Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

32,901 Full-Text Articles 63,528 Authors 6,100,951 Downloads 337 Institutions

All Articles in Biology

Faceted Search

32,901 full-text articles. Page 1 of 1124.

Context And Content Of Teaching Conversations: Exploring How To Promote Sharing Of Innovative Teaching Knowledge Between Science Faculty, A. Kelly Lane, Brittnee Earl, Stephanie Feola, Jennifer E. Lewis, Jacob D. McAlpin, Karl Mertens, Susan E. Shadle, John Skvoretz, John P. Ziker, Marilyne Stains, Brian A. Couch, Luanna B Prevost 2022 University of Minnesota Twin Cities

Context And Content Of Teaching Conversations: Exploring How To Promote Sharing Of Innovative Teaching Knowledge Between Science Faculty, A. Kelly Lane, Brittnee Earl, Stephanie Feola, Jennifer E. Lewis, Jacob D. Mcalpin, Karl Mertens, Susan E. Shadle, John Skvoretz, John P. Ziker, Marilyne Stains, Brian A. Couch, Luanna B Prevost

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Background: Change strategies may leverage interpersonal relationships and conversations to spread teaching innovations among science faculty. Knowledge sharing refers to the process by which individuals transfer information and thereby spread innovative ideas within an organization. We use knowledge sharing as a lens for identifying factors that encourage productive teaching-related conversations between individuals, characterizing the context and content of these discussions, and understanding how peer interactions may shape instructional practices. In this study, we interview 19 science faculty using innovative teaching practices about the teaching-focused conversations they have with different discussion partners. Results: This qualitative study describes characteristics of the relationship ...


Late Quaternary Biotic Homogenization Of North American Mammalian Faunas, Danielle Fraser, Amelia Villaseñor, Anikó B. Tóth, Meghan A. Balk, Jussi T. Eronen, W. Andrew Barr, A. K. Behrensmeyer, Matt Davis, Andrew Du, J. Tyler Faith, Gary R. Graves, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Advait M. Jukar, Cindy V. Looy, Brian J. McGill, Joshua H. Miller, Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Richard Potts, Alex B. Shupinski, Laura C. Soul, S. Kathleen Lyons 2022 Museé canadien de la nature

Late Quaternary Biotic Homogenization Of North American Mammalian Faunas, Danielle Fraser, Amelia Villaseñor, Anikó B. Tóth, Meghan A. Balk, Jussi T. Eronen, W. Andrew Barr, A. K. Behrensmeyer, Matt Davis, Andrew Du, J. Tyler Faith, Gary R. Graves, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Advait M. Jukar, Cindy V. Looy, Brian J. Mcgill, Joshua H. Miller, Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Richard Potts, Alex B. Shupinski, Laura C. Soul, S. Kathleen Lyons

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Biotic homogenization—increasing similarity of species composition among ecological communities—has been linked to anthropogenic processes operating over the last century. Fossil evidence, however, suggests that humans have had impacts on ecosystems for millennia. We quantify biotic homogenization of North American mammalian assemblages during the late Pleistocene through Holocene (~30,000 ybp to recent), a timespan encompassing increased evidence of humans on the landscape (~20,000–14,000 ybp). From ~10,000 ybp to recent, assemblages became significantly more homogenous (>100% increase in Jaccard similarity), a pattern that cannot be explained by changes in fossil record sampling. Homogenization was most ...


Avian Species Distribution Models: Using Location Data To Inform Management Decisions, Marilyn E. Wright 2022 Utah State University

Avian Species Distribution Models: Using Location Data To Inform Management Decisions, Marilyn E. Wright

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Both state and federal wildlife agencies strive to conserve and protect wildlife and their habitats as an important public resource. Applied management decisions often rely on being able to obtain data that can efficiently and effectively enhance the understanding of these systems for informing management actions. Wildlife managers often focus efforts on a small subset of species from an ecosystem, typically called focal species, who can serve as surrogates for understanding the health and function of the system. Models that consider how these focal species interact with the ecosystem are often used to better understand important aspects of their life ...


