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Community Structure And Production Of The Macrobenthos On Four Artificial Reefs In The Mississippi Sound In Relation To Substrate And Profile Type, Patrick Daniel Gillam 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Community Structure And Production Of The Macrobenthos On Four Artificial Reefs In The Mississippi Sound In Relation To Substrate And Profile Type, Patrick Daniel Gillam

Master's Theses

In recent years, the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources (DMR) has made a concerted effort to enhance its coastal fishery resources by creating artificial reefs. Through this effort, 73 nearshore reefs have been created across the MS coast. Different substrate types used to construct MS artificial reefs include oyster shell and cement rubble. Two types of reef architecture used include high profile breakwater and low profile submerged structures. This study compared the benthic biota associated with oyster shell and cement rubble substrates among four artificial reefs representing high and low profile structures in summer 2011. Colonized benthic biota were quantified ...


Antisense Transcription Is Pervasive But Rarely Conserved In Enteric Bacteria, Rahul Raghavan, D. B. Sloan, H. Ochman 2016 Portland State University

Antisense Transcription Is Pervasive But Rarely Conserved In Enteric Bacteria, Rahul Raghavan, D. B. Sloan, H. Ochman

Rahul Raghavan

Noncoding RNAs, including antisense RNAs (asRNAs) that originate from the complementary strand of protein-coding genes, are involved in the regulation of gene expression in all domains of life. Recent application of deep-sequencing technologies has revealed that the transcription of asRNAs occurs genome-wide in bacteria. Although the role of the vast majority of asRNAs remains unknown, it is often assumed that their presence implies important regulatory functions, similar to those of other noncoding RNAs. Alternatively, many antisense transcripts may be produced by chance transcription events from promoter-like sequences that result from the degenerate nature of bacterial transcription factor binding sites. To ...


A Selective Force Favoring Increased G+C Content In Bacterial Genes, Rahul Raghavan, Yogeshwar D. Kelkar, Howard Ochman 2016 Portland State University

A Selective Force Favoring Increased G+C Content In Bacterial Genes, Rahul Raghavan, Yogeshwar D. Kelkar, Howard Ochman

Rahul Raghavan

Bacteria display considerable variation in their overall base compositions, which range from 13% to over 75% G+C. This variation in genomic base compositions has long been considered to be a strictly neutral character, due solely to differences in the mutational process; however, recent sequence comparisons indicate that mutational input alone cannot produce the observed base compositions, implying a role for natural selection. Because bacterial genomes have high gene content, forces that operate on the base composition of individual genes could help shape the overall genomic base composition. To explore this possibility, we tested whether genes that encode the same ...


Water Quality And Fecal Coliform Levels In Georgia Oxbow Lakes Relative To Connectivity With The Savannah River, Carly B. Williams, John E. Weinstein, Claudia L. Rocha 2016 The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina

Water Quality And Fecal Coliform Levels In Georgia Oxbow Lakes Relative To Connectivity With The Savannah River, Carly B. Williams, John E. Weinstein, Claudia L. Rocha

Georgia Journal of Science

The state of Georgia has many bodies of water that provide important wildlife habitats as well as recreational opportunities. The objective of the current study was to investigate water quality and fecal coliform levels in oxbow lakes relative to their connectivity to the Savannah River. For most water quality parameters, no differences were observed between the Savannah River and the oxbow lakes. However, pH and turbidity values were lower in the oxbow lakes (both connected and disconnected) relative to the Savannah River. Fecal coliform values between connected oxbow lakes and the Savannah River were similar to each other and significantly ...


Life In The Underworld: Anchialine Cave Biology In The Era Of Speleogenomics, Jorge L. Pérez-Moreno, Thomas M. Iliffe, Heather D. Bracken-Grissom 2016 Florida International University

Life In The Underworld: Anchialine Cave Biology In The Era Of Speleogenomics, Jorge L. Pérez-Moreno, Thomas M. Iliffe, Heather D. Bracken-Grissom

International Journal of Speleology

Anchialine caves contain haline bodies of water with underground connections to the ocean and limited exposure to open air. Despite being found on islands and peninsular coastlines around the world, the isolation of anchialine systems has facilitated the evolution of high levels of endemism among their inhabitants. The unique characteristics of anchialine caves and of their predominantly crustacean biodiversity nominate them as particularly interesting study subjects for evolutionary biology. However, there is presently a distinct scarcity of modern molecular methods being employed in the study of anchialine cave ecosystems. The use of current and emerging molecular techniques, e.g., next-generation ...


