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Standardized Research Protocols Enable Transdisciplinary Research Of Climate Variation Impacts In Corn Production Systems, E. J. Kladivko, M. J. Helmers, L. J. Abendroth, D. Herzmann, R. Lal, M. J. Castellano, D. S. Mueller, J. E. Sawyer, R. P. Anex, R. W. Arritt, B. Basso, J. V. Bonta, L. C. Bowling, R. M. Cruse, N. R. Fausey, J. R. Frankenberger, P. W. Gassman, A. J. Gassmann, C. L. Kling, A. Kravchenko, J. G. Lauer, F. E. Miguez, E. D. Nafziger, N. Nkongolo, M. O'Neal, L. B. Owens, P. R. Owens, P. Scharf, M. J. Shipitalo, J. S. Strock, M. B. Villamil 2017 Purdue University

Standardized Research Protocols Enable Transdisciplinary Research Of Climate Variation Impacts In Corn Production Systems, E. J. Kladivko, M. J. Helmers, L. J. Abendroth, D. Herzmann, R. Lal, M. J. Castellano, D. S. Mueller, J. E. Sawyer, R. P. Anex, R. W. Arritt, B. Basso, J. V. Bonta, L. C. Bowling, R. M. Cruse, N. R. Fausey, J. R. Frankenberger, P. W. Gassman, A. J. Gassmann, C. L. Kling, A. Kravchenko, J. G. Lauer, F. E. Miguez, E. D. Nafziger, N. Nkongolo, M. O'Neal, L. B. Owens, P. R. Owens, P. Scharf, M. J. Shipitalo, J. S. Strock, M. B. Villamil

John E. Sawyer

The important questions about agriculture, climate, and sustainability have become increasingly complex and require a coordinated, multifaceted approach for developing new knowledge and understanding. A multistate, transdisciplinary project was begun in 2011 to study the potential for both mitigation and adaptation of corn-based cropping systems to climate variations. The team is measuring the baseline as well as change of the system's carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and water footprints, crop productivity, and pest pressure in response to existing and novel production practices. Nine states and 11 institutions are participating in the project, necessitating a well thought out approach to coordinating ...


Heat Exposure And Hypohydration Exacerbate Physiological Strain During Load Carrying, Elizabeth L. Adams, Douglas J. Casa, Robert A. Huggins, Rebecca L. Stearns, Julie K. DeMartini, Rachel M. Kennedy, Lindsay J. DiStefano, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh 2017 University of Connecticut

Heat Exposure And Hypohydration Exacerbate Physiological Strain During Load Carrying, Elizabeth L. Adams, Douglas J. Casa, Robert A. Huggins, Rebecca L. Stearns, Julie K. Demartini, Rachel M. Kennedy, Lindsay J. Distefano, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh

PTHMS Faculty Publications

Heat exposure and hypohydration induce physiological and psychological strain during exercise; however, it is unknown if the separate effects of heat exposure and hypohydration are synergistic when co-occurring during loaded exercise. This study compared separate and combined effects of heat exposure and hypohydration on physiological strain, mood state, and visual vigilance during loaded exercise. Twelve males (mean±SD; age, 20±2 years; body mass, 74.0±8.2 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57.0±6.0 mLkg-1min-1) completed 4 trials under the following conditions: euhydrated temperate (EUT), hypohydrated temperate (HYT), euhydrated hot (EUH), and hypohydrated hot (HYH). Exercise was 90 ...


The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Biology, Spring 2017, Sandy Avila 2017 University of California, Irvine School of Law

The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Biology, Spring 2017, Sandy Avila

Libraries' Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Mammary Extracellular Matrix Directs Differentiation Of Testicular And Embryonic Stem Cells To Form Functional Mammary Glands In Vivo, Robert D. Bruno, Jodie M. Fleming, Andrea L. George, Corinne A. Boulanger, Pepper Schedin, Gilbert H. Smith 2017 Old Dominion University

Mammary Extracellular Matrix Directs Differentiation Of Testicular And Embryonic Stem Cells To Form Functional Mammary Glands In Vivo, Robert D. Bruno, Jodie M. Fleming, Andrea L. George, Corinne A. Boulanger, Pepper Schedin, Gilbert H. Smith

