Autoantibodies To The Ny-Eso-1 Tumor Antigen In Metastatic Melanoma: Sialylation Of The Fc Region Of Immunoglobulin G Induces Differential Expression Signatures Of Inflammatory Molecules During Dendritic Cell Differentiation And Maturation, 2014 Aurora Health Care
Autoantibodies To The Ny-Eso-1 Tumor Antigen In Metastatic Melanoma: Sialylation Of The Fc Region Of Immunoglobulin G Induces Differential Expression Signatures Of Inflammatory Molecules During Dendritic Cell Differentiation And Maturation, Martin Oaks, Nathaniel Rein, John O. Richards, James Shaffer
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that different glycoforms of antibodies from patients with metastatic melanoma have different functional effects on human dendritic cell differentiation and maturation.
Methods: Antibodies to the cancer antigen NY-ESO-1 were affinity-purified from patients with melanoma and further fractionated into different glycoforms by lectin chromatography. Sialic acid-rich and sialic acid-poor fractions of these immunoglobulin G antibodies (IgG) were added to dendritic cell cultures during both differentiation and maturation, and the resulting cellular messenger RNA (mRNA) and culture supernatants were tested by microarray and enzyme-linked immunoassay for molecules related to inflammatory pathways.
Results: We identified unique mRNA and ...
Measuring Immune Responsiveness In Xenopus Laevis Using Phytohaemagglutanin (Pha), 2014 DePauw University
Measuring Immune Responsiveness In Xenopus Laevis Using Phytohaemagglutanin (Pha), Kevin Kinney, Skyler Majors, Madelyn Lee, Scott Espich, Erika Kischuk
Science Research Fellows Posters
Phytohaemagglutanin (PHA) is a red kidney bean extract that has been used to stimulate an immunological T cell response in a variety of animals. This procedure has become very popular method to analyze an individual animal’s ability to trigger an immunological response.(Brown 2014) PHA skin testing has been used in a variety of avian, mice, lizard, and amphibian species where it is injected into the muscle, skin, or webbing of an animal and then recording the amount of swelling before and after the injection.(Smits 1999) We are using the amphibian Xenopus laevis to test 1) their immune ...
Discovery Of A 240 Million Year Old Nematode Parasite Egg In A Cynodont Coprolite Sheds Light On The Early Origin Of Pinworms In Vertebrates, 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Discovery Of A 240 Million Year Old Nematode Parasite Egg In A Cynodont Coprolite Sheds Light On The Early Origin Of Pinworms In Vertebrates, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Scott Gardner, Victor Borba, Priscilla Araujo, Daniela Leles, Átila Da-Rosa, Juliana Dutra, Luis Fernando Ferreira, Adauto Araújo
Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology
Background: We report the discovery of a nematode parasite egg (Nemata: Oxyurida) from a coprolite closely associated with the remains of several species of Cynodontia, dated to 240 million years old. This finding is particularly significant because this is the oldest record of an oxyurid nematode yet discovered, and because the cynodonts are considered a stem-group of the mammals.
Methods: We extracted material from a fully mineralized coprolite by both scraping the surface, and removing fragments from its interior with clean dental instruments used a single time. A single drop of glycerol from a new vial was added as a ...
Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, 2014 The University of Texas
Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George Mcnamara
Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20141018
Tattletales is my concept to multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors ("Tattletales", which is also the overall concept name) and multicolor FP reporters ("T-Bow" for Rainbow T-cells and tumor cells) to study the physiology of live cells.
These are based on:
1. LacI-GFP :: LacO operator synthetic tandem repeat array (Robinett et al 1996 JCB, Fig 4A, http://jcb.rupress.org/content/135/6/1685.full.pdf )
2. the plethora of fluorescent protein biosensors - see page 1 of this "63" download site.
3. the many colors, and combinations of colors (CY11.5 ...
Avian Influenza Virus Prevalence In Migratory Waterfowl In The United States, 2007-2009, Scott R. Groepper Mr., Thomas Deliberto, Mark Vrtiska, Kerri Pedersen, Seth Swafford, Scott Hyngstrom
Scott R Groepper
SUMMARY. We analyzed 155,535 samples collected for surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), in the United States from 2007 to 2009, from migratory waterfowl (ducks, geese, and swans). The goal was to elucidate patterns of prevalence by flyway and functional groups to determine targets for future surveillance. Apparent prevalence of AIV was highest in the Pacific Flyway in 2007–2008 (14.2% and 14.1%, respectively), in the Mississippi Flyway in 2009 (16.8%), and lowest each year in the Atlantic Flyway (range, 7.3%–8.9%). Dabbling ducks had higher apparent prevalence of AIV (12.8%–18.8 ...
Transcription Of Inflammatory Genes: Long Noncoding Rna And Beyond, 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Transcription Of Inflammatory Genes: Long Noncoding Rna And Beyond, Susan Carpenter, Katherine A. Fitzgerald
Infectious Diseases and Immunology Publications and Presentations
The innate immune system must coordinate elaborate signaling pathways to turn on expression of hundreds of genes to provide protection against pathogens and resolve acute inflammation. Multiple genes within distinct functional categories are coordinately and temporally regulated by transcriptional on and off switches in response to distinct external stimuli. Three classes of transcription factors act together with transcriptional coregulators and chromatin-modifying complexes to control these programs. In addition, newer studies implicate long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) as additional regulators of these responses. LncRNAs promote, fine-tune, and restrain the inflammatory program. In this study, we provide an overview of gene regulation and ...
Validating Tbtif2-Interacting Candidates, 2014 Cleveland State University
Validating Tbtif2-Interacting Candidates, Fan Wu, Jennifer Berkey, Joshua Hellsing, Nisha Thaker, Bibo Li
Undergraduate Research Posters 2014
Transmitted by the tsetse fly, Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes sleeping sickness in human and nagana in cattle. While infecting the bloodstream and central nervous system, T. brucei evades the immune system by altering its major surface antigen, Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs), which forms a thick coat on its cell membrane. The expression sites for VSGs are at the sub-telomeric regions of T. brucei chromosomes. Telomeres, DNA-protein complexes located at the end of chromosomes, provide chromosome stability by preventing degradation of the chromosome ends. The telomere complex also regulates the sub-telomeric VSG expression and switching in T ...
Understanding Recurrent Disease: A Dynamical Systems Approach, 2014 Western University
Understanding Recurrent Disease: A Dynamical Systems Approach, Wenjing Zhang
University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Recurrent disease, characterized by repeated alternations between acute relapse and long re- mission, can be a feature of both common diseases, like ear infections, and serious chronic diseases, such as HIV infection or multiple sclerosis. Due to their poorly understood etiology and the resultant challenge for medical treatment and patient management, recurrent diseases attract much attention in clinical research and biomathematics. Previous studies of recurrence by biomathematicians mainly focus on in-host models and generate recurrent patterns by in- corporating forcing functions or stochastic elements. In this study, we investigate deterministic in-host models through the qualitative analysis of dynamical systems, to ...
The Hunt For Protective Correlates Of Immunity To Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria, 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Hunt For Protective Correlates Of Immunity To Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria, Ann M. Moormann, V. Ann Stewart
Open Access Articles
Determining an immunologic correlate of protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been the holy grail of natural infection studies, and sought after as an endpoint for malaria vaccine trials. An in vitro assay that provides an accurate and precise assessment of protective immunity to malaria would make smaller, short-duration studies feasible, rather than the currently powered study designs that use morbidity or mortality as outcomes. Such a biomarker would be especially desirable in situations where malaria control measures that result in decreases in clinical endpoints and putatively waning protective immunity have been implemented. In an article published in BMC Medicine ...
Transcriptional Regulation Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Type Iv: Implications For Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ali Abbas
University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
High titers of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies have been detected in sera of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, implicating citrullinating enzymes in the pathogenesis of RA. Peptidylarginine deiminase type IV (PAD4) is a member of the PAD family of enzymes that catalyze the post- translational modification of arginine to citrulline and has been linked with RA. However, little is known about its transcriptional regulation. Therefore, our aim was to determine how transcription of PAD4 is activated in the myeloid lineage. Using bioinformatics, a potential nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) binding site was identified on the PAD4 promoter. Luciferase assays were used to ...
Tlr4 Activation Induces Il-1ss Release Via An Ipaf Dependent But Caspase 1/11/8 Independent Pathway In The Lung, 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Tlr4 Activation Induces Il-1ss Release Via An Ipaf Dependent But Caspase 1/11/8 Independent Pathway In The Lung, Suffwan Eltom, Maria G. Belvisi, Liang Yew-Booth, Bilel Dekkak, Sarah A. Maher, Eric D. Dubuis, Victoria Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Mark A. Birrell
Open Access Articles
Background: The IL-1 family of cytokines is known to play an important role in inflammation therefore understanding the mechanism by which they are produced is paramount. Despite the recent plethora of publications dedicated to the study of these cytokines, the mechanism by which they are produced in the airway following endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exposure is currently unclear. The aim was to determine the mechanism by which the IL-1 cytokines are produced after LPS inhaled challenge.
Methods:Mice were challenged with aerosolised LPS, and lung tissue and bronchiolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected. Targets were measured at the mRNA and protein level ...
Detection Of Microbial Catecholamines In A Model Wound Environment, 2014 California Polytechnic State University
Detection Of Microbial Catecholamines In A Model Wound Environment, Ryan F. Wasurick
STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters
Chronic wounds are defined as an injury that does not heal in a predictable pattern or time frame. The healing process is composed of specific stages and chronic wounds have been interrupted in one or more stages of this process. This project focuses on the bacterial component of an infected wound, specifically on the catecholamines influencing the bacteria in the wound site. The assay developed in this experiment is designed to optimally grow bacteria in a simulated eukaryotic wound environment, and evaluate biofilm expression and catecholamine production of the bacteria. Bacteria used in this study are Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas ...
Potential Roles Of Peroxidases In Caenorhabditis Elegans Innate Immunity, 2014 Texas Medical Center Library
Potential Roles Of Peroxidases In Caenorhabditis Elegans Innate Immunity, George R. Tiller, George R. Tiller
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
The production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in response to pathogen detection is a rapid, nonspecific response that is evolutionarily conserved from nematodes to humans. ROS serve as direct and indirect effectors of innate and adaptive immunity. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a ROS burst is observed during infection and is mediated by the dual oxidase BLI-3, which produces H2O2. RNAi (RNA interference) to reduce the amount of BLI-3 results in a significant increase in susceptibility to pathogens, suggesting BLI-3 has a role in the immune response. However, H2O2 by itself is not a potent antimicrobial ...
The Role Of The C5a Receptor In Host Defense Against Listeria Monocytogenes, 2014 Texas Medical Center Library
The Role Of The C5a Receptor In Host Defense Against Listeria Monocytogenes, Daniel Calame
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a major cause of mortality resulting from food poisoning in the United States. While the complement component C5 is known to be protective in listeriosis, it is unknown how its cleavage fragment C5a participates. Here we show in a model of systemic Lm infection that the C5a receptor is essential for host defense. C5aR-/- mice have reduced survival and increased bacterial burden in the liver and spleen in comparison to WT mice. Surprisingly, C5aR-/- mice also have a dramatic reduction in splenocyte numbers resulting from elevated cell death as indicated by TUNEL staining and caspase 3 ...
Oroya Fever And Verruga Peruana: Bartonelloses Unique To South America, 2014 University of Montana
Oroya Fever And Verruga Peruana: Bartonelloses Unique To South America, Michael F. Minnick, Burt E. Anderson, Amorce Lima, James M. Battisti, Phillip G. Lawyer, Richard J. Birtles
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Bartonella bacilliformis is the bacterial agent of Carrión's disease and is presumed to be transmitted between humans by phlebotomine sand flies. Carrión's disease is endemic to high-altitude valleys of the South American Andes, and the first reported outbreak (1871) resulted in over 4,000 casualties. Since then, numerous outbreaks have been documented in endemic regions, and over the last two decades, outbreaks have occurred at atypical elevations, strongly suggesting that the area of endemicity is expanding. Approximately 1.7 million South Americans are estimated to be at risk in an area covering roughly 145,000 km2 of Ecuador ...
Preliminary Evaluation Of Near Infrared Spectroscopy As A Method To Detect Plasma Leakage In Children With Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Preliminary Evaluation Of Near Infrared Spectroscopy As A Method To Detect Plasma Leakage In Children With Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Babs R. Soller, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Fengmei Zou, Alan L. Rothman, In-Kyu Yoon, Robert V. Gibbons, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Stephen J. Thomas, Sharone Green
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Dengue viral infections are prevalent in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Clinical manifestations range from a self-limited fever to a potential life-threatening plasma leakage syndrome (dengue hemorrhagic fever). The objective of this study was to assess the utility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) as a possible continuous measure to detect plasma leakage in children with dengue.
METHODS: Children ages 6 months to 15 years of age admitted with suspected dengue were enrolled from the dengue ward at Queen Sirikit National Institute for Child Health ...
High Fat Diet Feeding Results In Gender Specific Steatohepatitis And Inflammasome Activation, 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School
High Fat Diet Feeding Results In Gender Specific Steatohepatitis And Inflammasome Activation, Michal Ganz, Timea Csak, Gyongyi Szabo
Gastroenterology Publications and Presentations
AIM: To develop an animal model that encompasses the different facets of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which has been a challenge.
METHODS: In this study, we used a high fat diet (HFD) feeding supplemented with fructose and sucrose in the water mimicking the high-fructose corn syrup that is abundant in the diet in the United States. We used C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for short and long-term feedings of 6 and 16 wk respectively, and evaluated the extent of liver damage, steatosis, and inflammasome activation. Our methods included histopathological analysis to assess liver damage and steatosis, which involved H and E and ...
The Hot Zone And The Cold War, 2014 Colby College
The Hot Zone And The Cold War, Peter Nichols
It was a time when, in the nation's schools, drills for nuclear war were as frequent as fire drills- when Americans and their Soviet counterparts lived with a constant fear of imminent worldwide destruction. "You had a cultural mindset that was apocalyptic," said Robert S. Weisbrot, Christian A. Johnson Distinguished Teaching Professor of History at Colby, "that believed you could not guarantee that your wonderful suburban home and family and community...would survive ten more seconds."
"It was not simply a matter of two countries that are adversaries building up weapons," said Weisbrot. "Each saw the other as the ...
Aquastella Gen. Nov.: A New Genus Of Saprolegniaceous Oomycete Rotifer Parasites Related To Aphanomyces, With Unique Sporangial Outgrowths, 2014 College of Saint Benedict and Saint John’s University
Aquastella Gen. Nov.: A New Genus Of Saprolegniaceous Oomycete Rotifer Parasites Related To Aphanomyces, With Unique Sporangial Outgrowths, Daniel P. Molloy, Sally L. Glockling, Clifford A. Siegfried, Gordon W. Beakes, Timothy Y. James, Sergey E. Mastitsky, Elizabeth S. Wurdak, Laure Giamberini, Michael J. Gaylo, Michael J. Nemeth
Biology Faculty Publications
The oomycete genus Aquastella is described to accommodate two new species of parasites of rotifers observed in Brooktrout Lake, New York State, USA. Three rotifer species – Keratella taurocephala,Polyarthra vulgaris, and Ploesoma truncatum – were infected, and this is the first report of oomycete infection in these species. Aquastella attenuata was specific to K. taurocephala and Aquastella aciculariswas specific to P. vulgaris and P. truncatum. The occurrence of infections correlated with peak host population densities and rotifers were infected in the upper layers of the water column. Sequencing of 18S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis of both species placed them within ...
American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 36, Nos. 1-2, Spring-Summer 2014, 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 36, Nos. 1-2, Spring-Summer 2014, Scott Lyell Gardner
Newsletter of the American Society of Parasitologists
Includes editor's note and contents, a report to the ASP by President Janovy, information about a new parasitology book, a report of the ASP Meeting in New Orleans, information about the transfer of the U.S. National Parasite Collection from the Agricultural Research Service to the Smithsonian Institution, and a list of credits and ASP Affiliates.