Genome-Wide Compensatory Changes Accompany Drug-Selected Mutations In The Plasmodium Falciparum Crt Gene, Hongying Jiang, Jigar J. Patel, Ming Yi, Jianbing Mu, Jinhui Ding, Robert Stephens, Roland A. Cooper, Michael T. Ferdig, Xin-zhuan Su 2016 Old Dominion University

Genome-Wide Compensatory Changes Accompany Drug-Selected Mutations In The Plasmodium Falciparum Crt Gene, Hongying Jiang, Jigar J. Patel, Ming Yi, Jianbing Mu, Jinhui Ding, Robert Stephens, Roland A. Cooper, Michael T. Ferdig, Xin-Zhuan Su

Roland A. Cooper

Mutations in PfCRT (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant transporter), particularly the substitution at amino acid position 76, confer chloroquine (CQ) resistance in P. falciparum. Point mutations in the homolog of the mammalian multidrug resistance gene (pfmdr1) can also modulate the levels of CQ response. Moreover, parasites with the same pfcrt and pfmdr1 alleles exhibit a wide range of drug sensitivity, suggesting that additional genes contribute to levels of CQ resistance (CQR). Reemergence of CQ sensitive parasites after cessation of CQ use indicates that changes in PfCRT are deleterious to the parasite. Some CQR parasites, however, persist in the field and grow well ...


The Effects Of The Environmental Estrogens Cadmium And Arsenite On Phosphorylation Of Erk1/2 Via Gpr30 In Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells, Katarzyna Krauss 2016 Bellarmine University

The Effects Of The Environmental Estrogens Cadmium And Arsenite On Phosphorylation Of Erk1/2 Via Gpr30 In Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells, Katarzyna Krauss

Undergraduate Theses

Nanomolar concentrations of both cadmium and arsenite, two environmental estrogens present in cigarette smoke, have been documented in rapidly phosphorylating ERK1/2, a type of MAPK, in the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) line NHI-1793 in a manner similar to that of estrogen. Pretreatment of cells with a general, nonspecific estrogen receptor antagonist reduced the levels of phosphorylated MAPK, indicating that this phosphorylation event is achieved through use of an estrogen signaling pathway. The specific estrogen receptor involved in this process, however, is currently unknown. To determine whether GPR30, one of the three types of estrogen receptors, is necessary ...


Reclaiming Lost Territory: The Response Of Owyhee Harvester Ants To Forager Intrusions By Neighboring Colonies, Brett D. Howell, Ian C. Robertson 2016 Boise State University

Reclaiming Lost Territory: The Response Of Owyhee Harvester Ants To Forager Intrusions By Neighboring Colonies, Brett D. Howell, Ian C. Robertson

Ian C. Robertson

Neighboring colonies of the Owyhee harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex salinus, often share nonoverlapping foraging boundaries in the areas between their nests. We found that interactions between neighbors along these foraging boundaries were infrequent but peaceful, and usually resulted in one or both individuals becoming agitated and scurrying away in opposite directions. Interactions between neighbors were necessary to maintain the foraging ranges of their respective colonies. An exclusion experiment showed that when one colony of a pair situated 5-7 m apart was denied access to its foraging range, individuals from the other colony would usually (i.e., in 7 out of 10 ...


Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Antibiotic use in livestock production has been around since the 1950s. Antibiotic feed is used in livestock and other meat producing animals for three reasons: illness prevention, illness treatment, and growth promotion. Unfortunately, since the time that antibiotics were first invented, antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a threat to public health. There are many studies showing methods of transmission of antibiotic resistance from livestock to humans. Antibiotic resistance can spread from livestock to soil, water, insects, and food, which ultimately comes into contact with humans. A proposed study to measure antibiotic resistance when eliminating antibiotic feed will provide a hypothesis ...


