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Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio 2017 Dr. Michael Ruscio

Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio

Journal of Evolution and Health

Clinicians have long understood the immense impact the health of our gut has on things like weight, energy, depression, autoimmunity and more. With the recent advancements in microbiota research we have learned much more about this connection. Like never before we understand how we can alleviate chronic health conditions and enhance well-being through improving the health of the gut.

However, with this increased research has also come over speculation and ill-informed recommendations. This has high impact on today's healthcare professional or consumer who could unintentionally do harm. For example by replicating the microbiota of hunter-gatherers of Africa, we could ...


Dynamic Transcriptomes Identify Biogenic Amines And Insect-Like Hormonal Regulation For Mediating Reproduction In Schistosoma Japonicum., Jipeng Wang, Ying Yu, Haimo Shen, Tao Qing, Yuanting Zheng, Qing Li, Xiaojin Mo, Shuqi Wang, Nana Li, Riyi Chai, Bin Xu, Mu Liu, Paul J Brindley, Donald P McManus, Zheng Feng, Leming Shi, Wei Hu 2017 George Washington University

Dynamic Transcriptomes Identify Biogenic Amines And Insect-Like Hormonal Regulation For Mediating Reproduction In Schistosoma Japonicum., Jipeng Wang, Ying Yu, Haimo Shen, Tao Qing, Yuanting Zheng, Qing Li, Xiaojin Mo, Shuqi Wang, Nana Li, Riyi Chai, Bin Xu, Mu Liu, Paul J Brindley, Donald P Mcmanus, Zheng Feng, Leming Shi, Wei Hu

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Eggs produced by the mature female parasite are responsible for the pathogenesis and transmission of schistosomiasis. Female schistosomes rely on a unique male-induced strategy to accomplish reproductive development, a process that is incompletely understood. Here we map detailed transcriptomic profiles of male and female Schistosoma japonicum across eight time points throughout the sexual developmental process from pairing to maturation. The dynamic gene expression pattern data reveal clear sex-related characteristics, indicative of an unambiguous functional division between males and females during their interplay. Cluster analysis, in situ hybridization and RNAi assays indicate that males likely use biogenic amine neurotransmitters through the ...


P23. Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc 2017 Western University

P23. Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc

Western Research Forum

Background

Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) is a receptor which mediates efferocytosis – removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes such as macrophages. MERTK plays a critical role in homeostasis, with mutations in MERTK associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis, the buildup of cholesterol-laden plaque in the sub-arterial space. Indeed, one MERTK allele is associated with 66% (heterozygous) to 75% (homozygous) protection from atherosclerosis, while other alleles and SNP’s pre-dispose to atherosclerosis and autoimmunity. Complications resulting from atherosclerosis, including heart attack and stroke, are currently the second leading cause of mortality in Canada. Despite the importance of MERTK in atherosclerosis ...


Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer 2017 University of Western Ontario

Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...


Environmental Implications Of Francisella Tularensis Biofilms, Jeffrey J. Margolis '00 2017 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Environmental Implications Of Francisella Tularensis Biofilms, Jeffrey J. Margolis '00

Jeffrey Margolis

Francisella tularensis survives in one of the widest environmental ranges of any pathogen. Numerous mammals and arthropod vectors are infected by this highly virulent organism. How this zoonotic pathogen persists outside of its many hosts remains unexplored. We aimed to examine how F. tularensis interacts with environmental surfaces, and hypothesized that biofilm formation may enable survival of this organism in nature. By understanding the role these surface-attached bacterial communities play in F. tularensis ecology, we hope to gain insight into the mechanisms of environmental persistence and transmission of this pathogen.

We identify chitin as a potential non-host niche for F ...


The Evaluation Of Carbon Dioxide-Independent Media For Toxoplasma Gondii Growth, Matthew C. Martens 2017 University of Nebraska Omaha

The Evaluation Of Carbon Dioxide-Independent Media For Toxoplasma Gondii Growth, Matthew C. Martens

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Toxoplasma gondii is a human pathogen that plays a role as the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, a disease that produces many deleterious effects for immunocompromised individuals and infants. Current research involving this intracellular parasite requires the use and continues maintenance of costly cell incubators attached to bulky carbon dioxide canisters. To reduce laboratory costs and space requirements, we, therefore, propose a novel procedure by which human foreskin fibroblasts, as well as Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, may be grown in a commercially available carbon dioxide-independent media. Growth assays utilizing resazurin dye or relative fluorescence from parasites modified with a red fluorescent protein ...


