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Laboratory and Basic Science Research Commons

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The Impact Of Sample Processing And Media Chemistry On The Culturable Diversity Of Bacteria Isolated From A Cave, Katey E. Bender, Katelyn Glover, Alexander Archey, Hazel A. Barton 2020 University of Akron

The Impact Of Sample Processing And Media Chemistry On The Culturable Diversity Of Bacteria Isolated From A Cave, Katey E. Bender, Katelyn Glover, Alexander Archey, Hazel A. Barton

International Journal of Speleology

Although molecular approaches can identify members of microbial communities in the environment, genomic information does not necessarily correlate with environmental phenotype. Understanding functional roles can be done by cultivating representative species, yet the culturablility of bacteria from caves remains low, at 0.02%, limiting our understanding of microbial community interactions and processes. We have investigated several factors influencing culturability of bacteria from a single sample location in Maxwelton Sink Cave, WV, USA. Extended incubation of inoculated plates showed a significant increase in colony counts from two to four weeks, indicating that extended incubations increase culturability. There were no significant differences ...


An Approach For The In-Vivo Characterization Of Brain And Heart Inflammation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Joanne Tang 2020 The University of Western Ontario

An Approach For The In-Vivo Characterization Of Brain And Heart Inflammation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Joanne Tang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by dystrophin loss—notably within muscles and CNS neurons. DMD presents as cognitive weakness, progressive skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration until pre-mature death from cardiac or respiratory failure. Innovative therapies improved life expectancy, but this is accompanied by increased late-onset heart failure and emergent cognitive degeneration. Thus, there is an increasing need to both better understand and track disease pathophysiology in the dystrophic heart and brain prior to onset of severe degenerative symptoms. Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration, however chronic neuroinflammation’s role is largely ...


Mechanism Of Translation Inhibition By Type Ii Gnat Toxin Atat2, Stepan V Ovchinnikov, Dmitry Bikmetov, Alexei Livenskyi, Marina Serebryakova, Brendan Wilcox, Kyle Mangano, Dmitrii I Shiriaev, Ilya A Osterman, Petr V Sergiev, Sergei Borukhov, Nora Vazquez-Laslop, Alexander S Mankin, Konstantin Severinov, Svetlana Dubiley 2020 Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology

Mechanism Of Translation Inhibition By Type Ii Gnat Toxin Atat2, Stepan V Ovchinnikov, Dmitry Bikmetov, Alexei Livenskyi, Marina Serebryakova, Brendan Wilcox, Kyle Mangano, Dmitrii I Shiriaev, Ilya A Osterman, Petr V Sergiev, Sergei Borukhov, Nora Vazquez-Laslop, Alexander S Mankin, Konstantin Severinov, Svetlana Dubiley

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Type II toxin-antitoxins systems are widespread in prokaryotic genomes. Typically, they comprise two proteins, a toxin, and an antitoxin, encoded by adjacent genes and forming a complex in which the enzymatic activity of the toxin is inhibited. Under stress conditions, the antitoxin is degraded liberating the active toxin. Though thousands of various toxin-antitoxins pairs have been predicted bioinformatically, only a handful has been thoroughly characterized. Here, we describe the AtaT2 toxin from a toxin-antitoxin system from Escherichia coli O157:H7. We show that AtaT2 is the first GNAT (Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase) toxin that specifically targets charged glycyl tRNA. In vivo, the ...


In-Vitro Sorbent-Mediated Removal Of Edoxaban From Human Plasma And Albumin Solution, Alexandra A. Angheloiu, Yanglan Tan, Cristian Ruse, Scott A. Shaffer, George O. Angheloiu 2020 Temple University

In-Vitro Sorbent-Mediated Removal Of Edoxaban From Human Plasma And Albumin Solution, Alexandra A. Angheloiu, Yanglan Tan, Cristian Ruse, Scott A. Shaffer, George O. Angheloiu

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Based on previous experience of sorbent-mediated ticagrelor, dabigatran, and radiocontrast agent removal, we set out in this study to test the effect of two sorbents on the removal of edoxaban, a factor Xa antagonist direct oral anticoagulant.