Bugs, Bullets And Birds: Factors Affecting The Health And Survival Of Ferruginous Hawk Nestlings In The Intermountain West, Ellis A. Juhlin 2022 Utah State University

Bugs, Bullets And Birds: Factors Affecting The Health And Survival Of Ferruginous Hawk Nestlings In The Intermountain West, Ellis A. Juhlin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ferruginous Hawks are a bird of prey species that nest in sagebrush steppe and grassland habitat. These birds are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation from urbanization, rural development, oil and natural gas extraction, habitat treatment projects, and wildfires, and experiencing widespread population declines across their breeding range. Because of this, Ferruginous Hawks (FEHAs) have been deemed a Species of Greatest Conservation Need by state management agencies in Utah, Idaho, Wyoming and Nevada. The health and survival of Ferruginous Hawk (FEHA) nestlings is crucial to long-term population viability. Understanding the threats these birds are facing as nestlings can provide valuable ...


Removal Of Heavy Metals From Stormwater Runoff Using Granulated Drinking Water Treatment Residuals, Viravid Na Nagara, Dibyendu Sarkar, Evert J. Elzinga, Rupali Datta 2022 Stevens Institute of Technology

Removal Of Heavy Metals From Stormwater Runoff Using Granulated Drinking Water Treatment Residuals, Viravid Na Nagara, Dibyendu Sarkar, Evert J. Elzinga, Rupali Datta

Michigan Tech Publications

Stormwater runoff is a significant source of heavy metals, including cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni), which pose ecological and human health problems. Various filter media have been evaluated for heavy metal removal from stormwater via adsorption, most involving chemical- or energy-intensive processes. Aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (WTR), a non-hazardous byproduct of drinking water treatment, are an inexpensive sorbent for heavy metals. However, the low permeability of WTR is a problem and requires mixing with sand and carbon materials to improve flow; but such amendments also reduce its sorption capacity. To overcome this problem, a granulated WTR sorbent ...


Speciation Jigsaw Activity, Erika Crispo 2022 Pace University

Speciation Jigsaw Activity, Erika Crispo

Open Educational Resources

What is a species? Why are there so many species on the planet? The question of why we have different species of organisms was the key thesis of Charles Darwin’s most famous book, On the Origin of Species.While several definitions of what constitutes a species exists, the most common definition lies within thebiological species concept. This concept states that different species exist when two individuals of different sexes are unable to reproduce with one another to yield viable offspring in the wild. A major limitation of this definition is that it can only be applied to sexually reproducing ...


The Coastal Monitor: Vol. 9 No. 5, John Tanacredi Ph.D. 2022 Molloy University

The Coastal Monitor: Vol. 9 No. 5, John Tanacredi Ph.D.

The Coastal Monitor

There are a multitude of lessons learned from the last 3 years of the Covid-19 pandemic. But one truly stands out ...the total lack of understanding of the basic chemistry associated with the nitrogen cycle, which in Suffolk County, NY, continues to be declared as the “evil-nitrogen”. The major source of nitrogen into the water body comes from the atmosphere which is the predominate constituent of the air we breathe79% nitrogen. Nitrogen compounds contribution to eutrophication in freshwater (ponds & lakes) systems is legendary and, the concentration of nitrogen in marine waters has always been known as a limiting agent which are absolutely required elements in small amounts. No nitrogen, no primary productivity. So, historically, at least up to the 1970’s and the Clean Water Act, nitrogen contributions to any water system has been attributable to human “sanitary” waste. Large populations require for adequate treatment, sewage systems that involve primary, secondary, and sometimes tertiary treatment along with the use of chlorine to make sure, as best as is chemically possible, the elimination of pathogenic organisms that cause disease. Thus, in the US, there is no concern with cholera, typhoid, and typhus; all significant bacterial diseases that converge in wastewater treatment systems and arise primarily where wastewaters are left untreated!