Elevated Prevalence Of Helicobacter Species And Virulence Factors In Opisthorchiasis And Associated Hepatobiliary Disease., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Eimorn Mairiang, Pisaln Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaovalux Chamgramol, Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa 2017 George Washington University

Elevated Prevalence Of Helicobacter Species And Virulence Factors In Opisthorchiasis And Associated Hepatobiliary Disease., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Eimorn Mairiang, Pisaln Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaovalux Chamgramol, Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Recent reports suggest that Opisthorchis viverrini serves as a reservoir of Helicobacter and implicate Helicobacter in pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Here, 553 age-sex matched cases and controls, 293 and 260 positive and negative for liver fluke O. viverrini eggs, of residents in Northeastern Thailand were investigated for associations among infection with liver fluke, Helicobacter and hepatobiliary fibrosis. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in O. viverrini-infected than uninfected participants. H. pylori bacterial load correlated positively with intensity of O. viverrini infection, and participants with opisthorchiasis exhibited higher frequency of virulent cagA-positive H. pylori than those free of ...


Thermal Biology Of Insect Immunity And Host-Microbe Interactions, Laura V. Ferguson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Thermal Biology Of Insect Immunity And Host-Microbe Interactions, Laura V. Ferguson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The influence of temperature on interactions with pathogenic or symbiotic microbes is a driving force behind the survival of insects under climate change. However, we know little of how insects physiologically respond to these pressures. In temperate climates, winter dominates the thermal landscape; thus, I am particularly interested in how cold interacts with insect responses to microbes. Here I explore the thermal biology of the insect immune system and the impacts of cold on host-microbe interactions. First, I demonstrate that acute exposure to cold activates selective components of immunity in Drosophila melanogaster, as a compensatory response to trade-offs or injury ...


Review Of: Dangerous Places: Health, Safety, And Archaeology (David A. Poirer & Kenneth L. Feder Eds.), Natalie Duval 2017 University of New Hampshire

Review Of: Dangerous Places: Health, Safety, And Archaeology (David A. Poirer & Kenneth L. Feder Eds.), Natalie Duval

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the book: Dangerous Places: Health, Safety, and Archaeology (David A. Poirier& Kenneth L. Feder eds., Bergin & Garvey, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. 2001). Introduction, bibliographic references, index. ISBN0-89789-632-7 [264 pp. $65.00. Cloth, 88 Post Road West, P.O. Box5007, Westport, CT 06881-5007.


Advances In Neglected Tropical Disease Vaccines: Developing Relative Potency And Functional Assays For The Na-Gst-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine., Jill B. Brelsford, Jordan L Plieskatt, Anna Yakovleva, Amar Jariwala, Brian P Keegan, Jin Peng, Pengjun Xia, Guangzhao Li, Doreen Campbell, Maria Victoria Periago, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Diemert, Jeffrey M. Bethony 2017 George Washington University

Advances In Neglected Tropical Disease Vaccines: Developing Relative Potency And Functional Assays For The Na-Gst-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine., Jill B. Brelsford, Jordan L Plieskatt, Anna Yakovleva, Amar Jariwala, Brian P Keegan, Jin Peng, Pengjun Xia, Guangzhao Li, Doreen Campbell, Maria Victoria Periago, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, David Diemert, Jeffrey M. Bethony

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative ...


Mhc Class Iiβ Diversity As A Correlate Of Neutral-Locus Similarity And Diversity, And A Predictor Of Overwinter Return, In Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia), Matthew J. Watson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Mhc Class Iiβ Diversity As A Correlate Of Neutral-Locus Similarity And Diversity, And A Predictor Of Overwinter Return, In Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia), Matthew J. Watson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a family of genes involved with recognizing pathogens and mounting an immune response. Parasite-mediated selection often favours heterozygosity at MHC because MHC-diverse individuals recognize a wider range of pathogens. Because migratory birds encounter many pathogens, I hypothesized that MHC diversity predicts overwinter and juvenile survivorship in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). I found no correlation between MHC diversity and neutral-locus (microsatellite) heterozygosity, suggesting that measures of neutral and adaptive genetic diversity provide complementary rather than redundant information. However, pairwise similarity at MHC predicted pairwise similarity at microsatellite loci. In contrast to my hypothesis, MHC ...


Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis And Human Malignancy., Hoang van Tong, Paul J. Brindley, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan 2017 George Washington University

Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis And Human Malignancy., Hoang Van Tong, Paul J. Brindley, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in ...


A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli 2017 George Washington University

A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Informed consent is one of the principal ethical requirements of conducting clinical research, regardless of the study setting. Breaches in the quality of the informed consent process are frequently described in reference to clinical trials conducted in developing countries, due to low levels of formal education, a lack of familiarity with biomedical research, and limited access to health services in these countries. However, few studies have directly compared the quality of the informed consent process in developed and developing countries using the same tool and in similar clinical trials. This study was conducted to compare the quality of the informed ...


