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Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque 2020 University of Mississippi

Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque

Honors Theses

Exposure to cannabinoids during critical development periods has increased with epileptic children being commonly prescribed CBD for seizures and pregnant women taking it recreationally. Many studies have been done on the possible benefits and drawbacks of cannabinoid exposure on the human brain, but not much is known about how it can affect the developing brain long-term. To see the potential adverse effects of cannabinoid exposure during critical stages of development and discover potential developmental origins of disease in consuming cannabinoids during embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos (6-96 hours post fertilization) were exposed to varying concentrations of CBD (0.02, 0.1, 0 ...


The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith 2020 University of Mississippi

The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith

Honors Theses

Numerous studies have examined relationships between adrenal glucocorticoids and the immune system’s ability to fight disease. The relationship can vary, with glucocorticoids having either stimulatory or inhibitory effects. The pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) elicits an adaptive immune response in birds, in which B cells produce MG-specific antibodies to fight the infection and prevent reoccurrence. Previous research found that Eastern Bluebirds that produce the most antibodies in response to MG infection also have the highest glucocorticoid levels. This finding led to the current study investigating whether corticosterone, the primary glucocorticoid in birds, stimulates production of antibodies in response to ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham 2020 William & Mary

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels 2020 University of Wisconsin-Madison

A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels

Faculty Journal Articles

Premise

The ability to sequence genome‐scale data from herbarium specimens would allow for the economical development of data sets with broad taxonomic and geographic sampling that would otherwise not be possible. Here, we evaluate the utility of a basic double‐digest restriction site–associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol using DNAs from four genera extracted from both silica‐dried and herbarium tissue.

Methods

DNAs from Draba, Boechera, Solidago, and Ilex were processed with a ddRADseq protocol. The effects of DNA degradation, taxon, and specimen age were assessed.

Results

Although taxon, preservation method, and specimen age affected data recovery, large phylogenetically ...


Don't You Know That You're Toxic?, Mumina Mohamud 2020 Concordia University, St. Paul

Don't You Know That You're Toxic?, Mumina Mohamud

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

The excitatory effects of superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus on the immune system.


Patterns Of Avian Net Avoidance, Kate Noah 2020 Georgia College & State University

Patterns Of Avian Net Avoidance, Kate Noah

Georgia College Student Research Events

Mist netting is the most popular field technique used to estimate avian species abundance. It can, however, provide a biased estimate of species abundance as not all birds are equally likely to be captured. This is partially due to net avoidance, the purposeful evasion of mist nets by birds. Net avoidance depends on several factors, including species, net conditions such as light exposure, and environmental conditions such as cloud cover. The purpose of this research is to explore which factors contribute to net avoidance at the bird banding station located at Panola Mountain State Park in Stockbridge, Georgia. I placed ...


Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid 2020 Chapman University

Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Gout is a chronic arthritis caused by the deposition of poorly soluble monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in peripheral joints. Resident macrophages initiate inflammation in response to MSU mediated by NF-κB nuclear translocation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We investigated the role of CD44, a transmembrane receptor, in mediating MSU phagocytosis by macrophages. We used an antibody that sheds the extracellular domain (ECD) of CD44 to study the role of the receptor and its associated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in macrophage activation. We also studied the significance of CD44 in mediating MSU inflammation in-vivo. Cd44−/− BMDMs showed reduced MSU phagocytosis, LDH ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


The Impact Of Nicotine Accumulation Exposure On Lithobates Catebeianus Larvae Mortality, Luke Micek 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Impact Of Nicotine Accumulation Exposure On Lithobates Catebeianus Larvae Mortality, Luke Micek

UCARE Research Products

Cigarette butts are the most littered item in the world and contain over 4,000 chemicals, including the organic compound nicotine (Slaughter et al. 2011). Billions of cigarette butts are littered each year which may wash into bodies of water, impacting the local wildlife. To determine how introduced chemicals impact the environment, it is important to study its effects on indicator species. Amphibians, such as Lithobates catebeianus, act as indicator species due to their extreme sensitivity to chemical changes in its environment. The purpose of this research project was to obtain data to help determine the impact nicotine accumulation has ...


