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Modeling Hiv Dynamics Following 3bnc117 Antibody Infusion, Samantha Erwin 2017 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Modeling Hiv Dynamics Following 3bnc117 Antibody Infusion, Samantha Erwin

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Severe Malaria In Liberian Children 5 Years Old And Younger, Patricia A. McQuilkin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Characterization Of Severe Malaria In Liberian Children 5 Years Old And Younger, Patricia A. Mcquilkin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Malaria continues to be a challenging problem in the developing world, and the burden of this life threatening disease continues to be borne by young children living in Sub Saharan Africa. One of the biggest challenges to the prevention and control of this problem lies in accurately diagnosing malaria, and distinguishing it from the many other febrile illnesses which present in children in this age group.

Liberia is a West African country with a high burden of malaria. Very little is known about the presentation of severe malaria in children aged 5 years old and younger in Liberia. We undertook ...


The Role Of E-Antigen In Hepatitiv B Virus Infection, Mirjam Sarah Kadelka 2017 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

The Role Of E-Antigen In Hepatitiv B Virus Infection, Mirjam Sarah Kadelka

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling For The Transmission Dynamics Of {\It Mycobacterium Marinum} Incorporating Intra-Host Variability, Lihong Zhao 2017 University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Mathematical Modeling For The Transmission Dynamics Of {\It Mycobacterium Marinum} Incorporating Intra-Host Variability, Lihong Zhao

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips 2017 Seton Hall University

B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer-based immunotherapy has led the evolution of biologics that can stimulate immune responses towards tumor eradication. The synthesis of small to intermediate size molecules with the targeting and effector functions of mAb may represent a novel class of immunotherapeutics that may overcome the limitations of their biological counterparts.Towards this objective, B7H6 has been identified as a protein ligand localized on the cell surface of transformed tumor cells. B7H6 binds specifically to the activating receptor NKp30, constitutively expressed on all resting and active NK cells. Upon ligand:receptor binding, B7H6 triggers NK cell activation and release of chemokines and pro-inflammatory ...


Understanding The Role Of Natural Killer Cells On The Quality Of Cd4 And Cd8 Response During Infection With Toxoplasma Gondii, Rida Fatima 2017 University of Wyoming

Understanding The Role Of Natural Killer Cells On The Quality Of Cd4 And Cd8 Response During Infection With Toxoplasma Gondii, Rida Fatima

Honors Theses AY 16/17

30% of the world’s population is infected by the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii including, more than 60 million people in the USA alone (CDC 2015). Toxoplasma poses a critical threat to individuals with a weakened immune system such as HIV/AIDS patients (Mayo Clinic 2014). In addition, severe birth defects, blindness, and abortion can occur in the fetus when the parasite is transmitted to healthy mothers who are pregnant (Sibley 2012). Thus, understanding how long term immunity develops against this parasite is important for better therapy design. Natural Killer cells (NK cells) are known to be important for ...


Elucidating The Role Of Interleukin-17a In West Nile Virus Infection, Dhiraj Acharya 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Elucidating The Role Of Interleukin-17a In West Nile Virus Infection, Dhiraj Acharya

Dissertations

West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus of significant public health importance for which no therapeutics and vaccine are currently available. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is an inflammatory cytokine that regulates diverse immune functions, while its role is unclear in host’s immune response to WNV. Furthermore, CD8+ T cells are crucial components of immunity and play a vital role in recovery from WNV infection. Here, we report a previously unrecognized function of IL-17A in regulating CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity. We show that WNV induces the expression of IL-17A in both mouse splenocytes and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in ...


Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (1). While treatments involving radiation and chemotherapy currently exist, disease must be detected early in order for the treatments to be somewhat effective, and there is no effective treatment after metastasis occurs (2). Additionally, current therapies do not mitigate tumor immunosuppression. Decreasing the tumor-associated immunosuppressive conditions while activating antitumor immunity could prevent recurrence and metastasis, possibly leading to an effective treatment for cancer (3). Tumor cell vaccines could possibly address this issue and have become a ...


