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Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Data For "Consistent Differences In A Virtual World Model Of Ape Societies", Bart J. Wilson, Sarah F. Brosnan, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Crickette M. Sanz 2020 Chapman University

Data For "Consistent Differences In A Virtual World Model Of Ape Societies", Bart J. Wilson, Sarah F. Brosnan, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Crickette M. Sanz

Business and Economics Faculty Data Sets

The zip file contains the data for the paper entitled "Consistent Differences in a Virtual World Model of Ape Societies" which appears in Scientific Reports.


Wild Mice With Different Social Network Sizes Vary In Brain Gene Expression, Patricia C. Lopes, Barbara König 2020 Chapman University

Wild Mice With Different Social Network Sizes Vary In Brain Gene Expression, Patricia C. Lopes, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Appropriate social interactions influence animal fitness by impacting several processes, such as mating, territory defense, and offspring care. Many studies shedding light on the neurobiological underpinnings of social behavior have focused on nonapeptides (vasopressin, oxytocin, and homologues) and on sexual or parent-offspring interactions. Furthermore, animals have been studied under artificial laboratory conditions, where the consequences of behavioral responses may not be as critical as when expressed under natural environments, therefore obscuring certain physiological responses. We used automated recording of social interactions of wild house mice outside of the breeding season to detect individuals at both tails of a distribution ...


Host Immunity And The Colon Microbiota Of Mice Infected With Citrobacter Rodentium Are Beneficially Modulated By Lipid-Soluble Extract From Late-Cutting Alfalfa In The Early Stages Of Infection, Krysten Fries-Craft, Justin M. Anast, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Elizabeth A. Bobeck 2020 Iowa State University

Host Immunity And The Colon Microbiota Of Mice Infected With Citrobacter Rodentium Are Beneficially Modulated By Lipid-Soluble Extract From Late-Cutting Alfalfa In The Early Stages Of Infection, Krysten Fries-Craft, Justin M. Anast, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

Alfalfa is a forage legume commonly associated with ruminant livestock production that may be a potential source of health-promoting phytochemicals. Anecdotal evidence from producers suggests that later cuttings of alfalfa may be more beneficial to non-ruminants; however, published literature varies greatly in measured outcomes, supplement form, and cutting. The objective of this study was to measure body weight, average daily feed intake, host immunity, and the colon microbiota composition in mice fed hay, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of early (1st) and late (5th) cutting alfalfa before and after challenge with Citrobacter rodentium. Prior to inoculation, alfalfa supplementation did not have ...


Innovations, Challenges, And Minimal Information For Standardization Of Humanized Mice, Renata Stripecke, Michael A. Brehm 2020 Hannover Medical School

Innovations, Challenges, And Minimal Information For Standardization Of Humanized Mice, Renata Stripecke, Michael A. Brehm

Open Access Articles

Mice xenotransplanted with human cells and/or expressing human gene products (also known as "humanized mice") recapitulate the human evolutionary specialization and diversity of genotypic and phenotypic traits. These models can provide a relevant in vivo context for understanding of human-specific physiology and pathologies. Humanized mice have advanced toward mainstream preclinical models and are now at the forefront of biomedical research. Here, we considered innovations and challenges regarding the reconstitution of human immunity and human tissues, modeling of human infections and cancer, and the use of humanized mice for testing drugs or regenerative therapy products. As the number of publications ...


The Trauma Of Head Injury, 2020 DePaul University

The Trauma Of Head Injury

DePaul Magazine

Thanks to the vision and leadership of Vincent de Paul Professor of Biological Sciences Dorothy Kozlowski, who has teamed with scientists and researchers across the country, DePaul is playing an instrumental role in advancing our understanding of the speci­fic causes and e‑ffects of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In collaboration with colleagues at DePaul partner institution Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, Kozlowski developed a novel animal model to study the connection between repeat concussions and long-term health problems. Some of the research includes looking at learning and memory on the cellular level for those with Alzheimer’s ...


Proteomic Identification Reveals The Role Of Ciliary Extracellular‐Like Vesicle In Cardiovascular Function, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Madhawi Alanazi, Ashwaq Alanazi, Kiumars Shamloo, Amir Ahsan, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates III, Surya M. Nauli 2020 Chapman University

Proteomic Identification Reveals The Role Of Ciliary Extracellular‐Like Vesicle In Cardiovascular Function, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Madhawi Alanazi, Ashwaq Alanazi, Kiumars Shamloo, Amir Ahsan, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, James J. Moresco, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are shown to have membrane swelling, also known as ciliary bulbs. However, the role of these structures and their physiological relevance remains unknown. Here, it is reported that a ciliary bulb has extracellular vesicle (EV)‐like characteristics. The ciliary extracellular‐like vesicle (cELV) has a unique dynamic movement and can be released by mechanical fluid force. To better identify the cELV, differential multidimensional proteomic analyses are performed on the cELV. A database of 172 cELV proteins is generated, and all that examined are confirmed to be in the cELV. Repressing the expression of these proteins in vitro and ...