Targeting Of The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway In Cancer Treatment, Andrew J. Hawes 2022 University of Louisville

Targeting Of The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway In Cancer Treatment, Andrew J. Hawes

The Cardinal Edge

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a developmental pathway that is highly conserved evolutionarily. While typically only displaying high activity during embryogenesis, overactivation of the Hh pathway in adults has been linked to multiple forms of cancer including acute myeloid leukemia, myelofibrosis, basal-cell carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adrenal carcinoma, and triple negative breast cancer. The prevalence of Hh activation in many different cancers has made it a prime target for inhibition of these cancers through novel therapies. This literature review sought to assess the current state of cancer treatment through inhibition of Hh signaling. Most current clinical trials involving the pathway ...


Visualizing Hormonal Effects On Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophic Growth Dynamics Using Digital Holographic Microscopy: Does Size Matter?, Jacquelyn Simmons 2022 San Jose State University

Visualizing Hormonal Effects On Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophic Growth Dynamics Using Digital Holographic Microscopy: Does Size Matter?, Jacquelyn Simmons

McNair Research Journal SJSU

Heart disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the United States. Humans are unable to regenerate their heart tissue following an injury. However, neonatal mice are able to regenerate their heart tissue when cardiomyocytes (CMs) proliferate. This regenerative ability is lost approximately one week after birth when proliferating mononucleated CMs become binucleated and can no longer complete the cell-cycle. Recent studies have shown the combined inhibition of thyroid hormone (T3) and norepinephrine (NE) increases CM proliferation, promotes heart regeneration, and reduces cell size in vivo. Using digital holographic microscopy, the aim of this study was to (1 ...


Characterizing First-Year Biology Majors’ Motivations And Perceptions Of The Discipline, Jeremy L. Hsu, Lauren Dudley 2022 Chapman University

Characterizing First-Year Biology Majors’ Motivations And Perceptions Of The Discipline, Jeremy L. Hsu, Lauren Dudley

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding why students choose to major in biology provides important insight into the motivations of biology majors. It is similarly important to investigate how biology majors perceive the discipline, including associated activities, such as independent research, which can influence students’ interests in the field and likelihood to persist in science, engineering, technology, and math. However, there has been little work done examining biology student motivations and perceptions, particularly at non-research-intensive universities or after the COVID-19 pandemic started. To address this gap, we surveyed the first-year cohort of biology majors at a private, comprehensive university. We found that students largely reported ...


Development Of The Seqcode: A Proposed Nomenclatural Code For Uncultivated Prokaryotes With Dna Sequences As Type, William Whitman, Maria Chuvochina, Brian P. Hedlund, Philip Hugenholtz, Konstantinos T. Konstantinidis, Alison E. Murray, Marike Palmer, Donovan H. Parks, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, multiple additional authors 2022 University of Georgia

Development Of The Seqcode: A Proposed Nomenclatural Code For Uncultivated Prokaryotes With Dna Sequences As Type, William Whitman, Maria Chuvochina, Brian P. Hedlund, Philip Hugenholtz, Konstantinos T. Konstantinidis, Alison E. Murray, Marike Palmer, Donovan H. Parks, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Multiple Additional Authors

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Over the last fifteen years, genomics has become fully integrated into prokaryotic systematics. The genomes of most type strains have been sequenced, genome sequence similarity is widely used for delineation of species, and phylogenomic methods are commonly used for classification of higher taxonomic ranks. Additionally, environmental genomics has revealed a vast diversity of as-yet-uncultivated taxa. In response to these developments, a new code of nomenclature, the Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes Described from Sequence Data (SeqCode), has been developed over the last two years to allow naming of Archaea and Bacteria using DNA sequences as the nomenclatural types. The SeqCode ...


Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a family of 60 adhesion-like molecules forming a neural barcode. In vertebrate neurons, 60 Pcdhs are coded by a large gene cluster. Numerous axons in the cluster are coding for the different extracellular, transmembrane, variable portion of the cytoplasmic and constant cytoplasmic domains where their expression is controlled epigenetically. These proteins mediate interactions between axons, dendrites, and glial cells during neural development. Yet, Pcdhs are not strictly adhesion molecules. In the amacrine cells of the retina, Pcdhs promote avoidance of the same cell dendrites, where in the cortex Pcdhs promote interactions between dendrites and astrocytes. In ...


Gamma Protocadherin Synaptic Localization And Intracellular Trafficking Is Consistent With Distinct Adhesive And Anti-Adhesive Roles In Development, Nicole LaMassa 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Gamma Protocadherin Synaptic Localization And Intracellular Trafficking Is Consistent With Distinct Adhesive And Anti-Adhesive Roles In Development, Nicole Lamassa

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) constitute a family of cell adhesion molecules with approximately 60 Pcdh genes clustered in a 1 MB locus on chromosome 5q31 in humans. The Pcdh gene cluster is subdivided into α, β, and γ subclusters which encode related proteins. Individual neurons activate different subsets of Pcdh-α, Pcdh-β and Pcdh-γ genes by epigenetic mechanisms to generate distinct Pcdh adhesive units expressed by each neuron. This is thought to serve as a “surface barcode” for single-cell identity and synaptic recognition in the nervous system. The actual role for Pcdhs in neural development is still relatively unknown and different roles ...


The Utilization Of Crispr/Cas9 In Monogenic Disorders Authors, Shauna M. Mellor 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Utilization Of Crispr/Cas9 In Monogenic Disorders Authors, Shauna M. Mellor

Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal

This paper is a literature review of various scientific research papers, exploring the recent scientific advancement in the field of genetic engineering. The research presented is a foundational tool, building awareness on the implications of CRISPR/ Cas9 technology. CRISPR/ Cas9 was first discovered through the study of bacterial immune systems, fighting against viral infections. Manipulation of the Cas9 protein would eventually lead to target specific, gene-altering medicines for human organisms. CRISPR/ Cas 9 technology has begun to show promise as an effective treatment for certain monogenic disorders. Despite this, time is required before its efficacy as a proven genetic treatment ...


Flexibility Vs Consistency: Quantifying Differences In Neuromodulatory Elicited Patterns Of Activity, Elizabeth M. Cronin 2022 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Flexibility Vs Consistency: Quantifying Differences In Neuromodulatory Elicited Patterns Of Activity, Elizabeth M. Cronin

Dissertations

Central pattern generating circuits underly fundamental behaviors such as respiration or locomotion and are under the influence of neuromodulators. The presence of neuromodulators is thought to confer flexibility to these circuits to generate distinct patterns of activity to meet distinct behavioral needs. Network output flexibility can be achieved by distinct classes of neuromodulators, those which have convergent cellular actions but divergent circuit actions or by those which have divergent cellular actions but convergent circuit actions.

Both classes of neuromodulator exist in the stomatogastric nervous system of the crab Cancer borealis and influence the activity of a central pattern generating circuit ...


Brainless But Smart: Investigating Cognitive-Like Behaviors In The Acellular Slime Mold Physarum Polycephalum, Subash Kusum Ray 2022 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Brainless But Smart: Investigating Cognitive-Like Behaviors In The Acellular Slime Mold Physarum Polycephalum, Subash Kusum Ray

Dissertations

Evolutionary pressures to improve fitness, have enabled living systems to make adaptive decisions when faced with heterogeneous and changing environmental and physiological conditions. This dissertation investigated the mechanisms of how environmental and physiological factors affect the behaviors of non-neuronal organisms. The acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum was used as the model organism, which is a macroscopic, unicellular organism, that self-organizes into a network of intersecting tubules. Without using neurons, P. polycephalum can solve labyrinth mazes, build efficient tubule networks, and make adaptive decisions when faced with complicated trade-offs, such as between food quality and risk, speed and accuracy, and exploration ...