Sickle Cell Anemia: Current Treatments And Potential Advancements, Vanessa Martinez 2017 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Sickle Cell Anemia: Current Treatments And Potential Advancements, Vanessa Martinez

Selected Honors Theses

Sickle cell anemia is a disease that affects red blood cells, specifically the hemoglobin protein. An amino acid mutation in the gene that encodes β-globin leads to malformation of the β subunit of hemoglobin.3, Valine becomes glutamic acid in the mutated β-globin gene.9 The mutation malformation leads to the red blood cells becoming sickle shaped, or crescent shaped.3,4 The sickle shape of red blood cells in individuals with sickle cell disease leads to vaso-occlusive crisis.9 Vaso-occlusive crisis includes complications such as blood clotting, chronic pain, organ failure, organ death, and possibly early mortality.9 The ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The West African Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused By The Lassa And Ebola Viruses, Emiene E. Amali-Adekwu 2017 Southeastern University - Lakeland

A Comparative Analysis Of The West African Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused By The Lassa And Ebola Viruses, Emiene E. Amali-Adekwu

Selected Honors Theses

Lassa fever (LF) and Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) are viral diseases endemic to West Africa.The etiological agent of Lassa fever is an enveloped virus from the Arenaviridae family and was first discovered in 1969 when two missionary nurses died of a mysterious illness in the town of Lassa in Borno state, Nigeria.1 This virus is animal-borne (zoonotic) and is carried by the animal vector Mastomys natalensis (multimammate rat). The Ebola virus is also zoonotic originating from fruit bats belonging to the Pteropodidae family.2 The first reported case of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was a principal who was ...


Estimating Autoantibody Signatures To Detect Autoimmune Disease Patient Subsets, Zhenke Wu, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Ami A. Shah, Antony Rosen, Scott L. Zeger 2017 Department of Biostatistics and Michigan Institute of Data Science, University of Michigan

Estimating Autoantibody Signatures To Detect Autoimmune Disease Patient Subsets, Zhenke Wu, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Ami A. Shah, Antony Rosen, Scott L. Zeger

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

Autoimmune diseases are characterized by highly specific immune responses against molecules in self-tissues. Different autoimmune diseases are characterized by distinct immune responses, making autoantibodies useful for diagnosis and prediction. In many diseases, the targets of autoantibodies are incompletely defined. Although the technologies for autoantibody discovery have advanced dramatically over the past decade, each of these techniques generates hundreds of possibilities, which are onerous and expensive to validate. We set out to establish a method to greatly simplify autoantibody discovery, using a pre-filtering step to define subgroups with similar specificities based on migration of labeled, immunoprecipitated proteins on sodium dodecyl sulfate ...


Mir-146a Upregulation Of Phagocytosis In Human Macrophages, Ryan Marquardt, Daniel J. Stank, Kaleb M. Pauley 2017 Cedarville University

Mir-146a Upregulation Of Phagocytosis In Human Macrophages, Ryan Marquardt, Daniel J. Stank, Kaleb M. Pauley

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Sjögrens Syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune disease that attacks exocrine glands such as salivary and lacrimal glands resulting in severe dryness of the mouth and eyes. Previous studies have linked increased microRNA-146a (miR-146a) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in SjS patients compared to healthy controls. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, are known to play key regulatory roles in immune responses and have been implicated in a growing number of autoimmune disorders. Further investigation into the role of increased miR-146a expression in SjS revealed links to several immune functions including phagocytosis.Our goal was ...


Effect Of Metformin On Mir-146a Expression, S. Jackson Grout, Bryce C. MacTurk, Amanda D. Sims, Kaleb M. Pauley 2017 Cedarville University

Effect Of Metformin On Mir-146a Expression, S. Jackson Grout, Bryce C. Macturk, Amanda D. Sims, Kaleb M. Pauley

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Sjögren’s Syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune disorder that affects secretory glands in the human body, restricting their function and causing extreme dryness in areas like the mouth and eyes. miR-146a is an anti-inflammatory microRNA that targets the NFκB activation pathway. Previous studies have shown that SjS patients have increased miR-146a expression, despite having high levels of inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether metformin, a diabetes drug with a wide variety of effects and potential functions, reduces levels of miR-146a expression. Metformin is known to reduce inflammation by inhibiting the activation of NFκB. THP-1 human ...


Migration Frustrations Of Mir-146a Regulation, Emma Baccus, Victoria Gahman, Hannah Phillips, Shannon Rappaport, Alyssa Reiter, Kaleb M. Pauley 2017 Cedarville University

Migration Frustrations Of Mir-146a Regulation, Emma Baccus, Victoria Gahman, Hannah Phillips, Shannon Rappaport, Alyssa Reiter, Kaleb M. Pauley

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The autoimmune disease, Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS), causes the degradation of salivary and lacrimal glands due to an influx of immune cells. In previous studies, a significant increase in miR-146a was observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of SS patients. Since immune cell infiltration is critical in SS pathogenesis, the following research examines the effect of miR-146a on cell migration. We hypothesize that transfecting THP-1 human monocytes with synthetic miR-146a will downregulate migration of the monocytes based on other studies stating that miR-146a downregulates migration in vivo. In order to execute our experiment, we transfected THP-1 cells with ...


