, is proposed and evaluated in this study. The F1 score is theoretically normalized to a ...
Multi-Label Model For Toxicity Prediction, 2020 Wright State University - Main Campus
Multi-Label Model For Toxicity Prediction, Xiu Huan Yap, Michael L. Raymer
Symposium of Student Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activities Materials
Most computational predictive models are specifically trained for a single toxicity endpoint. Since more than 1300 toxicity assays have been reported in the TOXCAST dashboard, achieving high coverage over this growing number of toxicity endpoints remains challenging. Furthermore, single-endpoint models lack the ability to learn dependencies between endpoints, such as those targeting similar biological pathways, which may be used to boost model performance. In this study, we characterize the performance of 3 multi-label classification (MLC) models, namely Classifier Chains (CC), Label Powersets (LP) and Stacking (SBR), on Tox21 challenge data. These MLC models employ the Problem Transformation approach, which is ...
Assembly And Identification Of Novel Viruses In The Aquatic Invertebrate Daphnia Magna, 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Assembly And Identification Of Novel Viruses In The Aquatic Invertebrate Daphnia Magna, Freddy L. Gonzalez, Reilly O. Cooper, Clayton E. Cressler
UCARE Research Products
Microbiome studies have been critical to understanding host health and life history. Many studies primarily focus on understanding the impacts of bacteria on the host, while fewer examine the impacts of viruses on host fitness or the interaction between viruses and bacteria within a host. Here, we utilized shotgun sequencing to identify whether viruses were present in the model organism Daphnia magna. VIBRANT, a bioinformatic tool that utilizes hybrid machine learning and protein similarity to identify lytic genomes and other novel viruses, was used on sequencing data from four samples of adult and juvenile Daphnia. We found a complete, novel ...
On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, 2020 Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson
Public Health Resources
The ongoing pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing significant damage to public health and economic livelihoods, and is putting significant strains on healthcare services globally. This unfolding emergency has prompted the preparation and dissemination of the article “Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus likely to be constrained by climate” by Araújo and Naimi (2020). The authors present the results of an ensemble forecast made from a suite of species distribution models (SDMs), where they attempt to predict the suitability of the climate for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 over the coming months. They argue that climate is ...