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Gulf Sturgeon (Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi) Pre-Restoration Occupancy Patterns On Ship Island, Mississippi Sound With An Evaluation Of Designated Critical Habitat Use By Eastern And Western Population Segments, Page Elizabeth Vick 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Gulf Sturgeon (Acipenser Oxyrinchus Desotoi) Pre-Restoration Occupancy Patterns On Ship Island, Mississippi Sound With An Evaluation Of Designated Critical Habitat Use By Eastern And Western Population Segments, Page Elizabeth Vick

Master's Theses

Critical spawning and feeding habitat was designated for federally threatened, anadromous Gulf Sturgeon (GS) to aid in population recovery. This study examined GS occupancy, habitat use, and movement through critical habitat monitored by the Ship Island (SI) acoustic array during overwintering periods from 2011 to 2015 prior to MsCIP SI restoration. An occupancy index analyzed patterns of spatial and temporal habitat use of both western and eastern population segments (WPS and EPS, respectively) of GS on the SI array. The ends of SI along with the passes and cuts of the island, especially Dog Keys Pass (DKP), were occupied by ...


Correlation Analysis Of Enzyme Activities And Deconstruction Of Ammonia-Pretreated Switchgrass By Bacterial-Fungal Communities, Abhiney Jain, H. Sandra Pelle, J. Michael Henson 2016 Sacred Heart University

Correlation Analysis Of Enzyme Activities And Deconstruction Of Ammonia-Pretreated Switchgrass By Bacterial-Fungal Communities, Abhiney Jain, H. Sandra Pelle, J. Michael Henson

Biology Faculty Publications

The mixed microbial communities that occur naturally on lignocellulosic feedstocks can provide feedstock-specific enzyme mixtures to saccharify lignocelluloses. Bacterial-fungal communities were enriched from switchgrass bales to deconstruct ammonia-pretreated switchgrass (DSG). Correlation analysis was carried out to elucidate the relationship between microbial decomposition of DSG by these communities, enzymatic activities produced and enzymatic saccharification of DSG using these enzyme mixtures. Results of the analysis showed that β glucosidase activities and xylosidase activities limited the extent of microbial deconstruction and enzymatic saccharification of DSG. The results also underlined the importance of ligninase activity for the enzymatic saccharification of pretreated lignocellulosic feedstock. The ...


Genotypic Diversity Effects On Biomass Production In Native Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems, Geoffrey P. Morris, Zhenbin Hu, Paul P. Grabowski, Justin O. Borevitz, Marie-Anne de Graaff, R. Michael Miller, Julie D. Jastrow 2016 Kansas State University

Genotypic Diversity Effects On Biomass Production In Native Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems, Geoffrey P. Morris, Zhenbin Hu, Paul P. Grabowski, Justin O. Borevitz, Marie-Anne De Graaff, R. Michael Miller, Julie D. Jastrow

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The perennial grass species that are being developed as biomass feedstock crops harbor extensive genotypic diversity, but the effects of this diversity on biomass production are not well understood. We investigated the effects of genotypic diversity in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) on perennial biomass cropping systems in two experiments conducted over 2008–2014 at a 5.4-ha fertile field site in northeastern Illinois, USA. We varied levels of switchgrass and big bluestem genotypic diversity using various local and nonlocal cultivars – under low or high species diversity, with or without nitrogen inputs – and quantified establishment, biomass yield ...


Status And Future Management Of Grey Goral (Naemorhedus Goral Bedfordi) In Pakistan, Fakhar -i- Abbas, Afsar Mian, Tanveer Akhtar, Thomas P. Rooney 2016 Bioresource Research Centre, Isalamabad, Pakistan

Status And Future Management Of Grey Goral (Naemorhedus Goral Bedfordi) In Pakistan, Fakhar -I- Abbas, Afsar Mian, Tanveer Akhtar, Thomas P. Rooney

Thomas P. Rooney

Himalayan grey goral (HGG: Naemorhedus goral bedfordi) is endemic to Himalyas and regarded as Endangered/ Threatened. Study was designed to collect information on population biology, habitat, food and behaviour of population of HGG distributed in Pakistan, trying to understand its present status and conservational potentials. Our data suggest that the population, habitat and the species has sufficient potentials for its survival in the area, if protection from human predation is afforded to the species. HGG population is isolated into 7-8 subpopulations and is facing male-biased mortality, therefore is likely to face bottleneck effects and subsequent population crash ascribed to loss ...


