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Immunology and Infectious Disease Commons

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Alteration Of Intestinal Microbiota In Response To Induced Immune System, Hao Tran, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing 2014 Georgia State University

Alteration Of Intestinal Microbiota In Response To Induced Immune System, Hao Tran, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of The Morbidity And Mortality Of Severe Influenza Infection In Clark County, Nevada For The 2010-2011 Influenza Season, Kindra St. Jacques, Patricia Cruz, Brian Labus 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of The Morbidity And Mortality Of Severe Influenza Infection In Clark County, Nevada For The 2010-2011 Influenza Season, Kindra St. Jacques, Patricia Cruz, Brian Labus

Nevada Journal of Public Health

Throughout the duration of any influenza season, influenza strains have the ability to evolve through mutation causing alterations in virulence. These changes may result in severe illness or death among susceptible populations; therefore, it is important to closely monitor influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas in collaboration with the Southern Nevada Health District analyzed data from the hospitalized influenza morbidity and mortality surveillance project for Clark County for the 2010-2011 influenza season. Among the study population (N= 158): the influenza strain type was found to be significantly associated with deaths (n= 25), vaccination status was not ...


The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua 2014 McMaster University

The Biology Of Dendritic Cell Subsets In Allergen-Induced Asthma, Benny Dua

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, and there has been growing insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory basis of this disease. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of asthma has progressively shifted focus from downstream effectors, such as mast cells and eosinophils, up to Th2 lymphocytes and their proallergic cytokines. Even more upstream in the allergic cascade are dendritic cells (DCs), potent APCs that orchestrate immune responses. Evidence supporting a role of DCs in regulating airway allergic inflammation is derived mainly from animal studies. In animal models of asthma, myeloid DCs (mDCs) induce and maintain ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140313thur, George McNamara 2014 The University of Texas

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140313thur, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

George McNamara 20140313Thur

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/42

Tattletales and T-Bow Update

Please see also http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/16

Tattletales: multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors by spatial localization with TALE-FPs, Cas9-FPs, ZF-FPs, LacI-FPs, TetR-FPs, etc.

T-Bow: Rainbow T-cells and Tumor cells (and ES cells, iPS cells, other cells and organisms). You can think of this as "Brainbow meets TALENs/Cas9/ZFNs/other DNA sequence specific binding proteins".

If not familiar with Brainbow, see

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainbow

If not familiar with TALENs, Cas9, etc, see

http://www.addgene.org/genome_engineering/

Big idea: localizing fluorescent proteins - and ...


Sickle Cell Trait Is Not Associated With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: An Ethnicity And Malaria Endemicity-Matched Case-Control Study Suggests Factors Controlling Ebv May Serve As A Predictive Biomarker For This Pediatric Cancer, David H. Mulama, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Joslyn Foley, Kiprotich Chelimo, Collins Ouma, Walter G.Z.O. Jura, Juliana A. Otieno, John M. Vulule, Ann M. Moormann 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sickle Cell Trait Is Not Associated With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: An Ethnicity And Malaria Endemicity-Matched Case-Control Study Suggests Factors Controlling Ebv May Serve As A Predictive Biomarker For This Pediatric Cancer, David H. Mulama, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Joslyn Foley, Kiprotich Chelimo, Collins Ouma, Walter G.Z.O. Jura, Juliana A. Otieno, John M. Vulule, Ann M. Moormann

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfections. Malaria appears to dysregulate immunity that would otherwise control EBV, thereby contributing to eBL etiology. Juxtaposed to human genetic variants associated with protection from malaria, it has been hypothesized that such variants could decrease eBL susceptibility, historically referred to as "the protective hypothesis." Past studies attempting to link sickle cell trait (HbAS), which is known to be protective against malaria, with protection from eBL were contradictory and underpowered. Therefore, using a case-control study design, we examined HbAS frequency in 306 Kenyan children diagnosed with eBL compared ...


Blockade Of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation, Lin Chen, Megan Schrementi, Matthew J. Ranzer, Traci A. Wilgus, Luisa A. DiPietro 2014 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Blockade Of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation, Lin Chen, Megan Schrementi, Matthew J. Ranzer, Traci A. Wilgus, Luisa A. Dipietro

Faculty Publications & Research

Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair ...