METHODS: We circulated 100 mL of edoxaban solution during six first-pass cycles through 40-mL sorbent columns (containing either CytoSorb in three passes or Porapak Q 50-80 mesh in the remaining three passes) during experiments using human plasma and 4% bovine serum albumin solution as drug vehicles. Drug concentration was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: Edoxaban concentration in two ...


The Role Of The Leucine-Rich (Leur) Domain Of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (Rgnef) In The Regulation Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als) Associated Protein Tar Dna-Binding Protein Of 43 Kda (Tdp-43), Hind Amzil 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of The Leucine-Rich (Leur) Domain Of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (Rgnef) In The Regulation Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als) Associated Protein Tar Dna-Binding Protein Of 43 Kda (Tdp-43), Hind Amzil

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The presence of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) composed of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and neurofilaments is considered to be ALS’s neuropathological hallmark. RGNEF has been previously shown to interact with TDP-43 and to have a regulatory effect on the expression levels of NEFL mRNA and NFL protein in vitro. Here, I examined the mechanism of the RGNEF N-terminus, leucine-rich domain (LeuR) domain’s interaction with TDP-43. I observed that the minimal domain required is 110 amino acids (LeuR110), that the Ankyrin domain adjacent to LeuR110 does not participate, and that LeuR110 forms of a high molecular weight complex with TDP-43 ...


Building The Interphase Nucleus: A Study On The Kinetics Of 3d Chromosome Formation, Temporal Relation To Active Transcription, And The Role Of Nuclear Rnas, Kristin N. Abramo 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Building The Interphase Nucleus: A Study On The Kinetics Of 3d Chromosome Formation, Temporal Relation To Active Transcription, And The Role Of Nuclear Rnas, Kristin N. Abramo

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Following the discovery of the one-dimensional sequence of human DNA, much focus has been directed on microscopy and molecular techniques to learn about the spatial organization of chromatin in a 3D cell. The development of these powerful tools has enabled high-resolution, genome-wide analysis of chromosome structure under many different conditions. In this thesis, I focus on how the organization of interphase chromatin is established and maintained following mitosis. Mitotic chromosomes are folded into helical loop arrays creating short and condensed chromosomes, while interphase chromosomes are decondensed and folded into a number of structures at different length scales ranging from loops ...


Tactviz: A Vmd Plugin For Tactile Visualization Of Protein Structures, Olivia R. Shaw, Jodi A. Hadden-Perilla 2020 University of Delaware

Tactviz: A Vmd Plugin For Tactile Visualization Of Protein Structures, Olivia R. Shaw, Jodi A. Hadden-Perilla

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

Scientific disciplines spanning biology, biochemistry, and biophysics involve the study of proteins and their functions. Visualization of protein structures represents a barrier to education and research in these disciplines for students who are blind or visually impaired. Here, we present a software plugin for readily producing variable-height tactile graphics of proteins using the free biomolecular visualization software Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) and protein structure data that is publicly available through the Protein Data Bank. Our method also supports interactive tactile visualization of proteins with VMD on electronic refreshable tactile display devices. Employing our method in an academic laboratory has enabled ...


Comparative Analysis Of Lead In Crassostrea Angulata And Cerastoderma Edule From Cádiz, Spain, Margaret Mullen, Kyle Grice 2020 DePaul University

Comparative Analysis Of Lead In Crassostrea Angulata And Cerastoderma Edule From Cádiz, Spain, Margaret Mullen, Kyle Grice

DePaul Discoveries

In order to study the capacity of bivalve shells as bioindicators in estuarine ecosystems, a comparative analysis of lead concentration in oyster (C.angulata) and clam (C. edule) shells collected near the coast of Cádiz, Spain was performed. Infrared spectroscopy was used to assess calcite and aragonite compositional differences in the shells. An atomic absorption spectrometer was employed for lead concentation method development and analysis. Infrared spectroscopy results found that C. edule shells may contain more aragonite than C.angulata shells. The average lead concentration in oyster shells was calculated to be 44 ± 24 ppm from one site 17 ± 8 ...