Joint Action Effects Of Emamectin Benzoate And Cypermethrin On The Marine Copepod Tigriopus Californicus, Lindsay Schultz, Michael Kelly 2016 University of Northern Colorado

Joint Action Effects Of Emamectin Benzoate And Cypermethrin On The Marine Copepod Tigriopus Californicus, Lindsay Schultz, Michael Kelly

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

This project examined the effect of two pesticides on the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus. The pesticides are emamectin benzoate and cypermethrin, which are commonly used in salmon aquaculture to treat the salmon for sea lice, a type of parasitic copepod. The results of this study indicate that these pesticides are toxic to the free-living T. californicus at very low dosage levels when used individually. When the pesticides are used in combination, the mortality rate is similar to when they are used individually, but there is an additional paralytic effect on the animals. All animals exposed to any of the pesticide ...


Selection Of Food Patches By Sympatric Herbivores In Response To Concealment And Distance From A Refuge, Miranda M. Crowell, Lisa A. Shipley, Meghan J. Camp, Janet L. Rachlow, Jennifer S. Forbey, Timothy R. Johnson 2016 Washington State University

Selection Of Food Patches By Sympatric Herbivores In Response To Concealment And Distance From A Refuge, Miranda M. Crowell, Lisa A. Shipley, Meghan J. Camp, Janet L. Rachlow, Jennifer S. Forbey, Timothy R. Johnson

Jennifer S. Forbey

Small herbivores face risks of predation while foraging and are often forced to trade off food quality for safety. Life history, behaviour, and habitat of predator and prey can influence these trade-offs. We compared how two sympatric rabbits (pygmy rabbit, Brachylagus idahoensis; mountain cottontail, Sylvilagus nuttallii) that differ in size, use of burrows, and habitat specialization in the sagebrush-steppe of western North America respond to amount and orientation of concealment cover and proximity to burrow refuges when selecting food patches. We predicted that both rabbit species would prefer food patches that offered greater concealment and food patches that were closer ...


Understanding Tradeoffs Between Food And Predation Risks In A Specialist Mammalian Herbivore, Jamie L. Utz, Lisa A. Shipley, Janet L. Rachlow, Tamara Johnstone-Yellin, Meghan Camp, Jennifer Sorenson Forbey 2016 Boise State University

Understanding Tradeoffs Between Food And Predation Risks In A Specialist Mammalian Herbivore, Jamie L. Utz, Lisa A. Shipley, Janet L. Rachlow, Tamara Johnstone-Yellin, Meghan Camp, Jennifer Sorenson Forbey

Jennifer S. Forbey

Understanding habitat use by animals requires understanding the simultaneous tradeoffs between food and predation risk within a landscape. Quantifying the synergy between patches that provide quality food and those that are safe from predators at a scale relevant to a foraging animal could better reveal the parameters that influence habitat selection. To understand more thoroughly how animals select habitat components, we investigated tradeoffs between diet quality and predation risk in a species endemic to sagebrush Artemisia spp. communities in North America, the pygmy rabbitBrachylagus idahoensis. This species is a rare example of a specialist herbivore that relies almost entirely ...


Genotypic Diversity Effects On Biomass Production In Native Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems, Geoffrey P. Morris, Zhenbin Hu, Paul P. Grabowski, Justin O. Borevitz, Marie-Anne de Graaff, R. Michael Miller, Julie D. Jastrow 2016 Kansas State University

Genotypic Diversity Effects On Biomass Production In Native Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems, Geoffrey P. Morris, Zhenbin Hu, Paul P. Grabowski, Justin O. Borevitz, Marie-Anne De Graaff, R. Michael Miller, Julie D. Jastrow

Marie-Anne de Graaff

The perennial grass species that are being developed as biomass feedstock crops harbor extensive genotypic diversity, but the effects of this diversity on biomass production are not well understood. We investigated the effects of genotypic diversity in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) on perennial biomass cropping systems in two experiments conducted over 2008–2014 at a 5.4-ha fertile field site in northeastern Illinois, USA. We varied levels of switchgrass and big bluestem genotypic diversity using various local and nonlocal cultivars – under low or high species diversity, with or without nitrogen inputs – and quantified establishment, biomass yield ...


Variable Shifts In The Autumn Migration Phenology Of Soaring Birds In Southern Spain, Micah N. Scholer, Beatriz Martín, Miguel Ferrer, Alejandro Onrubia, Marc J. Bechard, Greg S. Kaltenecker, Jay D. Carlisle 2016 Boise State University

Variable Shifts In The Autumn Migration Phenology Of Soaring Birds In Southern Spain, Micah N. Scholer, Beatriz Martín, Miguel Ferrer, Alejandro Onrubia, Marc J. Bechard, Greg S. Kaltenecker, Jay D. Carlisle

Jay D. Carlisle

While alteration of the migratory habits of birds is widely regarded as one of the most evident ecological effects of climate change, studies reporting shifts in migration phenology for long-lived, long-distance migrants have been few. Using time series of count data collected in southern Spain during autumn migration, we examined the magnitude and direction of phenological shifts for six common species of soaring birds. Many current methods for investigating phenological change rely on continuous data sets; however, these data may be unavailable for a variety of reasons. We used a cross-correlation analysis, which allowed us to compare recent data on ...