Content And Performance Of The Minimuga Genotyping Array, A New Tool To Improve Rigor And Reproducibility In Mouse Research, John Sebastian Sigmon, Christopher M. Sassetti, Martin T. Ferris, Leonard McMillan, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena 2020 University of North Carolina

Content And Performance Of The Minimuga Genotyping Array, A New Tool To Improve Rigor And Reproducibility In Mouse Research, John Sebastian Sigmon, Christopher M. Sassetti, Martin T. Ferris, Leonard Mcmillan, Fernando Pardo-Manuel De Villena

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The laboratory mouse is the most widely used animal model for biomedical research, due in part to its well annotated genome, wealth of genetic resources and the ability to precisely manipulate its genome. Despite the importance of genetics for mouse research, genetic quality control (QC) is not standardized, in part due to the lack of cost effective, informative and robust platforms. Genotyping arrays are standard tools for mouse research and remain an attractive alternative even in the era of high-throughput whole genome sequencing. Here we describe the content and performance of a new Mouse Universal Genotyping Array (MUGA). MiniMUGA, an ...


Canine Models Of Inherited Musculoskeletal And Neurodegenerative Diseases, Brett D. Story, Matthew E. Miller, Allison M. Bradbury, Emily D. Million, Dongsheng Duan, Toloo Taghian, Dominik Faissler, Deborah Fernau, Sidney J. Beecy, Heather Gray-Edwards 2020 Auburn University

Canine Models Of Inherited Musculoskeletal And Neurodegenerative Diseases, Brett D. Story, Matthew E. Miller, Allison M. Bradbury, Emily D. Million, Dongsheng Duan, Toloo Taghian, Dominik Faissler, Deborah Fernau, Sidney J. Beecy, Heather Gray-Edwards

Open Access Articles

Mouse models of human disease remain the bread and butter of modern biology and therapeutic discovery. Nonetheless, more often than not mouse models do not reproduce the pathophysiology of the human conditions they are designed to mimic. Naturally occurring large animal models have predominantly been found in companion animals or livestock because of their emotional or economic value to modern society and, unlike mice, often recapitulate the human disease state. In particular, numerous models have been discovered in dogs and have a fundamental role in bridging proof of concept studies in mice to human clinical trials. The present article is ...


Activation Of The Sonic Hedgehog Effector Smoothened Counteracts L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia By Restoring Cholinergic Interneuron Function, Lauren Malave 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Activation Of The Sonic Hedgehog Effector Smoothened Counteracts L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia By Restoring Cholinergic Interneuron Function, Lauren Malave

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Many types of neurons act as multimodal signaling centers. Yet, we have only limited insight into the regulation and functional consequences of neuronal co-transmission. For example, dopamine (DA) neurons, whose degeneration causes motor deficits characteristic of Parkinson’s Diseases (PD), communicate with all their targets by DA but only a selective subset of their targets using GABA, Glutamate, and the secreted cell signaling protein Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). It is unknown whether Levo-dopamine (L-Dopa) induced dyskinesia (LIDs), a severely debilitating side effect of DA supplementation in PD, might appear because DA neuron targets are exposed to high DA- but low Shh- ...


A Review Of The Scientific Rigor, Reproducibility, And Transparency Studies Conducted By The Abrf Research Groups., Sheenah M Mische, Nancy C Fisher, Susan M Meyn, Katia Sol Church, Rebecca L Hegstad-Davies, Frances Weis-Garcia, Marie Adams, John M Ashton, Kym M Delventhal, Julie A Dragon, Laura Holmes, Pratik Jagtap, Christopher E Mason, Magnus Palmblad, Brian C Searle, Christoph W Turck, Kevin L Knudtson 2020 Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington, USA.