How Do Adult Songbirds Learn New Sounds? Using Neuromodulators To Probe The Function Of The Auditory Association Cortex, Matheus Macedo-Lima 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

How Do Adult Songbirds Learn New Sounds? Using Neuromodulators To Probe The Function Of The Auditory Association Cortex, Matheus Macedo-Lima

Doctoral Dissertations

The ability to associate sounds and outcomes is vital in the life history of many species. Animals constantly assess the soundscape for cues associated with threats, competitors, allies, mates or prey, and experience is crucial for those associations. For vocal learning species such as humans and songbirds, learning sounds (i.e. perception and association learning) is also the first step in the process of vocal learning. Auditory learning is thought to depend on high-order cortical brain structures, where sounds and meaning are bound. In songbirds, the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) is part of the auditory association cortex and is known to ...


Anatomical Organization And Distinction Of The Sympathetic Inputs To Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue And Inguinal White Adipose Tissue In The Mouse, Clara Jane Huesing 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Anatomical Organization And Distinction Of The Sympathetic Inputs To Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue And Inguinal White Adipose Tissue In The Mouse, Clara Jane Huesing

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that contains both the problem and the solution to discovering new therapies for individuals with obesity. Excessive adipose tissue disrupts energy balance and causes a host of comorbidities like insulin resistance and hypertension. On the other hand, adipose tissue is essential for life. During periods of energy demand, sympathetic nerve activity in brown and white adipose tissue stimulates thermogenesis and lipolysis; both of which decrease body weight and improve metabolic health. Therefore, comprehensive insight into the organization of sympathetic innervation and how it communicates with adipocytes is critical in order to utilize its ...


Plankton Dynamics In An Urban, Subtropical Lake Prior To Lake Restoration, Jennifer C. Pulsifer 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Plankton Dynamics In An Urban, Subtropical Lake Prior To Lake Restoration, Jennifer C. Pulsifer

LSU Master's Theses

This research assessed plankton dynamics in two urban, subtropical lakes (University Lake and City Park Lake) shortly before a proposed and approved lake restoration project. Plankton dynamics were determined in University Lake by the dilution method to attempt to quantify growth rates of phytoplankton and grazing rates of zooplankton. Landry and Hassett’s (1982) dilution method has been widely used in marine systems to estimate rates of growth and grazing. In many marine systems, nutrients must be added to prevent nutrient limitation. However, it is assumed, due to the hypereutrophic conditions, that nutrients would not be a limitation in University ...


The Recreation Of Wound Patterns Using Various Tissue Simulants For Crime Scene Reconstruction, Breanne Steimle 2020 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

The Recreation Of Wound Patterns Using Various Tissue Simulants For Crime Scene Reconstruction, Breanne Steimle

Forensic Science Master's Projects

Within the field of forensic science, there are limited reliable methods for the simulation of pattern injuries on human skin and tissue that may aid in aspects of crime scene reconstruction. The tissue simulant must be of sufficient integrity for recording blunt force trauma and bite mark impressions, electrocution, cutting, and gunshot wound related injuries for the purpose of re-enactment, court exhibition, and distance determination. For wound reenactments (such as blunt force trauma, bite mark impressions and electrocution), dead skin and tissue from human cadavers do not show wounding patterns that would occur on live tissue. This study examines different ...


Portable Fluorescence Illuminator, Katherine Hui, Emran Baryal, Emmett Lambert 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Portable Fluorescence Illuminator, Katherine Hui, Emran Baryal, Emmett Lambert

Mechanical Engineering

This Final Design Review (FDR) document outlines the senior design project implemented by a team of three mechanical engineering students at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo for a professor in the biochemistry and chemistry department, Dr. Javin Oza. The project involved designing and manufacturing a portable ultraviolet fluorescence illuminator that will indicate the fluorescent glow of biomaterials for viewing purposes. The goal was to create a portable product out of recyclable material that can be used in field applications and increase accessibility to affordable science equipment. The initial sponsor and user interviews, technical background research, product research, and ...