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Previously, we demonstrated the ability of the normal mammary microenvironment (niche) to direct non-mammary cells including testicular and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to adopt a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) fate. These studies relied upon the interaction of transplanted normal MECs with non-mammary cells within the mammary fat-pads of recipient mice that had their endogenous epithelium removed. Here, we tested whether acellular mammary extracellular matrix (mECM) preparations are sufficient to direct differentiation of testicular-derived cells and ESCs to form functional mammary epithelial trees in vivo. We found that mECMs isolated from adult mice and rats were sufficient to redirect testicular derived ...


Bringing Silicon Valley To Thailand, Krating POONPOL 2016 Singapore Management University

Bringing Silicon Valley To Thailand, Krating Poonpol

Asian Management Insights

Searching for unicorns.


Alzheimer Disease Research In The 21st Century: Past And Current Failures, New Perspectives And Funding Priorities, Francesca Pistollato, Elan L. Ohayon, Ann Lam, Gillian R. Langley, Thomas J. Novak, David Pamies, George Perry, Eugenia Trushina, Robin S.B. Williams, Alex E. Roher, Thomas Hartung, Stevan Harnad, Neal D. Barnard, Martha Clare Morris, Mei-Chun Lai, Ryan Merkley, P. Charukeshi Chandrasekera 2016 Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

Alzheimer Disease Research In The 21st Century: Past And Current Failures, New Perspectives And Funding Priorities, Francesca Pistollato, Elan L. Ohayon, Ann Lam, Gillian R. Langley, Thomas J. Novak, David Pamies, George Perry, Eugenia Trushina, Robin S.B. Williams, Alex E. Roher, Thomas Hartung, Stevan Harnad, Neal D. Barnard, Martha Clare Morris, Mei-Chun Lai, Ryan Merkley, P. Charukeshi Chandrasekera

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

Much of Alzheimer disease (AD) research has been traditionally based on the use of animals, which have been extensively applied in an effort to both improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and to test novel therapeutic approaches. However, decades of such research have not effectively translated into substantial therapeutic success for human patients. Here we critically discuss these issues in order to determine how existing human-based methods can be applied to study AD pathology and develop novel therapeutics. These methods, which include patient-derived cells, computational analysis and models, together with large-scale epidemiological studies represent novel and ...


Effect Of Prior Trauma Exposure On Alpha Amplitude, Heart Rate, And Self-Reported Negative Affect, Gina L. DeNoble 2016 Central Washington University

Effect Of Prior Trauma Exposure On Alpha Amplitude, Heart Rate, And Self-Reported Negative Affect, Gina L. Denoble

All Master's Theses

This study was conducted to investigate whether the number of traumatic events an individual has previously experienced influences that individual’s physiological and psychological reactions when exposed to a negative affective stimulus followed by a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention. Twenty-eight participants were placed into intact quasi-experimental groups based on their scores on the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ). The negative affective stimulus consisted of a series of photos bearing negative affective valence. The photos were selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), and paralleled the areas of trauma exposure evaluated by the TLEQ. All participants were exposed to ...


Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle III, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja van de Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett 2015 Humane Society International

Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja Van De Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual ...


Considering A New Paradigm For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Gillian R. Langley 2014 Animal Studies Repository

Considering A New Paradigm For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Gillian R. Langley

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

Using Alzheimer’s disease as a case study, this review argues that it might be time to consider a new paradigm in medical research and drug discovery. The existing framework is overly dependent on often unvalidated animal models, particularly transgenic mice. Translational success remains elusive and costly late-stage drug failure is common. The conventional paradigm tends to overlook species differences and assumes that animal-based findings are generally applicable to humans. Could pathways-based research using advanced human-specific models probed with new tools, including those of systems biology, take centre stage? The current transition in chemical toxicology to a 21st-century paradigm could ...