Identification Of Candidate Infection Genes From The Model Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora., Jonathan Vadnal, Ramesh Ratnappan, Melissa Keaney, Eric Kenney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M. Hawdon 2017 George Washington University

Identification Of Candidate Infection Genes From The Model Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora., Jonathan Vadnal, Ramesh Ratnappan, Melissa Keaney, Eric Kenney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M. Hawdon

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Despite important progress in the field of innate immunity, our understanding of host immune responses to parasitic nematode infections lags behind that of responses to microbes. A limiting factor has been the obligate requirement for a vertebrate host which has hindered investigation of the parasitic nematode infective process. The nematode parasite Heterorhabditis bacteriophora offers great potential as a model to genetically dissect the process of infection. With its mutualistic Photorhabdus luminescens bacteria, H. bacteriophora invades multiple species of insects, which it kills and exploits as a food source for the development of several nematode generations. The ability to culture ...


Genomes Of Fasciola Hepatica From The Americas Reveal Colonization With Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related To The Agents Of Potomac Horse And Human Sennetsu Fevers., Samantha N McNulty, Jose F Tort, Gabriel Rinaldi, Bruce A Rosa, Victoria H. Mann, Patricia S. Latham, Paul J. Brindley, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Genomes Of Fasciola Hepatica From The Americas Reveal Colonization With Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related To The Agents Of Potomac Horse And Human Sennetsu Fevers., Samantha N Mcnulty, Jose F Tort, Gabriel Rinaldi, Bruce A Rosa, Victoria H. Mann, Patricia S. Latham, Paul J. Brindley, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Food borne trematodes (FBTs) are an assemblage of platyhelminth parasites transmitted through the food chain, four of which are recognized as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Fascioliasis stands out among the other NTDs due to its broad and significant impact on both human and animal health, as Fasciola sp., are also considered major pathogens of domesticated ruminants. Here we present a reference genome sequence of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica isolated from sheep, complementing previously reported isolate from cattle. A total of 14,642 genes were predicted from the 1.14 GB genome of the liver fluke. Comparative genomics indicated ...


Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay 2017 University of Montana

Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Bartonella bacilliformis is a gram negative alpha-proteobacterium native to the Andes of South America. Bartonella causes Carrion’s disease, a potentially life threatening disease transmitted by the sand fly. It has a mortality rate of 88% when untreated and 10% when treated. Diagnostics and control measures for the disease are underdeveloped and no vaccine is available. Recent outbreaks indicate that the range of the pathogen is increasing with nearly 1.7 million people in western South America at risk. Little is known about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of B. bacilliformis. Recent research done by UC San Diego found a paralogous ...


Pseudopecoelus Mccauleyi N. Sp. And Podocotyle Sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) From The Deep Waters Off Oregon And British Columbia With An Updated Key To The Species Of Pseudopecoelus Von Wicklen, 1946 And Checklist Of Parasites From Lycodes Cortezianus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), Charles K. Blend, Norman O. Dronen, Gábor R. Rácz, Scott Lyell Gardner 2017 Corpus Christi, Texas

Pseudopecoelus Mccauleyi N. Sp. And Podocotyle Sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) From The Deep Waters Off Oregon And British Columbia With An Updated Key To The Species Of Pseudopecoelus Von Wicklen, 1946 And Checklist Of Parasites From Lycodes Cortezianus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), Charles K. Blend, Norman O. Dronen, Gábor R. Rácz, Scott Lyell Gardner

Scott Gardner Publications & Papers

Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Opecoelinae) is described from the intestine of the bigfin eelpout, Lycodes cortezianus (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), collected at 200–800 m depths in the northeastern Pacific Ocean off Oregon and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The new species is distinguished by possessing a unique combination of the following diagnostic characters: vitelline fields that extend to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker; a slender, tubular and sinuous seminal vesicle that extends some distance into the hindbody; an unspecialized, protuberant ventral sucker; a genital pore at pharynx level; lobed to deeply multilobed testes; a lobed ovary; and ...


Nasopharyngeal Microbiome Diversity Changes Over Time In Children With Asthma, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Lamia Alamri, Keith Crandall, Robert J. Freishtat 2017 George Washington University

Nasopharyngeal Microbiome Diversity Changes Over Time In Children With Asthma, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Lamia Alamri, Keith Crandall, Robert J. Freishtat

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background

The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome of infants and adults during health and disease; less is known, however, about the composition and temporal dynamics (i.e., longitudinal variation) of microbiotas from children and adolescents. Here we use NGS technology to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiomes of asthmatic children and adolescents (6 to 18 years) and determine their stability over time.

Methods

Two nasopharyngeal washes collected 5.5 to 6.5 months apart were taken from 40 children and adolescents with asthma ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


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