Ecophysiology Of Leaf Trichomes, Christopher P. Bickford 2016 Kenyon College

Ecophysiology Of Leaf Trichomes, Christopher P. Bickford

Christopher P Bickford

This review examines how leaf trichomes influence leaf physiological responses to abiotic environmental drivers. Leaf trichomes are known to modulate leaf traits, particularly radiation absorptance, but studies in recent decades have demonstrated that trichomes have a more expansive role in the plant–environment interaction. Although best known as light reflectors, dense trichome canopies modulate leaf heat balance and photon interception, and consequently affect gas exchange traits. Analysis of published studies shows that dense pubescence generally increases reflectance of visible light and near-infrared and infrared radiation. Reflective trichomes are also protective, reducing photoinhibition and UV-B related damage to leaf photochemistry. Little ...


Habitat Suitability Modeling For The Mississippi Sandhill Crane, Grus Canadensis Pulla, Linda C. Salande 2016 University of New Orleans

Habitat Suitability Modeling For The Mississippi Sandhill Crane, Grus Canadensis Pulla, Linda C. Salande

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I modeled the suitability of habitat on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge for the federally endangered Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus Canadensis pulla). Habitat type and suitability changed over time due to seasonality of vegetation and succession in the absence of burning. Cranes used highly suitable habitat more in the non-growing than in the growing season, and may have been more constrained by resource availability during winter months. Cranes used some less-suitable areas including cypress drains, which provide roosting sites, and supplemental food plots. The mismatch between predicted quality and crane use suggests that no single ...


Autophagic Turnover Of Inactive 26s Proteasomes In Yeast Is Directed By The Ubiquitin Receptor Cue5 And The Hsp42 Chaperone, Richard S. Marshall, Fionn McLoughlin, Richard D. Vierstra 2016 Washington University in St Louis

Autophagic Turnover Of Inactive 26s Proteasomes In Yeast Is Directed By The Ubiquitin Receptor Cue5 And The Hsp42 Chaperone, Richard S. Marshall, Fionn Mcloughlin, Richard D. Vierstra

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Highlights

  • The yeast 26S proteasome is degraded by Atg8-mediated autophagy
  • Nitrogen starvation and inactivation stimulate proteaphagy via distinct pathways
  • Proteasome inhibition is accompanied by extensive ubiquitylation of the complex
  • Proteaphagy engages the Cue5 autophagy receptor and the Hsp42 chaperone

Summary

The autophagic clearance of 26S proteasomes (proteaphagy) is an important homeostatic mechanism within the ubiquitin system that modulates proteolytic capacity and eliminates damaged particles. Here, we define two proteaphagy routes in yeast that respond to either nitrogen starvation or particle inactivation. Whereas the core autophagic machineries required for Atg8 lipidation and vesiculation are essential for both routes, the upstream Atg1 ...


Dominence Hierarchies In Horses: Comparing And Contrasting Different Methods For Assessing Hierarchies, Devyn Bailey 2016 University of Northern Colorado

Dominence Hierarchies In Horses: Comparing And Contrasting Different Methods For Assessing Hierarchies, Devyn Bailey

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Understanding animal social structures is imperative when it comes to the care, housing and handling of large herd animals. Knowing how hierarchies are structured, along with environmental and physiological aspects that may affect them, will allow owners and breeders to house and care for their animals. The aim of my study was to better understand two methods used to assess dominance hierarchies in horses, Equus caballus, and to predict which method would be more useful for owners housing domestic horses. I designed an experiment where I compared a structured method, the paired feeding test, with behavioral observations from the horses ...


Nona-Arginine Facilitates Delivery Of Quantum Dots Into Cells Via Multiple Pathways, Yi Xu, Betty Revon Liu, Han Jung Lee, Katie Shannon, Jeffrey G. Winiarz, Tien-Chun Wang, Huey-Jenn Chiang, Yue-Wern Huang 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Nona-Arginine Facilitates Delivery Of Quantum Dots Into Cells Via Multiple Pathways, Yi Xu, Betty Revon Liu, Han Jung Lee, Katie Shannon, Jeffrey G. Winiarz, Tien-Chun Wang, Huey-Jenn Chiang, Yue-Wern Huang

Jeffrey Winiarz

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have recently been used to deliver and monitor biomolecules, such as drugs and proteins. However, QDs alone have a low efficiency of transport across the plasma membrane. In order to increase the efficiency, we used synthetic nona-arginine (SR9), a cell-penetrating peptide, to facilitate uptake. We found that SR9 increased the cellular uptake of QDs in a noncovalent binding manner between QDs and SR9. Further, we investigated mechanisms of QD/SR9 cellular internalization. Low temperature and metabolic inhibitors markedly inhibited the uptake of QD/SR9, indicating that internalization is an energy-dependent process. Results from both the pathway ...