Consensus Report On The Future Of Animal-Free Systemic Toxicity Testing, Marcel Leist, Nina Hasiwa, Costanza Rovida, Mardas Daneshian, David Basketter, Ian Kimber, Harvey Clewell, Tilman Gocht, Alan Goldberg, Francois Busquet, Anna-Maria Rossi, Michael Schwarz, Martin Stephens, Rob Taalman, Thomas B. Knudsen, James McKim, Georgina Harris, David Pamies, Thomas Hartung 2014 University of Konstanz

Consensus Report On The Future Of Animal-Free Systemic Toxicity Testing, Marcel Leist, Nina Hasiwa, Costanza Rovida, Mardas Daneshian, David Basketter, Ian Kimber, Harvey Clewell, Tilman Gocht, Alan Goldberg, Francois Busquet, Anna-Maria Rossi, Michael Schwarz, Martin Stephens, Rob Taalman, Thomas B. Knudsen, James Mckim, Georgina Harris, David Pamies, Thomas Hartung

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council’s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in 2007. It is now possible to provide a more defined roadmap on how to implement this vision for the four principal areas ...


Paracrine-Rescued Lobulogenesis In Chimeric Outgrowths Comprising Progesterone-Receptor-Null Mammary Epithelium And Redirected Wild-Type Testicular Cells, Robert D. Bruno, Corinne A. Boulanger, Sonia M. Rosenfield, Lisa H. Anderson, John P. Lydon, Gilbert H. Smith 2014 Old Dominion University

Paracrine-Rescued Lobulogenesis In Chimeric Outgrowths Comprising Progesterone-Receptor-Null Mammary Epithelium And Redirected Wild-Type Testicular Cells, Robert D. Bruno, Corinne A. Boulanger, Sonia M. Rosenfield, Lisa H. Anderson, John P. Lydon, Gilbert H. Smith

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

We have previously shown that non-mammary and tumorigenic cells can respond to the signals of the mammary niche and alter their cell fate to that of mammary epithelial progenitor cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that paracrine signals from mammary epithelial cells expressing progesterone receptor (PR) are dispensable for redirection of testicular cells, and that re-directed wild-type testicular-derived mammary cells can rescue lobulogenesis of PR-null mammary epithelium by paracrine signaling during pregnancy. We injected PR-null epithelial cells mixed with testicular cells from wild-type adult male mice into cleared fat-pads of recipient mice. The testicular cells were redirected in vivo to ...


Standardized Research Protocols Enable Transdisciplinary Research Of Climate Variation Impacts In Corn Production Systems, E. J. Kladivko, M. J. Helmers, L. J. Abendroth, D. Herzmann, R. Lal, M. J. Castellano, D. S. Mueller, J. E. Sawyer, R. P. Anex, R. W. Arritt, B. Basso, J. V. Bonta, L. C. Bowling, R. M. Cruse, N. R. Fausey, J. R. Frankenberger, P. W. Gassman, A. J. Gassmann, C. L. Kling, A. Kravchenko, J. G. Lauer, F. E. Miguez, E. D. Nafziger, N. Nkongolo, M. O'Neal, L. B. Owens, P. R. Owens, P. Scharf, M. J. Shipitalo, J. S. Strock, M. B. Villamil 2014 Purdue University

Standardized Research Protocols Enable Transdisciplinary Research Of Climate Variation Impacts In Corn Production Systems, E. J. Kladivko, M. J. Helmers, L. J. Abendroth, D. Herzmann, R. Lal, M. J. Castellano, D. S. Mueller, J. E. Sawyer, R. P. Anex, R. W. Arritt, B. Basso, J. V. Bonta, L. C. Bowling, R. M. Cruse, N. R. Fausey, J. R. Frankenberger, P. W. Gassman, A. J. Gassmann, C. L. Kling, A. Kravchenko, J. G. Lauer, F. E. Miguez, E. D. Nafziger, N. Nkongolo, M. O'Neal, L. B. Owens, P. R. Owens, P. Scharf, M. J. Shipitalo, J. S. Strock, M. B. Villamil

Agronomy Publications

The important questions about agriculture, climate, and sustainability have become increasingly complex and require a coordinated, multifaceted approach for developing new knowledge and understanding. A multistate, transdisciplinary project was begun in 2011 to study the potential for both mitigation and adaptation of corn-based cropping systems to climate variations. The team is measuring the baseline as well as change of the system's carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and water footprints, crop productivity, and pest pressure in response to existing and novel production practices. Nine states and 11 institutions are participating in the project, necessitating a well thought out approach to coordinating ...


Can Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Tests Be Replaced With Oral Tests? A Comparison Of Route-Specific Systemic Toxicity And Hazard Classifications Under The Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of Chemicals (Ghs), Nigel P. Moore, David J. Andrew, Donald L. Bjerke, Stuart Creton, David Dreher, Thomas Holmes, Pilar Prieto, Troy Seidle, Tim G. Rowan 2013 Dow Europe GmbH

Can Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Tests Be Replaced With Oral Tests? A Comparison Of Route-Specific Systemic Toxicity And Hazard Classifications Under The Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of Chemicals (Ghs), Nigel P. Moore, David J. Andrew, Donald L. Bjerke, Stuart Creton, David Dreher, Thomas Holmes, Pilar Prieto, Troy Seidle, Tim G. Rowan

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

Acute systemic toxicity data (LD50 values) and hazard classifications derived in the rat following oral administration and dermal application have been analysed to examine whether or not orally-derived hazard classification or LD50 values can be used to determine dermal hazard classification. Comparing the oral and dermal classifications for 335 substances derived from oral and dermal LD50 values respectively revealed 17% concordance, and indicated that 7% of substances would be classified less severely while 76% would be classified more severely if oral classifications were applied directly to the dermal route. In contrast, applying the oral LD50 values within the dermal classification ...


Late Developing Mammary Tumors And Hyperplasia Induced By A Low-Oncogenic Variant Of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (Mmtv) Express Genes Identical To Those Induced By Canonical Mmtv, Robert D. Bruno 2013 Old Dominion University

Late Developing Mammary Tumors And Hyperplasia Induced By A Low-Oncogenic Variant Of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (Mmtv) Express Genes Identical To Those Induced By Canonical Mmtv, Robert D. Bruno

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: The canonical milk-transmitted mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) of C3H mice (C3H-MMTV) rapidly induces tumors in 90% of infected animals by 8 months of age. Pro-viral insertions of C3H-MMTV into genomic DNA results in the overexpression of common core insertion site (CIS) genes, including Wnt1/10b, Rspo2, and Fgf3. Conversely, infection by either the endogenous Mtv-1 virus (in C3Hf) or the exogenous nodule-inducing virus (NIV) (in Balb/c NIV) induces premalignant mammary lesions and tumors with reduced incidence and longer latency than C3H-MMTV. Here, we asked whether Mtv-1/NIV affected the expression of core CIS genes.

Findings: We confirmed ...


Embryonic Stem Cells Are Redirected To Non-Tumorigenic Epithelial Cell Fate By Interaction With The Mammary Microenvironment, Corinne A. Boulanger, Robert D. Bruno, David L. Mack, Monica Gonzales, Nadia P. Castro, David S. Salomon, Gilbert H. Smith 2013 Old Dominion University

Embryonic Stem Cells Are Redirected To Non-Tumorigenic Epithelial Cell Fate By Interaction With The Mammary Microenvironment, Corinne A. Boulanger, Robert D. Bruno, David L. Mack, Monica Gonzales, Nadia P. Castro, David S. Salomon, Gilbert H. Smith

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Experiments were conducted to redirect mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) cells from a tumorigenic phenotype to a normal mammary epithelial phenotype in vivo. Mixing LacZ-labeled ES cells with normal mouse mammary epithelial cells at ratios of 1:5 and 1:50 in phosphate buffered saline and immediately inoculating them into epithelium-divested mammary fat pads of immune-compromised mice accomplished this. Our results indicate that tumorigenesis occurs only when normal mammary ductal growth is not achieved in the inoculated fat pads. When normal mammary gland growth occurs, we find ES cells (LacZ+) progeny interspersed with normal mammary cell progeny in the mammary epithelial ...