A Review Of The Scientific Rigor, Reproducibility, And Transparency Studies Conducted By The Abrf Research Groups., Sheenah M Mische, Nancy C Fisher, Susan M Meyn, Katia Sol Church, Rebecca L Hegstad-Davies, Frances Weis-Garcia, Marie Adams, John M Ashton, Kym M Delventhal, Julie A Dragon, Laura Holmes, Pratik Jagtap, Christopher E Mason, Magnus Palmblad, Brian C Searle, Christoph W Turck, Kevin L Knudtson

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Shared research resource facilities, also known as core laboratories (Cores), are responsible for generating a significant and growing portion of the research data in academic biomedical research institutions. Cores represent a central repository for institutional knowledge management, with deep expertise in the strengths and limitations of technology and its applications. They inherently support transparency and scientific reproducibility by protecting against cognitive bias in research design and data analysis, and thedy have institutional responsibility for the conduct of research (research ethics, regulatory compliance, and financial accountability) performed in their Cores. The Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) is a FASEB-member scientific ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


Optimizing Animal Welfare In Commercial Laying Hens Through Novel Management Practices And Farm Manager Evaluation, John R. Brunnquell 2020 University of Kentucky

Optimizing Animal Welfare In Commercial Laying Hens Through Novel Management Practices And Farm Manager Evaluation, John R. Brunnquell

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The commercial production of pasture and free-range eggs in the United States is expanding rapidly. According to the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Management Assistance, in May of 2019 there were 2.6M pasture hens and 4.5M free-range hens representing 1.9% of the nation’s laying flock. There is little industry and/or academic experience with this style of production in the United States. Programs such as the European Layer Training Initiative (ELTI), which emerged in 2019, have tried to fill this void but participation from the US was low. The principal sources for guidance of commercial ...


Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley 2020 U.S. Geological Survey

Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

This study utilized native chaparral and sage scrub shrubs to evaluate the impact of light summer irrigation on live fuel moisture content (LFMC) and predicted fire behavior. As to be expected LFMC varied markedly throughout the year being over 100% in winter in all species and treatments but differed markedly by treatment in the summer and fall. For most species lightly irrigated plants had the highest LFMC in the summer and fall, followed by thinned treatments and controls. These differences in moisture content coupled with structural differences in the vegetation contributed to expected differences in flame length and rate of ...


Covers, 2020 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


Mitigation Ponds Offer Drought Resiliency For Western Spadefoot (Spea Hammondii) Populations, Katherine L. Baumberger, Adam R. Backlin, Elizabeth A. Gallegos, Cynthia J. Hitchcock, Robert Fisher 2020 US Geological Survey

Mitigation Ponds Offer Drought Resiliency For Western Spadefoot (Spea Hammondii) Populations, Katherine L. Baumberger, Adam R. Backlin, Elizabeth A. Gallegos, Cynthia J. Hitchcock, Robert Fisher

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Synergistic effects of habitat loss, drought, and climate change exacerbate amphibian declines. In southern California urbanization continues to convert natural habitat, while prolonged drought reduces surface water availability. Protection of biodiversity may be provided through mitigation; however, the long-term effectiveness of different strategies is often unreported. As a mitigation measure for building a new development within occupied Spea hammondii (western spadefoot) habitat in Orange County, California, artificial breeding pools were constructed at two off-site locations. Spea hammondii tadpoles were translocated from the pools at the development site to two off-site locations in 2005–2006. We conducted surveys a decade later ...


Connectivity Differences Between Gulf War Illness (Gwi) Phenotypes During A Test Of Attention, Tomas Clarke, Jessie Jamieson, Patrick Malone, Rakib U. Rayhan, Stuart Washington, John W. VanMeter, James N. Baraniuk 2019 Georgetown University

Connectivity Differences Between Gulf War Illness (Gwi) Phenotypes During A Test Of Attention, Tomas Clarke, Jessie Jamieson, Patrick Malone, Rakib U. Rayhan, Stuart Washington, John W. Vanmeter, James N. Baraniuk

Faculty Publications, Department of Mathematics

One quarter of veterans returning from the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War have developed Gulf War Illness (GWI) with chronic pain, fatigue, cognitive and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Exertion leads to characteristic, delayed onset exacerbations that are not relieved by sleep. We have modeled exertional exhaustion by comparing magnetic resonance images from before and after submaximal exercise. One third of the 27 GWI participants had brain stem atrophy and developed postural tachycardia after exercise (START: Stress Test Activated Reversible Tachycardia). The remainder activated basal ganglia and anterior insulae during a cognitive task (STOPP: Stress Test Originated Phantom Perception). Here, the role of ...


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