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Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America *, Adauto Araujo, Karl J. Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena Iniguez, Martin Fugassa, Berrnardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luiz Fernando Ferreira 2015 Fundação Oswaldo Cruz

Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America *, Adauto Araujo, Karl J. Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena Iniguez, Martin Fugassa, Berrnardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Some human parasites originated in prehominid ancestors in Africa. Nematode species, such as Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), hookworms and Trichuris trichiura are shared by humans and other close phylogenetic primates (Pan and Gorilla), showing that they infected a common ancestor to this group. When humans migrated from Africa to other continents they carried these parasites wherever climate conditions allowed parasite transmission from host to host. Other parasites, however, were acquired throughout human biological and social evolutive history when new territories were occupied. Paleoparasitology data is a valuable source to recover emergence and disappearance of parasite infections through analysis of archaeological remains ...


Diet And Parasitism At Dust Devil Cave, Karl J. Reinhard, J Richard Ambler, Magdalene McGuffie 2015 Northern Arizona University

Diet And Parasitism At Dust Devil Cave, Karl J. Reinhard, J Richard Ambler, Magdalene Mcguffie

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Human parasitism has obvious relationships to group size and composition, mobility, subsistence patterns, and rates of culture change. At their best, human endoparasites may be annoying; at their worst, some can cause death. Thus, an overall view of the parasite load of a prehistoric population can yield insights useful in interpreting past lifeways. With these thoughts in mind, we undertook a study of Desha Complex (6800-4800 B .C.) human feces recovered from Dust Devil Cave in southern Utah.


Thymic Involution Perturbs Negative Selection And Leads To Chronic Inflammation, Brandon D. Coder B.S. 2015 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth

Thymic Involution Perturbs Negative Selection And Leads To Chronic Inflammation, Brandon D. Coder B.S.

Theses and Dissertations

The ubiquitous presence of chronic low-level pro-inflammatory factors in elderly individuals (termed inflammaging) is a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The etiology of inflammaging is largely unknown. Recent evidence has identified the persistent activation of immune cells, thought to arise from latent viral infections, as key contributors towards the development of a chronic inflammatory environment. However, the contribution of autoreactive T cells towards the development of inflammaging has yet to be investigated. Another pervasive feature of the aging process is the age-related involution of the thymus gland, which has been linked with a predisposition toward developing autoimmunity. In ...


Agave Chewing And Dental Wear: Evidence From Quids, Emily E. Hammerl, Melissa A. Baier, Karl Reinhard 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Agave Chewing And Dental Wear: Evidence From Quids, Emily E. Hammerl, Melissa A. Baier, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the ...


Evaluation Of Cardiac Involvement In Children With Dengue By Serial Echocardiographic Studies, Tawatchai Kirawittaya, In-Kyu Yoon, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Sharone Green, Francis A. Ennis, Robert V. Gibbons, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Anon Srikiatkhachorn 2015 Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health

Evaluation Of Cardiac Involvement In Children With Dengue By Serial Echocardiographic Studies, Tawatchai Kirawittaya, In-Kyu Yoon, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Sharone Green, Francis A. Ennis, Robert V. Gibbons, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Anon Srikiatkhachorn

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Infection with dengue virus results in a wide range of clinical manifestations from dengue fever (DF), a self-limited febrile illness, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which is characterized by plasma leakage and bleeding tendency. Although cardiac involvement has been reported in dengue, the incidence and the extent of cardiac involvement are not well defined.

METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized the incidence and changes in cardiac function in a prospective in-patient cohort of suspected dengue cases by serial echocardiography. Plasma leakage was detected by serial chest and abdominal ultrasonography. Daily cardiac troponin-T levels were measured. One hundred and eighty ...


Virulence Of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced By Human Complement Inhibitors, David Ermert, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Thorsten Joeris, Jakub Kaplan, Catherine J. Pang, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram, Anna M. Blom 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Virulence Of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced By Human Complement Inhibitors, David Ermert, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Thorsten Joeris, Jakub Kaplan, Catherine J. Pang, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram, Anna M. Blom

Open Access Articles

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and consequent phagocytosis. Several strains of GAS bind to human-specific complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and/or Factor H (FH), to curtail complement C3 (a critical opsonin) deposition. This results in diminished activation of phagocytes and clearance of GAS that may lead to the host being unable to limit the infection. Herein we describe the course of GAS infection in ...


Lv4 Is A Capsid-Specific Antiviral Activity In Human Blood Cells That Restricts Viruses Of The Sivmac/Sivsm/Hiv-2 Lineage Prior To Integration, Massimo Pizzato, Sean Matthew McCauley, Martha R. Neagu, Thomas Pertel, Claudia Firrito, Serena Ziglio, Ann Dauphin, Madeleine Zufferey, Lionel Berthoux, Jeremy Luban 2015 University of Trento

Lv4 Is A Capsid-Specific Antiviral Activity In Human Blood Cells That Restricts Viruses Of The Sivmac/Sivsm/Hiv-2 Lineage Prior To Integration, Massimo Pizzato, Sean Matthew Mccauley, Martha R. Neagu, Thomas Pertel, Claudia Firrito, Serena Ziglio, Ann Dauphin, Madeleine Zufferey, Lionel Berthoux, Jeremy Luban

Open Access Articles

HIV-2 and SIVMAC are AIDS-causing, zoonotic lentiviruses that jumped to humans and rhesus macaques, respectively, from SIVSM-bearing sooty mangabey monkeys. Cross-species transmission events such as these sometimes necessitate virus adaptation to species-specific, host restriction factors such as TRIM5. Here, a new human restriction activity is described that blocks viruses of the SIVSM/SIVMAC/HIV-2 lineage. Human T, B, and myeloid cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and dendritic cells were 4 to > 100-fold less transducible by VSV G-pseudotyped SIVMAC, HIV-2, or SIVSM than by HIV-1. In contrast, transduction of six epithelial cell lines was equivalent to that by HIV-1. Substitution ...


Phosphorylation Of The Peptidoglycan Synthase Pona1 Governs The Rate Of Polar Elongation In Mycobacteria, Karen J. Kieser, Cara C. Boutte, Jemila C. Kester, Christina E. Baer, Amy K. Barczak, Xavier Meniche, Michael C. Chao, E Hesper Rego, Christopher M. Sassetti, Sarah M. Fortune, Eric J. Rubin 2015 Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health

Phosphorylation Of The Peptidoglycan Synthase Pona1 Governs The Rate Of Polar Elongation In Mycobacteria, Karen J. Kieser, Cara C. Boutte, Jemila C. Kester, Christina E. Baer, Amy K. Barczak, Xavier Meniche, Michael C. Chao, E Hesper Rego, Christopher M. Sassetti, Sarah M. Fortune, Eric J. Rubin

Open Access Articles

Cell growth and division are required for the progression of bacterial infections. Most rod-shaped bacteria grow by inserting new cell wall along their mid-section. However, mycobacteria, including the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, produce new cell wall material at their poles. How mycobacteria control this different mode of growth is incompletely understood. Here we find that PonA1, a penicillin binding protein (PBP) capable of transglycosylation and transpeptidation of cell wall peptidoglycan (PG), is a major governor of polar growth in mycobacteria. PonA1 is required for growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis and is critical for M. tuberculosis during infection. In both cases, PonA1 ...


In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark 2015 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated ...


Behavioral Immunity Suppresses An Epizootic In Caribbean Spiny Lobsters, Mark J. Butler IV, Donald C. Behringer Jr., Thomas W. Dolan III, Jessica Moss, Jeffrey D. Shields 2015 Old Dominion University

Behavioral Immunity Suppresses An Epizootic In Caribbean Spiny Lobsters, Mark J. Butler Iv, Donald C. Behringer Jr., Thomas W. Dolan Iii, Jessica Moss, Jeffrey D. Shields

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape ...


Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Its Role In Gut-Homing Macrophage Generation And Colitis, And Production By Probiotics, Shahab Meshkibaf 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Its Role In Gut-Homing Macrophage Generation And Colitis, And Production By Probiotics, Shahab Meshkibaf

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pleiotropic cytokine granulocyte-colony stimulatory factor (G-CSF) is mainly required for the generation of neutrophils, but its role in macrophage generation has also been reported. In addition, G-CSF is effective for the down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and ameliorating gut disorders, such as colitis. However, the G-CSF function in macrophage generation and gut immunity remains unclear. The first focus of this thesis was to assess the role of G-CSF in macrophage generation and its contribution to gut immunity. G-CSF was found to promote the generation of Gr-1high/F4/80+ macrophages in macrophage (M)-CSF-treated bone marrow cells, most likely through suppressing ...


Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane 2015 DePaul University

Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane

DePaul Discoveries

Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide5,6. It is estimated that roughly 80% of those infected suffer from persistent infection with the virus; this persistence of infection is progressive, and over time can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma7. Chronic inflammation and apoptotic deregulation are both hallmarks of chronic HCV infection, and many molecular pathways are initiated in both the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection with this viral pathogen. The aim of this review was to survey some of the major molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of chronic ...


Paradoxical Immune Responses In Non-Hiv Cryptococcal Meningitis, Anil A. Panackal, Stuart M. Levitz, Bibi Bielekova, Peter R. Williamson 2015 U.S. National Institutes of Health

Paradoxical Immune Responses In Non-Hiv Cryptococcal Meningitis, Anil A. Panackal, Stuart M. Levitz, Bibi Bielekova, Peter R. Williamson

Open Access Articles

The fungus Cryptococcus is a major cause of meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected as well as HIV-uninfected individuals with mortalities in developed countries of 20% and 30%, respectively. In HIV-related disease, defects in T-cell immunity are paramount, whereas there is little understanding of mechanisms of susceptibility in non-HIV related disease, especially that occurring in previously healthy adults. The present description is the first detailed immunological study of non-HIV-infected patients including those with severe central nervous system (s-CNS) disease to 1) identify mechanisms of susceptibility as well as 2) understand mechanisms underlying severe disease. Despite the expectation that, as in HIV, T-cell immunity ...


Nsf Grant Helps Preserve Parasite Collections [Press Release], Scott Gardner, Lelslie Reed 2015 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Nsf Grant Helps Preserve Parasite Collections [Press Release], Scott Gardner, Lelslie Reed

Scott Gardner Publications & Papers

The National Science Foundation has awarded a $500,000 grant that will allow four major parasite collections to be digitized. The collections are part of UNL's Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology. Scott Gardner (pictured) is the curator and director of the Manter Laboratory.

A $500,000 grant from the National Science Foundation will allow the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology to digitally preserve four major collections of parasite specimens donated to the University of Nebraska-Lincoln during the past five years.


Lyme Disease In The Northeast: Altered Ecosystems And Public Health Impacts, Elisa L. Russo 2015 Fordham University

Lyme Disease In The Northeast: Altered Ecosystems And Public Health Impacts, Elisa L. Russo

Student Theses 2015-Present

Lyme disease has spread rapidly throughout the United States since its original discovery in 1975. An increasing threat to public health, this common vector-borne disease is transferred to a human after receiving a bite from an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Humans have contributed to the massive influx of tick populations and Lyme disease cases through the introduction of invasive flora and fauna, overhunting of apex predators, and altering areas of land for urbanization. Quantitative data from the CDC and USDA on Lyme disease cases and white-tailed deer populations in the United States demonstrates the impact of human disruption of ...


High Rate Of Subclinical Chikungunya Virus Infection And Association Of Neutralizing Antibody With Protection In A Prospective Cohort In The Philippines, In-Kyu Yoon, Maria Theresa Alera, Catherine B. Lago, Ilya A. Tac-An, Daisy Villa, Stefan Fernandez, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Chonticha Klungthong, Jens W. Levy, John Mark Velasco, Vito G. Roque Jr., Henrik Salje, Louis R. Macareo, Laura L. Hermann, Ananda Nisalak, Anon Srikiatkhachorn 2015 Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Sciences

High Rate Of Subclinical Chikungunya Virus Infection And Association Of Neutralizing Antibody With Protection In A Prospective Cohort In The Philippines, In-Kyu Yoon, Maria Theresa Alera, Catherine B. Lago, Ilya A. Tac-An, Daisy Villa, Stefan Fernandez, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Chonticha Klungthong, Jens W. Levy, John Mark Velasco, Vito G. Roque Jr., Henrik Salje, Louis R. Macareo, Laura L. Hermann, Ananda Nisalak, Anon Srikiatkhachorn

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical and symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation.

METHODS/FINDINGS: A prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects > /=6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, and 8 day visits, and at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute ...


Human And Murine Clonal Cd8+ T Cell Expansions Arise During Tuberculosis Because Of Tcr Selection, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Stephen M. Carpenter, Alissa C. Rothchild, Constance J. Martin, Danielle Desjardins, Katherine Steblenko, Henrik N. Kløverpris, Rajhmun Madansein, Duran Ramsuran, Alasdair Leslie, Margarida Correia-Neves, Samuel M. Behar 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Human And Murine Clonal Cd8+ T Cell Expansions Arise During Tuberculosis Because Of Tcr Selection, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Stephen M. Carpenter, Alissa C. Rothchild, Constance J. Martin, Danielle Desjardins, Katherine Steblenko, Henrik N. Kløverpris, Rajhmun Madansein, Duran Ramsuran, Alasdair Leslie, Margarida Correia-Neves, Samuel M. Behar

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

The immune system can recognize virtually any antigen, yet T cell responses against several pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are restricted to a limited number of immunodominant epitopes. The host factors that affect immunodominance are incompletely understood. Whether immunodominant epitopes elicit protective CD8+ T cell responses or instead act as decoys to subvert immunity and allow pathogens to establish chronic infection is unknown. Here we show that anatomically distinct human granulomas contain clonally expanded CD8+ T cells with overlapping T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. Similarly, the murine CD8+ T cell response against M. tuberculosis is dominated by TB10.44-11-specific T cells ...


Caenorhabditis Elegans Micrornas Of The Let-7 Family Act In Innate Immune Response Circuits And Confer Robust Developmental Timing Against Pathogen Stress, Zhiji Ren, Victor R. Ambros 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Caenorhabditis Elegans Micrornas Of The Let-7 Family Act In Innate Immune Response Circuits And Confer Robust Developmental Timing Against Pathogen Stress, Zhiji Ren, Victor R. Ambros

GSBS Student Publications

Animals maintain their developmental robustness against natural stresses through numerous regulatory mechanisms, including the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs). Caenorhabditis elegans miRNAs of the let-7 family (let-7-Fam) function semiredundantly to confer robust stage specificity of cell fates in the hypodermal seam cell lineages. Here, we show reciprocal regulatory interactions between let-7-Fam miRNAs and the innate immune response pathway in C. elegans. Upon infection of C. elegans larvae with the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the developmental timing defects of certain let-7-Fam miRNA mutants are enhanced. This enhancement is mediated by the p38 MAPK innate immune pathway acting ...


Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

Gastrointestinal microbiome studies have failed to include fungi in total community analyses. As a result, their diversity and function in the gut is poorly understood. Recent work has begun to uncover the role intestinal fungi play in diet, immune system development, interactions with other microorganisms in the gut, and pathogenesis of diseases. Advances in sequencing technologies allow for the ability to profile the fungal gut microbiome (“mycobiome”) in healthy and diseased states. This thesis explores the mycobiome in 1) healthy humans with a vegetarian diet and 2) pediatric small bowel transplant recipients that develop fungal bloodstream infections.

The gut mycobiome ...


Adapting The Standard Sir Disease Model In Order To Track And Predict The Spreading Of The Ebola Virus Using Twitter Data, Armin Smailhodzic 2015 Western Kentucky University

Adapting The Standard Sir Disease Model In Order To Track And Predict The Spreading Of The Ebola Virus Using Twitter Data, Armin Smailhodzic

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A method has been developed to track infectious diseases by using data mining of active Twitter accounts and its efficacy was demonstrated during the West African Ebola outbreak of 2014. Using a meme based n-gram semantic usage model to search the Twitter database for indications of illness, flight and death from the spread of Ebola in Africa, principally from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Memes of interest relate disease to location and severity and are coupled to the density of Tweets and re-Tweets. The meme spreads through the community of social users in a fashion similar to nonlinear wave propagation- ...


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