Recombinant Human Proteoglycan-4 Mediates Interleukin-6 Response In Both Human And Mouse Endothelial Cells Induced Into A Sepsis Phenotype, Holly A. Richendrfer, Mitchell M. Levy, Khaled A. Elsaid, Tannin A. Schmidt, Ling Zhang, Ralph Cabezas, Gregory D. Jay 2020 Brown University

Recombinant Human Proteoglycan-4 Mediates Interleukin-6 Response In Both Human And Mouse Endothelial Cells Induced Into A Sepsis Phenotype, Holly A. Richendrfer, Mitchell M. Levy, Khaled A. Elsaid, Tannin A. Schmidt, Ling Zhang, Ralph Cabezas, Gregory D. Jay

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objectives:

Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States. Putative targets to prevent systemic inflammatory response syndrome include antagonism of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 and CD44 receptors in vascular endothelial cells. Proteoglycan-4 is a mucinous glycoprotein that interacts with CD44 and toll-like receptor 4 resulting in a blockade of the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 pathway. We hypothesized that endothelial cells induced into a sepsis phenotype would have less interleukin-6 expression after recombinant human proteoglycan 4 treatment in vitro.

Design:

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure interleukin-6 protein and gene expression.

Setting ...


From Tank To Treatment: Modeling Melanoma In Zebrafish, William Tyler Frantz, Craig J. Ceol 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

From Tank To Treatment: Modeling Melanoma In Zebrafish, William Tyler Frantz, Craig J. Ceol

Open Access Articles

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and one of few cancers with a growing incidence. A thorough understanding of its pathogenesis is fundamental to developing new strategies to combat mortality and morbidity. Zebrafish-due in large part to their tractable genetics, conserved pathways, and optical properties-have emerged as an excellent system to model melanoma. Zebrafish have been used to study melanoma from a single tumor initiating cell, through metastasis, remission, and finally into relapse. In this review, we examine seminal zebrafish studies that have advanced our understanding of melanoma.


The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith 2020 University of Mississippi

The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith

Honors Theses

Numerous studies have examined relationships between adrenal glucocorticoids and the immune system’s ability to fight disease. The relationship can vary, with glucocorticoids having either stimulatory or inhibitory effects. The pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) elicits an adaptive immune response in birds, in which B cells produce MG-specific antibodies to fight the infection and prevent reoccurrence. Previous research found that Eastern Bluebirds that produce the most antibodies in response to MG infection also have the highest glucocorticoid levels. This finding led to the current study investigating whether corticosterone, the primary glucocorticoid in birds, stimulates production of antibodies in response to ...


Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque 2020 University of Mississippi

Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque

Honors Theses

Exposure to cannabinoids during critical development periods has increased with epileptic children being commonly prescribed CBD for seizures and pregnant women taking it recreationally. Many studies have been done on the possible benefits and drawbacks of cannabinoid exposure on the human brain, but not much is known about how it can affect the developing brain long-term. To see the potential adverse effects of cannabinoid exposure during critical stages of development and discover potential developmental origins of disease in consuming cannabinoids during embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos (6-96 hours post fertilization) were exposed to varying concentrations of CBD (0.02, 0.1, 0 ...


The Ability Of Thaumoctopus Mimicus To Be Operantly Conditioned To A Sound Stimulus, Stephanie Wittman 2020 Bowling Green State University

The Ability Of Thaumoctopus Mimicus To Be Operantly Conditioned To A Sound Stimulus, Stephanie Wittman

Honors Projects

This paper focuses on the ability of the mimic octopus Thaumoctopus mimicus to be operantly conditioned to an auditory stimulus. The octopus is known to be the most advanced of the invertebrates and has learning abilities that are comparable to vertebrates in spite of their differences in brain structure. These animals have been shown to react to visual and tactile stimuli and can be operantly conditioned to perform behaviors to obtain a food reward. The goal of this experiment is to determine whether the octopus can be operantly conditioned to swim into a box on the side of its tank ...


Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna 2020 University of Connecticut

Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna

Honors Scholar Theses

Microglia are the macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, playing an important role in the immune response to disease states of the nervous system. This study conducts an investigation on the activity of microglia in response to low grade neuroepithelial tumors. Using mouse models and microglial markers, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of microglia activation, migration, and invasion within the brain cortex during early stages of tumor development was conducted. It was found that the presence of a low grade neuroepithelial tumor in the cortex of one hemisphere of the brain causes significant microglia activation in comparison to the ...


Amplification And Potential Transformation Of Human Syntaxin-17 Into Model E. Coli, Taylor H. Gore 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Amplification And Potential Transformation Of Human Syntaxin-17 Into Model E. Coli, Taylor H. Gore

Honors Theses

Membrane fusion is key to organism homeostasis and occurs when a transport vesicle fuses with a target compartment, merging the two membranes into one while releasing the contents of the transport vesicle into the target compartment. This process is controlled by SNARE proteins. Syntaxin-17 protein plays a crucial role in the fusion of the autophagosome membrane with the lysosome membrane, allowing for degradation of misfolded intracellular components and pathogens. Intriguingly, Syntaxin 17 has been identified as a target of herpesvirus tegument proteins, although the pathological significance of the Syntaxin 17 and tegument protein interaction is unclear. As a first step ...