Postembryonic Polarity Modification In The Acoel Convolutriloba Longifissura, Eric Young, James M. Sikes Ph.D. 2016 University of San Francisco

Postembryonic Polarity Modification In The Acoel Convolutriloba Longifissura, Eric Young, James M. Sikes Ph.D.

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Metazoans establish the bilateral body plan early in embryogenesis by patterning orthogonal body axes with polarity that is unaltered during the lifetime of most animals. While some organisms re-establish/modify body axes during regeneration and asexual reproduction, the acoel flatworm Convolutriloba longifissura is unusual in its ability to modify left-right (L-R) axis polarity during longitudinal fission. We have developed C. longifissura as a model for studying the mechanisms of L-R polarity modification during postembryonic development. Regeneration experiments have elucidated the temporal dynamics of midline re-specification, suggesting that parallel L-R axes replace the pre-existing midline prior to longitudinal fission. We have ...


Estimating Raptor Nesting Success: Old And New Approaches, Jessi L. Brown, Karen Steenhof, Michael N. Kochert, Laura Bond 2016 University of Nevada - Reno

Estimating Raptor Nesting Success: Old And New Approaches, Jessi L. Brown, Karen Steenhof, Michael N. Kochert, Laura Bond

Laura Bond

Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield ...


Assessing The Potential Effects Of Fungicides On Nontarget Gut Fungi (Trichomycetes) And Their Associated Larval Black Fly Hosts, Emma R. Wilson, Laura Bond, Lance Steele, Prasanna Kandel, Alison Chamberlin, Justin Gause, Nicole Reynolds, Ian Robertson, Stephen Novak, Kevin Feris, Merlin M. White 2016 Boise State University

Assessing The Potential Effects Of Fungicides On Nontarget Gut Fungi (Trichomycetes) And Their Associated Larval Black Fly Hosts, Emma R. Wilson, Laura Bond, Lance Steele, Prasanna Kandel, Alison Chamberlin, Justin Gause, Nicole Reynolds, Ian Robertson, Stephen Novak, Kevin Feris, Merlin M. White

Laura Bond

Fungicides are moderately hydrophobic and have been detected in water and sediment, particularly in agricultural watersheds, but typically are not included in routine water quality monitoring efforts. This is despite their widespread use and frequent application to combat fungal pathogens. Although the efficacy of these compounds on fungal pathogens is well documented, little is known about their effects on nontarget fungi. This pilot study, a field survey in southwestern Idaho from April to December 2010 on four streams with varying pesticide inputs (two agricultural and two reference sites), was conducted to assess nontarget impact of fungicides on gut fungi, or ...


Mitigation Effectiveness For Improving Nesting Success Of Greater Sage-Grouse Influenced By Energy Development, Christopher P. Kirol, Andrew L. Sutphin, Laura Bond, Mark R. Fuller, Thomas L. Maechtle 2016 Big Horn Environmental Consultants

Mitigation Effectiveness For Improving Nesting Success Of Greater Sage-Grouse Influenced By Energy Development, Christopher P. Kirol, Andrew L. Sutphin, Laura Bond, Mark R. Fuller, Thomas L. Maechtle

Laura Bond

Sagebrush Artemisia spp. habitats being developed for oil and gas reserves are inhabited by sagebrush obligate species--including the greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (sage-grouse) that is currently being considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Numerous studies suggest increasing oil and gas development may exacerbate species extinction risks. Therefore, there is a great need for effective on-site mitigation to reduce impacts to co-occurring wildlife such as sage-grouse. Nesting success is a primary factor in avian productivity and declines in nesting success are also thought to be an important contributor to population declines in sage-grouse. From 2008 to 2011 ...