E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


Binding Of A Monoclonal Antibody To B Virus Gd Linear Epitope On A Whole Virus Antigen Is Only After Antigen Denaturation, Jingyao Deng 2017 Georgia State University

Binding Of A Monoclonal Antibody To B Virus Gd Linear Epitope On A Whole Virus Antigen Is Only After Antigen Denaturation, Jingyao Deng

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Creation Of An Immunodeficient Hla-Transgenic Mouse (Humamice) And Functional Validation Of Human Immunity After Transfer Of Hla-Matched Human Cells, Yang Zeng, Bingrun Liu, Marie-Therese Rubio, Xinyue Wang, David M. Ojcius, Ruoping Tang, Antoine Durrbach, Zhitao Ru, Yusen Zhou, Yu-Chun Lone 2017 Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology

Creation Of An Immunodeficient Hla-Transgenic Mouse (Humamice) And Functional Validation Of Human Immunity After Transfer Of Hla-Matched Human Cells, Yang Zeng, Bingrun Liu, Marie-Therese Rubio, Xinyue Wang, David M. Ojcius, Ruoping Tang, Antoine Durrbach, Zhitao Ru, Yusen Zhou, Yu-Chun Lone

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Research on human immunology has been hindered by the lack of optimal small animal models, given that the protective immune responses of human and non-human species show significant differences. However, due to ethical constraints[1] and the high cost of clinical trials, it is urgent to improve the current animal models that can mimic faithfully human physiology, particularly the human immune system (HIS). HIS mice had been generated recently by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) or human peripheral mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) into highly immuno-deficient mice such as NSG, NOG or NRG mice. However, a major experimental drawback for studies ...


Pulmonary Microrna Profiles Identify Involvement Of Creb1 And Sec14l3 In Bronchial Epithelial Changes In Allergic Asthma., Sabine Bartel, Nikola Schulz, Francesca Alessandrini, Andrea C Schamberger, Philipp Pagel, Fabian J Theis, Katrin Milger, Elfriede Noessner, Stephen M Stick, Anthony Kicic, Oliver Eickelberg, Robert J Freishtat, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann 2017 George Washington University

Pulmonary Microrna Profiles Identify Involvement Of Creb1 And Sec14l3 In Bronchial Epithelial Changes In Allergic Asthma., Sabine Bartel, Nikola Schulz, Francesca Alessandrini, Andrea C Schamberger, Philipp Pagel, Fabian J Theis, Katrin Milger, Elfriede Noessner, Stephen M Stick, Anthony Kicic, Oliver Eickelberg, Robert J Freishtat, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann

Medicine Faculty Publications

Asthma is highly prevalent, but current therapies cannot influence the chronic course of the disease. It is thus important to understand underlying early molecular events. In this study, we aimed to use microRNAs (miRNAs) - which are critical regulators of signaling cascades - to identify so far uncharacterized asthma pathogenesis pathways. Therefore, deregulation of miRNAs was assessed in whole lungs from mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI). In silico predicted target genes were confirmed in reporter assays and in house-dust-mite (HDM) induced AAI and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) cultured at the air-liquid interface. We identified and validated ...


Development Of An Interleukin-4-Inducing Principle From Schistosoma Mansoni Eggs (Ipse)-Specific Pcr Assay As A Quantitative Predictor Of Schistosomiasis-Associated Morbidity, Dannah Farah, Evaristis Mbanefo, Michael H. Hsieh 2017 George Washington University

Development Of An Interleukin-4-Inducing Principle From Schistosoma Mansoni Eggs (Ipse)-Specific Pcr Assay As A Quantitative Predictor Of Schistosomiasis-Associated Morbidity, Dannah Farah, Evaristis Mbanefo, Michael H. Hsieh

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting between 200-500 million people worldwide. The two species causing most human cases of schistosomiasis are Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. The gold standard for diagnosis is parasitological detection of parasite eggs in stool using the Kato-Katz method. Counting eggs shed in stool is labor-intensive and inaccurate. Interleukin-4- inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE) is the most abundant secreted protein from schistosome eggs. We hypothesized that the mRNA transcripts of the IPSE protein may be found in the liver tissue and stool of experimentally infected animals, and that these transcripts can be specifically ...


Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio 2017 Dr. Michael Ruscio

Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio

Journal of Evolution and Health

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