Tissue-Dependent T Cell Apoptosis And Transcriptional Regulation Of Memory Cd8+T Cell Differentiation During Viral Infections: A Dissertation, Varun N. Kapoor 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Tissue-Dependent T Cell Apoptosis And Transcriptional Regulation Of Memory Cd8+T Cell Differentiation During Viral Infections: A Dissertation, Varun N. Kapoor

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells is the hallmark of an anti-viral immune response. Effector T cells generated during an immune response are heterogeneous in regards to their ability to populate the memory pool once the immune response has resolved. Initial T cell activation takes place in the lymphoid organs, after which T cells migrate into the non-lymphoid tissues. The presence of memory T cells at non-lymphoid tissue sites has been shown to be critical for protection against secondary virus challenge. Our lab has previously demonstrated that during and after the resolution of the immune response to Lymphocytic choriomeningitis ...


Engrafted Human Cells Generate Adaptive Immune Responses To Mycobacterium Bovis Bcg Infection In Humanized Mice, Jinhee Lee, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Hardy Kornfeld 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Engrafted Human Cells Generate Adaptive Immune Responses To Mycobacterium Bovis Bcg Infection In Humanized Mice, Jinhee Lee, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Hardy Kornfeld

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Currently used mouse models fail to fully reflect human immunity to tuberculosis (TB), which hampers progress in research and vaccine development. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mice, generated by engrafting human fetal liver, thymus, and hematopoietic stem cells in severely immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL-2Rgamma(-/-) (NSG) mice, have shown potential to model human immunity to infection. We engrafted HLA-A2-positive fetal tissues into NSG mice transgenically expressing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1 (NSG-A2) to generate NSG-A2-BLT mice and characterized their human immune response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection to assess the utility of this model for investigating human TB.

RESULTS ...


American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 35, No. 3, Winter 2013, Scott Lyell Gardner 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

American Society Of Parasitologists Newsletter, V. 35, No. 3, Winter 2013, Scott Lyell Gardner

Newsletter of the American Society of Parasitologists

An issue of the American Society of Parasitologists' quarterly newsletter, also called the Journal of Parasitology Newsletter.


C-Jun N-Terminal Kinases Regulate Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy And Antigen Presentation, Sarah R. Klein 2013 Texas Medical Center Library

C-Jun N-Terminal Kinases Regulate Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy And Antigen Presentation, Sarah R. Klein

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Targeted immunotherapy with recombinant, oncolytic adenoviruses is under investigation for the treatment of cancer. Evidence indicates adenoviruses induce autophagy that is required for oncolysis, but the molecular regulation of autophagy in infected cells remains under investigation. Our data suggested the canonical pathway regulating starvation-induced autophagy was not implemented in adenovirus-induced autophagy; however, adenovirus infection triggered phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) that was essential for autophagy. Adenoviral replication within the host cell elicited JNK pathway activation leading to B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) phosphorylation. JNK-dependent Bcl-2 phosphorylation stimulated the dissociation of Bcl-2/beclin 1 heterodimers, enabling beclin 1 to initiate autophagy ...


Characterizing The Effect Of Dasatinib On Anti-Tumor Immune Response And Exploring The Potential Of Combining Targeted Therapy And Immunotherapy In A C-Kit Mutant Mastocytoma Model, Yan Yang 2013 Texas Medical Center Library

Characterizing The Effect Of Dasatinib On Anti-Tumor Immune Response And Exploring The Potential Of Combining Targeted Therapy And Immunotherapy In A C-Kit Mutant Mastocytoma Model, Yan Yang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Targeted therapy and immunotherapy eradicate malignant cells through different mechanisms, and the strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches are potentially complementary. Therefore, the combination of molecular targeted drugs with immune- based therapies is considered an attractive approach for improving the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment. The mutation and amplification of the c-KIT proto- oncogene are associated with multiple different cancer types, and multiple c-KIT inhibitors have been tested clinically. In spite of some encouraging results using these agents, most patients with c-KIT mutant cancers still relapse due to drug resistance. This also demonstrates the inherent limitation of molecular targeted ...


Innate Immune Responses To Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Age-Associated Changes, Terianne Maiko Wong 2013 University of South Florida

Innate Immune Responses To Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Age-Associated Changes, Terianne Maiko Wong

Graduate School Theses and Dissertations

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes ~64 million cases of respiratory disease and 200,000 deaths annually worldwide, yet there is no broadly effective prophylactic or treatment regimen. RSV can produce acute respiratory illness in patients of all ages but strikes the age extremes, infants and the elderly, with highest frequency presumably due to innate immune deficiencies. A higher morbidity and mortality has been reported for the elderly above 65 years of age, which has been attributed to immune senescence. Efforts to generate an effective vaccine have thus far been unsuccessful.

The innate immune system provides the first line of ...