Plant Protein And Secondary Metabolites Influence Diet Selection In A Mammalian Specialist Herbivore, Laura Bond, Xinzhu Pu, Jennifer Sorensen Forbey 2016 Boise State University

Plant Protein And Secondary Metabolites Influence Diet Selection In A Mammalian Specialist Herbivore, Laura Bond, Xinzhu Pu, Jennifer Sorensen Forbey

Laura Bond

For herbivores, nutrient intake is limited by the relatively low nutritional quality of plants and high concentrations of potentially toxic defensive compounds (plant secondary metabolites [PSMs]) produced by many plants. In response to phytochemical challenges, some herbivores selectively forage on plants with higher nutrient and lower PSM concentrations relative to other plants. Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) are dietary specialists that feed on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and forage on specific plants more than others within a foraging patch. We predicted that the plants with evidence of heavy foraging (browsed plants) would be of higher dietary quality than plants that were not ...


Migration Patterns, Use Of Stopover Areas, And Austral Summer Movements Of Swainson's Hawks, Michael N. Kochert, Mark R. Fuller, Linda S. Schueck, Laura Bond, Marc J. Bechard, Brian Woodbridge, Geoff L. Holroyd, Mark S. Martell, Ursula Banasch 2016 U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center

Migration Patterns, Use Of Stopover Areas, And Austral Summer Movements Of Swainson's Hawks, Michael N. Kochert, Mark R. Fuller, Linda S. Schueck, Laura Bond, Marc J. Bechard, Brian Woodbridge, Geoff L. Holroyd, Mark S. Martell, Ursula Banasch

Laura Bond

From 1995 to 1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson’s Hawks (Buteo swainsoni), using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and movements in the austral summer. We tagged 46 hawks from July to September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson’s Hawks followed three basic routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal area in central Argentina for the austral summer. North of 20°N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east ...


Wintering Bald Eagle Count Trends In The Conterminous United States, 1986-2010, Wade L. Eakle, Laura Bond, Mark R. Fuller, Richard A. Fischer, Karen Steenhof 2016 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Wintering Bald Eagle Count Trends In The Conterminous United States, 1986-2010, Wade L. Eakle, Laura Bond, Mark R. Fuller, Richard A. Fischer, Karen Steenhof

Laura Bond

We analyzed counts from the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey to examine state, regional, and national trends in counts of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) within the conterminous 48 United States from 1986 to 2010. Using hierarchical mixed model methods, we report trends in counts from 11 729 surveys along 844 routes in 44 states. Nationwide Bald Eagle counts increased 0.6% per yr over the 25-yr period, compared to an estimate of 1.9% per yr from 1986 to 2000. Trend estimates for Bald Eagles were significant (P ≤ 0.05) and positive in the northeastern and northwestern U.S ...


Reef Fish Assemblage Structure Variability Off Southeast Florida: Ongoing Research, R. Navarra, Aarti Raja 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Reef Fish Assemblage Structure Variability Off Southeast Florida: Ongoing Research, R. Navarra, Aarti Raja

Aarti Raja

No abstract provided.


Integration Of Scientific Concepts Through A Hands-On Learning Program: Science Alive!, T. Gali, Aarti Raja 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Integration Of Scientific Concepts Through A Hands-On Learning Program: Science Alive!, T. Gali, Aarti Raja

Aarti Raja

No abstract provided.


Telithromycin. Fresh From The Pipeline, Aarti Raja, J. Lebbos, P. Kirtpatrick 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Telithromycin. Fresh From The Pipeline, Aarti Raja, J. Lebbos, P. Kirtpatrick

Aarti Raja

In April 2004, telithromycin (Ketek; Aventis), the first of a new class of antibacterial drugs derived from macrolides, was approved by the US FDA for the treatment of several respiratory-tract infections. After a delay in its approval owing to a need to address potential safety issues, is it likely to now attain the blockbuster status that had originally been widely predicted?


Fcas Service Learning Projects Winter Semester 2013, Aarti Raja, Robert P. Smith, L. Vigesaa 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Fcas Service Learning Projects Winter Semester 2013, Aarti Raja, Robert P. Smith, L. Vigesaa

Aarti Raja

No abstract provided.


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