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A Comparison Of Multipath And Conventional Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, Cody Brian Bremner 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

A Comparison Of Multipath And Conventional Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, Cody Brian Bremner

Dissertations

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is the use of an electrical current for the purpose of eliciting a muscular response, and these treatments are most often used clinically for the specific purpose of increasing quadriceps strength. It is commonly accepted that the effectiveness of NMES for this purpose is primarily determined by the NMES training intensity. However, spatially limited motor unit recruitment, fatigue and discomfort negatively impact NMES-induced torque, which subsequently reduces NMES training intensities. Due to the importance of NMES training intensity, a substantial amount of research has focused on strategies designed to increase NMES-induced torque production, as well as ...


Walking Abnormalities Are Associated With Copd: An Investigation Of The Nhanes Iii Dataset, Jenna M. Yentes, Harlan Sayles, Jane Meza, David M. Mannino, Stephen I. Rennard, Nicholas Stergiou 2016 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Walking Abnormalities Are Associated With Copd: An Investigation Of The Nhanes Iii Dataset, Jenna M. Yentes, Harlan Sayles, Jane Meza, David M. Mannino, Stephen I. Rennard, Nicholas Stergiou

David M. Mannino

Research on the peripheral effects of COPD has focused on physiological and structural changes. However, different from muscular weakness or decreased physical activity, mechanical abnormalities of the muscular system, e.g. walking, have yet to be investigated. Our purpose was to utilize the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset to determine whether walking abnormalities are associated with COPD severity. To determine if walking abnormalities were independently associated with COPD severity, our analysis aimed to investigate the association of physical activity levels with COPD severity and with walking abnormalities. The NHANES III dataset that contains data for 31,000 ...


The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known and may relate to alterations in brain structure (e.g. cortical atrophy) and/or altered neural function, particularly in regions related to the cortical autonomic network, namely, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), insula cortex (IC), and hippocampus (HC). Exercise exerts beneficial effects on brain structure and, in the case of cognition, neurologic function; however, how exercise affects regions of the brain related to autonomic function are not known. This ...


Exercise To The Rescue: An Analysis Of Altered Metabolic Gene Regulation Post-Exercise In Lean And Obese Individuals, Brandon Mudd 2016 Western Kentucky University

Exercise To The Rescue: An Analysis Of Altered Metabolic Gene Regulation Post-Exercise In Lean And Obese Individuals, Brandon Mudd

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The skeletal muscle of obese individuals exhibits a depressed ability to metabolize fats. Exercise training is thought to rescue this dampened ability to metabolize fats; mediated by a coordinated increase in the expression of a network of genes that regulate metabolism and fuel utilization. The purpose of this study is to determine the exercise-induced regulation of metabolically important genes in lean and obese individuals. Muscle biopsies (one pre-exercise/baseline and one immediately post-exercise) were obtained from 4 lean (BF% 24.4 ± 5.5; 23.5 yrs ± 1.9) and 13 obese (BF% 39.7 ± 2.4; 26.1 yrs ± 2 ...


Using An Aerial Drone To Examine Lateral Movement In Sweep Rowers, Joseph S. Munn 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Using An Aerial Drone To Examine Lateral Movement In Sweep Rowers, Joseph S. Munn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rowing is a sport that is performed on the water, because of this there are many challenges associated with studying rowing. The primary challenges are an inability to control the environment and limitations with the equipment that can be used to collect data on the water. In order to try and overcome some of these challenges an aerial drone fitted with a high resolution camera was used to examine an understudied element of the rowing stroke, lateral movement in sweep rowers. Oar and shoulder angles and lateral movement of the shoulders and hands were calculated and compared between five different ...


Constraining Kinematics During Single-Leg Squats And Step-Ups Can Reduce Quadratus Lumborum Activation And Facilitate Gluteal Activation, Shaylyn Kowalchuk 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Constraining Kinematics During Single-Leg Squats And Step-Ups Can Reduce Quadratus Lumborum Activation And Facilitate Gluteal Activation, Shaylyn Kowalchuk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increased quadratus lumborum activation and decreased gluteal activation may lead to lateral pelvic drop and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during single-leg exercises. These activation patterns and motions are associated with low back pain or lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if mechanically restricting hip adduction and internal rotation of the femur affected muscle activation. Twenty female track and field athletes performed single-leg squats and step-ups, and the quadratus lumborum, gluteus medius and maximus muscles activations were measured with surface electromyography. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanically restricted exercises would decrease quadratus lumborum ...


The Physiological Responses To Cycling Stress., Moriah Larsen 2016 Northern Arizona University

The Physiological Responses To Cycling Stress., Moriah Larsen

Skyline - The Big Sky Undergraduate Journal

Background: As the intensity of exercise increases, the risk of incidences for exertional heat illness (EHI) continues to climb. The National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) has set an official position statement; stating a “gold standard” for obtaining core body temperature is via rectal thermometry. It has been reported that other field-expedient methods of obtaining core body temperature (oral, axillary, tympanic, temporal) are invalid or unreliable sources after intense exercise in hot temperature regions. Purpose: To determine if a relationship exists between rectal temperature measurements and tympanic temperature measurements during intensive long bouts of exercise. Design: Controlled Laboratory Study. Setting: Human ...


Hip Flexor Extensibility And Its Correlation To Hip Hyperextension And Lower Back Pain In Dancers, Tessa Richards 2016 University of Montana, Missoula

Hip Flexor Extensibility And Its Correlation To Hip Hyperextension And Lower Back Pain In Dancers, Tessa Richards

Skyline - The Big Sky Undergraduate Journal

The goal of this research was to measure the correlation between hip flexor extensibility, arabesque height, and lower back pain; specifically, whether a tight iliopsoas group restricts range of motion and correlates with lower back pain in dancers. Through a series of non-invasive measurements, the rectus femoris and iliopsoas group were tested for range of motion and general extensibility. The measurements were as follows: Patrick’s Test, Thomas’s Test, Modified Thomas Test, and prone hip hyperextension. Each subject also completed a pre-screening form to assess degree of lower back pain. The outcomes of the measurements were analyzed to find ...


Leveraging Sport Events For Participation, Marijke Taks, Laura Misener, Laurence Chalip, B. Christine Green 2016 University of Windsor

Leveraging Sport Events For Participation, Marijke Taks, Laura Misener, Laurence Chalip, B. Christine Green

Laura Misener

It is often claimed that sport events can stimulate interest and consequent participation in sport. The data on this matter are inconclusive. It is known, however, that sport participation is not being raised merely by the fact that an event is being hosted, but rather on the ways that an event is used to render desired effects (i.e., event leveraging). The purpose of this research project was to examine how medium sized sport events can be used to stimulate sport participation in host communities. Using a three-phased study, findings show that: (a) sport events are unlikely in-and-of themselves to ...


Evaluating Sport Development Outcomes: The Case Of A Medium-Sized International Sport Event, Marijke Taks, B. Christine Green, Laura Misener, Laurence Chalip 2016 University of Windsor

Evaluating Sport Development Outcomes: The Case Of A Medium-Sized International Sport Event, Marijke Taks, B. Christine Green, Laura Misener, Laurence Chalip

Laura Misener

This study evaluates sport development outcomes of a medium-sized, one-off, international sport event, while also exploring any strategies and tactics that were implemented with the intention to increase participation or other sport development outcomes. The event under investigation is the 2005 Pan American Junior Athletics Championships.


The Role Of Osteocyte Estrogen Receptor Beta (Erβ) In Regulating The Skeletal Response To Mechanical Loading, Julia P. Townsend, Russell P. Main 2016 Purdue University

The Role Of Osteocyte Estrogen Receptor Beta (Erβ) In Regulating The Skeletal Response To Mechanical Loading, Julia P. Townsend, Russell P. Main

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Estrogen’s biological functions are mediated by estrogen binding to estrogen receptors (ER). Understanding what role both ERα and ERβ have in bone maintenance and formation can contribute to possible treatment of osteoporosis. This study examined osteocyte specific deletion of ERβ in mice. The cross of ERβ-floxed mice with DMP1-8kb-Cre mice provided both experimental knockout mice as well as littermate control mice. At 24 weeks of age the left tibiae of all mice were mechanically loaded five days per week for two weeks to induce bone formation. Analysis of cortical bone was conducted using microcomputed tomography (microCT) to measure load-induced ...