A Big-Data Approach To Understanding Metabolic Rate And Response To Obesity In Laboratory Mice, June K. Corrigan, Deepti Ramachandran, Yuchen He, Colin J. Palmer, Michael J. Jurczak, Rui Chen, Bingshan Li, Randall H. Friedline, Jason K. Kim, Jon J. Ramsey, Louise Lantier, Owen P. McGuinness, Alexander S. Banks 2020 Harvard Medical School

A Big-Data Approach To Understanding Metabolic Rate And Response To Obesity In Laboratory Mice, June K. Corrigan, Deepti Ramachandran, Yuchen He, Colin J. Palmer, Michael J. Jurczak, Rui Chen, Bingshan Li, Randall H. Friedline, Jason K. Kim, Jon J. Ramsey, Louise Lantier, Owen P. Mcguinness, Alexander S. Banks

Open Access Articles

Maintaining a healthy body weight requires an exquisite balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. To understand the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the regulation of body weight, an important first step is to establish the normal range of metabolic values and primary sources contributing to variability. Energy metabolism is measured by powerful and sensitive indirect calorimetry devices. Analysis of nearly 10,000 wild-type mice from two large-scale experiments revealed that the largest variation in energy expenditure is due to body composition, ambient temperature, and institutional site of experimentation. We also analyze variation in 2329 knockout strains and ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham 2020 William & Mary

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


Associations Among Beef Cattle Genotypes, Neospora Caninum Infection, And Reproductive Performance, Ryan James Page 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Associations Among Beef Cattle Genotypes, Neospora Caninum Infection, And Reproductive Performance, Ryan James Page

Theses and Dissertations

Reproductive performance is crucial for sustained financial success in the beef cattle industry. This dissertation includes a population study that quantified the incidence of Neospora caninum infections in the central region of the United States and tested its relationship with reproductive performance in beef cattle. Trial one of that study concluded that 6.9% of open, replacement heifers (n = 1306) tested seropositive. The second trial in that project found that 9.6% of the breeding age females (n = 500) tested were seropositive for Neospora caninum; and that state in which the cattle lived and age impacted (P < 0.05) infection rate. Breed composition, number of farm dogs on the ranch, and use of total mixed rations were not associated (P > 0.1) with ...


Effects Of Lasalocid And Energy Supplementation On Forage Intake, Energy Metabolism, And Performance Of Cattle Grazing Wheat Pasture, Autumn Tayler Pickett 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Lasalocid And Energy Supplementation On Forage Intake, Energy Metabolism, And Performance Of Cattle Grazing Wheat Pasture, Autumn Tayler Pickett

Theses and Dissertations

Cattle grazing wheat pasture have the potential to gain BW exceptionally well, but excessive nitrogen intake results in increased excretion and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Supplemental concentrates with the addition of an ionophore given to ruminants grazing wheat is a potential practice for producers to increase nitrogen efficiency while decreasing GHG emissions. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to quantify the effects of energy (2.95 kg/d) and lasalocid (200 mg/hd/d) supplementation on nutrient intake, energy metabolism, respiratory gas fluxes, and performance of grazing cattle. Methane emissions were not affected (P = 0.58) by treatment ...


Lesioning Of The Nucleus Of The Hippocampal Commissure Followed By Food Deprivation Stress In Birds Demonstrates Simultaneous Involvement In Both The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis And The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis, Michael Thomas Kidd Jr. 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Lesioning Of The Nucleus Of The Hippocampal Commissure Followed By Food Deprivation Stress In Birds Demonstrates Simultaneous Involvement In Both The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis And The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis, Michael Thomas Kidd Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the regulatory system for the neuroendocrine stress response within vertebrates. Within the HPA axis corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is a major regulator and driving hormone. A structure named the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC) has been found to contain CRH neurons and also these neurons respond to early food deprivation stress significantly prior to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the major driving nucleus of the classic neuroendocrine HPA axis. The objective of this study was to perform a knock down of the NHpC via electrolytic lesioning, thus eliminating a significant portion of its population of ...


Evaluation Of Microbiome On Chicken Necrotic Enteritis And Growth Performance, Mussie Abraha 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Microbiome On Chicken Necrotic Enteritis And Growth Performance, Mussie Abraha

Theses and Dissertations

Necrotic enteritis (NE) has re-emerged following restriction of antimicrobial usage and costs $6 billion every year worldwide. The primary objective of the studies was to evaluate prevention and treatment of NE using a microbiota metabolic product, secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA), in drinking water. Day-old birds were tagged and placed in floor pens. In experiments 1 and 2, the birds were infected with Eimeria maxima (Em) at d 18 and C. perfringens at d 23 and 24 and the birds were euthanized at d 26. In experiment 3, birds were infected with Eimeria at d 20 and C. perfringens ...


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