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Untangling The Economic And Social Impediments To Producer Adoption Of Organic Wheat, Donya L. Ralph-Quarnstrom 2019 Utah State University

Untangling The Economic And Social Impediments To Producer Adoption Of Organic Wheat, Donya L. Ralph-Quarnstrom

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Consumer demand for organic products has shown double-digit growth in recent years encouraging the development of a wider range of goods (Greene, 2017). Americans with an annual household income under $30,000 actively purchase organic foods at nearly the same rate as households with over $75,000 in annual incomes, 42% versus 49% (Greene et al., 2017). Previous research observed the adoption of organic farming practices on a combination of different grains, fruits and vegetables, meat, and dairy products from across the globe. However, this is the first study to examine the adoption of organic wheat in the Western U ...


Impact Of Hydraulic Residence Time On Nitrate Removal In Pilot-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors, E. A. Martin, Morgan P. Davis, Thomas B. Moorman, Thomas M. Isenhart, Michelle L. Soupir 2019 Iowa State University

Impact Of Hydraulic Residence Time On Nitrate Removal In Pilot-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors, E. A. Martin, Morgan P. Davis, Thomas B. Moorman, Thomas M. Isenhart, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Nitrate (NO3−N) export from row crop agricultural systems with subsurface tile drainage continues to be a major water quality concern. Woodchip bioreactors are an effective edge-of-field practice designed to remove NO3−N from tile drainage. The NO3−N removal rate of woodchip bioreactors can be impacted by several factors, including hydraulic residence time(HRT). This study examined the impact of three HRTs, 2 h, 8 h, and 16 h, on NO3−N removal in a set of nine pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors in Central Iowa. NO3−N concentration reduction from the inlet to the outlet was significantly different for all ...


Considerations For Sage-Grouse Management Objectives, David K. Dahlgren, Terry A. Messmer, Eric T. Thacker 2019 Utah State University

Considerations For Sage-Grouse Management Objectives, David K. Dahlgren, Terry A. Messmer, Eric T. Thacker

Terry A. Messmer

This fact sheet describes ways to conserve and manage sage-grouse and includes information on population dynamics; movements, habitat, and climatic interactions; and management objectives.


Development Of Gluten-Free Egg Pasta Based On Amaranth, Maize And Sorghum, Laura Paux, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2019 Iowa State University

Development Of Gluten-Free Egg Pasta Based On Amaranth, Maize And Sorghum, Laura Paux, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Due to increase of the population affected by Coeliac disease and awareness of consumers about the relationship between food and health, the production of cereal products from raw materials other than wheat is of interest. The aim of the work was to produce good quality gluten-free spaghettis, based on sorghum, amaranth and maize flour. Response surface methodology was applied to determine optimal formulation for the production of pasta. The resulting products of the experimental design were characterized regarding humidity, color, density, water activity, texture (firmness and elasticity), optimal cooking time, cooking weight, and cooking loss. The main trials were compared ...


Transporting More Dollars To The Bank, Matt Ritter, Mike Ellis, Anna Johnson 2019 Elanco Animal Health

Transporting More Dollars To The Bank, Matt Ritter, Mike Ellis, Anna Johnson

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Introduction

Transport losses in market weight pigs (dead and nonambulatory pigs) represent animal welfare, legal, and economic concerns to the US swine industry. 1 First of all, improving the well-being of pigs during transport and reducing the incidence of dead and non-ambulatory pigs are animal welfare priorities for the US swine industry. 2 Secondly, non-ambulatory livestock are the subject of increased rules and regulations. For example, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) inspectors and plant welfare auditors evaluate how non-ambulatory pigs are handled at the packing plant. Improper handling of non-ambulatory pigs at the plant can result in a USDA ...


Nitrogen Fertilizer Suppresses Mineralization Of Soil Organic Matter In Maize Agroecosystems, Navreet K. Mahal, William R. Osterholz, Fernando E. Miguez, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, John E. Sawyer, Daniel C. Olk, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, Michael J. Castellano 2019 Iowa State University

Nitrogen Fertilizer Suppresses Mineralization Of Soil Organic Matter In Maize Agroecosystems, Navreet K. Mahal, William R. Osterholz, Fernando E. Miguez, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, John E. Sawyer, Daniel C. Olk, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, Michael J. Castellano

John E. Sawyer

The possibility that N fertilizer increases soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization and, as a result, reduces SOM stocks has led to a great debate about the long-term sustainability of maize-based agroecosystems as well as the best method to estimate fertilizer N use efficiency (FNUE). Much of this debate is because synthetic N fertilizer can positively or negatively affect SOM mineralization via several direct and indirect pathways. Here, we test a series of hypotheses to determine the direction, magnitude, and mechanism of N fertilizer effect on SOM mineralization and discuss the implications for methods to estimate FNUE.Wemeasured the effect of ...


Nitrogen Fertilizer Suppresses Mineralization Of Soil Organic Matter In Maize Agroecosystems, Navreet K. Mahal, William R. Osterholz, Fernando E. Miguez, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, John E. Sawyer, Daniel C. Olk, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, Michael J. Castellano 2019 Iowa State University

Nitrogen Fertilizer Suppresses Mineralization Of Soil Organic Matter In Maize Agroecosystems, Navreet K. Mahal, William R. Osterholz, Fernando E. Miguez, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, John E. Sawyer, Daniel C. Olk, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, Michael J. Castellano

Michael Castellano

The possibility that N fertilizer increases soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization and, as a result, reduces SOM stocks has led to a great debate about the long-term sustainability of maize-based agroecosystems as well as the best method to estimate fertilizer N use efficiency (FNUE). Much of this debate is because synthetic N fertilizer can positively or negatively affect SOM mineralization via several direct and indirect pathways. Here, we test a series of hypotheses to determine the direction, magnitude, and mechanism of N fertilizer effect on SOM mineralization and discuss the implications for methods to estimate FNUE.Wemeasured the effect of ...


Setting The Farm Animal Welfare Scene In North America, Anna K. Johnson 2019 Iowa State University

Setting The Farm Animal Welfare Scene In North America, Anna K. Johnson

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

The objectives of this paper are to (1) set the scene on what animal welfare is, the schools that one can subscribe and how this could influence the direction that farm animal welfare could go (2) provide an overview on some of the critical farm animal welfare events that have occurred over the past 10 years in North America and (3) to review the legislative events; past and future that will affect farm animal welfare. Animal welfare is not a term that arose in science to express a scientific concept; rather it arose in western civilization through society to express ...


Genetic Dissection Of Haploid Male Fertility In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Jiwei Yang, Yanzhi Qu, Qiong Chen, Jihua Tang, Thomas Lubberstedt, Haochuan LI, Zonghua LIu 2019 Henan Agriculture University

Genetic Dissection Of Haploid Male Fertility In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Jiwei Yang, Yanzhi Qu, Qiong Chen, Jihua Tang, Thomas Lubberstedt, Haochuan Li, Zonghua Liu

Thomas Lubberstedt

Haploid genome doubling is a key limiting step of haploid breeding in maize. Spontaneous restoration of haploid male fertility (HMF) provides a more promising method than the artificial doubling process. To reveal the genetic basis of HMF, haploids were obtained from the offspring of 285 F2:3 families, derived from the cross Zheng58 × K22. The F2:3 families were used as the female donor and Yu high inducer No. 1 (YHI‐1) as the male inducer line. The rates of HMF from each family line were evaluated at two field sites over two planting seasons. HMF displayed incomplete dominance. Transgressive ...


Manipulating Wild And Tamed Phytobiomes: Challenges And Opportunities, Terrence H. Bell, Gwyn A. Beattie, Kurt P. Kowalski, Amy T. Welty, et al. 2019 The Pennsylvania State University

Manipulating Wild And Tamed Phytobiomes: Challenges And Opportunities, Terrence H. Bell, Gwyn A. Beattie, Kurt P. Kowalski, Amy T. Welty, Et Al.

Plant Pathology Presentations and Posters

This white paper presents a series of perspectives on current and future phytobiome management, discussed at the Wild and Tamed Phytobiomes Symposium in University Park, PA, USA, in June 2018. To enhance plant productivity and health, and to translate lab- and greenhouse-based phytobiome research to field applications, the academic community and end-users need to address a variety of scientific, practical, and social challenges. Prior discussion of phytobiomes has focused heavily on plant-associated bacterial and fungal assemblages, but the phytobiomes concept covers all factors that influence plant function. Here we discuss various management considerations, including abiotic conditions (e.g. soil, nutrient ...


Effects Of Larval Density On Dispersal And Fecundity Of Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Eric Yu Yu, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington 2019 Iowa State University

Effects Of Larval Density On Dispersal And Fecundity Of Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Eric Yu Yu, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington

Thomas W. Sappington

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of corn in the northern United States. Some populations have developed resistance to management strategies including transgenic corn that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Knowledge of insect dispersal is of critical importance for models of resistance evolution. Larval density affects survival in the field, and stress from crowding often affects facultative long-distance dispersal of adult insects. In this study, we used laboratory flight mills to characterize western corn rootworm flight performance as a function of larval rearing density. Larvae were ...


Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer McLaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White 2019 Hoven High School, Hoven, South Dakota

Sustainable Agriculture Lesson For Middle School Classrooms, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Jennifer Mclaughlin, Matthew L. Miller, Larry B. Browning, P. Troy White

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this lesson, students will learn about sustainability, where farmers/agriculturists can meet the needs of food, fiber, and fuel for the growing population. Students learn about growing population, its growth rate, major food source, sustainability barrel, potential ripple effects of positive impacts as well as the food waste and its effects.


Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal 2019 South Dakota State University

Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this teaching module, students will learn what Precision Agriculture is and how to apply drone into Precision Agriculture practices. To use data (images) taken by drone, students will learn the basic theory of Remote Sensing. Using images, students learn how to make NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps and how to apply drone (remote sensing technique) in agriculture.


Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 2. Infiltration As Affected By Room Characteristics, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Daniel S. Andersen 2019 Iowa State University

Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 2. Infiltration As Affected By Room Characteristics, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Daniel S. Andersen

Steven J. Hoff

Data collected on 17 swine finishing rooms from the Midwest region of the United States was used to study the relationship between infiltration rate and selected room characteristics. Effect of individual room characteristics on room infiltration rate were tested by simple linear regression (SLR) while multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models for improved prediction. SLR results revealed that the total (It) and other (Io; non-curtain/fan locations) swine finishing room infiltration rates were inversely related to room width and directly related to room length and ceiling height. As expected, rooms with higher curtain end pocket overlap, curtain ...


Hvac Techniques For Modern Livestock And Poultry Production Systems, Steven J. Hoff 2019 Iowa State University

Hvac Techniques For Modern Livestock And Poultry Production Systems, Steven J. Hoff

Steven J. Hoff

Thermal modification for housed livestock and poultry production (HLPP) systems has evolved from outside raised or uncontrolled naturally ventilated building systems into sophisticated computer-controlled cloud-analyzed complexes in the quest for producing a safe, reliable, sustainable, and efficient protein supply for our ever-growing population. This chapter discusses a few of the various HLPP systems used in the USA and details the design process in quantifying the needs for our housed livestock and poultry. Specific emphasis is placed on general building characteristics, general ventilation design features, heat stress control, and systems designed to address animal welfare.


Functional Performance Evaluation Of A Novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array, Brett C. Ramirez, Y. Gao, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon 2019 Iowa State University

Functional Performance Evaluation Of A Novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array, Brett C. Ramirez, Y. Gao, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon

Steven J. Hoff

The thermal environment (TE) inside livestock and poultry facilities has a substantial impact on animal growth performance and facility energy usage; therefore, the TE must be quantified correctly to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes feed efficiency and consumes minimal resources. To achieve this goal, a TE sensor array (TESA) and accompanying data acquisition system were previously developed to measure dry-bulb temperature (tdb), black globe temperature, airspeed, and relative humidity (RH). While measurement of each parameter is useful individually, it is more informative when they are combined to estimate and assess the total impact that the TE has on an ...


Functional Performance Evaluation Of A Novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array, Brett C. Ramirez, Y. Gao, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon 2019 Iowa State University

Functional Performance Evaluation Of A Novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array, Brett C. Ramirez, Y. Gao, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon

Jay D. Harmon

The thermal environment (TE) inside livestock and poultry facilities has a substantial impact on animal growth performance and facility energy usage; therefore, the TE must be quantified correctly to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes feed efficiency and consumes minimal resources. To achieve this goal, a TE sensor array (TESA) and accompanying data acquisition system were previously developed to measure dry-bulb temperature (tdb), black globe temperature, airspeed, and relative humidity (RH). While measurement of each parameter is useful individually, it is more informative when they are combined to estimate and assess the total impact that the TE has on an ...


Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 2. Infiltration As Affected By Room Characteristics, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Daniel S. Andersen 2019 Iowa State University

Swine Finishing Room Air Infiltration: Part 2. Infiltration As Affected By Room Characteristics, Harishchandra T. Jadhav, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, Daniel S. Andersen

Jay D. Harmon

Data collected on 17 swine finishing rooms from the Midwest region of the United States was used to study the relationship between infiltration rate and selected room characteristics. Effect of individual room characteristics on room infiltration rate were tested by simple linear regression (SLR) while multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models for improved prediction. SLR results revealed that the total (It) and other (Io; non-curtain/fan locations) swine finishing room infiltration rates were inversely related to room width and directly related to room length and ceiling height. As expected, rooms with higher curtain end pocket overlap, curtain ...


Impact Of Hydraulic Residence Time On Nitrate Removal In Pilot-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors, E. A. Martin, Morgan P. Davis, Thomas B. Moorman, Thomas M. Isenhart, Michelle L. Soupir 2019 Iowa State University

Impact Of Hydraulic Residence Time On Nitrate Removal In Pilot-Scale Woodchip Bioreactors, E. A. Martin, Morgan P. Davis, Thomas B. Moorman, Thomas M. Isenhart, Michelle L. Soupir

Michelle L. Soupir

Nitrate (NO3−N) export from row crop agricultural systems with subsurface tile drainage continues to be a major water quality concern. Woodchip bioreactors are an effective edge-of-field practice designed to remove NO3−N from tile drainage. The NO3−N removal rate of woodchip bioreactors can be impacted by several factors, including hydraulic residence time(HRT). This study examined the impact of three HRTs, 2 h, 8 h, and 16 h, on NO3−N removal in a set of nine pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors in Central Iowa. NO3−N concentration reduction from the inlet to the outlet was significantly different for all ...


Refsoil+: A Reference Database For Genes And Traits Of Soil Plasmids, Taylor K. Dunivin, Jinlyung Choi, Adina Howe, Ashley Shade 2019 Michigan State University

Refsoil+: A Reference Database For Genes And Traits Of Soil Plasmids, Taylor K. Dunivin, Jinlyung Choi, Adina Howe, Ashley Shade

Adina Howe

Plasmids harbor transferable genes that contribute to the functional repertoire of microbial communities, yet their contributions to metagenomes are often overlooked. Environmental plasmids have the potential to spread antibiotic resistance to clinical microbial strains. In soils, high microbiome diversity and high variability in plasmid characteristics present a challenge for studying plasmids. To improve the understanding of soil plasmids, we present RefSoil+, a database containing plasmid sequences from 922 soil microorganisms. Soil plasmids were larger than other described plasmids, which is a trait associated with plasmid mobility. There was a weak relationship between chromosome size and plasmid size and no relationship ...


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