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In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, Lukasz M. Kutrzeba, Vardan T. Karamyan, Robert C. Speth, John S. Williamson, Jordan K. Zjawiony 2017 University of Mississippi

In Vitro Studies On Metabolism Of Salvinorin A, Lukasz M. Kutrzeba, Vardan T. Karamyan, Robert C. Speth, John S. Williamson, Jordan K. Zjawiony

John Williamson

Microbial transformation of natural products is a well established model for mammalian metabolism. Salvinorin A, a diterpenoid isolated from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M (Lamiaceae), is a potent non-nitrogenous κ-opioid receptor agonist. The metabolism of salvinorin A has still not yet been well established. Thirty fungal species were screened for the ability to metabolize salvinorin A. We observed that salvinorin A undergoes fast hydrolysis of the acetate group at carbon atom C2, resulting in formation of the pharmacologically inactive product, salvinorin B. Ex vivo experiments were also performed using organelle fractions isolated from rat liver and brain. Crude ...


Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model 2017 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Intracellular protein concentration is an essential cell characteristic which manifests itself through the refractive index. The latter can be measured from two or more mutually defocused brightfield images analyzed using the TIE (transport-of-intensity equation). In practice, however, TIE does not always achieve quantitatively accurate results on biological cells. Therefore, we have developed a calibration procedure that involves successive imaging of cells in solutions containing different amounts of added protein. This allows one to directly relate the output of TIE (T) to intracellular protein concentration C (g/l). The resultant relationship has a simple form: C ≈ 1.0(T/V), where ...


Heat Exposure And Hypohydration Exacerbate Physiological Strain During Load Carrying, Elizabeth L. Adams, Douglas J. Casa, Robert A. Huggins, Rebecca L. Stearns, Julie K. DeMartini, Rachel M. Kennedy, Lindsay J. DiStefano, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh 2017 University of Connecticut

Heat Exposure And Hypohydration Exacerbate Physiological Strain During Load Carrying, Elizabeth L. Adams, Douglas J. Casa, Robert A. Huggins, Rebecca L. Stearns, Julie K. Demartini, Rachel M. Kennedy, Lindsay J. Distefano, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh

PTHMS Faculty Publications

Heat exposure and hypohydration induce physiological and psychological strain during exercise; however, it is unknown if the separate effects of heat exposure and hypohydration are synergistic when co-occurring during loaded exercise. This study compared separate and combined effects of heat exposure and hypohydration on physiological strain, mood state, and visual vigilance during loaded exercise. Twelve males (mean±SD; age, 20±2 years; body mass, 74.0±8.2 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57.0±6.0 mLkg-1min-1) completed 4 trials under the following conditions: euhydrated temperate (EUT), hypohydrated temperate (HYT), euhydrated hot (EUH), and hypohydrated hot (HYH). Exercise was 90 ...


The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Biology, Spring 2017, Sandy Avila 2017 University of California, Irvine School of Law

The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Biology, Spring 2017, Sandy Avila

Libraries' Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Mammary Extracellular Matrix Directs Differentiation Of Testicular And Embryonic Stem Cells To Form Functional Mammary Glands In Vivo, Robert D. Bruno, Jodie M. Fleming, Andrea L. George, Corinne A. Boulanger, Pepper Schedin, Gilbert H. Smith 2017 Old Dominion University

Mammary Extracellular Matrix Directs Differentiation Of Testicular And Embryonic Stem Cells To Form Functional Mammary Glands In Vivo, Robert D. Bruno, Jodie M. Fleming, Andrea L. George, Corinne A. Boulanger, Pepper Schedin, Gilbert H. Smith

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Previously, we demonstrated the ability of the normal mammary microenvironment (niche) to direct non-mammary cells including testicular and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to adopt a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) fate. These studies relied upon the interaction of transplanted normal MECs with non-mammary cells within the mammary fat-pads of recipient mice that had their endogenous epithelium removed. Here, we tested whether acellular mammary extracellular matrix (mECM) preparations are sufficient to direct differentiation of testicular-derived cells and ESCs to form functional mammary epithelial trees in vivo. We found that mECMs isolated from adult mice and rats were sufficient to redirect testicular derived ...


Determination Of Novel Metabolites Of Therapeutic Agents Used In The Treatment Of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Mohammad Alyamani 2017 Cleveland State University

Determination Of Novel Metabolites Of Therapeutic Agents Used In The Treatment Of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Mohammad Alyamani

ETD Archive

Despite an array of improved treatment options over the past decade, prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer mortality for men in the United States. Abiraterone and galeterone are oral steroidal compounds that are used to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Abiraterone blocks 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1), an enzyme required for androgen synthesis. Galeteron inhibits CYP17A1, blocks the androgen receptor (AR), and decreases AR protein levels. Both drugs share the same structure with endogenous androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone, which are substrates for the enzyme, 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ßHSD). Metabolites of 3ßHSD undergo further metabolism to produce the AR ...


Measuring Bacterial Growth Using A 3d-Printable Spectrometer, Samuel R. Bunting 2017 The University of Akron

Measuring Bacterial Growth Using A 3d-Printable Spectrometer, Samuel R. Bunting

Honors Research Projects

Visible light spectroscopy is a commonly used technique for measuring the growth of bacterial cultures, and growth curves provide broadly important data. However, the equipment and resources required for these experiments has been restricted to higher education and industry due to high cost and sophistication. We have previously reported on an inexpensive, 3D-printable photospectrometer called the SpecPhone. This device utilizes an iPhone as the camera, along with several other, inexpensive additions to make a fully functional spectrometer. Here, the application of the SpecPhone is expanded to the quantification of actively dividing E. coli cultures. Two protocols have been developed; one ...


Nasp: An Accurate, Rapid Method For The Identification Of Snps In Wgs Datasets That Supports Flexible Input And Output Formats, Jason Sahl, Darrin Lemmer, Jason Travis, James Schupp, John Gillece, Maliha Aziz, +several additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Nasp: An Accurate, Rapid Method For The Identification Of Snps In Wgs Datasets That Supports Flexible Input And Output Formats, Jason Sahl, Darrin Lemmer, Jason Travis, James Schupp, John Gillece, Maliha Aziz, +Several Additional Authors

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of bacterial isolates has become standard practice in many laboratories. Applications for WGS analysis include phylogeography and molecular epidemiology, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the unit of evolution. NASP was developed as a reproducible method that scales well with the hundreds to thousands of WGS data typically used in comparative genomics applications. In this study, we demonstrate how NASP compares with other tools in the analysis of two real bacterial genomics datasets and one simulated dataset. Our results demonstrate that NASP produces similar, and often better, results in comparison with other pipelines, but is much more ...


Bringing Silicon Valley To Thailand, Krating POONPOL 2016 Singapore Management University

Bringing Silicon Valley To Thailand, Krating Poonpol

Asian Management Insights

Searching for unicorns.


Alzheimer Disease Research In The 21st Century: Past And Current Failures, New Perspectives And Funding Priorities, Francesca Pistollato, Elan L. Ohayon, Ann Lam, Gillian R. Langley, Thomas J. Novak, David Pamies, George Perry, Eugenia Trushina, Robin S.B. Williams, Alex E. Roher, Thomas Hartung, Stevan Harnad, Neal D. Barnard, Martha Clare Morris, Mei-Chun Lai, Ryan Merkley, P. Charukeshi Chandrasekera 2016 Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

Alzheimer Disease Research In The 21st Century: Past And Current Failures, New Perspectives And Funding Priorities, Francesca Pistollato, Elan L. Ohayon, Ann Lam, Gillian R. Langley, Thomas J. Novak, David Pamies, George Perry, Eugenia Trushina, Robin S.B. Williams, Alex E. Roher, Thomas Hartung, Stevan Harnad, Neal D. Barnard, Martha Clare Morris, Mei-Chun Lai, Ryan Merkley, P. Charukeshi Chandrasekera

EXP

Much of Alzheimer disease (AD) research has been traditionally based on the use of animals, which have been extensively applied in an effort to both improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and to test novel therapeutic approaches. However, decades of such research have not effectively translated into substantial therapeutic success for human patients. Here we critically discuss these issues in order to determine how existing human-based methods can be applied to study AD pathology and develop novel therapeutics. These methods, which include patient-derived cells, computational analysis and models, together with large-scale epidemiological studies represent novel and ...


Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Animal Research (2014-2015), Erich Yahner 2016 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Animal Research (2014-2015), Erich Yahner

BIB

No abstract provided.


Non-Human Primates In Neuroscience Research: The Case Against Its Scientific Necessity, Jarrod Bailey, Katy Taylor 2016 Cruelty Free International

Non-Human Primates In Neuroscience Research: The Case Against Its Scientific Necessity, Jarrod Bailey, Katy Taylor

EXP

Public opposition to non-human primate (NHP) experiments is significant, yet those who defend them cite minimal harm to NHPs and substantial human benefit. Here we review these claims of benefit, specifically in neuroscience, and show that: a) there is a default assumption of their human relevance and benefit, rather than robust evidence; b) their human relevance and essential contribution and necessity are wholly overstated; c) the contribution and capacity of non-animal investigative methods are greatly understated; and d) confounding issues, such as species differences and the effects of stress and anaesthesia, are usually overlooked. This is the case in NHP ...


Effect Of Prior Trauma Exposure On Alpha Amplitude, Heart Rate, And Self-Reported Negative Affect, Gina L. DeNoble 2016 Central Washington University

Effect Of Prior Trauma Exposure On Alpha Amplitude, Heart Rate, And Self-Reported Negative Affect, Gina L. Denoble

All Master's Theses

This study was conducted to investigate whether the number of traumatic events an individual has previously experienced influences that individual’s physiological and psychological reactions when exposed to a negative affective stimulus followed by a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention. Twenty-eight participants were placed into intact quasi-experimental groups based on their scores on the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ). The negative affective stimulus consisted of a series of photos bearing negative affective valence. The photos were selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), and paralleled the areas of trauma exposure evaluated by the TLEQ. All participants were exposed to ...


Use Of Non-Human Primates In Cocaine Research, Raija H. Bettauer 2016 Animal Studies Repository

Use Of Non-Human Primates In Cocaine Research, Raija H. Bettauer

EXP

No abstract provided.


Predicting Human Drug Toxicity And Safety Via Animal Tests: Can Any One Species Predict Drug Toxicity In Any Other, And Do Monkeys Help?, Jarrod Bailey, Michelle Thew, Michael Balls 2015 Cruelty Free International

Predicting Human Drug Toxicity And Safety Via Animal Tests: Can Any One Species Predict Drug Toxicity In Any Other, And Do Monkeys Help?, Jarrod Bailey, Michelle Thew, Michael Balls

LAB

Animals are still widely used in drug development and safety tests, despite evidence for their lack of predictive value. In this regard, we recently showed, by producing Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive data set of over 3,000 drugs with both animal and human data, that the absence of toxicity in animals provides little or virtually no evidential weight that adverse drug reactions will also be absent in humans. While our analyses suggest that the presence of toxicity in one species may sometimes add evidential weight for risk of toxicity in another, the LRs are extremely inconsistent, varying substantially ...


Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle III, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja van de Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett 2015 Humane Society International

Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja Van De Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett

EXP

Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual ...


The Flaws And Human Harms Of Animal Experimentation, Aysha Akhtar 2015 Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics

The Flaws And Human Harms Of Animal Experimentation, Aysha Akhtar

EXP

Nonhuman animal (“animal”) experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal ...


Expectations For Methodology And Translation Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis 2015 University of Alberta

Expectations For Methodology And Translation Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis

EXP

Background: Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans.

Methods: After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs ...


A Role For Folk Psychology In Animal Cognition Research, Kristin Andrews 2015 York University

A Role For Folk Psychology In Animal Cognition Research, Kristin Andrews

EXP

If we consider that the field of animal cognition research began with Darwin’s stories about clever animals, we can see that over the 150 years of work done in this field, there has been a slow swing back and forth between two extreme positions. One extreme is the view that other animals are very much like us, that we can use introspection in order to understand why other animals act as they do, and that no huge interpretive leap is required to understand animal minds. On the other extreme we have the view that other animals are utterly different ...


The Ethics Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Pediatric Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis 2014 University of Alberta

The Ethics Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Pediatric Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis

EXP

Introduction: Pediatric health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR). We aim to determine whether HCW consider common arguments (and counterarguments) in support (or not) of AR convincing.

Design: After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, support for AR, and common arguments (with their counterarguments) to justify the moral permissibility (or not) of AR. Responses are reported using standard tabulations. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs ...


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