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A Glass Bead Semi-Hydroponic System For Intact Maize Root Exudate Analysis And Phenotyping, Martha G. Lopez-Guerrero, Peng Wang, Felicia Phares, Daniel P. Schachtman, Sophie Alvarez, Karin V. van Dijk 2022 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

A Glass Bead Semi-Hydroponic System For Intact Maize Root Exudate Analysis And Phenotyping, Martha G. Lopez-Guerrero, Peng Wang, Felicia Phares, Daniel P. Schachtman, Sophie Alvarez, Karin V. Van Dijk

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Although there have been numerous studies describing plant growth systems for root exudate collection, a common limitation is that these systems require disruption of the plant root system to facilitate exudate collection. Here, we present a newly designed semi-hydroponic system that uses glass beads as solid support to simulate soil impedance, which combined with drip irrigation, facilitates growth of healthy maize plants, collection and analysis of root exudates, and phenotyping of the roots with minimal growth disturbance or root damage. Results: This system was used to collect root exudates from seven maize genotypes using water or 1 mM CaCl2 ...


Values: Helping Agricultural Producers Find Motivation By Focusing On What Matters, Jacob D. Gossner, Elizabeth Fauth, Tasha Howard 2022 Utah State University

Values: Helping Agricultural Producers Find Motivation By Focusing On What Matters, Jacob D. Gossner, Elizabeth Fauth, Tasha Howard

All Current Publications

This fact sheet addresses the importance of tuning into values as a way of maintaining motivation and promoting mental health for agricultural producers.


Population Fluctuation Of Bemisia Tabaci (L) And Its Associated Predators Under Combined Effects Of Sowing Date And Varieties, Muhammad Rafiq Shahid, Muhammad Farooq, Wajid Nazeer, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Akram, Anser Ali, Abrar Ahmad, Khurram Shahzad, Ali Raza, Saghir Ahmad, Maryam Iqbal 2022 Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan

Population Fluctuation Of Bemisia Tabaci (L) And Its Associated Predators Under Combined Effects Of Sowing Date And Varieties, Muhammad Rafiq Shahid, Muhammad Farooq, Wajid Nazeer, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Akram, Anser Ali, Abrar Ahmad, Khurram Shahzad, Ali Raza, Saghir Ahmad, Maryam Iqbal

Journal of Bioresource Management

The sowing date is very crucial among agronomic techniques for ensuring productivity and controlling insect pest. In 2018 and 2019, sowings were carried out 15 days intervals, starting on March 1 and ending on June 16. The dates were: March 1, March 16, April 1, May 1, May 16, and June 1. On advanced cultivars of Bt cotton, namely MNH-1026, MNH-1050, and IUB-13, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera), and beneficial/predatory fauna were researched (control). The statistical analysis was multivariate. The relationship between the predatory fauna and the prey (whiteflies) in the correlogram was favourable. Predators showed a positive ...


Economic Analysis Of Sawn Wood Production And Determinants Of Sawn Wood Supply In Selected Sawmill In Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area Of Ogun State Nigeria, Taiye Oluwasola Babatunde, Oluyemisi Omowunmi Babatunde, Kehinde Oluwafemi Babatunde 2022 Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jericho Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria.

Economic Analysis Of Sawn Wood Production And Determinants Of Sawn Wood Supply In Selected Sawmill In Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area Of Ogun State Nigeria, Taiye Oluwasola Babatunde, Oluyemisi Omowunmi Babatunde, Kehinde Oluwafemi Babatunde

Journal of Bioresource Management

The study investigates the economics of sawn wood production and its supply determinants in a selected sawmill in Ogun State's Ijebu ode local government area. The purpose was to find socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, profitability of the business factors and the determinants of sawn wood supply in the study area. Fifteen sawmills were chosen at random out of 60 sawmills in the area. Cross sectional data were collected from 150 plank sellers through the use of structure questionnaires and oral interview out of which 143 were retrieved. Results indicated that most of the respondents were male, married with ...


