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Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, Eunice Wintona 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, Eunice Wintona

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Smoothened receptor (SMO) is a protein that in humans, is encoded by the SMO gene. A systemic mutation in its binding pocket helps predict the sensitivity of mutant proteins to different drugs. Known as a GPCR-like receptor, it is a component of the hedgehog signaling pathway; a pathway involved in body patterning and the regulation of adult stem cells. An uncontrolled or inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog pathway drives tumor progression in cancers and a number of birth defects. To achieve these goals, the molecular modeling software MOE was used to build small molecules and drug molecules like Vismodegib and ...


Addressing The Challenges Of Conducting Observational Studies In Sheep Abattoirs, Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul McGreevy 2018 University of Sydney

Addressing The Challenges Of Conducting Observational Studies In Sheep Abattoirs, Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

The competing needs of maintaining productivity within abattoirs, and maintaining high standards of animal welfare, provide fertile grounds for applied research in animal behavior. However, there are challenges involved in capturing useful behavioral data from the supply chain (from paddock to processing plant). The challenges identified in this report are based on a review of the scientific literature as well as field study observations. This article describes those challenges as they relate to collecting behavioral data on livestock-herding dogs, humans and livestock as they interact in abattoirs, and provides insights and recommendations for others embarking on animal studies in confined ...


Mcnamara 20171227w Draft - Smfish And Qif Plus Optical Clearing Li Germain Gerner 2017 Pnas - Gi Division Short Talk.Pdf, George McNamara 2017 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Mcnamara 20171227w Draft - Smfish And Qif Plus Optical Clearing Li Germain Gerner 2017 Pnas - Gi Division Short Talk.Pdf, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Unpublished (except here at bepress) presentation on single molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) and quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy (qIF) plus optical clearing of tissues. Features "Ce3D" mpaper by Li Germain Gerner 2017 PNAS.


Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy 2017 University of New Orleans

Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The model of basal ganglia function proposed by Albin, Young and Penney (1989) describes two anatomically independent motor pathways, the direct and indirect. However, under normal conditions striatal dopamine (DA) is required for the expression of motor behavior, and DAergic control of the two pathways (via D1 and D2 receptors, respectively) is dependent on co-activation. We tested for a possible breakdown of D1/D2 synergism using transgenic R6/1 mice bearing the human huntingtin allele (Htt). Motor stereotypy, observed prior to the onset of HD-related symptoms, was rated on a 5-point scale following activation of: A) D1 receptors alone, B ...


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Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, Virginia Robin Fleer 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, Virginia Robin Fleer

Dissertations

Natural and anthropogenic changes resulting from altered hydrology, hurricanes, variable precipitation, and the BP oil spill have all taken their toll on oyster reefs in Mississippi. In response, oyster reef restoration efforts are currently underway within the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In order to understand why these efforts succeed or fail, it is crucial to consider predator-prey relationships within the context of the trophic dynamics of oyster reefs. Thus, for this dissertation study I integrated a multidisciplinary approach to understanding key trophic interactions affecting oyster recruitment, growth and survival, comprising field sampling, manipulative lab experiments, and individual-based modeling. Spat settlement ...


Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway

Dissertations

Bottlenose dolphins are an important species of interest because they possess a variety of abilities that are relatively rare in the animal kingdom, one being complex acoustic communication. Signature whistles - distinctive calls that are unique for each individual – are one of the most studied call types, but we know little about how these calls are used in various contexts, such as during an introduction. Looking at the socio-behavioral context in which signature whistles are used is likely the best way of learning how these whistles are used in a particular context (Caldwell, Caldwell, & Tyack, 1990). For this project, the behavior ...


Structural Insights Into The Potency Of Sk Channel Positive Modulators, Young-Woo Nam, Razan Orfali, Tingting Liu, Kunqian Yu, Meng Cui, Heike Wulff, Miao Zhang 2017 Chapman University

Structural Insights Into The Potency Of Sk Channel Positive Modulators, Young-Woo Nam, Razan Orfali, Tingting Liu, Kunqian Yu, Meng Cui, Heike Wulff, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels play essential roles in the regulation of cellular excitability and have been implicated in neurological and cardiovascular diseases through both animal model studies and human genetic association studies. Over the past two decades, positive modulators of SK channels such as NS309 and 1-EBIO have been developed. Our previous structural studies have identified the binding pocket of 1-EBIO and NS309 that is located at the interface between the channel and calmodulin. In this study, we took advantage of four compounds with potencies varying over three orders of magnitude, including 1-EBIO, NS309, SKS-11 (6-bromo-5-methyl-1H-indole-2 ...


Does The Stress Inherent To Laboratory Life And Experimentation On Animals Adversely Affect Research Data?, Jarrod Bailey 2017 Cruelty Free International

Does The Stress Inherent To Laboratory Life And Experimentation On Animals Adversely Affect Research Data?, Jarrod Bailey

Validation of Animal Experimentation

Stress and distress in laboratory animals is often inherent and unavoidable. The effect of these factors on the reliability and relevance of experimental data is not sufficiently appreciated. Greater awareness, debate and discussion of this issue are urgently required.


Addressing The Challenges Of Conducting Observational Studies In Sheep Abattoirs, Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul McGreevy 2017 University of Sydney

Addressing The Challenges Of Conducting Observational Studies In Sheep Abattoirs, Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul Mcgreevy

in Situ Research Models

The competing needs of maintaining productivity within abattoirs, and maintaining high standards of animal welfare, provide fertile grounds for applied research in animal behavior. However, there are challenges involved in capturing useful behavioral data from the supply chain (from paddock to processing plant). The challenges identified in this report are based on a review of the scientific literature as well as field study observations. This article describes those challenges as they relate to collecting behavioral data on livestock-herding dogs, humans and livestock as they interact in abattoirs, and provides insights and recommendations for others embarking on animal studies in confined ...


Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman

Psychology and Neuroscience Undergraduate Contributions

Traumatic spinal cord injury affects 282,000 people in the United States alone. Individuals often suffer from partial paralysis and chronic pain along with physiological impairments, such as abnormal thermoregulation, decreased motor function, and poor sleep quality. Current clinical therapies focus on symptomatic treatments. Despite extensive research, all of the physiologic effects and the molecular mechanism underlying spinal cord injury, and how they affect each other, remains elusive. Here, we tested whether spinal cord injury disrupted circadian rhythms, which could prolong the recovery process. We used implanted transmitters in male and female rats to measure a marker, body temperature, and ...


Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

The hippocampus is critical for episodic memory, and synaptic changes induced by long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to underlie memory formation. In rodents, hippocampal LTP may be induced through electrical stimulation of the perforant path. To test whether similar techniques could improve episodic memory in humans, we implemented a microstimulation technique that allowed delivery of low-current electrical stimulation via 100 μm-diameter microelectrodes. As thirteen neurosurgical patients performed a person recognition task, microstimulation was applied in a theta-burst pattern, shown to optimally induce LTP. Microstimulation in the right entorhinal area during learning significantly improved subsequent memory specificity for novel portraits; participants ...


Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi 2017 University of Toledo

Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ependymal cilia protrude into the central canal of the brain ventricles and spinal cord to circulate the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Ependymal cilia dysfunction can hinder the movement of CSF leading to an abnormal accumulation of CSF within the brain known as hydrocephalus. Although the etiology of hydrocephalus was studied before, the effects of ethanol ingestion on ependymal cilia function have not been investigated in vivo. Here, we report three distinct types of ependymal cilia, type-I, type-II and type-III classified based upon their beating frequency, their beating angle, and their distinct localization within the mouse brain-lateral ventricle. Our studies show ...


Standardized Research Protocols Enable Transdisciplinary Research Of Climate Variation Impacts In Corn Production Systems, E. J. Kladivko, M. J. Helmers, L. J. Abendroth, D. Herzmann, R. Lal, M. J. Castellano, D. S. Mueller, J. E. Sawyer, R. P. Anex, R. W. Arritt, B. Basso, J. V. Bonta, L. C. Bowling, R. M. Cruse, N. R. Fausey, J. R. Frankenberger, P. W. Gassman, A. J. Gassmann, C. L. Kling, A. Kravchenko, J. G. Lauer, F. E. Miguez, E. D. Nafziger, N. Nkongolo, M. O'Neal, L. B. Owens, P. R. Owens, P. Scharf, M. J. Shipitalo, J. S. Strock, M. B. Villamil 2017 Purdue University

Standardized Research Protocols Enable Transdisciplinary Research Of Climate Variation Impacts In Corn Production Systems, E. J. Kladivko, M. J. Helmers, L. J. Abendroth, D. Herzmann, R. Lal, M. J. Castellano, D. S. Mueller, J. E. Sawyer, R. P. Anex, R. W. Arritt, B. Basso, J. V. Bonta, L. C. Bowling, R. M. Cruse, N. R. Fausey, J. R. Frankenberger, P. W. Gassman, A. J. Gassmann, C. L. Kling, A. Kravchenko, J. G. Lauer, F. E. Miguez, E. D. Nafziger, N. Nkongolo, M. O'Neal, L. B. Owens, P. R. Owens, P. Scharf, M. J. Shipitalo, J. S. Strock, M. B. Villamil

Matthew E. O'Neal

The important questions about agriculture, climate, and sustainability have become increasingly complex and require a coordinated, multifaceted approach for developing new knowledge and understanding. A multistate, transdisciplinary project was begun in 2011 to study the potential for both mitigation and adaptation of corn-based cropping systems to climate variations. The team is measuring the baseline as well as change of the system's carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and water footprints, crop productivity, and pest pressure in response to existing and novel production practices. Nine states and 11 institutions are participating in the project, necessitating a well thought out approach to coordinating ...


Phylogenetic Evidence From Freshwater Crayfishes That Cave Adaptation Is Not An Evolutionary Dead-End., David B Stern, Jesse Breinholt, Carlos Pedraza-Lara, Marilú López-Mejía, Christopher L Owen, Heather Bracken-Grissom, James W Fetzner, Keith A Crandall 2017 George Washington University

Phylogenetic Evidence From Freshwater Crayfishes That Cave Adaptation Is Not An Evolutionary Dead-End., David B Stern, Jesse Breinholt, Carlos Pedraza-Lara, Marilú López-Mejía, Christopher L Owen, Heather Bracken-Grissom, James W Fetzner, Keith A Crandall

Computational Biology Institute

Caves are perceived as isolated, extreme habitats with a uniquely specialized biota, which long ago led to the idea that caves are "evolutionary dead-ends." This implies that cave-adapted taxa may be doomed for extinction before they can diversify or transition to a more stable state. However, this hypothesis has not been explicitly tested in a phylogenetic framework with multiple independently evolved cave-dwelling groups. Here, we use the freshwater crayfish, a group with dozens of cave-dwelling species in multiple lineages, as a system to test this hypothesis. We consider historical patterns of lineage diversification and habitat transition as well as current ...


Experimental In-Vivo Models Used In Fat Grafting Research For Volume Augmentation In Soft Tissue Reconstruction, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, Raghu Appasani, Kylee Sullivan, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Janice F. Lalikos 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Experimental In-Vivo Models Used In Fat Grafting Research For Volume Augmentation In Soft Tissue Reconstruction, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, Raghu Appasani, Kylee Sullivan, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Janice F. Lalikos

Open Access Articles

As the popularity of fat grafting research increases, animal models are being used as the source of pre-clinical experimental information for discovery and to enhance techniques. To date, animal models used in this research have not been compared to provide a standardized model. We analyzed publications from 1968-2015 to compare published accounts of animal models in fat grafting research. Data collected included: species used, graft characteristics (donor tissue, recipient area, amount injected, injection technique), time of sacrifice and quantification methods. Mice were most commonly used (56% of studies), with the "athymic nude" strain utilized most frequently (44%). Autologous fat was ...


Letter, Jarrod Bailey 2017 Cruelty Free International

Letter, Jarrod Bailey

Opposition to Animal Research

In a recent publication in Lab Animal,1 a nonhuman primate (NHP) researcher at the California National Primate Research Center, USA, argued for the continued importance of experiments on macaques for better understanding HIV and AIDS, and for tackling the virus and the disease with therapies and vaccines. Though the stance of the author is far from surprising, given his background and current employer (an organisation which houses around 5000 monkeys for research), the paper, even as comprehensive as it is, is not sufficiently critical of NHP experiments and overlooks a number of their deficiencies and established problems with them ...


Evaluation Of Surgical Methods For Treatment Of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome - Statistical Perspectives, Ahmed Mohammed Morsy 2017 Assiut University, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Pediatric Oncology Department

Evaluation Of Surgical Methods For Treatment Of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome - Statistical Perspectives, Ahmed Mohammed Morsy

Dr/ Ahmed Mohammed Morsy

This commentary addresses strengths and weaknesses of the clinical trial study protocol designed by Liu et al., in particular with regard of the methodology, taking into consideration the commentary article "Assessing surgical methods for treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome - which is the best?" Our commentary emphasizes the importance of adjustment for known prognostic covariates, such as duration of symptoms and advanced age that have been negatively correlated with outcomes in previous studies. Subgroup analysis for the treatment groups of interest, namely moderate and severe cubital tunnel syndrome, which have previously shown conflicting differences in efficacy of surgical options is highly ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


T-Time: A Data Repository Of T Cell And Calcium Release-Activated Calcium Channel Activation Imagery, Cody Arbuckle, Milton L. Greenberg, Adrienne Bergh, Rene German, Nick Sirago, Erik J. Linstead 2017 Chapman University

T-Time: A Data Repository Of T Cell And Calcium Release-Activated Calcium Channel Activation Imagery, Cody Arbuckle, Milton L. Greenberg, Adrienne Bergh, Rene German, Nick Sirago, Erik J. Linstead

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

BACKGROUND: A fundamental understanding of live-cell dynamics is necessary in order to advance scientific techniques and personalized medicine. For this understanding to be possible, image processing techniques, probes, tracking algorithms and many other methodologies must be improved. Currently there are no large open-source datasets containing live-cell imaging to act as a standard for the community. As a result, researchers cannot evaluate their methodologies on an independent benchmark or leverage such a dataset to formulate scientific questions.

FINDINGS: Here we present T-Time, the largest free and publicly available data set of T cell phase contrast imagery designed with the intention of ...


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