Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Immunology and Infectious Disease Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

5,156 Full-Text Articles 10,447 Authors 1,974,367 Downloads 194 Institutions

All Articles in Immunology and Infectious Disease

Faceted Search

5,156 full-text articles. Page 1 of 164.

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor 2023 West Virginia University

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical interface between the systemic circulation and the brain. It is a specialized multicellular unit composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, a basement membrane, and astrocytic end foot processes. BMECs are a principal component of the BBB that provide the structural framework needed for the stringent transport of molecules into the brain. BMEC dysfunction permits the trafficking of neurotoxins from systemic circulation into the brain, which ultimately exacerbates BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that BBB dysfunction is a key determinant of cognitive decline in sepsis. However, there are critical knowledge ...


Exploring The Relationships Between South Texas Northern Bobwhite Populations And Cecal Worms Via System Dynamics, Nicole J. Traub, Benjamin L. Turner, Leonard A. Brennan, Alan M. Fedynich 2022 Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University–Kingsville, Kingsville, TX

Exploring The Relationships Between South Texas Northern Bobwhite Populations And Cecal Worms Via System Dynamics, Nicole J. Traub, Benjamin L. Turner, Leonard A. Brennan, Alan M. Fedynich

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Community ecology historically focused on plants and free-living organisms; however, problems such as defining habitat boundaries and obtaining adequate sample sizes arise when evaluating such communities. The unique nature of host-helminth systems allows parasite community ecologists to avoid these problems when testing ecological hypotheses. Unlike free-living communities that have artificially constructed boundaries, parasite communities have well-defined unambiguous boundaries within host individuals. Due to the inherently complex and dynamic nature of ecological systems, traditional experimental methods often require expensive, long-term trials beyond investigators’ time and resource budgets. Conversely, a system dynamics approach facilitates learning about such systems via simulation of ecosystem ...


A Study Of Multiple Sclerosis, Christine Chen 2022 University of Louisville

A Study Of Multiple Sclerosis, Christine Chen

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Maternal obesity has led to an increase in adverse offspring developmental outcomes and a greater risk for long-term metabolic diseases. Choline, a semi-essential nutrient, can be incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as sphingomyelin (SM) and donate its labile methyl group for the remethylation of homocysteine after choline is oxidized to betaine. Prenatal choline insufficiency has been related to maternal obesity and metabolic diseases, such as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Choline may interact with maternal obesity to influence the programming offspring.

Chapter 1 presents an introduction of choline and the various clinical outcomes associated with choline supplementation during ...


Developing A Nasal Organotypic Model To Investigate The Effects Of The Nasal Microbiome On Susceptibility To Pathogens, Victor H.K. Lam Mr. 2022 Western University

Developing A Nasal Organotypic Model To Investigate The Effects Of The Nasal Microbiome On Susceptibility To Pathogens, Victor H.K. Lam Mr.

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The microbiota is essential to the functioning of the immune system. The nasal milieu secretes immune molecules that can be influenced by diverse bacteria. Hence commensals that enhance anti-viral responses may confer resistance to respiratory viral infection.

Our collaborators have identified 7 microbial state types (CST) defined by indicator species in the nose and recently, through analyses of nasal immune molecules, we have categorized the nasal immune profile types into 8 groups (IPT). Although the IPTs correlated with certain CSTs, the influence of the nasal microbiome on susceptibility to respiratory pathogens is still unknown.

Defining this complex relationship requires a ...


Obesity As A Risk Factor For Covid-19, Gabriela Hermes, Mir Saleem 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Obesity As A Risk Factor For Covid-19, Gabriela Hermes, Mir Saleem

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The coronavirus pandemic has presented a wide range of challenges for healthcare systems in the world. COVID-19 has infected millions of people, with approximately 90% of the population showing mild or no symptoms. The disease has some risk factors that increase its severity, such as obesity, age, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, suppressed immune system, and pulmonary disorders. Obese individuals have higher chances of having symptomatic COVID-19 infection with excessive rates of hospitalization and ICU admission. Understanding the mechanisms defining the link between COVID-19 and obesity is necessary to develop preventive measures and therapeutic interventions for people with obesity. Patients with obesity ...


