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The Hot Zone And The Cold War, Peter Nichols 2014 Colby College

The Hot Zone And The Cold War, Peter Nichols

Colby Magazine

It was a time when, in the nation's schools, drills for nuclear war were as frequent as fire drills- when Americans and their Soviet counterparts lived with a constant fear of imminent worldwide destruction. "You had a cultural mindset that was apocalyptic," said Robert S. Weisbrot, Christian A. Johnson Distinguished Teaching Professor of History at Colby, "that believed you could not guarantee that your wonderful suburban home and family and community...would survive ten more seconds."

"It was not simply a matter of two countries that are adversaries building up weapons," said Weisbrot. "Each saw the other as the ...


American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 36, Nos. 1-2, Spring-Summer 2014, Scott Lyell Gardner 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 36, Nos. 1-2, Spring-Summer 2014, Scott Lyell Gardner

Newsletter of the American Society of Parasitologists

Includes editor's note and contents, a report to the ASP by President Janovy, information about a new parasitology book, a report of the ASP Meeting in New Orleans, information about the transfer of the U.S. National Parasite Collection from the Agricultural Research Service to the Smithsonian Institution, and a list of credits and ASP Affiliates.


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


Post-Apartheid South Africa’S Ultimate Challenge, Nahomie Julien 2014 Georgia State University

Post-Apartheid South Africa’S Ultimate Challenge, Nahomie Julien

DISCOVERY: Georgia State Honors College Undergraduate Research Journal

Throughout time, South Africa has experienced many upheavals, be they slavery and apartheid or natural, socioeconomic, and political misfortunes.Just after overcoming the oppression of Apartheid, South Africans have to face one of the deadliest illness in the world: HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS is currently the number one killer in South Africa(WHO, 2012). This pandemic further worsen the struggles of the nation, obstructing its educational, financial, and political recovery (Oglethorpe, & Gelman, (2008).; Weiser, et al., 2007.). This paper seeks to analyze how apartheid—or rather, its demise—contributed to the alarmingly rapid spread of this pandemic in South Africa. In so ...


Sub-Inhibitory Antibiotics Enhance Virulence, Persistence, And Pathogenesis Of Uropathogens, Lee W. Goneau 2014 Western University

Sub-Inhibitory Antibiotics Enhance Virulence, Persistence, And Pathogenesis Of Uropathogens, Lee W. Goneau

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In addition to their bactericidal effects, antibiotics are potent signal mediators at sub-inhibitory levels in the environment. The ability to modulate community structure in this niche raises concerns over their capacity to influence pathogenesis in patients during antibiotic therapy. This concept forms the basis of this thesis, and is explored using models of prophylactic therapy for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) management.

Sub-inhibitory ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, and gentamicin were found to augment virulence in vitro, increasing adherence and urothelial cell invasion in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In addition, biofilm formation was increased, and swarming motility decreased. In UPEC ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140602mon, George McNamara 2014 The University of Texas

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140602mon, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20140602Mon

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/42

Please see also http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/26

Tattletales: multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors by spatial localization with TALE-FPs, Cas9-FPs, ZF-FPs, LacI-FPs, TetR-FPs, etc.

T-Bow: Rainbow T-cells and Tumor cells (and ES cells, iPS cells, other cells and organisms). You can think of this as "Brainbow meets TALENs/Cas9/ZFNs/other DNA sequence specific binding proteins".

If not familiar with Brainbow, see

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainbow

If not familiar with TALENs, Cas9, etc, see

http://www.addgene.org/genome_engineering/

Big idea: localizing fluorescent proteins - and/or Nano-Lanterns ...


Caspase-8 And Rip Kinases Regulate Bacteria-Induced Innate Immune Responses And Cell Death, Dan Weng, Robyn Lynn Marty-Roix, Sandhya Ganesan, Megan K. Proulx, Gregory I. Vladimer, William J. Kaiser, Edward S. Mocarski, Kimberly Lea Pouliot, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Michelle A. Kelliher, Phillip A. Harris, John Bertin, Peter J. Gough, Dmitry M. Shayakhmetov, Jon D. Goguen, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Neal S. Silverman, Egil Lien 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Caspase-8 And Rip Kinases Regulate Bacteria-Induced Innate Immune Responses And Cell Death, Dan Weng, Robyn Lynn Marty-Roix, Sandhya Ganesan, Megan K. Proulx, Gregory I. Vladimer, William J. Kaiser, Edward S. Mocarski, Kimberly Lea Pouliot, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Michelle A. Kelliher, Phillip A. Harris, John Bertin, Peter J. Gough, Dmitry M. Shayakhmetov, Jon D. Goguen, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Neal S. Silverman, Egil Lien

GSBS Student Publications

A number of pathogens cause host cell death upon infection, and Yersinia pestis, infamous for its role in large pandemics such as the "Black Death" in medieval Europe, induces considerable cytotoxicity. The rapid killing of macrophages induced by Y. pestis, dependent upon type III secretion system effector Yersinia outer protein J (YopJ), is minimally affected by the absence of caspase-1, caspase-11, Fas ligand, and TNF. Caspase-8 is known to mediate apoptotic death in response to infection with several viruses and to regulate programmed necrosis (necroptosis), but its role in bacterially induced cell death is poorly understood. Here we provide genetic ...