Immunoproteomic Analysis Of Proteins Expressed By Two Related Pathogens, Burkholderia Multivorans And Burkholderia Cenocepacia, During Human Infection., Minu Shinoy, Ruth Dennehy, Lorraine Coleman, Stephen Carberru, Kirsten Schaffer, Máire Callaghan, Sean Doyle, Siobhan McClean 2013 Dublin Institute of Technology

Immunoproteomic Analysis Of Proteins Expressed By Two Related Pathogens, Burkholderia Multivorans And Burkholderia Cenocepacia, During Human Infection., Minu Shinoy, Ruth Dennehy, Lorraine Coleman, Stephen Carberru, Kirsten Schaffer, Máire Callaghan, Sean Doyle, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes chronic infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is a highly antibiotic resistant organism and Bcc infections are rarely cleared from patients, once they are colonized. The two most clinically relevant species within Bcc are Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans. The virulence of these pathogens has not been fully elucidated and the virulence proteins expressed during human infection have not been identified to date. Furthermore, given its antibiotic resistance, prevention of infection with a prophylactic vaccine may represent a better alternative than eradication of an existing infection. We ...


Toll-Like Receptor Induced Pro-Interleukin-1beta And Interleukin-6 In Monocytes Are Lower In Healthy Infants Compared To Adults, Daniel H. Libraty, Lei Zhang, Marcia Woda, Luz P. Acosta, Anamae Obcena, Job D. Brion, Rosario Z. Capeding 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Toll-Like Receptor Induced Pro-Interleukin-1beta And Interleukin-6 In Monocytes Are Lower In Healthy Infants Compared To Adults, Daniel H. Libraty, Lei Zhang, Marcia Woda, Luz P. Acosta, Anamae Obcena, Job D. Brion, Rosario Z. Capeding

Open Access Articles

Infants have long been known to have higher infectious diseases morbidity and mortality and suboptimal vaccination responses compared to older children and adults. A variety of differences in innate and adaptive immune responses have been described between these two groups. We compared Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced production of pro-interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha between 2-month-old infants and adults. TLR 7/8-induced production of pro-IL-1beta and IL-6 in monocytes was lower in 2-month-old infants compared to adults. There was no difference in TLR 7/8-induced production of TNF-alpha. Lower TLR-induced production of pro-IL-1beta and IL-6 in ...


Helminth Parasites Of The Raccoon (Procyon Lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis Virginiana), And Striped Skunk (Mephitis Mephitis) From Keith County, Nebraska, Dennis J. Richardson 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Helminth Parasites Of The Raccoon (Procyon Lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis Virginiana), And Striped Skunk (Mephitis Mephitis) From Keith County, Nebraska, Dennis J. Richardson

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Nine raccoons (Procyon lotor), 6 Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and 1 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) collected from Keith County, Nebraska were examined for helminth parasites. Raccoons were infected with the nematodes Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris procyonis, and Capillaria plica, the trematode Fibricola cratera, and the tapeworm Atriotaenia procyonis. Opossums were infected with 1 nematode, 1 trematode, and 1 cestode species: Physaloptera turgida, Plagiorhchis elegans, and Oochoristica sp., respectively. The single striped skunk was infected with the nematode Physaloptera maxillaris and the cestodes Mesocestoides sp. and Oochoristica sp.


Salicylate Prevents Virus-Induced Type 1 Diabetes In The Bbdr Rat, Chaoxing Yang, Agata Jurczyk, Philip J. diIorio, Elaine Norowski, Michael A. Brehm, Christian W. Grant, Dennis L. Guberski, Dale L. Greiner, Rita Bortell 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Salicylate Prevents Virus-Induced Type 1 Diabetes In The Bbdr Rat, Chaoxing Yang, Agata Jurczyk, Philip J. Diiorio, Elaine Norowski, Michael A. Brehm, Christian W. Grant, Dennis L. Guberski, Dale L. Greiner, Rita Bortell

Open Access Articles

Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that virus infection plays an important role in human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We used the virus-inducible BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR) rat to investigate the ability of sodium salicylate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), to modulate development of type 1 diabetes. BBDR rats treated with Kilham rat virus (KRV) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pIC, a TLR3 agonist) develop diabetes at nearly 100% incidence by ~2 weeks. We found distinct temporal profiles of the proinflammatory serum cytokines, IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-12, and haptoglobin (an acute phase protein) in KRV+pIC treated rats. Significant elevations of IL-1beta ...