Intracellular Hemin Is A Potent Inhibitor Of The Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Kv10.1, Nirakar Sahoo, Kefan Yang, Alisa Bernert, Sandip M. Swain, Guido Gessner, Reinhard Kappl, Toni Kühl, Diana Imhof, Toshinori Hoshi, Roland Schönherr, Stefan H. Heinemann 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Intracellular Hemin Is A Potent Inhibitor Of The Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Kv10.1, Nirakar Sahoo, Kefan Yang, Alisa Bernert, Sandip M. Swain, Guido Gessner, Reinhard Kappl, Toni Kühl, Diana Imhof, Toshinori Hoshi, Roland Schönherr, Stefan H. Heinemann

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Heme, an iron-protoporphyrin IX complex, is a cofactor bound to various hemoproteins and supports a broad range of functions, such as electron transfer, oxygen transport, signal transduction, and drug metabolism. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of heme as a non-genomic modulator of ion channel functions. Here, we show that intracellular free heme and hemin modulate human ether à go-go (hEAG1, Kv10.1) voltage-gated potassium channels. Application of hemin to the intracellular side potently inhibits Kv10.1 channels with an IC50 of about 4 nM under ambient and 63 nM under reducing conditions in a weakly ...


Role Of Nucleobindin-2/Nesfatin-1 In The Regulation Of Energetic Status And Maternal Mouthbrooding In The Cichlid Fish, Astatotilapia Burtoni, Saachi Chugh 2022 Louisiana State University

Role Of Nucleobindin-2/Nesfatin-1 In The Regulation Of Energetic Status And Maternal Mouthbrooding In The Cichlid Fish, Astatotilapia Burtoni, Saachi Chugh

LSU Master's Theses

Feeding and energetics are fundamental processes in all species that must also be balanced with reproductive investment. The peptide hormone nesfatin-1 is encoded by the nucleobindin-2(nucb2) gene and has recently emerged as a key player involved in both feeding and reproduction across vertebrates. How nesfatin-1 might help regulate trade-offs between feeding and reproduction, however, are relatively unexplored. The female cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoniis an ideal system to examine the role of nesfatin-1 in regulating metabolic and reproductive functions because this species cycles between a gravid feeding state while preparing to mate, followed by a forced starvation state while ...


Understanding The Effects Of Phthalate Exposure, Karen Orenshteyn 2022 Lynn University

Understanding The Effects Of Phthalate Exposure, Karen Orenshteyn

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, Capstones, and Portfolios

Phthalates are found in nearly all everyday products; therefore, human exposure is inevitable. Phthalates are groups of chemicals classified as plasticizers that help increase the durability and shelf life of whatever product they are put into. The effects of phthalates can occur prenatally and throughout adulthood. Despite phthalates being understood to be endocrine disruptors, chemicals that block hormones and certain receptors, phthalate use within plastics is increasing every year- raising concern to find different alternatives. This research analysis will aim to define and explain what phthalates are and where they are found along with the harmful effects that occur due ...


Analysis Of Sanitizer Rotation On The Susceptibility, Biofilm Forming Ability And Caco-2 Cell Adhesion And Invasion Of Listeria, Md Asfakur Rahman, Nirakar Sahoo, Veerachandra K. Yemmireddy 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Analysis Of Sanitizer Rotation On The Susceptibility, Biofilm Forming Ability And Caco-2 Cell Adhesion And Invasion Of Listeria, Md Asfakur Rahman, Nirakar Sahoo, Veerachandra K. Yemmireddy

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sanitizer use conditions on the susceptibility, biofilm forming ability and pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes. Two different strains of L. monocytogenes and a non-pathogenic L. innocua were exposed to sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride and peroxyacetic acid at different concentrations (4 to 512 ppm) and treatment times (30 s to 5 min), respectively. Under the tested conditions, no significant difference (p > 0.05) in reduction was observed among the three tested sanitizers. A reduction of 1 to 8 log CFU/mL was observed depending upon the sanitizer concentration and treatment times ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress