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Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor 2023 West Virginia University

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical interface between the systemic circulation and the brain. It is a specialized multicellular unit composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, a basement membrane, and astrocytic end foot processes. BMECs are a principal component of the BBB that provide the structural framework needed for the stringent transport of molecules into the brain. BMEC dysfunction permits the trafficking of neurotoxins from systemic circulation into the brain, which ultimately exacerbates BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that BBB dysfunction is a key determinant of cognitive decline in sepsis. However, there are critical knowledge ...


Quality Of Life For Women With Chronic Lyme Disease: A Socioeconomic Investigation, Dale M. Jones 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Quality Of Life For Women With Chronic Lyme Disease: A Socioeconomic Investigation, Dale M. Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

This is a mixed methods investigation of how chronic Lyme disease, including Lyme-like diseases and co-infections, affects the quality of life of women who have chronic Lyme. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used during three phases of research: a 91-question survey instrument followed by focus group discussions and written narratives. The research considered the socioeconomic impact on quality of life in five areas: obtaining a diagnosis, relationships and personal support systems, struggles with the medical system, the ability to work, and access to treatment. There were 500 responses to the survey, of which 373 were analyzed; 11 participants in ...


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial ...


Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes 2022 Chapman University

Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Infections can dramatically modify animal behaviour. The extent of these changes depends on an animal's environment. It has been proposed that testosterone modulates the suppression of behavioural symptoms of sickness under certain reproductive contexts. To further understand the role played by testosterone in modulating sickness behaviours under reproductive contexts, we studied a species, the Japanese quail, in which female exposure rapidly decreases circulating testosterone in males. Males received either an immune challenge (lipopolysaccharide – LPS) or a control injection and their behaviours, mass change and testosterone levels were quantified in the presence or absence of a female. Both the presence ...


Evaluating The Practical Identifiability Of A Malaria Model To Assess Conversion To Transmissible Stages, Anthony Raymond Krueger, Damie Pak, Megan Greischar, Lauren Childs 2022 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Evaluating The Practical Identifiability Of A Malaria Model To Assess Conversion To Transmissible Stages, Anthony Raymond Krueger, Damie Pak, Megan Greischar, Lauren Childs

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Model Of Immune-Inflammatory Response In Covid-19 Patients, Quiyana M. Murphy 2022 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Mathematical Model Of Immune-Inflammatory Response In Covid-19 Patients, Quiyana M. Murphy

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne 2022 Technological University Dublin

Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, both infrared absorption and Raman scattering, are high precision, label free analytical techniques which have found applications in fields as diverse as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, forensics and archeometrics and, in recent times, have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. As analytical techniques, they have been applied to the characterisation of viruses as early as the 1970s, and, in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have been explored in response to the World Health Organisation as novel methodologies to aid in the global efforts to implement and improve rapid screening of viral infection. This review ...


Evaluation Of The Humoral/Fc-Mediated Immune Responses To An Adenovirus-26 Viral Vector/Gp140 Subunit Combined Vaccine Regimen As A Prophylactic Hiv-1, Nathan E. Adam 2022 Cedarville University

Evaluation Of The Humoral/Fc-Mediated Immune Responses To An Adenovirus-26 Viral Vector/Gp140 Subunit Combined Vaccine Regimen As A Prophylactic Hiv-1, Nathan E. Adam

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

Background and Introduction: HIV is one of the most problematic pandemics to date, currently infecting upwards of 38 million people worldwide (“The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic,” 2020). Although infection and mortality rates have generally decreased, current prophylactic (preventive) measures against HIV-1 acquisition have shown major weaknesses that could be remedied with a vaccine (Pitisuttuthum & Marovich, 2020). Manufacturing an effective, prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine, however, is not without challenges - namely design/selection of vaccine-delivered immunogens (antigens) and elicitation of proper immune responses to HIV-1 antigens (Ng’uni et al., 2020). Fortunately, despite past, unsuccessful research, studies within the past 10-15 years have begun to elucidate immune correlates of protection against HIV-1 acquisition, specifically IgG1/IgG3 antibody (Ab) production, as well as non-neutralizing, Fc-Mediated effector functions (Rerks-Ngarm et al., 2009). Excitingly, studies released in the last 3 years, which use Adenovirus serotype-26 (Ad26) vector (Custers et al., 2020) show promising signs that an effective HIV-1 vaccine could become a reality (Baden et al., 2020; Barouch et al., 2018). Thus, for this presentation, I hope to show that Johnson & Johnson’s two new Ad26-based vaccines (combined with booster vaccines) sufficiently elicit key immune correlates of protection to warrant an Ad26 vector-based regimen’s testing past Phase 1/2a clinical trials. Results ...


The Effects Of Climate Change On The Transmission Of Lyme Disease, Schuyler Hedican, Katherine Kistler, Iveth Martinez Granados 2022 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

The Effects Of Climate Change On The Transmission Of Lyme Disease, Schuyler Hedican, Katherine Kistler, Iveth Martinez Granados

Celebrating Scholarship and Creativity Day

Lyme disease currently affects approximately 300,000 people annually in the United States, but climate change threatens to increase this number. Rising temperatures, humidity, and levels of rainfall are impacting the relationship and interactions between the bacterium that causes Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), its vectors, and associated hosts. Climate change models predict a northward expansion of these disease-carrying vectors and hosts into new territories in North America, as formerly unsuitable territories become more hospitable, most notably in Canada. Human exposure to the bacteria through the bite of an infected tick can lead to the characteristic symptoms of Lyme disease, such ...


Structural Formation And Functionality Of The Spoiie Protein In Clostridium Difficile, Rachel Siebenmorgen 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Structural Formation And Functionality Of The Spoiie Protein In Clostridium Difficile, Rachel Siebenmorgen

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

My research efforts were directed toward the structure and functionality of a protein, designated SpoIIE [11], which previously has been shown to regulate C. difficile peptide utilization in addition to sporulation and toxin release. The SpoIIE protein is found in all spore-forming gram-positive bacteria and is a crucial component in activation of transcription factors and septum formation thus affecting the regulation and timing of spore development [11,12]. A truncated form of the SpoIIE protein named SpoIIE∆TM was used in an effort to determine the structure of an important but uncharacterized linker domain of the protein. If the structure ...


Spike Protein Structural Dynamics Of Sars-Cov-2 Coronaviruses Studied Using Molecular Dynamics, William Strickland 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Spike Protein Structural Dynamics Of Sars-Cov-2 Coronaviruses Studied Using Molecular Dynamics, William Strickland

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has overwhelmingly impacted the global population, accounting for millions of confirmed infections and deaths over the last year. The virus’s influence on the health and safety of individuals, the economy, and daily life has been disruptive and devastating. While SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1, two closely related members of the SARS coronaviruses, have shown the ability to cross the species barrier and infect humans, SARS-CoV-2 has predominantly been the virus responsible for the number of infections presently known. SARS-CoV-2 has also proven to be volatile, as many variants ...


Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart 2022 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart

Biology Theses

Organisms produce chemical weapons for defense, but target organisms can develop resistance. In their introduced range, non-native species may bring “novel weapons” against which native organisms have not co-evolved resistance. The invasive European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) may have brought antimicrobial secretions to the Northeastern United States that are novel weapons against native fungal and bacterial soil organisms. I hypothesized that M. rubra would better inhibit seed pathogens resulting in greater emergence of native myrmecochorous Viola sororia seeds and, as a side effect, more strongly inhibit arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than a native seed dispersing ant (Aphaenogaster picea). I also expected ...


The Plague: A Contemporary Lens, Khawaja Ahmed, Delaney Collier, Will Plumb 2022 DePauw University

The Plague: A Contemporary Lens, Khawaja Ahmed, Delaney Collier, Will Plumb

Student Research

The Plague by Albert Camus bears witness to the town of Oran amidst the spread of the plague from the beginning to the end of the quarantine placed on the town. Although it is a direct comparison to the COVID-19 pandemic, Camus’s themes expressed in his novel resonates with other contemporary worldly issues that may or may not have an explanation. These other contemporary issues include war and the climate crisis. From our 2022 perspective, we have seen the COVID pandemic play out firsthand. We have witnessed from afar the threat of World War III and the current war ...


Microplastics Exposure In At-Risk Myotis Lucifugus Bats Of The Northeastern United States, Leah Crowley 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Microplastics Exposure In At-Risk Myotis Lucifugus Bats Of The Northeastern United States, Leah Crowley

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...


Lipid Rafts, Exosomal Vesicles And Anti-Giardial Therapies, Brian Ivan Grajeda 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Lipid Rafts, Exosomal Vesicles And Anti-Giardial Therapies, Brian Ivan Grajeda

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Giardia lamblia, a protozoan parasite, is a major cause of waterborne infection, worldwide. While the trophozoite form of this parasite induces pathological symptoms in the gut, the cyst forms transmit the infection via contaminated water. Since Giardia is a non-invasive parasite, the actual mechanism by which it causes infection remains elusive. We have previously reported that Giardia assembles cholesterol and GM1 glycolipid-enriched lipid rafts (LRs) that participate in encystation and cyst production. To further delineate the role of LRs in pathogenesis, we isolated LRs from Giardia and subjected them to proteomic analysis. Various cellular proteins including the virulent proteins—e ...


The Incidence Of Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis In Maine Dairy Cattle, Morgan Belvin 2022 University of Maine - Main

The Incidence Of Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis In Maine Dairy Cattle, Morgan Belvin

Honors College

This project investigated the factors surrounding the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) mastitis in Maine dairy cattle. This type of mastitis is driven by an antibiotic resistant pathogen that is very contagious among cattle, though farmers are often unaware of how common this type of mastitis is and that it could be present in their herds. My hypothesis was that specific farm factors, like milkers performing other tasks during milking, as well as the act of pre-dipping versus not pre-dipping, would explain the increase in SA mastitis. A thirty-seven-question IRB-approved survey was subsequently distributed to farmers in the University of ...


Macrophage Rac2 Promotes Suppression Of Germination During Aspergillus Fumigatus Infection, Chris D. Tanner 2022 Clemson University

Macrophage Rac2 Promotes Suppression Of Germination During Aspergillus Fumigatus Infection, Chris D. Tanner

All Theses

Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus found ubiquitously in the environment including in the air we breathe. Though not a threat to most people, immunodeficient or immunosuppressed individuals are at risk for developing severe infection, including the life-threatening condition of invasive aspergillosis. The hematopoietic cell specific GTPase protein Rac2 is associated with major roles in innate immune defense. Currently Rac2 has been demonstrated to be crucial for survival against a variety of infections. Here, we use a rac2 null mutant zebrafish line and morpholino approaches to elucidate roles of Rac2 in mounting the macrophage host defense response against A. fumigatus infection ...


Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock

Doctoral Dissertations

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen infecting most humans worldwide. CMV infection within immunocompromised individuals can cause severe morbidity and potential mortality. Disease during CMV infection is due to virus dissemination and subsequent inflammation. Host immune cells lie at the intersection potentially mediating both. The CMV-encoded viral chemokine vCXCL-1 is a proposed virulence factor in mouse models increasing immune cell recruitment and disease. However, the primary immune cell mediator is undetermined. To identify targets, Chapter 2 examines CXCR2 expression (receptor for vCXCL-1) among various mouse tissues and human peripheral blood under steady-state conditions. In vitro, isoforms of HCMV’s vCXCL-1 ...


Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

Systems biology offers the opportunity to understand the complex mechanisms of various biological phenomena. The wealth of data that is produced, at an increasing rate, provides the potential to meet this opportunity. Here we take an applied approach to integrate multiple omic level data sources in order to generate biologically relevant hypotheses. We apply a novel analysis pipeline to model both, in concert, the microbial and transcriptomic signature from COVID-19 positive patients. We show patients may suffer from an increased microbial burden, with an increased pathogen potential. Gene expression evidence further shows patients may exhibit a compromised barrier immunity, owing ...


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