Interrogation Of The Inkt-Mait Cell Interface, Nicole I. Wang 2022 Western University

Interrogation Of The Inkt-Mait Cell Interface, Nicole I. Wang

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unique subsets of invariant T cells that are involved in regulating various tumor responses and display potent anti-microbial properties. Upon their activation, iNKT and MAIT cells secrete large quantities of T helper 1 (Th1)-, Th2-, and Th17-type cytokines that mediate their ability to regulate a variety of other immune cells, including B cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages. However, whether and how iNKT and MAIT cells regulate each other in vivo remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence for a cross-talk between iNKT and MAIT cells that resembles ...


Anticipating Infection: How Parasitism Risk Changes Animal Physiology, Patricia C. Lopes 2022 Chapman University

Anticipating Infection: How Parasitism Risk Changes Animal Physiology, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

  1. Uninfected animals can attempt to prevent parasitism in many ways. Behavioural avoidance of parasitized conspecifics, for instance, is documented in several species.
  2. Interactions with parasitized conspecifics can also, however, lead to physiological changes in uninfected animals, an effect that is much less well studied, and consequently, less well understood. The way in which exposure to parasitism risk changes the physiology of uninfected animals and the impacts of those changes on animal fitness remain a significant gap in knowledge.
  3. Determining how the disease environment experienced by animals impacts their physiology, survival and reproduction has major implications for our knowledge of how ...


A Checklist Of Parasites Of Peromyscus Maniculatus In North America, John Ubelaker, Gábor R. Rácz 2022 Southern Methodist University

A Checklist Of Parasites Of Peromyscus Maniculatus In North America, John Ubelaker, Gábor R. Rácz

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

This document represents a summary of parasites, in the broadest sense of the term, reported from Peromyscus maniculatus from throughout its range in North America. The document provides data from work ranging from paleontological findings to relatively current reports of parasites and parasitism from P. maniculatus and covers viruses, bacteria sensu lato, protists, helminths, and ectoparasites.


Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis 2022 University of South Alabama

Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis

Theses and Dissertations

The genus Rickettsia is comprised of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are spread by hematophagous arthropods. Elucidating the factors conferring rickettsial virulence has perplexed investigators for decades, complicated by the lack of efficient genetic tools necessary to uncover rickettsial- and vector-specific factors contributing to persistence. The advent of transposon mutagenesis has enabled the field to make vast developments in uncovering novel rickettsial mechanisms utilized in various host backgrounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to generate Rickettsia felis transposon mutants and characterize novel phenotypes associated with genetic disruption in an arthropod background. Distribution of rickettsiae is reliant on the ...


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME ...


Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler 2022 University of Maine

Weaving An Interdisciplinary Microbiome Career Using Threads From Different Ecosystems, Sarah Hosler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Animals have trillions of microorganisms living in or on many body sites, these communities of microorganisms are called microbiomes. Microbiomes are typically host-specific, and a lot of information about the host can be determined from investigating them. Microbiome research has many real-world applications, and this thesis utilizes the One Health perspective, which acknowledges the connection of humans, animals, and environments, and emphasizes the need for collaborative, interdisciplinary research. The first interdisciplinary project is an investigation into the bacteria in wild and cultured Atlantic deep-sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus larvae. Adults in hatcheries can be induced to spawn, but the last two ...


Immunotherapeutic Effects Of Intratumorally Injected Zymosan-Adenovirus Conjugates Encoding Constant Active Irfs In A Melanoma Mouse Model, Margaret Musick 2022 Clemson University

Immunotherapeutic Effects Of Intratumorally Injected Zymosan-Adenovirus Conjugates Encoding Constant Active Irfs In A Melanoma Mouse Model, Margaret Musick

All Dissertations

Current immunotherapies are only effective in a fraction of cancer patients. One of the main contributing factors to therapy resistance and overall poor prognosis is the immune status of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been shown to have significant influence on the immune status of the TME. As key players in maintaining tissue homeostasis, macrophages exhibit a broad range of phenotypes and functions, making TAMs a promising target for immunomodulatory therapies. As liaisons between innate and adaptive immunity, TAMs can promote a robust anti-tumor response involving both innate and adaptive immunity. This study investigated the potential of ...


Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Regulation Of Mhc Ii Trafficking And Expression By Host And Viral Factors, Alex Lac

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) to the adaptive immune system is crucial for mounting sterilizing immune responses. This central role has made antigen presentation a target for antagonism by many pathogens. Notably, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) decrease MHC II expression in several immune cells. The mechanisms responsible for this suppression are unknown but involves either redirecting MHC II molecules away from the cell surface or inhibiting MHC II expression. To understand how pathogens manipulate intracellular MHC II trafficking, we first investigated the role of the Golgi trafficking regulator, ERC1, in ...


Review Of The Cloacininae Stossich (Nemata: Strongyloidea) From Australasian Marsupials (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea), Ian Beveridge, Lesley R. Smales 2022 University of Melbourne

Review Of The Cloacininae Stossich (Nemata: Strongyloidea) From Australasian Marsupials (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea), Ian Beveridge, Lesley R. Smales

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

The nematode sub-family Cloacininae from Australasian macropodoid marsupials is reviewed. Keys are provided to all genera and species currently known. A revised definition of the sub-family and detailed generic diagnoses are provided. For each species, full synonymies and literature citations are included along with known hosts, geographical distributions and associated DNA sequence data. A brief morphological synopsis of each species is provided together with illustrations of the morphological features needed for identification using the keys. Due to uncertainties relating to the division of the sub-family into tribes, only the nominal allocation to tribe is provided. Two new genera are erected ...


Choline Supplementation Modifies The Effects Of Developmental Alcohol Exposure On Immune Responses In Adult Rats, Jessica A. Baker, Kristen R. Breit, Tamara S. Bodnar, Joanne Weinberg, Jennifer D. Thomas 2022 San Diego State University

Choline Supplementation Modifies The Effects Of Developmental Alcohol Exposure On Immune Responses In Adult Rats, Jessica A. Baker, Kristen R. Breit, Tamara S. Bodnar, Joanne Weinberg, Jennifer D. Thomas

Psychology Faculty Publications

Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt the development of numerous systems, including the immune system. Indeed, alterations in cytokine levels may contribute to the neuropathological, behavioral, and cognitive problems, and other adverse outcomes observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Importantly, supplementation with the essential nutrient choline can improve performance in hippocampal-dependent behaviors; thus, the present study examined the effects of choline on plasma and hippocampal cytokines in adult rats exposed to ethanol in early development. From postnatal day (PD) 4-9 (third trimester equivalent), pups received ethanol (5.25 g/kg/day) or Sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline ...


Quality Of Life For Women With Chronic Lyme Disease: A Socioeconomic Investigation, Dale M. Jones 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Quality Of Life For Women With Chronic Lyme Disease: A Socioeconomic Investigation, Dale M. Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

This is a mixed methods investigation of how chronic Lyme disease, including Lyme-like diseases and co-infections, affects the quality of life of women who have chronic Lyme. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used during three phases of research: a 91-question survey instrument followed by focus group discussions and written narratives. The research considered the socioeconomic impact on quality of life in five areas: obtaining a diagnosis, relationships and personal support systems, struggles with the medical system, the ability to work, and access to treatment. There were 500 responses to the survey, of which 373 were analyzed; 11 participants in ...


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial ...


Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes 2022 Chapman University

Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Infections can dramatically modify animal behaviour. The extent of these changes depends on an animal's environment. It has been proposed that testosterone modulates the suppression of behavioural symptoms of sickness under certain reproductive contexts. To further understand the role played by testosterone in modulating sickness behaviours under reproductive contexts, we studied a species, the Japanese quail, in which female exposure rapidly decreases circulating testosterone in males. Males received either an immune challenge (lipopolysaccharide – LPS) or a control injection and their behaviours, mass change and testosterone levels were quantified in the presence or absence of a female. Both the presence ...


Evaluating The Practical Identifiability Of A Malaria Model To Assess Conversion To Transmissible Stages, Anthony Raymond Krueger, Damie Pak, Megan Greischar, Lauren Childs 2022 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Evaluating The Practical Identifiability Of A Malaria Model To Assess Conversion To Transmissible Stages, Anthony Raymond Krueger, Damie Pak, Megan Greischar, Lauren Childs

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress