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Taphonomic Considerations For The Analysis Of Parasites From Archaeological Contexts, Johnica J. Morrow, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Karl J. Reinhard 2015 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Taphonomic Considerations For The Analysis Of Parasites From Archaeological Contexts, Johnica J. Morrow, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Karl J. Reinhard

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Discusses the role of taphonomy in archaeaoparasitology investigations. Enumerates various factors involved in preservation techniques. Gives cases from Lithuania, Belgium, and Italy. Concludes that considering the taphonomic factors associated with archaeological materials is a vital component in the interpretation of archaeoparasitological data.


Ectoparasitism Shortens The Breeding Season In A Colonial Bird, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown 2015 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa

Ectoparasitism Shortens The Breeding Season In A Colonial Bird, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown

Papers in Natural Resources

When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host’s breeding season—and thus the host’s opportunity for multiple brooding—has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively short (eight to nine week) breeding season, with birds rarely nesting late in the summer. Colonies at which ectoparasitic swallow bugs ...


The Leishmania Years At Unl (Or, My Life As A Cell Biologist, 1966-1981), John J. Janovy Jr. 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Leishmania Years At Unl (Or, My Life As A Cell Biologist, 1966-1981), John J. Janovy Jr.

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Slides for a talk during which Professor Janovy discussed the methods he used in researching Leishmania during the years 1966-1981. Includes lists of references.


Prehistoric Earth Oven Facilities And The Pathoecology Of Chagas Disease In The Lower Pecos Canyonlands, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araujo 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Prehistoric Earth Oven Facilities And The Pathoecology Of Chagas Disease In The Lower Pecos Canyonlands, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araujo

Papers in Natural Resources

Understanding the endemic region of a disease is part of developing a concept of the disease’s natural history and its threat to human health in both ancient and modern times. Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and has recently been identified as an emergent disease in North America. Ancient endemicity and reemergence has been demonstrated by an examination of a mummy found on the border between Coahuila, Mexico and Texas, USA. This mummified man, who died over 1000 years ago, exhibits the gross pathology of megacolon, which is consistent with Chagas disease. We are now exploring ...


American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 36, Nos. 3-4, Fall-Winter 2014, Scott Lyell Gardner 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 36, Nos. 3-4, Fall-Winter 2014, Scott Lyell Gardner

Newsletter of the American Society of Parasitologists

No abstract provided.


Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) Gene Deletion Induces Early Onset Of Age-Dependent Cataracts In Mice, Hongli Wu, Yibo Yu, Larry David, Ye-Shih Ho, Marjorie F. Lou 2014 University of North Texas Health Science Center

Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) Gene Deletion Induces Early Onset Of Age-Dependent Cataracts In Mice, Hongli Wu, Yibo Yu, Larry David, Ye-Shih Ho, Marjorie F. Lou

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) is an isozyme of glutaredoxin1 (thioltransferase) present in the mitochondria and nucleus with disulfide reductase and peroxidase activities, and it controls thiol/ disulfide balance in cells. In this study, we investigated whether Grx2 gene deletion could induce faster age-related cataract formation and elucidated the biochemical changes effected by Grx2 gene deletion that may contribute to lens opacity. Slit lamp was used to examine the lenses in Grx2 knock-out (KO) mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice ages 1 to 16 months. In the Grx2 null mice, the lens nuclear opacity began at 5 months, 3 months sooner than ...


Coincident Pre-Diabetes Is Associated With Dysregulated Cytokine Responses In Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Vaithilingam V. Banurekha, Dina Nair, Rathinam Sridhar, Hardy Kornfeld, Thomas B. Nutman, Subash Babu 2014 National Institutes of Health

Coincident Pre-Diabetes Is Associated With Dysregulated Cytokine Responses In Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Vaithilingam V. Banurekha, Dina Nair, Rathinam Sridhar, Hardy Kornfeld, Thomas B. Nutman, Subash Babu

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB)--Type 2 diabetes mellitus co-morbidity. However, the cytokine interactions that characterize PTB coincident with pre-diabetes (PDM) are not known.

METHODS: To identify the influence of coincident PDM on cytokine levels in PTB, we examined circulating levels of a panel of cytokines in the plasma of individuals with TB-PDM and compared them with those without PDM (TB-NDM).

RESULTS: TB-PDM is characterized by elevated circulating levels of Type 1 (IFNgamma, TNFalpha and IL-2), Type 17 (IL-17A and IL-17F) and other pro-inflammatory (IL-1beta, IFNbeta and GM-CSF) cytokines. TB-PDM is also ...


Autoantibodies To The Ny-Eso-1 Tumor Antigen In Metastatic Melanoma: Sialylation Of The Fc Region Of Immunoglobulin G Induces Differential Expression Signatures Of Inflammatory Molecules During Dendritic Cell Differentiation And Maturation, Martin Oaks, Nathaniel Rein, John O. Richards, James Shaffer 2014 Histocompatibility and Transplant Research

Autoantibodies To The Ny-Eso-1 Tumor Antigen In Metastatic Melanoma: Sialylation Of The Fc Region Of Immunoglobulin G Induces Differential Expression Signatures Of Inflammatory Molecules During Dendritic Cell Differentiation And Maturation, Martin Oaks, Nathaniel Rein, John O. Richards, James Shaffer

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that different glycoforms of antibodies from patients with metastatic melanoma have different functional effects on human dendritic cell differentiation and maturation.

Methods: Antibodies to the cancer antigen NY-ESO-1 were affinity-purified from patients with melanoma and further fractionated into different glycoforms by lectin chromatography. Sialic acid-rich and sialic acid-poor fractions of these immunoglobulin G antibodies (IgG) were added to dendritic cell cultures during both differentiation and maturation, and the resulting cellular messenger RNA (mRNA) and culture supernatants were tested by microarray and enzyme-linked immunoassay for molecules related to inflammatory pathways.

Results: We identified unique mRNA and ...


Measuring Immune Responsiveness In Xenopus Laevis Using Phytohaemagglutanin (Pha), Kevin Kinney, Skyler Majors, Madelyn Lee, Scott Espich, Erika Kischuk 2014 DePauw University

Measuring Immune Responsiveness In Xenopus Laevis Using Phytohaemagglutanin (Pha), Kevin Kinney, Skyler Majors, Madelyn Lee, Scott Espich, Erika Kischuk

Science Research Fellows Posters

Phytohaemagglutanin (PHA) is a red kidney bean extract that has been used to stimulate an immunological T cell response in a variety of animals. This procedure has become very popular method to analyze an individual animal’s ability to trigger an immunological response.(Brown 2014) PHA skin testing has been used in a variety of avian, mice, lizard, and amphibian species where it is injected into the muscle, skin, or webbing of an animal and then recording the amount of swelling before and after the injection.(Smits 1999) We are using the amphibian Xenopus laevis to test 1) their immune ...


Discovery Of A 240 Million Year Old Nematode Parasite Egg In A Cynodont Coprolite Sheds Light On The Early Origin Of Pinworms In Vertebrates, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Scott Gardner, Victor Borba, Priscilla Araujo, Daniela Leles, Átila Da-Rosa, Juliana Dutra, Luis Fernando Ferreira, Adauto Araújo 2014 Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris

Discovery Of A 240 Million Year Old Nematode Parasite Egg In A Cynodont Coprolite Sheds Light On The Early Origin Of Pinworms In Vertebrates, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Scott Gardner, Victor Borba, Priscilla Araujo, Daniela Leles, Átila Da-Rosa, Juliana Dutra, Luis Fernando Ferreira, Adauto Araújo

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Background: We report the discovery of a nematode parasite egg (Nemata: Oxyurida) from a coprolite closely associated with the remains of several species of Cynodontia, dated to 240 million years old. This finding is particularly significant because this is the oldest record of an oxyurid nematode yet discovered, and because the cynodonts are considered a stem-group of the mammals.

Methods: We extracted material from a fully mineralized coprolite by both scraping the surface, and removing fragments from its interior with clean dental instruments used a single time. A single drop of glycerol from a new vial was added as a ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George McNamara 2014 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20141018

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/63

Tattletales is my concept to multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors ("Tattletales", which is also the overall concept name) and multicolor FP reporters ("T-Bow" for Rainbow T-cells and tumor cells) to study the physiology of live cells.

These are based on:

1. LacI-GFP :: LacO operator synthetic tandem repeat array (Robinett et al 1996 JCB, Fig 4A, http://jcb.rupress.org/content/135/6/1685.full.pdf )

2. the plethora of fluorescent protein biosensors - see page 1 of this "63" download site.

3. the many colors, and combinations of colors (CY11.5 ...


Dengue Virus Neutralizing Antibody Levels Associated With Protection From Infection In Thai Cluster Studies, Darunee Buddhari, Jared Aldstadt, Timothy P. Endy, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Chonticha Klungthong, Ananda Nisalak, Benjawan Khuntirat, Richard G. Jarman, Stefan Fernandez, Stephen J. Thomas, Thomas W. Scott, Alan L. Rothman, In-Kyu Yoon 2014 Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences

Dengue Virus Neutralizing Antibody Levels Associated With Protection From Infection In Thai Cluster Studies, Darunee Buddhari, Jared Aldstadt, Timothy P. Endy, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Chonticha Klungthong, Ananda Nisalak, Benjawan Khuntirat, Richard G. Jarman, Stefan Fernandez, Stephen J. Thomas, Thomas W. Scott, Alan L. Rothman, In-Kyu Yoon

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Long-term homologous and temporary heterologous protection from dengue virus (DENV) infection may be mediated by neutralizing antibodies. However, neutralizing antibody titers (NTs) have not been clearly associated with protection from infection.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from two geographic cluster studies conducted in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand were used for this analysis. In the first study (2004-2007), cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases from a concurrent prospective cohort. Subjects between 6 months and 15 years old were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 15 by DENV PCR and IgM ELISA. In the second study ...


Allele-Specific Induction Of Il-1beta Expression By C/Ebpbeta And Pu.1 Contributes To Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility, Guoliang Zhang, Boping Zhou, Shaoyuan Li, Jun Yue, Hui Yang, Yuxin Wen, Senlin Zhan, Wenfei Wang, Mingfeng Liao, Mingxia Zhang, Gucheng Zeng, Carl G. Feng, Christopher M. Sassetti, Xinchun Chen 2014 Guangdong Medical College

Allele-Specific Induction Of Il-1beta Expression By C/Ebpbeta And Pu.1 Contributes To Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility, Guoliang Zhang, Boping Zhou, Shaoyuan Li, Jun Yue, Hui Yang, Yuxin Wen, Senlin Zhan, Wenfei Wang, Mingfeng Liao, Mingxia Zhang, Gucheng Zeng, Carl G. Feng, Christopher M. Sassetti, Xinchun Chen

Open Access Articles

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is associated with a spectrum of clinical outcomes, from long-term latent infection to different manifestations of progressive disease. Pro-inflammatory pathways, such as those controlled by IL-1beta, have the contrasting potential both to prevent disease by restricting bacterial replication, and to promote disease by inflicting tissue damage. Thus, the ultimate contribution of individual inflammatory pathways to the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection remains ambiguous. In this study, we identified a naturally-occurring polymorphism in the human IL1B promoter region, which alters the association of the C/EBPbeta and PU.1 transcription factors and controls Mtb-induced IL-1beta production. The high-IL-1beta ...


Exosomes From Hepatitis C Infected Patients Transmit Hcv Infection And Contain Replication Competent Viral Rna In Complex With Ago2-Mir122-Hsp90, Terence N. Bukong, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Karen Kodys, Shashi Bala, Gyongyi Szabo 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Exosomes From Hepatitis C Infected Patients Transmit Hcv Infection And Contain Replication Competent Viral Rna In Complex With Ago2-Mir122-Hsp90, Terence N. Bukong, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Karen Kodys, Shashi Bala, Gyongyi Szabo

Open Access Articles

Antibodies targeting receptor-mediated entry of HCV into hepatocytes confer limited therapeutic benefits. Evidence suggests that exosomes can transfer genetic materials between cells; however, their role in HCV infection remains obscure. Here, we show that exosomes isolated from sera of chronic HCV infected patients or supernatants of J6/JFH1-HCV-infected Huh7.5 cells contained HCV RNA. These exosomes could mediate viral receptor-independent transmission of HCV to hepatocytes. Negative sense HCV RNA, indicative of replication competent viral RNA, was present in exosomes of all HCV infected treatment non-responders and some treatment-naive individuals. Remarkably, HCV RNA was associated with Ago2, HSP90 and miR-122 in ...


Avian Influenza Virus Prevalence In Migratory Waterfowl In The United States, 2007-2009, Scott R. Groepper Mr., Thomas DeLiberto, Mark Vrtiska, Kerri Pedersen, Seth Swafford, Scott Hyngstrom 2014 UNL

Avian Influenza Virus Prevalence In Migratory Waterfowl In The United States, 2007-2009, Scott R. Groepper Mr., Thomas Deliberto, Mark Vrtiska, Kerri Pedersen, Seth Swafford, Scott Hyngstrom

Scott R Groepper

SUMMARY. We analyzed 155,535 samples collected for surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), in the United States from 2007 to 2009, from migratory waterfowl (ducks, geese, and swans). The goal was to elucidate patterns of prevalence by flyway and functional groups to determine targets for future surveillance. Apparent prevalence of AIV was highest in the Pacific Flyway in 2007–2008 (14.2% and 14.1%, respectively), in the Mississippi Flyway in 2009 (16.8%), and lowest each year in the Atlantic Flyway (range, 7.3%–8.9%). Dabbling ducks had higher apparent prevalence of AIV (12.8%–18.8 ...


Out-Of-Sequence Signal 3 As A Mechanism For Virus-Induced Immune Suppression Of Cd8 T Cell Responses, Stina L. Urban, Raymond M. Welsh 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Out-Of-Sequence Signal 3 As A Mechanism For Virus-Induced Immune Suppression Of Cd8 T Cell Responses, Stina L. Urban, Raymond M. Welsh

Open Access Articles

Virus infections are known to induce a transient state of immune suppression often associated with an inhibition of T cell proliferation in response to mitogen or cognate-antigen stimulation. Recently, virus-induced immune suppression has been linked to responses to type 1 interferon (IFN), a signal 3 cytokine that normally can augment the proliferation and differentiation of T cells exposed to antigen (signal 1) and co-stimulation (signal 2). However, pre-exposure of CD8 T cells to IFN-inducers such as viruses or poly(IratioC) prior to antigen signaling is inhibitory, indicating that the timing of IFN exposure is of essence. We show here that ...


The Cd14+Cd16+ Inflammatory Monocyte Subset Displays Increased Mitochondrial Activity And Effector Function During Acute Plasmodium Vivax Malaria, Lis R.V. Antonelli, Fabiana M.S. Leoratti, Pedro A.C. Costa, Bruno C. Rocha, Suelen Q. Diniz, Mauro S. Tada, Dhelio B. Pereira, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo Goncalves, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli 2014 Centro de Pesquisas Rene Rachou

The Cd14+Cd16+ Inflammatory Monocyte Subset Displays Increased Mitochondrial Activity And Effector Function During Acute Plasmodium Vivax Malaria, Lis R.V. Antonelli, Fabiana M.S. Leoratti, Pedro A.C. Costa, Bruno C. Rocha, Suelen Q. Diniz, Mauro S. Tada, Dhelio B. Pereira, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo Goncalves, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Open Access Articles

Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+)CD16- (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16(+) (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+) cells, in particular the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which ...


The Spatial Dynamics Of Dengue Virus In Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, Piraya Bhoomiboonchoo, Robert V. Gibbons, Angkana Huang, In-Kyu Yoon, Darunee Buddhari, Ananda Nisalak, Natkamol Chansatiporn, Mathuros Thipayamongkolgul, Siripen Kalanarooj, Timothy Endy, Alan L. Rothman, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Mammen P. Mammen, Derek A. Cummings, Henrik Salje 2014 Mahidol University

The Spatial Dynamics Of Dengue Virus In Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, Piraya Bhoomiboonchoo, Robert V. Gibbons, Angkana Huang, In-Kyu Yoon, Darunee Buddhari, Ananda Nisalak, Natkamol Chansatiporn, Mathuros Thipayamongkolgul, Siripen Kalanarooj, Timothy Endy, Alan L. Rothman, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Mammen P. Mammen, Derek A. Cummings, Henrik Salje

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Dengue is endemic to the rural province of Kamphaeng Phet, Northern Thailand. A decade of prospective cohort studies has provided important insights into the dengue viruses and their generated disease. However, as elsewhere, spatial dynamics of the pathogen remain poorly understood. In particular, the spatial scale of transmission and the scale of clustering are poorly characterized. This information is critical for effective deployment of spatially targeted interventions and for understanding the mechanisms that drive the dispersal of the virus.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We geocoded the home locations of 4,768 confirmed dengue cases admitted to the main hospital in ...


Validating Tbtif2-Interacting Candidates, Fan Wu, Jennifer Berkey, Joshua Hellsing, Nisha Thaker, Bibo Li 2014 Cleveland State University

Validating Tbtif2-Interacting Candidates, Fan Wu, Jennifer Berkey, Joshua Hellsing, Nisha Thaker, Bibo Li

Undergraduate Research Posters 2014

Transmitted by the tsetse fly, Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes sleeping sickness in human and nagana in cattle. While infecting the bloodstream and central nervous system, T. brucei evades the immune system by altering its major surface antigen, Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs), which forms a thick coat on its cell membrane. The expression sites for VSGs are at the sub-telomeric regions of T. brucei chromosomes. Telomeres, DNA-protein complexes located at the end of chromosomes, provide chromosome stability by preventing degradation of the chromosome ends. The telomere complex also regulates the sub-telomeric VSG expression and switching in T ...


Evaluation Of Naturally Acquired Igg Antibodies To A Chimeric And Non-Chimeric Recombinant Species Of Plasmodium Vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein-1: Lack Of Association With Hla-Drb1*/Dqb1* In Malaria Exposed Individuals From The Brazilian Amazon, Amanda Ribeiro Ferreira, Balwan Singh, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Alana Cristina Magri De Souza, Maria Teresa Queiroz Marques, Luis Cristovao Sobrino Porto, Fatima Santos, Dalma Maria Banic, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, Alberto Moreno, Josue Da Costa Lima-Junior 2014 Oswaldo Cruz Institute

Evaluation Of Naturally Acquired Igg Antibodies To A Chimeric And Non-Chimeric Recombinant Species Of Plasmodium Vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein-1: Lack Of Association With Hla-Drb1*/Dqb1* In Malaria Exposed Individuals From The Brazilian Amazon, Amanda Ribeiro Ferreira, Balwan Singh, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Alana Cristina Magri De Souza, Maria Teresa Queiroz Marques, Luis Cristovao Sobrino Porto, Fatima Santos, Dalma Maria Banic, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, Alberto Moreno, Josue Da Costa Lima-Junior

Open Access Articles

The development of modular constructs that include antigenic regions targeted by protective immune responses is an attractive approach for subunit vaccine development. However, a main concern of using these vaccine platforms is how to preserve the antigenic identity of conformational B cell epitopes. In the present study we evaluated naturally acquired antibody responses to a chimeric protein engineered to contain a previously defined immunodominant domain of the Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein-1 located between amino acid positions K435-I777. The construct also includes three regions of the cognate protein (F571-D587, I1745-S1786 and L2235-E2263) predicted to contain MHC class II promiscuous T ...


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