Perennial Warm-Season Grass Forages Impact On Cow-Calf Profitability In The Fescue Belt, Kyle A. Brazil, Patrick D. Keyser, Andrew P. Griffith, Christopher N. Boyer, J. Travis Mulliniks 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Perennial Warm-Season Grass Forages Impact On Cow-Calf Profitability In The Fescue Belt, Kyle A. Brazil, Patrick D. Keyser, Andrew P. Griffith, Christopher N. Boyer, J. Travis Mulliniks

Journal of Applied Farm Economics

Incorporating a perennial warm- season grass (WSG) into tall fescue (Lolium arundina-ceum [Schreb.] Darbysh.) forage systems in the fescue belt can help avoid the effects of fescue toxicosis on beef cattle (Bos taurus) reproduction and animal performance and provide forage during summer when fescue production is low. However, little information is available on the economics of incorporating WSG into fescue-based forage systems. We developed a simulation model to compare profitability of three forage systems—100% tall fescue, 70% tall fescue/30% bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), and 70% tall fescue/ 30% switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)—while also comparing spring- and fall-calving sea-sons on ...


Teaching Educators Basic Fruit Tree Grafting Methods, Jeffrey C. Wilson, Wayne Porter, Casey Barickman 2022 Mississippi State University

Teaching Educators Basic Fruit Tree Grafting Methods, Jeffrey C. Wilson, Wayne Porter, Casey Barickman

The Journal of Extension

Hands-on education has proven to be successful in teaching basic grafting methods. MSU Extension developed and conducted eleven statewide workshops teaching Extension Agents and Master Gardeners preferred fruit tree grafting methods. The hands-on workshops provided specialists, agents, and Master Gardeners training on teaching fruit tree grafting classes for clientele. Each workshop consisted of a pre-test, a PowerPoint presentation, a post-test, and a grafting demonstration. Post-test scores showed a significant gain in knowledge over pre-test scores. This training can be replicated/adapted by other organizations to conduct educational outreach.


Engaging Farmers, Culinary Schools, And Communities In Value-Added Production To Strengthen Local Food Systems, Lauren B. Errickson, Ethan D. Schoolman, Virginia Quick, Sarah Davis, Anthony Capece 2022 Rutgers Cooperative Extension

Engaging Farmers, Culinary Schools, And Communities In Value-Added Production To Strengthen Local Food Systems, Lauren B. Errickson, Ethan D. Schoolman, Virginia Quick, Sarah Davis, Anthony Capece

The Journal of Extension

Value-added products can generate farm income and improve community food access, yet lack of available kitchen infrastructure and labor can limit farm production capacity. This project explored how community-based culinary schools might fill the gap. A unique “product share” model was identified and piloted, meeting the collective needs of farmers, a culinary school, and urban consumers. By researching farmer crop availability and business model preferences, and aligning value-added production with community food preferences, we demonstrate a successful pilot indicative that similar initiatives can be replicated in other metropolitan areas, with potential to engage cross-disciplinary extension professionals.


Weather Information And Decision-Support Tool Needs Assessment, Lily Calderwood, Glen Koehler, Sean Birkel, Erin H. Roche 2022 University of Maine Extension

Weather Information And Decision-Support Tool Needs Assessment, Lily Calderwood, Glen Koehler, Sean Birkel, Erin H. Roche

The Journal of Extension

University of Maine researchers developed three commodity-specific grower focus groups (lowbush blueberry, apple, mixed vegetable) to discuss and survey 1) current access to weather information, and 2) interest in weather-based decision support tools. NOAA National Weather Service (30%) (n=47) was most commonly cited as a weather information source. Growers ranked greater forecast accuracy (31%) and localization (19%) (n=48) as highest priorities. Only 34% of growers reported current use of weather-based decision support tools, but 86% expressed interest in future use (n=134). The project team is using grower input to improve weather data access and decision-support tools for ...


Protecting Cattle Feedyard Workers In The Central States Region: Exploring State, Regional, And National Data On Fatal And Nonfatal Injuries In Agriculture And The Beef Production Sector, Athena K. Ramos, Suraj Adhikari, Risto Rautiainen, Aaron Yoder 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Protecting Cattle Feedyard Workers In The Central States Region: Exploring State, Regional, And National Data On Fatal And Nonfatal Injuries In Agriculture And The Beef Production Sector, Athena K. Ramos, Suraj Adhikari, Risto Rautiainen, Aaron Yoder

The Journal of Extension

Working in agriculture can be dangerous. Despite ongoing efforts of Extension, animal production worker safety has not been adequately addressed. We present state, regional, and national counts and rates on fatal and nonfatal injuries in agriculture and animal production using publicly available data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. We found that animal production had a high number of fatal injuries and a higher rate of nonfatal injuries than the average within agriculture. More needs to be done to protect livestock workers from injury. Extension professionals can play a key role in increasing safety knowledge and changing behaviors.