Specific Degradation Of Misfolded Mutant P53 In Cancer Cells Through The Use Of Natural Compounds Targeting Mutant P53 And Dnaja1 Proteins, Mohamed A.A. Alalem 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Specific Degradation Of Misfolded Mutant P53 In Cancer Cells Through The Use Of Natural Compounds Targeting Mutant P53 And Dnaja1 Proteins, Mohamed A.A. Alalem

Research Days

No abstract provided.


Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt 2020 University of Mississippi

Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt

Honors Theses

Cannabis is the most commonly used, cultivated, and trafficked illicit drug worldwide. Increased availability and acceptance of cannabis and cannabinoid-containing products provide the necessity for understanding how these substances influence aging. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.08, 0.4, 2 µM) during embryonic-larval development, the effects on aging were measured 30 months later and in the offspring of the exposed fish (F1 generation. We observed results indicating a biphasic and hormetic effect. Treatment with the lowest concentration of THC significantly increased egg production, while higher concentrations resulted in impaired ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at The University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease which affects about 5 to 8 million individuals in the world. Despite the high prevalence, there is currently no cure for IPF, and the cause of this disease is still unclear. Our laboratory and collaborators have shown that nudix hydrolase 21 (NUDT21, which is also known as cleavage factor 25, CFIm25) is a key regulator of alternative polyadenylation (APA). NUDT21 depletion causes 3’UTR shortening via APA leading to enhanced mRNA stability and protein translation. This NUDT21 reduction promotes tumor growth in glioblastoma by enhancing expression of oncogenes. Cancer and IPF ...


Detection Of Tinnitus In Cba/Caj Mice Using The Active Avoidance Shuttle Box Test, Grace Nichols 2020 University of Connecticut

Detection Of Tinnitus In Cba/Caj Mice Using The Active Avoidance Shuttle Box Test, Grace Nichols

University Scholar Projects

Tinnitus is a neurological condition that involves the perception of a sound that is not actually there. Individuals affected with tinnitus describe the condition as a ringing, buzzing, or whooshing sound in their ears. One-third of the population is estimated to have tinnitus, and for many individuals, the condition negatively impacts quality of life. Difficulty falling asleep, trouble with hearing and concentrating, and in some cases, depression, have all been observed to occur with tinnitus.

Tinnitus has been extensively studied in animals, and behavioral tests are the primary method of evaluating the presence of tinnitus in animals. This study evaluates ...


Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna 2020 University of Connecticut

Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna

Honors Scholar Theses

Microglia are the macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, playing an important role in the immune response to disease states of the nervous system. This study conducts an investigation on the activity of microglia in response to low grade neuroepithelial tumors. Using mouse models and microglial markers, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of microglia activation, migration, and invasion within the brain cortex during early stages of tumor development was conducted. It was found that the presence of a low grade neuroepithelial tumor in the cortex of one hemisphere of the brain causes significant microglia activation in comparison to the ...


Detection Of Tinnitus In Cba/Caj Mice Using The Active Avoidance Shuttle Box Test, Grace Nichols 2020 University of Connecticut

Detection Of Tinnitus In Cba/Caj Mice Using The Active Avoidance Shuttle Box Test, Grace Nichols

Honors Scholar Theses

Tinnitus is a neurological condition that involves the perception of a sound that is not actually there. Individuals affected with tinnitus describe the condition as a ringing, buzzing, or whooshing sound in their ears. One-third of the population is estimated to have tinnitus, and for many individuals, the condition negatively impacts quality of life. Difficulty falling asleep, trouble with hearing and concentrating, and in some cases, depression, have all been observed to occur with tinnitus.

Tinnitus has been extensively studied in animals, and behavioral tests are the primary method of evaluating the presence of tinnitus in animals. This study evaluates ...


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