Investigating Antibiotic Resistance Levels Of Salmonella Internalized In Lettuce Leaves, Jason B. Thomas 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigating Antibiotic Resistance Levels Of Salmonella Internalized In Lettuce Leaves, Jason B. Thomas

The McNair Scholars Research Journal

Contamination of food crops by the human pathogen Salmonella is a food safety threat worldwide. Though using treated wastewater for irrigation is a sustainable practice, it may introduce trace levels of Salmonella that may contaminate food crops. Salmonella could develop resistance to antibiotics present in wastewater. The overall goal of the project is to increase the understanding of the public health risk associated with the use of treated wastewater to irrigate food crops. The objective of this particular study is to determine the antibiotic resistance level of Salmonella internalized in lettuce leaves. In this experiment, thirty-six plants of the lettuce ...


Combined Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence-Surface Acoustic Wave (Mef-Saw) Biosensor, Samuel Morrill 2014 University of South Florida

Combined Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence-Surface Acoustic Wave (Mef-Saw) Biosensor, Samuel Morrill

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Immunofluorescence assays are capable of both detecting the amount of a protein and the location of the protein within a cell or tissue section. Unfortunately, the traditional technique is not capable of detecting concentrations on the nanoscale. Also, the technique suffers from non-specific attachment, which can cause false-positives, as well as photobleaching when detecting lower concentrations is attempted. There is also a time constraint problem since the technique can take from many hours to a few days in some cases.

In this work, metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is used to lower the detection limit and reduce photobleaching. Unfortunately, MEF also increases ...


Immature Myeloid Cells Promote Tumor Formation Via Non-Suppressive Mechanism, Myrna Lillian Ortiz 2014 University of South Florida

Immature Myeloid Cells Promote Tumor Formation Via Non-Suppressive Mechanism, Myrna Lillian Ortiz

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Although there is ample evidence linking chronic inflammation with cancer, the cellular mechanisms involved in early events leading to tumor development remain unclear. Myeloid cells are an intricate part of inflammation. They consist of mature cells represented by macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes and a population of Immature Myeloid Cells (IMC), which in healthy individuals are cells in transition to mature cells. There is a substantial expansion of IMC in cancer and many other pathological conditions which is associated with pathologic activation of these cells. As a result, these cells acquire the ability to suppress immune responses and are ...


Achievement Of Transplantation Tolerance: Novel Approaches And Mechanistic Insights, Joseph Pidala 2014 University of South Florida

Achievement Of Transplantation Tolerance: Novel Approaches And Mechanistic Insights, Joseph Pidala

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Current immune suppressive strategies fail to induce donor-recipient immune tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Accordingly, patients suffer morbidity and mortality from graft vs. host disease (GVHD) and prolonged immune suppressive therapy. Biologic insight into transplantation tolerance is needed, and translation of such insight to novel clinical strategies may improve clinical outcomes. We report original investigation at seminal phases of this process including initial prophylactic immune suppression, onset of acute graft vs. host disease, and ultimate immune suppression discontinuation: In a controlled randomized clinical trial, we demonstrate that sirolimus-based immune suppression reduces risk for acute GVHD, ameliorates the severity of ...


Characterization Of A Putative Cephalotoxin From The Hemocytes Of Euprymna Scolopes, Jessie E. Scott 2014 University of Connecticut

Characterization Of A Putative Cephalotoxin From The Hemocytes Of Euprymna Scolopes, Jessie E. Scott

University Scholar Projects

Many organisms have beneficial microbial symbionts, and complex interactions between the immune system and the bacteria must occur to allow these symbioses to persist. The host immune system must recognize and preferentially tolerate the beneficial microorganisms, while simultaneously eliminating harmful pathogens. The Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, is a model organism for host-microbe interactions because of the unique light organ symbiosis. Hemocytes, the squid’s primary immune cell, infiltrate and patrol the light organ and continuously interact with the symbiont Vibrio fischeri. Using this model, several innate immunity genes have been shown to be differentially expressed in the hemocytes of ...


Placental Hpv Infection In Hiv Positive And Hiv Negative Zambian Women, Chrispin Chisanga 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Placental Hpv Infection In Hiv Positive And Hiv Negative Zambian Women, Chrispin Chisanga

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been reported to infect epithelial trophoblastic cells of the placenta, induce cell death and even cause placental malfunction associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. To date, no study has been conducted to determine the role of HIV on HPV genotype distribution and pathogenesis in the placental compartment. This is despite the evidence that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can decrease the cellular immune response and increase the incidence of malignant cancers in HPV patients. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed 200 genomic DNA (gDNA) samples extracted from paraffin embedded placental tissues of HIV positive and HIV negative ...


Alteration Of Intestinal Microbiota In Response To Induced Immune System, Hao Tran, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing 2014 Georgia State University

Alteration Of Intestinal Microbiota In Response To Induced Immune System, Hao Tran, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Studies Of Hla-Dm In Antigen Presentation And Cd4+ T Cell Epitope Selection: A Dissertation, Liusong Yin 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Studies Of Hla-Dm In Antigen Presentation And Cd4+ T Cell Epitope Selection: A Dissertation, Liusong Yin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Antigen presented to CD4+ T cells by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHCII) plays a key role in adaptive immunity. Antigen presentation is initiated by the proteolytic cleavage of pathogenic or self proteins and loading of resultant peptides to MHCII. The loading and exchange of peptides to MHCII is catalyzed by a nonclassical MHCII molecule, HLA-DM (DM). It is well established that DM promotes peptide exchange in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of DM-catalyzed peptide association and dissociation, and how this would affect epitope selection in human responses to infectious disease remain unclear. The work presented in ...


Analysis Of The Morbidity And Mortality Of Severe Influenza Infection In Clark County, Nevada For The 2010-2011 Influenza Season, Kindra St. Jacques, Patricia Cruz, Brian Labus 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of The Morbidity And Mortality Of Severe Influenza Infection In Clark County, Nevada For The 2010-2011 Influenza Season, Kindra St. Jacques, Patricia Cruz, Brian Labus

Nevada Journal of Public Health

Throughout the duration of any influenza season, influenza strains have the ability to evolve through mutation causing alterations in virulence. These changes may result in severe illness or death among susceptible populations; therefore, it is important to closely monitor influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas in collaboration with the Southern Nevada Health District analyzed data from the hospitalized influenza morbidity and mortality surveillance project for Clark County for the 2010-2011 influenza season. Among the study population (N= 158): the influenza strain type was found to be significantly associated with deaths (n= 25), vaccination status was not ...


The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua 2014 McMaster University

The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, and there has been growing insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory basis of this disease. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of asthma has progressively shifted focus from downstream effectors, such as mast cells and eosinophils, up to Th2 lymphocytes and their proallergic cytokines. Even more upstream in the allergic cascade are dendritic cells (DCs), potent APCs that orchestrate immune responses. Evidence supporting a role of DCs in regulating airway allergic inflammation is derived mainly from animal studies. In animal models of asthma, myeloid DCs (mDCs) induce and maintain ...


Sickle Cell Trait Is Not Associated With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: An Ethnicity And Malaria Endemicity-Matched Case-Control Study Suggests Factors Controlling Ebv May Serve As A Predictive Biomarker For This Pediatric Cancer, David H. Mulama, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Joslyn Foley, Kiprotich Chelimo, Collins Ouma, Walter G.Z.O. Jura, Juliana A. Otieno, John M. Vulule, Ann M. Moormann 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sickle Cell Trait Is Not Associated With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: An Ethnicity And Malaria Endemicity-Matched Case-Control Study Suggests Factors Controlling Ebv May Serve As A Predictive Biomarker For This Pediatric Cancer, David H. Mulama, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Joslyn Foley, Kiprotich Chelimo, Collins Ouma, Walter G.Z.O. Jura, Juliana A. Otieno, John M. Vulule, Ann M. Moormann

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfections. Malaria appears to dysregulate immunity that would otherwise control EBV, thereby contributing to eBL etiology. Juxtaposed to human genetic variants associated with protection from malaria, it has been hypothesized that such variants could decrease eBL susceptibility, historically referred to as "the protective hypothesis." Past studies attempting to link sickle cell trait (HbAS), which is known to be protective against malaria, with protection from eBL were contradictory and underpowered. Therefore, using a case-control study design, we examined HbAS frequency in 306 Kenyan children diagnosed with eBL compared ...


Blockade Of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation, Lin Chen, Megan Schrementi, Matthew J. Ranzer, Traci A. Wilgus, Luisa A. DiPietro 2014 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Blockade Of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation, Lin Chen, Megan Schrementi, Matthew J. Ranzer, Traci A. Wilgus, Luisa A. Dipietro

Faculty Publications & Research

Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair ...


Role Of Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I In Thymopoiesis, Zhong Zheng 2014 University of Kentucky

Role Of Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I In Thymopoiesis, Zhong Zheng

Theses and Dissertations--Nutritional Sciences

T cells, which constitute an essential arm in the adaptive immunity, complete their development in the thymus through a process called thymopoiesis. However, thymic involution can be induced by a couple of factors, which impairs T cell functions and is slow to recover. Therefore, understanding how thymopoiesis is regulated may lead effort to accelerate thymic recovery and improve immune functions in thymocyte-depleted patients. In this project, we identified scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), a high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, as a novel modulator in thymopoiesis. In mice, absence of SR-BI causes a significant reduction in thymus size after puberty and a ...


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