Sylvatic Species Of Echinococcus From Rodent Intermediate Hosts In Asia And South America, Scott Lyell Gardner, Altangerel T. Dursahinhan, Gábor R. Rácz, Nyamsuren Batsaikhan, Sumiya Ganzorig, David S. Tinnin, Darmaa Damdinbazar, Charles Wood, A. Townsend Peterson, Erika Alandia, José Luís Mollericona, Jorge Salazar-Bravo 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Sylvatic Species Of Echinococcus From Rodent Intermediate Hosts In Asia And South America, Scott Lyell Gardner, Altangerel T. Dursahinhan, Gábor R. Rácz, Nyamsuren Batsaikhan, Sumiya Ganzorig, David S. Tinnin, Darmaa Damdinbazar, Charles Wood, A. Townsend Peterson, Erika Alandia, José Luís Mollericona, Jorge Salazar-Bravo

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

During a global survey of the diversity of vertebrates and their parasites including the Gobi and desert/steppe biomes ranging from south central to western Mongolia, we found metacestodes (larvae) of Echinococcus multilocularis (Leuckart 1863) in the liver of an individual vole (Microtus limnophilus Büchner 1889) collected in grassland habitat at Har Us Lake, southeast of Hovd, Mongolia. Positive identification of E. multilocularis from near Hovd was made via comparative cyst morphology, study of hooks from the rostellum derived from protoscolexes, and DNA sequencing of the COX1 mitochondrial gene extracted from tissue of the cysts frozen in the field. This ...


Pritchardia Boliviensis N. Gen., N. Sp. (Anoplocephalidae: Linstowinae), A Tapeworm From Opossums (Didelphidae) In The Yungas And Lowlands Of Bolivia And Atlantic Forest Of Paraguay, Scott Lyell Gardner, F. Agustín Jiménez Ruiz, Mariel L. Campbell 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Pritchardia Boliviensis N. Gen., N. Sp. (Anoplocephalidae: Linstowinae), A Tapeworm From Opossums (Didelphidae) In The Yungas And Lowlands Of Bolivia And Atlantic Forest Of Paraguay, Scott Lyell Gardner, F. Agustín Jiménez Ruiz, Mariel L. Campbell

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Pritchardia boliviensis n. gen. n. sp. (Anoplocephalidae: Linstowiinae) is described from marsupials (Marmosops noctivagus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Gracilinanus sp.) collected in Bolivia and Paraguay. These cestodes have a very small strobila with only three segments, regularly alternating genital pores, genital ducts crossing excretory canals ventrally, ovoid to pyriform cirrus sac, three to five testes, external seminal vesicle present and separated from cirrus sac by long seminal duct surrounded by glandular material, uterus ephemeral, eggs forming rapidly in gravid segments, and seminal receptacle present. Pritchardia boliviensis n. sp. includes a single species that occurs in small marsupials in the family Didelphidae of ...


Factor H-Dependent Alternative Pathway Inhibition Mediated By Porin B Contributes To Virulence Of Neisseria Meningitidis, Lisa A. Lewis, David M. Vu, Shreekant Vasudhev, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Dan M. Granoff, Sanjay Ram 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Factor H-Dependent Alternative Pathway Inhibition Mediated By Porin B Contributes To Virulence Of Neisseria Meningitidis, Lisa A. Lewis, David M. Vu, Shreekant Vasudhev, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Dan M. Granoff, Sanjay Ram

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The identification of "factor H binding protein (fHbp)-null" invasive meningococcal isolates and the realization that widespread use of fHbp-based vaccines could herald selection of such strains prompted us to characterize novel mechanisms of alternative pathway (AP) inhibition on meningococci. Of seven strains engineered to lack four known AP-inhibiting molecules, capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide sialic acid, fHbp, and neisserial surface protein A (quadruple mutants), four strains inhibited human AP-mediated C3 deposition. All four expressed the porin B2 (PorB2) molecule, and three strains belonged to the hypervirulent ST-11 lineage. Consistent with reduced C3 deposition, the rate of C3a generation by a PorB2 ...


Characterization Of The Host Response To Clinical Isolates Belonging To The Streptococcus Milleri Group, Julienne Kaiser 2013 McMaster University

Characterization Of The Host Response To Clinical Isolates Belonging To The Streptococcus Milleri Group, Julienne Kaiser

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

The Streptococcus Milleri Group (SMG) asymptomatically colonize the gastrointestinal, female urogenital, and upper respiratory tract in the healthy population, and are therefore traditionally considered commensals. The SMG, however, are also pathogens that cause pyogenic and pulmonary infections. The factors that differentiate pathogenic from non-pathogenic isolates have proven difficult to identify, and consequently the determinants of SMG pathogenicity remain unknown. Characterization of the immune response to the SMG is important towards advancing the understanding of SMG pathogenicity, however there are limited studies that have done so.

Herein, we sought to investigate the cytokine profiles produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells ...


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