The Effect Of Resource Quality And Species Interactions On The Colonization Behavior Of The Black Blow Fly, Phormia Regina (Meigen), Melissa N. Branker
During decomposition, there are many different insects groups that utilize carrion as a resource. In particular, blow flies (Order: Diptera; Family: Calliphoridae) are considered to be a forensically important family due to their ability to rapidly locate and colonize a carrion resource. As a result, blow flies are commonly used as indicator species in PMI estimations. However, recent research indicates that the colonization behavior of these species can be influenced by a variety of abiotic and biotic factors. In this study, the effects of arrival order, resource quality and bacterial or species cues on the oviposition behavior of Phormia regina ...
Estimation Of The True Evolutionary Distance Under The Fragile Breakage Model., 2017 George Washington University
Estimation Of The True Evolutionary Distance Under The Fragile Breakage Model., Nikita Alexeev, Max A Alekseyev
Computational Biology Institute
BACKGROUND: The ability to estimate the evolutionary distance between extant genomes plays a crucial role in many phylogenomic studies. Often such estimation is based on the parsimony assumption, implying that the distance between two genomes can be estimated as the rearrangement distance equal the minimal number of genome rearrangements required to transform one genome into the other. However, in reality the parsimony assumption may not always hold, emphasizing the need for estimation that does not rely on the rearrangement distance. The distance that accounts for the actual (rather than minimal) number of rearrangements between two genomes is often referred to ...
Measuring Fertilization In Populations Of Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus): Developing And Testing Methods In The Laboratory And Field, Skylar Bayer
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Most marine organisms are broadcast spawners, releasing their sperm and eggs into the water column. Methods of measuring in situ fertilization have proven successful with a few model species, which are reviewed in my introductory chapter. However, many commercially exploited species, such as the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus, have been neglected. Sea scallop populations have greatly increased from fishing closures, but the mechanism behind this response is uncertain, particularly in regard to fertilization. In this dissertation I developed a methodology of measuring fertilization success and spawning events of P. magellanicus, tested it in laboratory and field settings, and developed a ...
Functional Analysis And Treatment Of Self-Injurious Feather Plucking In A Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus), Kristen L. Morris
Feather plucking (FP) is a maladaptive behavior observed in captive avian species. This self-injurious behavior results in damage to and removal of feathers and skin tissue, resulting in animal welfare and financial consequences. The etiology and maintenance of FP have been hypothesized through medical and environmental processes, yet a definitive solution has not been found. The current study investigated the environmental variables maintaining the FP of a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus), as well as evaluated a function-based treatment for this behavior. The behavior was found to be maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of contingent attention. Treatment consisted of ...
Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).
Transcriptomic Effects Of Dispersed Oil In A Non-Model Decapod Crustacean, 2017 George Washington University
Transcriptomic Effects Of Dispersed Oil In A Non-Model Decapod Crustacean, Hernan Vazquez-Miranda, Brent Thoma, Juliet Wong, Darryl Felder, Keith A. Crandall, Heather Bracken-Grissom
Computational Biology Institute
Background. Oil spills are major environmental disasters. Dispersants help control spills, as they emulsify oil into droplets to speed bioremediation. Although dispersant toxicity is controversial, the genetic consequences and damages of dispersed oil exposure are poorly understood. We used RNA-seq to measure gene expression of flatback mudcrabs (Eurypanopeus depressus, Decapoda, Brachyura, Panopeidae) exposed to dispersed oil.
Methods. Our experimental design included two control types, oil-only, and oil-dispersant treatments with three replicates each. We prepared 100 base pair-ended libraries from total RNA and sequenced them in one Illumina HiSeq2000 lane. We assembled a reference transcriptome with all replicates per treatment, assessed ...
In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, 2017 University of Mississippi
In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, Lukasz M. Kutrzeba, Vardan T. Karamyan, Robert C. Speth, John S. Williamson, Jordan K. Zjawiony
John S. Williamson
Microbial transformation of natural products is a well established model for mammalian metabolism. Salvinorin A, a diterpenoid isolated from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M (Lamiaceae), is a potent non-nitrogenous κ-opioid receptor agonist. The metabolism of salvinorin A has still not yet been well established. Thirty fungal species were screened for the ability to metabolize salvinorin A. We observed that salvinorin A undergoes fast hydrolysis of the acetate group at carbon atom C2, resulting in formation of the pharmacologically inactive product, salvinorin B. Ex vivo experiments were also performed using organelle fractions isolated from rat liver and brain. Crude ...
Standardized Research Protocols Enable Transdisciplinary Research Of Climate Variation Impacts In Corn Production Systems, E. J. Kladivko, M. J. Helmers, L. J. Abendroth, D. Herzmann, R. Lal, M. J. Castellano, D. S. Mueller, J. E. Sawyer, R. P. Anex, R. W. Arritt, B. Basso, J. V. Bonta, L. C. Bowling, R. M. Cruse, N. R. Fausey, J. R. Frankenberger, P. W. Gassman, A. J. Gassmann, C. L. Kling, A. Kravchenko, J. G. Lauer, F. E. Miguez, E. D. Nafziger, N. Nkongolo, M. O'Neal, L. B. Owens, P. R. Owens, P. Scharf, M. J. Shipitalo, J. S. Strock, M. B. Villamil
John E. Sawyer
The important questions about agriculture, climate, and sustainability have become increasingly complex and require a coordinated, multifaceted approach for developing new knowledge and understanding. A multistate, transdisciplinary project was begun in 2011 to study the potential for both mitigation and adaptation of corn-based cropping systems to climate variations. The team is measuring the baseline as well as change of the system's carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and water footprints, crop productivity, and pest pressure in response to existing and novel production practices. Nine states and 11 institutions are participating in the project, necessitating a well thought out approach to coordinating ...
Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, 2017 Kent State University - Kent Campus
Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model
Undergraduate Research Symposium
Intracellular protein concentration is an essential cell characteristic which manifests itself through the refractive index. The latter can be measured from two or more mutually defocused brightfield images analyzed using the TIE (transport-of-intensity equation). In practice, however, TIE does not always achieve quantitatively accurate results on biological cells. Therefore, we have developed a calibration procedure that involves successive imaging of cells in solutions containing different amounts of added protein. This allows one to directly relate the output of TIE (T) to intracellular protein concentration C (g/l). The resultant relationship has a simple form: C ≈ 1.0(T/V), where ...
Heat Exposure And Hypohydration Exacerbate Physiological Strain During Load Carrying, 2017 University of Connecticut
Heat Exposure And Hypohydration Exacerbate Physiological Strain During Load Carrying, Elizabeth L. Adams, Douglas J. Casa, Robert A. Huggins, Rebecca L. Stearns, Julie K. Demartini, Rachel M. Kennedy, Lindsay J. Distefano, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh
PTHMS Faculty Publications
Heat exposure and hypohydration induce physiological and psychological strain during exercise; however, it is unknown if the separate effects of heat exposure and hypohydration are synergistic when co-occurring during loaded exercise. This study compared separate and combined effects of heat exposure and hypohydration on physiological strain, mood state, and visual vigilance during loaded exercise. Twelve males (mean±SD; age, 20±2 years; body mass, 74.0±8.2 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57.0±6.0 mLkg-1min-1) completed 4 trials under the following conditions: euhydrated temperate (EUT), hypohydrated temperate (HYT), euhydrated hot (EUH), and hypohydrated hot (HYH). Exercise was 90 ...
Ethical Consequences Of Full Human Genome Testing, 2017 Bond University
Ethical Consequences Of Full Human Genome Testing, Michael Lupton
Law Faculty Publications
A Genome is the entire set of hereditary instructions for building, running, maintaining an organism and passing on life to the next generation. A Genome is divided into chromosomes, the chromosomes contain genes and the genes are made of DNA. Genomes are found in cells; which are the microscopic structures that make up all organisms. With few exceptions, each of your body’s trillions of cells contains a copy of your genome. The human genome may be commonplace but it is quite powerful, because the information in the genome affects every aspect of a person’s behaviour and physiology. The ...
The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Biology, Spring 2017, 2017 University of California, Irvine School of Law
The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Biology, Spring 2017, Sandy Avila
No abstract provided.
Determination Of Novel Metabolites Of Therapeutic Agents Used In The Treatment Of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, 2017 Cleveland State University
Determination Of Novel Metabolites Of Therapeutic Agents Used In The Treatment Of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Mohammad Alyamani
Despite an array of improved treatment options over the past decade, prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer mortality for men in the United States. Abiraterone and galeterone are oral steroidal compounds that are used to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Abiraterone blocks 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1), an enzyme required for androgen synthesis. Galeteron inhibits CYP17A1, blocks the androgen receptor (AR), and decreases AR protein levels. Both drugs share the same structure with endogenous androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone, which are substrates for the enzyme, 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ßHSD). Metabolites of 3ßHSD undergo further metabolism to produce the AR ...
Measuring Bacterial Growth Using A 3d-Printable Spectrometer, 2017 The University of Akron
Measuring Bacterial Growth Using A 3d-Printable Spectrometer, Samuel R. Bunting
Honors Research Projects
Visible light spectroscopy is a commonly used technique for measuring the growth of bacterial cultures, and growth curves provide broadly important data. However, the equipment and resources required for these experiments has been restricted to higher education and industry due to high cost and sophistication. We have previously reported on an inexpensive, 3D-printable photospectrometer called the SpecPhone. This device utilizes an iPhone as the camera, along with several other, inexpensive additions to make a fully functional spectrometer. Here, the application of the SpecPhone is expanded to the quantification of actively dividing E. coli cultures. Two protocols have been developed; one ...
The Effects Of Methamphetamine Exposure On Cardiovascular Development In Combination With Hypoxia In Danio Rerio, Sarah Donaldson
Honors Research Projects
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of methamphetamine combined with hypoxia on the development and function of the cardiovascular system in Danio rerio embryos. It was hypothesized that the combined effect of the drug and decreased oxygen concentration would result in decreased cardiac parameters due to underdevelopment of the ventricle and vessels resulting from cardiomyopathy and lack of blood flow to tissues. It was found that methamphetamine exposure correlated to an increase in stroke volume, caudal artery and vein diameters and RBC velocities alone, while having a multiplicative effect of increasing arterial RBC velocity when combined ...
Dna Barcoding Reveals A New Morphotype Of The Sugar Kelp, Saccharina Latissima, 2017 Southern Maine Community College
Dna Barcoding Reveals A New Morphotype Of The Sugar Kelp, Saccharina Latissima, Dallin Brimley, Zakery Ford, Travis Gould, Brandon Guerra, Emily Haggett, Ian Jones, Elyse Johnson, Ken Peterson, Matthew Prout
Phytoplankton blooms follow predictable annual cycles in the Gulf of Maine, characterized by a large spring bloom and a smaller bloom in the fall. Marine phytoplankton form the foundation of primary production in Gulf of Maine waters, and thus community changes in composition, and abundance could have cascading effects on our coastal ecosystems.
We set out to monitor the community composition, diversity, and abundance of the spring micro-phytoplankton bloom, at a Friends of Casco Bay water quality monitoring site, in South Portland, Maine. The Gulf of Maine is experiencing accelerated warming rates, and this type of monitoring can aid in ...
Survey Gear Comparisons And Shark Nursery Habitat Use In Southeast Georgia Estuaries, 2017 University of North Florida
Survey Gear Comparisons And Shark Nursery Habitat Use In Southeast Georgia Estuaries, Jeffrey Cohen Carpenter
UNF Theses and Dissertations
Gill nets and longlines were compared as shark nursery sampling methodologies in inshore waters of Georgia to (1) assess differences in gear selectivity, bias, and stress of capture and (2) determine potential relationships between habitat features and shark distribution and abundance. Gear selectivity varied between gears as a function of both species and life stage resulting in significantly different estimates of species and life stage compositions. Juvenile bonnetheads (Sphyrna tiburo) and young of the year blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) experienced significantly higher stress from gill net capture than longline. Major sources of bias are thought to result from dietary preferences ...
Mammary Extracellular Matrix Directs Differentiation Of Testicular And Embryonic Stem Cells To Form Functional Mammary Glands In Vivo, Robert D. Bruno, Jodie M. Fleming, Andrea L. George, Corinne A. Boulanger, Pepper Schedin, Gilbert H. Smith
Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications
Previously, we demonstrated the ability of the normal mammary microenvironment (niche) to direct non-mammary cells including testicular and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to adopt a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) fate. These studies relied upon the interaction of transplanted normal MECs with non-mammary cells within the mammary fat-pads of recipient mice that had their endogenous epithelium removed. Here, we tested whether acellular mammary extracellular matrix (mECM) preparations are sufficient to direct differentiation of testicular-derived cells and ESCs to form functional mammary epithelial trees in vivo. We found that mECMs isolated from adult mice and rats were sufficient to redirect testicular derived ...
Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (Spfa): A Method For Evaluating Changes In Understanding And Visualization Of The Scientific Process In A Multidisciplinary Student Population, 2016 Marian University - Indianapolis
Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (Spfa): A Method For Evaluating Changes In Understanding And Visualization Of The Scientific Process In A Multidisciplinary Student Population, Kristy J. Wilson, Bessie Rigakos
Department of Biology
The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology, Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA), consisted of a prompt and rubric that was designed to assess students' understanding of the scientific process. Forty flowcharts representing a multidisciplinary group without intervention and 26 flowcharts representing pre- and postinstruction were evaluated over five dimensions: connections, experimental design, reasons for doing science, nature of science, and interconnectivity. Pre to post flowcharts ...
Nasp: An Accurate, Rapid Method For The Identification Of Snps In Wgs Datasets That Supports Flexible Input And Output Formats, 2016 George Washington University
Nasp: An Accurate, Rapid Method For The Identification Of Snps In Wgs Datasets That Supports Flexible Input And Output Formats, Jason Sahl, Darrin Lemmer, Jason Travis, James Schupp, John Gillece, Maliha Aziz, +Several Additional Authors
Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of bacterial isolates has become standard practice in many laboratories. Applications for WGS analysis include phylogeography and molecular epidemiology, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the unit of evolution. NASP was developed as a reproducible method that scales well with the hundreds to thousands of WGS data typically used in comparative genomics applications. In this study, we demonstrate how NASP compares with other tools in the analysis of two real bacterial genomics datasets and one simulated dataset. Our results demonstrate that NASP produces similar, and often better, results in comparison with other pipelines, but is much more ...