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Size Selective Parasitism Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) By Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon Castaneus) In An Artificial Setting, Jeremiah M. Salinger, Ronald L. Johnson 2020 University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

Size Selective Parasitism Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) By Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon Castaneus) In An Artificial Setting, Jeremiah M. Salinger, Ronald L. Johnson

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

Paradigms of optimal resource utilization by animals, both classical and more recent, were not originally developed in the context of parasitism. Though this oversight has slowly been reversed, little attention has been paid to optimal resource utilization by parasitic fishes, such as lampreys. Multiple explanations for host size selection by parasitic lampreys may be plausible, but results from previous studies have been inconsistent. We studied host size selection by Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon castaneus) parasitizing Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in fish hatchery raceways in north central Arkansas during the late winter and early spring of 2013. Parasitized Rainbow Trout were significantly ...


Modeling Vaccination Strategies To Control White-Nose Syndrome In Little Brown Bat Colonies, Eva Cornwell, David Elzinga, Shelby R. Stowe, Alex Capaldi 2020 St. Olaf College

Modeling Vaccination Strategies To Control White-Nose Syndrome In Little Brown Bat Colonies, Eva Cornwell, David Elzinga, Shelby R. Stowe, Alex Capaldi

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Of The Car T-Cell Therapy, Emek Kose, Elizabeth Zollinger, Samantha Elliott 2020 St. Mary's College of Maryland

Mathematical Modeling Of The Car T-Cell Therapy, Emek Kose, Elizabeth Zollinger, Samantha Elliott

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


In Silico Mouse Model Of Infection And Immunity, Daniel Jonas, Michael Kirby, Alan R. Schenkel 2020 Colorado State University

In Silico Mouse Model Of Infection And Immunity, Daniel Jonas, Michael Kirby, Alan R. Schenkel

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Class Of 2020, Srinivasan Ragothaman 2020 Srini.Ragothaman@usd.edu

The Class Of 2020, Srinivasan Ragothaman

Creative Work

The is a poem written in honor of the class of 2020. The coronavirus pandemic has robbed them of many fun activities in their final semester in college. The graduating seniors missed out on so many rites of passage such as march madness, commencement, award banquets, sports, labs, practice, face-to-face classes etc. for the last two months. Seniors are encouraged to have fortitude, practice patience, be grateful and show grit. The class of 2020 will conquer the world in due course. It is hoped that graduates will have imagination, will innovate and transform the world.


The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith 2020 University of Mississippi

The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith

Honors Theses

Numerous studies have examined relationships between adrenal glucocorticoids and the immune system’s ability to fight disease. The relationship can vary, with glucocorticoids having either stimulatory or inhibitory effects. The pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) elicits an adaptive immune response in birds, in which B cells produce MG-specific antibodies to fight the infection and prevent reoccurrence. Previous research found that Eastern Bluebirds that produce the most antibodies in response to MG infection also have the highest glucocorticoid levels. This finding led to the current study investigating whether corticosterone, the primary glucocorticoid in birds, stimulates production of antibodies in response to ...


The Society For Immunotherapy Of Cancer Perspective On Regulation Of Interleukin-6 Signaling In Covid-19-Related Systemic Inflammatory Response, Fernanda I. Arnaldez, Steven J. O'Day, Charles G. Drake, Bernard A Fox, Bingqing Fu, Walter Urba, Vincenzo Montesarchio, Jeffrey S. Weber, Haiming Wei, Jon M. Wigginton, Paolo Antonio Ascierto 2020 John Wayne Cancer Institute and Cancer Clinic, Providence Saint John’s Health Center, Santa Monica, California, United States

The Society For Immunotherapy Of Cancer Perspective On Regulation Of Interleukin-6 Signaling In Covid-19-Related Systemic Inflammatory Response, Fernanda I. Arnaldez, Steven J. O'Day, Charles G. Drake, Bernard A Fox, Bingqing Fu, Walter Urba, Vincenzo Montesarchio, Jeffrey S. Weber, Haiming Wei, Jon M. Wigginton, Paolo Antonio Ascierto

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has placed an unprecedented burden on healthcare systems around the world. In patients who experience severe disease, acute respiratory distress is often accompanied by a pathological immune reaction, sometimes referred to as ‘cytokine storm’. One hallmark feature of the profound inflammatory state seen in patients with COVID-19 who succumb to pneumonia and hypoxia is marked elevation of serum cytokines, especially interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 17 (IL-17), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Initial experience from the outbreaks in Italy, China and the USA has anecdotally demonstrated improved outcomes ...


The Influence Of Climate Change On Disease And Public Health, Natalie Petruzelli 2020 St. John Fisher College

The Influence Of Climate Change On Disease And Public Health, Natalie Petruzelli

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This paper attempts to analyze the growing influence of climate change on the spread and development of diseases, as well as how this continues to affect public health and medical administrations around the world. The prevalence of airborne, waterborne, and vector-borne diseases have been found to be exacerbated as a result of climate change. In addition to this, the paper addresses the reemergence of eliminated diseases and ancient pathogens due to changing temperatures and weather patterns. Finally, the effect of these different conditions on national and international public health organizations and policies is analyzed, including projections on what can be ...


Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry LaRue 2020 Chapman University

Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The World Health Organization found that 37.9 million people were living with HIV by the end of 2018. HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system through viral replication and the destruction of CD4+ T-cells, which are white blood cells that detect infection and make antibodies. A cure for HIV has not yet been discovered. HIV-1 contains a Gag polyprotein which regulates the stages of viral replication. Previous studies suggest that the myristoyl group of a matrix protein peptide found on the Gag polyprotein, MA, forms a complex with a calcium-binding, multifunctional regulatory protein called Calmodulin (CaM). CaM ...


Effect Of Zelnate Administered As A Metaphylactic Upon Initial Processing Of High-Risk, Newly Received Beef Calves On Performance And Morbidity, Brady Martin 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Zelnate Administered As A Metaphylactic Upon Initial Processing Of High-Risk, Newly Received Beef Calves On Performance And Morbidity, Brady Martin

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is the most prominent and costly ailment in the stocker cattle industry today, and its prevalence has not been diminished in the last thirty years. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Zelnate, a DNA immunostimulant, administered upon arrival to calves (n = 261; BW 253 ± 4.0 kg), on morbidity/mortality, performance and producer costs. Crossbred male beef calves were acquired and transported to the University of Arkansas stocker unit for a 42-d backgrounding period. Calves were allocated into treatment groups: 1) Zelnate, DNA immunostimulant administered or 2) Control, in which ...


Mathematic Modeling Of Covid-19 In The United States, Yuanji Tang, Shixia Wang 2020 Applied NanoFemto Technologies, LLC

Mathematic Modeling Of Covid-19 In The United States, Yuanji Tang, Shixia Wang

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Since the early reports of COVID-19 cases in China in late January 2020 (1-2), the worst pandemic in 100 years has spread to the entire globe with approximately 2.4 million diagnosed cases and over 165,000 deaths up to April 20, 2020.

While scientists from various public and private groups use math and computer to simulate the course of this pandemic to try to predict how this outbreak might evolve (3), most of such analyses are either quite complicated or not publicly available.

Here a simple mathematic modeling approach is taken to track the outbreaks of COVID-19 in the ...


Effects Of Individual Orsay Virus Proteins On The Intracellular Pathogen Response Of C. Elegans, Barbara Chen, Jessica N. Sowa 2020 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Effects Of Individual Orsay Virus Proteins On The Intracellular Pathogen Response Of C. Elegans, Barbara Chen, Jessica N. Sowa

Biology Student Work

In order to cause infection, pathogens must avoid destruction by the host immune system. However, how pathogens evolved to evade host immunity is not fully understood. Mammals have two systems of immunity, innate and adaptive, which are regulated by complex interactions between the two systems. In order to study innate immunity exclusively, the roundworm C. elegans is a useful invertebrate model because it lacks adaptive immunity and the complexities that arise from interactions between the two types of immunity. The goal of this project is to investigate whether the individual expression of the Orsay virus capsid and delta-fusion proteins can ...


Identifying Novel Triggers Of The Intracellular Pathogen Response (Ipr) In C. Elegans, Catherine T. Byrnes, Jessica N. Sowa 2020 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Identifying Novel Triggers Of The Intracellular Pathogen Response (Ipr) In C. Elegans, Catherine T. Byrnes, Jessica N. Sowa

Biology Student Work

The intracellular pathogen response (IPR) is a cell signaling pathway found in C. elegans that is triggered when pathogenic microorganisms invade, and immune responses attempt to eliminate the threat. Due to the relative simplicity of C. elegans, they are an excellent model organism to analyze the cell signaling pathways triggered by various pathogens. They lack the complex immune systems of larger organisms, making it easier to study the involved cell signaling pathways. Past studies have shown that the IPR can also be triggered via intestinal wounding. Heat stress, viral infection, and proteasome stress are all known triggers of the IPR ...


Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, HCA Lung Biological Network 2020 Harvard Medical School

Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...


The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review Of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, And Control, Yosra A. Helmy, Mohamed Fawzy, Ahmed Elaswad, Ahmed Sobieh, Scott P. Kenney, Awad A. Shehata 2020 The Ohio State University

The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comprehensive Review Of Taxonomy, Genetics, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, And Control, Yosra A. Helmy, Mohamed Fawzy, Ahmed Elaswad, Ahmed Sobieh, Scott P. Kenney, Awad A. Shehata

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

A pneumonia outbreak with unknown etiology was reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019, associated with the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. The causative agent of the outbreak was identified by the WHO as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), producing the disease named coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The virus is closely related (96.3%) to bat coronavirus RaTG13, based on phylogenetic analysis. Human-to-human transmission has been confirmed even from asymptomatic carriers. The virus has spread to at least 200 countries, and more than 1,700,000 confirmed cases and 111,600 deaths have been recorded, with massive global ...


Fact Or Myth: The Flu Can Be Caused By The Flu Vaccine, Arleigh Wood 2020 Longwood University

Fact Or Myth: The Flu Can Be Caused By The Flu Vaccine, Arleigh Wood

Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

To many, the flu vaccine seems like a threat to an otherwise healthy individual. People often get the flu after receiving the flu shot, which does not promote confidence in the general public. These and other reasonings have created a myth that the flu vaccine can cause the flu. Understanding how the vaccination is created and how it interacts with the immune system helps to realize why the flu vaccine cannot cause the virus. For the vaccine to work, adaptive immunity must be activated by the introduction of the viral particles in a safe manner. An effective immune response from ...


465— Modeling Vaccine Efficacy For Tuberculosis In A Prison Population, Kaitlyn Mundackal 2020 SUNY Geneseo

465— Modeling Vaccine Efficacy For Tuberculosis In A Prison Population, Kaitlyn Mundackal

GREAT Day

Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease and is particularly problematic in confined communities such as prisons. I simulated how Tuberculosis moves through a prison population and tested how much vaccination effort is needed to control its spread. To explore this, I tested adding ever increasing numbers of randomly placed edges in a network and determined the size of the largest component. Afterwards, I removed edges in the model using two different methods, one illustrating if the edges were removed randomly and the other starting with prisoners that had the most connections, to simulate the effect of vaccination. My results show ...


147— The Effect Of A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor On Pd-L1, Hla-Abc, Hla-E, And Hla-G On Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Nikhil Reddy, Alec Toufexis 2020 SUNY Geneseo

147— The Effect Of A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor On Pd-L1, Hla-Abc, Hla-E, And Hla-G On Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Nikhil Reddy, Alec Toufexis

GREAT Day

Increased expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allows tumor cells to be more easily detected by the immune system. In previous research, epigenetic modifiers including the histone deacetylase inhibitor 3 (HDAC3), RGFP966, has been shown to decrease PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 expression inhibits T cell cytotoxicity, and decreasing it can enhance the immune response. We hope to elucidate whether or not HLA-ABC expression similarly decreases upon exposure to the HDAC3 inhibitor which would be detrimental to immune detection. Two breast cancer cell lines that express HLA-ABC are MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our initial results show that HLA-ABC is expressed on the MDA-MB-231 ...


Biol 404- The Effects Of Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs) On The Development Of Myeloid Suppressor Cells, Emma Rogers, Ryan Servis, Talbot Thames, Amorette Barber 2020 Longwood University

Biol 404- The Effects Of Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs) On The Development Of Myeloid Suppressor Cells, Emma Rogers, Ryan Servis, Talbot Thames, Amorette Barber

Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a man-made organic compound consisting of two phenyl rings connected by a single bond, with any number of chlorine molecules occupying positions around the rings. They are most commonly used as a dielectric and coolant fluid in electrical generators and transformers. Manufacture has declined drastically since the 1970s in America due to their exertion of estrogen-mimicking effects in the body, although they continue to persist in harmful concentrations in the environment. PCBs are endocrine-disrupting, and through estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects have been shown to increase breast cancer risk by changing gene expression in several genes common ...


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