Meningeal Infiltration Of The Spinal Cord By Non-Classically Activated B Cells Is Associated With Chronic Disease Course In A Spontaneous B Cell-Dependent Model Of Cns Autoimmune Disease, 2015 University of Western Ontario
Meningeal Infiltration Of The Spinal Cord By Non-Classically Activated B Cells Is Associated With Chronic Disease Course In A Spontaneous B Cell-Dependent Model Of Cns Autoimmune Disease, Amy K. Dang, Yodit Tesfagiorgis, Rajiv W. Jain, Heather C. Craig, Steven M. Kerfoot
Microbiology and Immunology Publications
We characterized B cell infiltration of the spinal cord in a B cell-dependent spontaneous model of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity that develops in a proportion of mice with mutant T and B cell receptors specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. We found that, while males are more likely to develop disease, females are more likely to have a chronic rather than monophasic disease course. B cell infiltration of the spinal cord was investigated by histology and FACs. CD4+ T cell infiltration was pervasive throughout the white and in some cases gray matter. B cells were almost exclusively restricted to the ...
Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America *, 2015 Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America *, Adauto Araujo, Karl J. Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena Iniguez, Martin Fugassa, Berrnardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luiz Fernando Ferreira
Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications
Some human parasites originated in prehominid ancestors in Africa. Nematode species, such as Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), hookworms and Trichuris trichiura are shared by humans and other close phylogenetic primates (Pan and Gorilla), showing that they infected a common ancestor to this group. When humans migrated from Africa to other continents they carried these parasites wherever climate conditions allowed parasite transmission from host to host. Other parasites, however, were acquired throughout human biological and social evolutive history when new territories were occupied. Paleoparasitology data is a valuable source to recover emergence and disappearance of parasite infections through analysis of archaeological remains ...
Diet And Parasitism At Dust Devil Cave, 2015 Northern Arizona University
Diet And Parasitism At Dust Devil Cave, Karl J. Reinhard, J Richard Ambler, Magdalene Mcguffie
Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications
Human parasitism has obvious relationships to group size and composition, mobility, subsistence patterns, and rates of culture change. At their best, human endoparasites may be annoying; at their worst, some can cause death. Thus, an overall view of the parasite load of a prehistoric population can yield insights useful in interpreting past lifeways. With these thoughts in mind, we undertook a study of Desha Complex (6800-4800 B .C.) human feces recovered from Dust Devil Cave in southern Utah.
Thymic Involution Perturbs Negative Selection And Leads To Chronic Inflammation, 2015 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth
Thymic Involution Perturbs Negative Selection And Leads To Chronic Inflammation, Brandon D. Coder B.S.
Theses and Dissertations
The ubiquitous presence of chronic low-level pro-inflammatory factors in elderly individuals (termed inflammaging) is a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The etiology of inflammaging is largely unknown. Recent evidence has identified the persistent activation of immune cells, thought to arise from latent viral infections, as key contributors towards the development of a chronic inflammatory environment. However, the contribution of autoreactive T cells towards the development of inflammaging has yet to be investigated. Another pervasive feature of the aging process is the age-related involution of the thymus gland, which has been linked with a predisposition toward developing autoimmunity. In ...
Development And Evaluation Of Novel Vaccination Strategies For Campylobacter Control In Poultry, 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Development And Evaluation Of Novel Vaccination Strategies For Campylobacter Control In Poultry, Xiang Liu
Chicken is the primary natural host of Campylobacter, the leading bacterial cause of human enteritis in the US and other developed countries. Thus, mitigation of Campylobacter in chicken using innovative approaches, such as vaccination, will have a significant impact on food safety and public health. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the two outer membrane proteins, CmeC (the essential component of the CmeABC multi-drug efflux pump) and CfrA (a ferric enterobactin receptor), are feasible candidates for immune intervention against Campylobacter. DNA vaccine has appeared to offer various advantages for poultry, particularly when combined with in ovo vaccination. Chitosan-encapsulated subunit vaccines ...
Agave Chewing And Dental Wear: Evidence From Quids, 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Agave Chewing And Dental Wear: Evidence From Quids, Emily E. Hammerl, Melissa A. Baier, Karl Reinhard
Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications
Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the ...
Evaluation Of Cardiac Involvement In Children With Dengue By Serial Echocardiographic Studies, 2015 Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health
Evaluation Of Cardiac Involvement In Children With Dengue By Serial Echocardiographic Studies, Tawatchai Kirawittaya, In-Kyu Yoon, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Sharone Green, Francis A. Ennis, Robert V. Gibbons, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Anon Srikiatkhachorn
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Infection with dengue virus results in a wide range of clinical manifestations from dengue fever (DF), a self-limited febrile illness, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which is characterized by plasma leakage and bleeding tendency. Although cardiac involvement has been reported in dengue, the incidence and the extent of cardiac involvement are not well defined.
METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized the incidence and changes in cardiac function in a prospective in-patient cohort of suspected dengue cases by serial echocardiography. Plasma leakage was detected by serial chest and abdominal ultrasonography. Daily cardiac troponin-T levels were measured. One hundred and eighty ...
Virulence Of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced By Human Complement Inhibitors, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Virulence Of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced By Human Complement Inhibitors, David Ermert, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Thorsten Joeris, Jakub Kaplan, Catherine J. Pang, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram, Anna M. Blom
Open Access Articles
Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and consequent phagocytosis. Several strains of GAS bind to human-specific complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and/or Factor H (FH), to curtail complement C3 (a critical opsonin) deposition. This results in diminished activation of phagocytes and clearance of GAS that may lead to the host being unable to limit the infection. Herein we describe the course of GAS infection in ...
Lv4 Is A Capsid-Specific Antiviral Activity In Human Blood Cells That Restricts Viruses Of The Sivmac/Sivsm/Hiv-2 Lineage Prior To Integration, Massimo Pizzato, Sean Matthew Mccauley, Martha R. Neagu, Thomas Pertel, Claudia Firrito, Serena Ziglio, Ann Dauphin, Madeleine Zufferey, Lionel Berthoux, Jeremy Luban
Open Access Articles
HIV-2 and SIVMAC are AIDS-causing, zoonotic lentiviruses that jumped to humans and rhesus macaques, respectively, from SIVSM-bearing sooty mangabey monkeys. Cross-species transmission events such as these sometimes necessitate virus adaptation to species-specific, host restriction factors such as TRIM5. Here, a new human restriction activity is described that blocks viruses of the SIVSM/SIVMAC/HIV-2 lineage. Human T, B, and myeloid cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and dendritic cells were 4 to > 100-fold less transducible by VSV G-pseudotyped SIVMAC, HIV-2, or SIVSM than by HIV-1. In contrast, transduction of six epithelial cell lines was equivalent to that by HIV-1. Substitution ...
Effects Of Antiretroviral Therapy On Kaposi’S Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Transmission Among Hiv-Infected Zambian Children, 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Effects Of Antiretroviral Therapy On Kaposi’S Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus (Kshv) Transmission Among Hiv-Infected Zambian Children, Landon Olp, Veenu Minhas, Clement Gondwe, Chipepo Kankasa, Janet M. Wojcicki, Charles Mitchell, John T. West, Charles Wood
Background: The risk of Kaposi’s sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV) acquisition among children is increased by HIV infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was recently made widely available to HIV-infected children in Zambia. However, the impact of early ART on KSHV transmission to HIV-infected children is unknown.
Methods: We enrolled and followed a cohort of 287 HIV-exposed, KSHV-negative children under 12 months of age from Lusaka, Zambia, to identify KSHV seroconversion events. Potential factors associated with KSHV infection—with an emphasis on HIV, ART, and immunological measures—were assessed through structured questionnaires and blood analyses. Incidence rate, Kaplan- Meier, and multivariable Cox ...
Phosphorylation Of The Peptidoglycan Synthase Pona1 Governs The Rate Of Polar Elongation In Mycobacteria, 2015 Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
Phosphorylation Of The Peptidoglycan Synthase Pona1 Governs The Rate Of Polar Elongation In Mycobacteria, Karen J. Kieser, Cara C. Boutte, Jemila C. Kester, Christina E. Baer, Amy K. Barczak, Xavier Meniche, Michael C. Chao, E Hesper Rego, Christopher M. Sassetti, Sarah M. Fortune, Eric J. Rubin
Open Access Articles
Cell growth and division are required for the progression of bacterial infections. Most rod-shaped bacteria grow by inserting new cell wall along their mid-section. However, mycobacteria, including the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, produce new cell wall material at their poles. How mycobacteria control this different mode of growth is incompletely understood. Here we find that PonA1, a penicillin binding protein (PBP) capable of transglycosylation and transpeptidation of cell wall peptidoglycan (PG), is a major governor of polar growth in mycobacteria. PonA1 is required for growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis and is critical for M. tuberculosis during infection. In both cases, PonA1 ...
In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, 2015 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark
SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity
The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated ...
Progression Of Non-Alcoholic Steatosis To Steatohepatitis And Fibrosis Parallels Cumulative Accumulation Of Danger Signals That Promote Inflammation And Liver Tumors In A High Fat-Cholesterol-Sugar Diet Model In Mice, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Progression Of Non-Alcoholic Steatosis To Steatohepatitis And Fibrosis Parallels Cumulative Accumulation Of Danger Signals That Promote Inflammation And Liver Tumors In A High Fat-Cholesterol-Sugar Diet Model In Mice, Michal Ganz, Terence N. Bukong, Timea Csak, Banishree Saha, Jin-Kyu Park, Aditya Ambade, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a pandemic. While multiple 'hits' have been reported to contribute to NAFLD progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and liver cancer, understanding the natural history of the specific molecular signals leading to hepatocyte damage, inflammation and fibrosis, is hampered by the lack of suitable animal models that reproduce disease progression in humans. The purpose of this study was first, to develop a mouse model that closely mimics progressive NAFLD covering the spectrum of immune, metabolic and histopathologic abnormalities present in human disease; and second, to characterize the temporal relationship between sterile/exogenous ...
Behavioral Immunity Suppresses An Epizootic In Caribbean Spiny Lobsters, 2015 Old Dominion University
Behavioral Immunity Suppresses An Epizootic In Caribbean Spiny Lobsters, Mark J. Butler Iv, Donald C. Behringer Jr., Thomas W. Dolan Iii, Jessica Moss, Jeffrey D. Shields
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape ...
Infection Of Ectocervical Tissue And Universal Targeting Of T-Cells Mediated By Primary Non-Macrophage-Tropic And Highly Macrophage-Tropic Hiv-1 R5 Envelopes, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Infection Of Ectocervical Tissue And Universal Targeting Of T-Cells Mediated By Primary Non-Macrophage-Tropic And Highly Macrophage-Tropic Hiv-1 R5 Envelopes, Paul J. Peters, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Thomas A. Musich, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Rongheng Lin, Abraham N. Morse, Robin J. Shattock, Cynthia A. Derdeyn, Paul R. Clapham
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 variants carrying non-macrophage-tropic HIV-1 R5 envelopes (Envs) are predominantly transmitted and persist in immune tissue even in AIDS patients who have highly macrophage-tropic variants in the brain. Non-macrophage-tropic R5 Envs require high levels of CD4 for infection contrasting with macrophage-tropic Envs, which can efficiently mediate infection of cells via low CD4. Here, we investigated whether non-macrophage-tropic R5 Envs from the acute stage of infection (including transmitted/founder Env) mediated more efficient infection of ectocervical explant cultures compared to non-macrophage-tropic and highly macrophage-tropic R5 Envs from late disease.
RESULTS: We used Env+ pseudovirions that carried a GFP reporter gene ...
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Its Role In Gut-Homing Macrophage Generation And Colitis, And Production By Probiotics, 2015 The University of Western Ontario
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Its Role In Gut-Homing Macrophage Generation And Colitis, And Production By Probiotics, Shahab Meshkibaf
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The pleiotropic cytokine granulocyte-colony stimulatory factor (G-CSF) is mainly required for the generation of neutrophils, but its role in macrophage generation has also been reported. In addition, G-CSF is effective for the down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and ameliorating gut disorders, such as colitis. However, the G-CSF function in macrophage generation and gut immunity remains unclear. The first focus of this thesis was to assess the role of G-CSF in macrophage generation and its contribution to gut immunity. G-CSF was found to promote the generation of Gr-1high/F4/80+ macrophages in macrophage (M)-CSF-treated bone marrow cells, most likely through suppressing ...
Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, 2015 DePaul University
Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane
Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide5,6. It is estimated that roughly 80% of those infected suffer from persistent infection with the virus; this persistence of infection is progressive, and over time can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma7. Chronic inflammation and apoptotic deregulation are both hallmarks of chronic HCV infection, and many molecular pathways are initiated in both the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection with this viral pathogen. The aim of this review was to survey some of the major molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of chronic ...
Paradoxical Immune Responses In Non-Hiv Cryptococcal Meningitis, 2015 U.S. National Institutes of Health
Paradoxical Immune Responses In Non-Hiv Cryptococcal Meningitis, Anil A. Panackal, Stuart M. Levitz, Bibi Bielekova, Peter R. Williamson
Open Access Articles
The fungus Cryptococcus is a major cause of meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected as well as HIV-uninfected individuals with mortalities in developed countries of 20% and 30%, respectively. In HIV-related disease, defects in T-cell immunity are paramount, whereas there is little understanding of mechanisms of susceptibility in non-HIV related disease, especially that occurring in previously healthy adults. The present description is the first detailed immunological study of non-HIV-infected patients including those with severe central nervous system (s-CNS) disease to 1) identify mechanisms of susceptibility as well as 2) understand mechanisms underlying severe disease. Despite the expectation that, as in HIV, T-cell immunity ...
Nsf Grant Helps Preserve Parasite Collections [Press Release], 2015 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Nsf Grant Helps Preserve Parasite Collections [Press Release], Scott Gardner, Lelslie Reed
Scott Gardner Publications & Papers
The National Science Foundation has awarded a $500,000 grant that will allow four major parasite collections to be digitized. The collections are part of UNL's Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology. Scott Gardner (pictured) is the curator and director of the Manter Laboratory.
A $500,000 grant from the National Science Foundation will allow the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology to digitally preserve four major collections of parasite specimens donated to the University of Nebraska-Lincoln during the past five years.
Detection Of Hcmv Viral Il-10 (Vil-10) In Healthy Blood Donors, 2015 University of San Francisco
Detection Of Hcmv Viral Il-10 (Vil-10) In Healthy Blood Donors, Vivian P. Young
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is widespread in the general population and can establish lifelong latency with expression of a limited subset of viral genes. The UL111A gene is expressed during both lytic and latent infection, and at least two protein isoforms are produced. During lytic infection, the full length transcript yields cmvIL-10, a potent immunosuppressive viral ortholog of human IL-10 (hIL-10). Alternative splicing of the UL111A transcript yields a truncated protein, LAcmvIL-10, which is expressed during both lytic and latent infection but with a limited range of immunosuppressive functions. The two viral cytokines, collectively termed viral IL-10 (vIL-10), are identical in ...