Phylogenetic Search Through Partial Tree Mixing., Kenneth Sundberg, Mark Clement, Quinn Snell, Dan Ventura, Michael Whiting, Keith Crandall 2012 George Washington University

Phylogenetic Search Through Partial Tree Mixing., Kenneth Sundberg, Mark Clement, Quinn Snell, Dan Ventura, Michael Whiting, Keith Crandall

Computational Biology Institute

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in sequencing technology have created large data sets upon which phylogenetic inference can be performed. Current research is limited by the prohibitive time necessary to perform tree search on a reasonable number of individuals. This research develops new phylogenetic algorithms that can operate on tens of thousands of species in a reasonable amount of time through several innovative search techniques.

RESULTS: When compared to popular phylogenetic search algorithms, better trees are found much more quickly for large data sets. These algorithms are incorporated in the PSODA application available at http://dna.cs.byu.edu/psoda

CONCLUSIONS: The ...


Establishing A Mouse Model For The Study Of Podocyte Regeneration After Injury, John A. Gomez 2012 Ouachita Baptist University

Establishing A Mouse Model For The Study Of Podocyte Regeneration After Injury, John A. Gomez

Honors Theses

Podocytes are vital, specialized kidney cells that are post-mitotic and cannot proliferate. Nevertheless, regeneration of podocytes after low-level ablation from a presently unidentified stem cell pool has been observed. The objective of this study was to establish a mouse model for the study of this regeneration process. Two transgenic mice were developed, the first of which possessed a tomato-reporter transgene for the assessment of podocyte turnover. Adriamycin was used to induce podocyte damage in this mouse. The second transgenic mouse possessed the tomato-reporter transgene as well as transgene allowing for the diphtheria toxin inducible (iDTR) ablation of podocytes. Dosage tests ...


Testing Phylogenetic Hypotheses Of The Subgenera Of The Freshwater Crayfish Genus Cambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae)., Jesse W Breinholt, Megan L Porter, Keith A Crandall 2012 George Washington University

Testing Phylogenetic Hypotheses Of The Subgenera Of The Freshwater Crayfish Genus Cambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae)., Jesse W Breinholt, Megan L Porter, Keith A Crandall

Computational Biology Institute

BACKGROUND: The genus Cambarus is one of three most species rich crayfish genera in the Northern Hemisphere. The genus has its center of diversity in the Southern Appalachians of the United States and has been divided into 12 subgenera. Using Cambarus we test the correspondence of subgeneric designations based on morphology used in traditional crayfish taxonomy to the underlying evolutionary history for these crayfish. We further test for significant correlation and explanatory power of geographic distance, taxonomic model, and a habitat model to estimated phylogenetic distance with multiple variable regression.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use three mitochondrial and one nuclear ...


Pursuing Medawar’S Challenge For Full Replacement, Martin Stephens 2012 The Humane Society of the United States

Pursuing Medawar’S Challenge For Full Replacement, Martin Stephens

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

In 1969, Nobel Prize-winning scientist Peter Medawar predicted that scientific innovation would someday fully replace the use of animals in biomedical research. Medawar correctly forecast the leveling off and subsequent decline in animal use in the last quarter of the 20th century – a period of remarkable innovation in the life sciences. A 2007 report by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century, proposed a strategy that is likely to replace all routine animal use in toxicology with innovative methods within one to two decades. Replacing animal use throughout biomedical research is more challenging given ...


Harnessing Opportunities In Non-Animal Asthma Research For A 21st-Century Science, Gemma L. Buckland 2011 Humane Society International

Harnessing Opportunities In Non-Animal Asthma Research For A 21st-Century Science, Gemma L. Buckland

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

The incidence of asthma is on the increase and calls for research are growing, yet asthma is a disease that scientists are still trying to come to grips with. Asthma research has relied heavily on animal use; however, in light of increasingly robust in vitro and computational models and the need to more fully incorporate the ‘Three Rs’ principles of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, is it time to reassess the asthma research paradigm? Progress in non-animal research techniques is reaching a level where commitment and integration are necessary. Many scientists believe that progress in this field rests on linking disciplines ...


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