Genome Sequence Of The Bacteroides Fragilis Phage Atcc 51477-B1, Shawn A. Hawkins, Alice C. Layton, Steven Ripp, Dan Dan Williams, Gary S. Sayler 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Genome Sequence Of The Bacteroides Fragilis Phage Atcc 51477-B1, Shawn A. Hawkins, Alice C. Layton, Steven Ripp, Dan Dan Williams, Gary S. Sayler

Steven Ripp

The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.


Genome Sequence Of The Bacteroides Fragilis Phage Atcc 51477-B1, Shawn A. Hawkins, Alice C. Layton, Steven Ripp, Dan Dan Williams, Gary S. Sayler 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Genome Sequence Of The Bacteroides Fragilis Phage Atcc 51477-B1, Shawn A. Hawkins, Alice C. Layton, Steven Ripp, Dan Dan Williams, Gary S. Sayler

Steven Ripp

The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.


Venom Peptides Lasioglossin Ii And Mastoparan B As Escherichia Coli Atp Synthase Inhibitors, Rafiat Ajoke Bello 2016 East Tennessee State University

Venom Peptides Lasioglossin Ii And Mastoparan B As Escherichia Coli Atp Synthase Inhibitors, Rafiat Ajoke Bello

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli ATPase activity by two venom peptides, lasioglossin II and mastoparan B. Membrane bound F1FO ATP synthase was isolated from E. coli strain pBWU13.4/DK8 and treated with varied concentrations of lasioglossin II and mastoparan B. Lasioglossin II caused very low inhibition of ATPase activity, but the inhibition profile of mastoparan B was suggestive of an interesting biological effect. A relatively shorter total length, a smaller net positive charge, and a reduced amphipathic character of both peptides, as compared to previously tested antimicrobial peptides, may account for the limited degree of ...


Characterization Of The Role Of Host And Dietary Factors In The Establishment Of Bacteria In The Gastrointestinal Tract, Janina A. Krumbeck 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of The Role Of Host And Dietary Factors In The Establishment Of Bacteria In The Gastrointestinal Tract, Janina A. Krumbeck

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Probiotic bacteria and synbiotics are used as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. The majority of probiotic and synbiotic applications contain bacterial strains that are allochthonous to the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Accordingly, many bacterial strains do not survive digestion, or are not capable of persisting and competing the resident gut microbiota, and are therefore washed out of the GI tract shortly after the treatment is discontinued. This might reduce the health effects of these treatments. Therefore, research is needed to address the ecological challenges that probiotic strains encounter in the GI tract in order to develop probiotic regimens. Determining which ecological ...


Tlr3 Signaling In Human Bdca-3 Dendritic Cells Results In The Formation Of Several Ilt3 And Ilt4 Populations, Nicholas J. Colletti 2016 Seton Hall University

Tlr3 Signaling In Human Bdca-3 Dendritic Cells Results In The Formation Of Several Ilt3 And Ilt4 Populations, Nicholas J. Colletti

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a population of innate immune cells that are highly efficient at promoting immune responses. DCs are capable of presenting antigens to both CD4 and CD8 T cells. DC presentation and interaction with T cells can result in either immune stimulation or tolerance. This study intends to phenotype a rare subset of DCs found in the human blood and is distinguishable by the expression of various surface markers including: lineage markers (Lin), HLADR, CD1c, and CD141 or BDCA-3. Stimulating BDCA-3 DCs with Poly I:C, a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist, resulted in the up-regulation of various ...


Effects Of Fire On Soil Co₂ Efflux In A Mature Longleaf Pine Forest, Knox Lemee Flowers 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Fire On Soil Co₂ Efflux In A Mature Longleaf Pine Forest, Knox Lemee Flowers

Master's Theses

This study was conducted from 2012-2013 in a 96 year old longleaf pine at the Lake Thoreau Environmental Center located Lamar County, MS. Measurements of soil CO₂ efflux (i.e., soil respiration or SR) rates (µmol m-2 sec-1) were taken across 8 field plots (4 burned, 4 unburned) before and after a prescribed fire on that occurred in May, 2012. These measurements were taken over diurnal cycles using a LICOR LI-8100A automated soil gas flux system with long term chambers. SR rates and soil temperature measurements were collected during 3 sampling periods in 2012 and 1 sampling period ...


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