A Comparison Of Cervical And Trunk Musculoskeletal Characteristics Between Female And Male Army Helicopter Pilots, Takashi Nagai, Karen A. Keenan, John P. Abt, Timothy C. Sell, Brian W. Smalley, Michael D. Wirt, Scott M. Lephart 2016 University of Pittsburgh

A Comparison Of Cervical And Trunk Musculoskeletal Characteristics Between Female And Male Army Helicopter Pilots, Takashi Nagai, Karen A. Keenan, John P. Abt, Timothy C. Sell, Brian W. Smalley, Michael D. Wirt, Scott M. Lephart

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Introduction: Neck pain (NP) and low back pain (LBP) are prevalent among military helicopter pilots. Although there have been few studies on sex differences in the NP/LBP prevalence in this population, females are shown to be at a greater risk of NP/LBP in civilian studies. This disparity may be due to musculoskeletal characteristics differences that predispose females for NP/LBP. The purpose of this study was to compare cervical and trunk musculoskeletal characteristics between male and female pilots. Methods: A total of 8 female pilots (Age: 27.6 ± 4.2yrs, HT: 166.1 ± 7.7cm, WT: 67.9 ...


The Relationship Between Strength, Power, And Sprint Acceleration In Division I Men’S Soccer Players, Christopher Bellon 2016 East Tennessee State University

The Relationship Between Strength, Power, And Sprint Acceleration In Division I Men’S Soccer Players, Christopher Bellon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this dissertation were three-fold. The first was to identify the approximate distances characterizing early-, mid-, and late-acceleration in a population of Division I men’s collegiate soccer players. The secondary purpose was to investigate the relationships between various strength-power variables and key sprint characteristics during early-, mid-, and late-acceleration in a population of Division I men’s soccer players. The final purpose of this dissertation was to compare the spatiotemporal characteristics of “strong” versus “weak” and “more powerful” versus “less powerful” Division I men’s soccer players during early-, mid-, and late- acceleration. The following are the ...


Positional And Match Action Profiles Of Elite Women’S Field Hockey Players In Relationship To The 2015 Fih Rule Changes, Heather A. Abbott 2016 East Tennessee State University

Positional And Match Action Profiles Of Elite Women’S Field Hockey Players In Relationship To The 2015 Fih Rule Changes, Heather A. Abbott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation was to examine the action profiles of elite field hockey players in relationship to the 2015 FIH rule change. The following are major findings of the dissertation: The following are major findings of the dissertation: Study 1 – Relative action profiles before the rule change revealed that defenders work at a lower meter per minute (m/min) when compared with all other positions, and that forwards, midfielders, and screens perform similar m/min during a game. Examination of pre rule change difference from the 1st to the 2nd half play showed that elite level field hockey ...


Effects Of Television Viewing On Psycho-Physiological And Behavioral Outcomes, Brittany Star Overstreet 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effects Of Television Viewing On Psycho-Physiological And Behavioral Outcomes, Brittany Star Overstreet

Doctoral Dissertations

Purpose: To determine the effects of television viewing during exercise on 1) preference for exercise and 2) treadmill walking time. Methods: Twenty-five insufficiently active adults (mean±standard deviation; age: 46±12 years; Body mass index: 31±5 kilogram/squared meter (kg/m2) were recruited for this study. In part 1, participants performed three randomized 1/3-mile walking bouts at an intensity equivalent to 70% of their oxygen consumption at ventilatory threshold (VO2-at-VT). During these exercise bouts, individuals viewed 1) their favorite television program (FavTV), 2) a standardized nature program (NatTV) or 3) no-TV program (NoTV). A behavioral ...


Relationship Between Body Composition, Fitness, And Eating Behaviors And Markers Of Metabolic Suppression In Exercising Men, Mikayla K. Locke, Karsten Koehler 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationship Between Body Composition, Fitness, And Eating Behaviors And Markers Of Metabolic Suppression In Exercising Men, Mikayla K. Locke, Karsten Koehler

UCARE Research Products

Introduction: Chronic dieting can result in characteristic metabolic adaptations such as a suppression of resting metabolic rate (RMR). Previous research has focused on health outcomes related to metabolic suppression in female athletes, which include impaired menstrual and bone health. The study purpose was to assess the relationship between metabolic suppression and body composition, fitness, and eating behavior traits in exercising men.

Approach: Cross-sectional study comparing exercising men who display evidence of metabolic suppression (MS) and a control group (Con). RMR was used as a surrogate marker of metabolic suppression.

Results and Discussion: When compared to Con, MS had a higher ...


Improving Power Output In Older Adults Utilizing Plyometrics In An Alterg Treadmill, Tyler Dobbs 2016 Boise State University

Improving Power Output In Older Adults Utilizing Plyometrics In An Alterg Treadmill, Tyler Dobbs

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare functional strength and power output in older adults who completed plyometric training in an AlterG treadmill compared to older adults who completed traditional resistance training. Methods: Twenty-three older adults were randomized to a strength (SG), plyometric (PG), or control group (CG). SG and PG exercised 3x/week for 8 weeks while CG performed no exercise. Measures of a timed sit-to-stand, stair climb, estimated maximal muscular strength, and isokinetic power were taken at pre and post testing. A repeated measures 2x3 (time x group) ANOVA was used to determine if there was a ...


Inpatient Versus Outpatient Total Hip Arthroplasty, Michael Pollock 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Inpatient Versus Outpatient Total Hip Arthroplasty, Michael Pollock

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate patients undergoing a total hip arthroplasty (THA) who were discharged from the hospital either on the day of surgery (outpatient) or were admitted overnight following surgery (inpatient). Our primary outcome was the rate of serious adverse events during the first three months postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures included cost, patient satisfaction, functional outcomes, quality of life and pain. We found no statistically significant difference between the two groups in serious adverse events. We found that outpatient THA was less expensive from the perspectives of the hospital and ministry of health; but the difference ...


Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr. 2016 Rockhurst University

Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr.

Journal of Evolution and Health

As rates of overweight and obesity have risen in the US, the public has sought effective strategies for weight loss through dietary modification. A proliferation of processed foods and changing governmental nutrition guidelines have both impacted dietary intake patterns. While physicians are considered respectable sources of weight-loss information, increasingly the public has turned to the media, particularly magazines, for weight loss advice. This study investigated the dietary recommendations found in the five leading US health-related magazines and compared those recommendations to ancestral diets. With a couple notable exceptions, leading health magazines present consistent recommendations for dietary modifications to promote weight ...


A Bayesian Inference Comparing Collegiate Female Cyclists To Elite Female Cyclists From A Meta-Analysis, Frank B. Wyatt, Mihir Dhimar, Yesha Shah 2016 Midwestern State University

A Bayesian Inference Comparing Collegiate Female Cyclists To Elite Female Cyclists From A Meta-Analysis, Frank B. Wyatt, Mihir Dhimar, Yesha Shah

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 368-375, 2016. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological characteristics of competitive, collegiate female cyclists (CFC) to data of elite female cyclists (EFC) obtained from a meta-analytic review. Eleven (n=11) CFC volunteered as subjects. Subjects signed a university approved informed consent. Means and standard deviation (+ SD) were obtained from the following measurements: age (y), 22.5± 5.1; height (cm) 167.22 ± 6.2; body mass (kg) 63.78 ± 9.71; body fat (%) 22.9 ± 3.6. Subjects performed a maximal cycling ergometer test to volitional fatigue. Maximal oxygen ...


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