Broiler Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines, Nelson E. Ward 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Broiler Vitamin Nutrition Guidelines, Nelson E. Ward

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

In a time of record feed prices, nutritionists and production managers continue to look for opportunities to lower growout costs. Even though their contribution seldom exceeds 1-2% of feed costs, vitamins are not immune to this cost-crunching scrutiny. Furthermore, in late 2017, an unparalleled drop in global vitamin supply resulted in sharply increased prices, and in some cases, outright shortages. Such events have placed pressure on vitamin fortification levels in broiler feeds. Nutritionists decide on the fortification rates based on a variety of criteria – bird age, production phase, field experience, research trials, and so forth. The rapid change in broiler ...


Recent Findings On Phosphorus Digestibility Of Feed Ingredients In Broilers, Jay Hampton, Wenting Li, Franco Mussini, Katie Hilton, Janet Remus, Samuel J. Rochell 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Recent Findings On Phosphorus Digestibility Of Feed Ingredients In Broilers, Jay Hampton, Wenting Li, Franco Mussini, Katie Hilton, Janet Remus, Samuel J. Rochell

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Accurately meeting the dietary P needs of broilers is critical to ensure optimal bird performance, health, and welfare without causing undue environmental burdens associated with excess dietary P excretion. Phosphorus is commonly supplied in broiler diets from inorganic phosphates derived from non-renewable sources, but it has been estimated that peak P production will occur between 2030-2040 and that the global supply of P could be depleted within this century (Cordell and Drangert, 2009; Nest and Cordell, 2012). To address these concerns, inorganic P use in agriculture, including use in broiler diet formulation, requires careful stewardship. To this end, the dietary ...


Reduction Of Protein Levels In Broiler Feed For Commercial Application – A German Case, Andreas Lemme, Kilian Fenske, Heiner Westendarp, Mathias Guhe, Elmar Rother 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Reduction Of Protein Levels In Broiler Feed For Commercial Application – A German Case, Andreas Lemme, Kilian Fenske, Heiner Westendarp, Mathias Guhe, Elmar Rother

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

A project was initiated to apply dietary CP reduction under commercial conditions. The main objective was to demonstrate and validate that dietary CP can be reduced without compromising broiler performance in a production system which is already rather efficient. In addition, we wanted to demonstrate the potential of dietary CP reduction on reducing N-excretions especially in the context of German revised regulations and monitoring attempts. Finally, as previous research suggested, few further aspects such as impact of dietary CP reduction on litter quality and quantity, footpad health, change of ingredient inclusion levels and related impact on sustainability impact factors were ...


Application Of Simulation Modelling In Broiler Integration: Is It A Necessary Nutritional Tool?, Peter Chrystal 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Application Of Simulation Modelling In Broiler Integration: Is It A Necessary Nutritional Tool?, Peter Chrystal

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Modelling techniques have been used in many industries globally to illustrate to others an understanding of the way processes work. Also, engineers and scientists employ models to predict the consequences of various courses of action. Simple pictorial models, such as the diagram of the chicken digestive system, are useful in education and may be more suitable than a photograph for the purposes of explaining how the animal converts ingested feed into components that can be assimilated, leaving residue that is excreted. Complex, predictive models seek to quantify a specified outcome based on defined inputs. Many attempts have been made over ...


State Of The Art Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, Rick van Emous 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

State Of The Art Pullet And Breeder Nutrition, Rick Van Emous

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

During the last six to seven decades, broilers have been successfully selected for maximum growth and feed efficiency (Zuidhof et al., 2014). Modern fast-growing broilers reach a body weight of 2.0 to 2.5 kg in 35 to 45 days with an average daily growth of 55 or more gram a day (Augère-Granier, 2019). In a study with different broiler strains representative of broilers in 1957 or 1978 were compared with a broiler strain from 2005 (Zuidhof et al., 2014). The 2005 strain showed, over a 56-day growth period, a 4.6 times higher growth rate and a 50 ...


Broiler Breeder Males: Feed And Nutrition Discussion, Benton Hudson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Broiler Breeder Males: Feed And Nutrition Discussion, Benton Hudson

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The methods for feeding broiler breeder males have evolved over recent decades, and further revisions will likely be needed as males become more challenging to manage. Since the introduction of separate male feeding systems in the early 1980’s, breeder males’ nutrient needs have been better managed via daily feed restriction. If a breeder operation can effectively produce, haul, and store a separate male diet, then it provides more options to use different nutrient levels or feed additives that are designed to enhance fertility. This article will outline the history of male-separate feeding and revisit nutritional research on fertility of ...


Amino Acids Were Not All Created Equal, Peter H. Selle, Shemil P. Macelline, Peter V. Chrystal, Sonia Y. Liu 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Amino Acids Were Not All Created Equal, Peter H. Selle, Shemil P. Macelline, Peter V. Chrystal, Sonia Y. Liu

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The contention that amino acids were not all created equal is based on the simple premise that intestinal uptakes of non-bound (synthetic, crystalline, feed-grade) amino acids are more rapid than their protein-bound counterparts. The post-enteral ramifications of this difference in bioequivalence are amplified in broiler chickens given their express growth rates and just one complication is the post-prandial oxidation of amino acids. The lack of bioequivalence between non-bound and protein-bound amino acids is a real obstacle to the development and adoption of reduced-crude protein diets that have the potential to promote sustainable chicken-meat production Thus, the purpose of this paper ...


Recent Advancements On Calcium And Phosphorus Recommendations In Broilers, Justina Caldas, Marcelo Silva 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Recent Advancements On Calcium And Phosphorus Recommendations In Broilers, Justina Caldas, Marcelo Silva

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Calcium and phosphorus have been recognized essential nutrients in chickens since 1950’s (Lesson & Summers, 2001) playing important roles in bone development, among other functions. Calcium is assumed an inexpensive nutrient in animal least cost formulation while phosphorus is considered expensive and scant. The actual economic impact comes from the influence of calcium on phosphorus requirements, changes in phosphorus digestibility, buffer capacity, gut health, trace mineral absorption, fat digestibility, welfare traits, etc. Both minerals have important interactions to be considered during formulation. Few changes have been made over the past 20 years to calcium and phosphorus recommendations because these values ...


Decoding The Gut Microbiome; Providing Solutions For Poultry Production, Nichoals Evans, Peter Karnezos, Curtis Novak, Diana Ayala, Emily Kimminau, Kay Russo 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Decoding The Gut Microbiome; Providing Solutions For Poultry Production, Nichoals Evans, Peter Karnezos, Curtis Novak, Diana Ayala, Emily Kimminau, Kay Russo

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The term “microbiome” refers to all the micro-organisms within a particular environment. In poultry, the microbiome is influenced by the barn, diet, and age of the birds and is believed to modulate immunity and inflammation. In the past, culture methods were primarily used to evaluate the presence of the various micro-organisms present in the microbiome; however, recent technological advances in genomic sequencing have revolutionized sample analysis. This technology has opened new avenues of research in poultry production and our understanding of the associated health challenges. Turkey cellulitis has been a major economic and health concern for many years. Traditional bacterial ...


Application Of Nutritional Immunology In The Mitigation Of Economic And Production Losses In The Poultry Industry Associated With Food-Borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, And Necrotic Enteritis., Shahna Fathima, Ramesh K. Selvaraj 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Application Of Nutritional Immunology In The Mitigation Of Economic And Production Losses In The Poultry Industry Associated With Food-Borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, And Necrotic Enteritis., Shahna Fathima, Ramesh K. Selvaraj

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

Sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics were used in poultry production since the 1950s for improved production, prophylaxis, and animal welfare. Extensive and indiscriminatory use of antibiotics led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens of public health significance (Jones & Ricke, 2003). As per the United States Centre for Disease Control, more than 2.8 million infections in 2019 were caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Due to public health concerns, the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock production was prohibited by Sweden and Denmark in 1986 and 1998 respectively (Hammerum et al., 2007). The European Union banned the use ...


A Dynamic Approach To Feed Formulation, Rob Gous 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Dynamic Approach To Feed Formulation, Rob Gous

Proceedings of the Arkansas Nutrition Conference

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the opportunity cost of using fixed tables of nutrient requirements when formulating feeds for broilers can be considerable, and that nutritionists should consider a more dynamic approach to defining the lower bounds of amino acids in particular, in line with the objective of the business, which is to maximise profit. In order to do this, it is necessary to consider the potential growth rate of the broiler, the cost of feed and amount of feed consumed, and the income generated from the sale of product.


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