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Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella 2022 University of New Mexico

Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella

Biology ETDs

At high latitudes, climatic oscillations have triggered repeated episodes of organismal divergence by geographically isolating populations. For terrestrial species, extended isolation in glacial refugia – ice-free regions that enable terrestrial species persistence through glacial maxima – is hypothesized to stimulate allopatric divergence. Alternatively, upon glacial recession, divergent populations expanded from independent glacial refugia and often contacted other diverging populations. In the absence of reproductive isolating mechanisms, this biogeographic process may trigger hybridization and ultimately, gene flow between divergent taxa. My dissertation research aims to understand how these episodic periods of isolation and contact have impacted the evolution of high latitude species. To ...


Restoring Polyhyrdoxybutyrate (Phb) Depolymerase Expression In A Bald Mutant Of Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Youmna Moawad 2021 Bridgewater College

Restoring Polyhyrdoxybutyrate (Phb) Depolymerase Expression In A Bald Mutant Of Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Youmna Moawad

Honors Projects

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable, plastic-like polymer produced by some bacteria and degraded by others. The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces sp. SFB5A degrades PHB for growth using an extracellular PHB depolymerase, encoded by the phaZ gene. A morphological mutant of this bacterium, bld4, cannot form aerial filaments and cannot produce PHB depolymerase, despite having the phaZ gene. The inability to synthesize PHB depolymerase may be due to a mutation in a gene encoding one of its transcriptional regulators. A gene (lrp) coding for a potential transcriptional regulator is located 2,700 base pairs upstream from phaZ. Our goal was to clone ...


Local Environmental Variables Are Key Drivers Of Ant Taxonomic And Functional Beta-Diversity In A Mediterranean Dryland, Clara Frasconi Wendt, Ana Ceia-Hasse, Alice Nunes, Robin Verble, Giacomo Santini, Mário Boieiro, Cristina Branquinho 2021 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Local Environmental Variables Are Key Drivers Of Ant Taxonomic And Functional Beta-Diversity In A Mediterranean Dryland, Clara Frasconi Wendt, Ana Ceia-Hasse, Alice Nunes, Robin Verble, Giacomo Santini, Mário Boieiro, Cristina Branquinho

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

The decomposition of beta-diversity (β-diversity) into its replacement (βrepl) and richness (βrich) components in combination with a taxonomic and functional approach, may help to identify processes driving community composition along environmental gradients. We aimed to understand which abiotic and spatial variables influence ant β-diversity and identify which processes may drive ant β-diversity patterns in Mediterranean drylands by measuring the percentage of variation in ant taxonomic and functional β-diversity explained by local environmental, regional climatic and spatial variables. We found that taxonomic and functional replacement (βrepl) primarily drove patterns in overall β-diversity (βtot). Variation partitioning analysis showed ...


2019ncovr – A Comprehensive Genomic Resource For Sars-Cov-2 Variant Surveillance And Covid-19 Control, Guoquing Lu, Etsuko N. Moriyama 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

2019ncovr – A Comprehensive Genomic Resource For Sars-Cov-2 Variant Surveillance And Covid-19 Control, Guoquing Lu, Etsuko N. Moriyama

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Physiological Processes, Chirag B. Raval 2021 CUNY City College

Physiological Processes, Chirag B. Raval

Open Educational Resources

Physiological Processes is designed to introduce fundamental concepts of physiology to biomedical engineering learners. Areas covered include: neural, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory and renal system function; bioelectrical signals, capillary-level transport, organ-level exchange. Whenever possible, analysis will be quantitative in order to fulfill the course goals and to build the foundation for the subsequent biomedical engineering curriculum. This course is for Biomedical Engineering majors only.


The Effects Of Ppal-1 In Arabidopsis Gamete Development, Amanda J White, Susana Perez-Martinez, Mark P. Running 2021 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Ppal-1 In Arabidopsis Gamete Development, Amanda J White, Susana Perez-Martinez, Mark P. Running

The Cardinal Edge

Prenylation is a type of post-translational modification in which a 15- or 20-carbon lipid is added to the carboxyl (C) terminus of the protein. Arabidopsis thaliana contains the PROTEIN PRENYLTRANSFERASE ALPHA SUBUNIT-LIKE (PPAL) gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the α-subunits of the three known prenylation enzymes, PFT, PGGT, and Rab-GGT. We previously identified two mutations in PPAL, one of which is ppal-1, which contains a T-DNA insertion in the fourth intron. We have previously observed that self-fertilizing heterozygous ppal-1 plants produce progeny in which homozygous ppal-1 is underrepresented. This project attempts to ascertain possible affects of ppal-1 ...


Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade

Protocols and Reports

Senescence, from the shortening of telomeres, accumulation of mutations, epigenetic hypomethylation, and other causes, begins an eventual cycle of decline in every patient. Stem cells disappear as a function of age, which in turn impairs cellular replication. Moreover, when fully differentiated cells are induced back into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they not only revert to a state of pre-differentiation, but also to a younger cellular age. Their aging clocks turn back: their telomeres become longer and DNA methylation reverts back to an earlier age. It should therefore be possible to use iPSCs to replace the missing stem cells from ...


Human Microglia Extensively Reconstitute In Humanized-Blt Mice With Human Interleukin-34 Transgene And Support Hiv-1 Brain Infection, Jianshui Zhang, Saroj Chandra Lohani, Yilun Cheng, Tao Wang, Lili Guo, Woong-Ki Kim, Santhi Gorantla, Qingsheng Li 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Human Microglia Extensively Reconstitute In Humanized-Blt Mice With Human Interleukin-34 Transgene And Support Hiv-1 Brain Infection, Jianshui Zhang, Saroj Chandra Lohani, Yilun Cheng, Tao Wang, Lili Guo, Woong-Ki Kim, Santhi Gorantla, Qingsheng Li

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Humanized bone marrow-liver-thymic (hu-BLT) mice develop a functional immune system in periphery, nevertheless, have a limited reconstitution of human myeloid cells, especially microglia, in CNS. Further, whether bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can enter the brain and differentiate into microglia in adults remains controversial. To close these gaps, in this study we unambiguously demonstrated that human microglia in CNS were extensively reconstituted in adult NOG mice with human interleukin-34 transgene (hIL34 Tg) from circulating CD34+ HSPCs, nonetheless not in hu-BLT NOG mice, providing strong evidence that human CD34+ HSPCs can enter adult brain and differentiate into ...


Aerobic Respiration And Its Regulation In The Metal Reducer Shewanella Oneidensis, Kristen Bertling, Areen Banerjee, Daad Saffarini 2021 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Aerobic Respiration And Its Regulation In The Metal Reducer Shewanella Oneidensis, Kristen Bertling, Areen Banerjee, Daad Saffarini

Biological Sciences Faculty Articles

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe known for its ability to reduce metal oxides. Anaerobic respiration, especially metal reduction, has been the subject of extensive research. In contrast, S. oneidensis aerobic respiration has received less attention. S. oneidensis expresses cbb3- and aa3-type cytochrome c oxidases and a bd-type quinol oxidase. The aa3-type oxidase, which in other bacteria is the major oxygen reductase under oxygen replete conditions, does not appear to contribute to aerobic respiration and growth in S. oneidensis. Our results indicated that although the aa3-type oxidase does not play a role in aerobic growth on ...


Forkhead-Associated Domain 2 Links Light Signal To Mirna Biogenesis, Lu Gan, Bin Yu 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Forkhead-Associated Domain 2 Links Light Signal To Mirna Biogenesis, Lu Gan, Bin Yu

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the most important regulators of gene expression. Their biogenesis starts with the transcription of primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs). In plants, the RNase III enzyme DICER-LIKER 1 (DCL1), together with its partner, the double-stranded RNA-binding protein HYPONASTIC LEAVES 1 (HYL1), and the zinc-finger protein SERRATE (SE), process the imperfect miRNA-residing stem loop of primiRNAs to release the miRNA/miRNA* duplexes in the nucleus, which are then methylated by HUA1 ENHANCER 1 (Rogers and Chen, 2013; Song et al., 2019). Then, most miRNAs are sorted into AGONAUTE 1 to mediate mRNA-cleavage or translation inhibition based on sequence ...


Phenotype Bias Determines How Natural Rna Structures Occupy The Morphospace Of All Possible Shapes, Fatme Ghaddar, Dr Kamaludin Dingle, Dr Petr Sulc, Prof Ard A. Louis 2021 Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait

Phenotype Bias Determines How Natural Rna Structures Occupy The Morphospace Of All Possible Shapes, Fatme Ghaddar, Dr Kamaludin Dingle, Dr Petr Sulc, Prof Ard A. Louis

Undergraduate Research Symposium

The relative prominence of developmental bias versus natural selection is a long standing controversy in evolutionary biology. Here we demonstrate quantitatively that developmental bias is the primary explanation for the occupation of the morphospace of RNA secondary structure (SS) shapes. By using the RNAshapes method to define coarse-grained SS classes, we can measure the frequencies that non-coding RNA SS shapes appear in nature. Our main findings are firstly that only the most frequent structures appear in nature; the vast majority of possible structures in the morphospace have not yet been explored. Secondly, and perhaps more surprisingly, these frequencies are accurately ...


Mutations In Several Auxin Biosynthesis Genes And Their Effects On Plant Phenotypes In Arabidopsis, Gabriela Hernandez, Lauren Huebner, Bethany Karlin Zolman 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Mutations In Several Auxin Biosynthesis Genes And Their Effects On Plant Phenotypes In Arabidopsis, Gabriela Hernandez, Lauren Huebner, Bethany Karlin Zolman

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Auxins are important hormones in plants that regulate growth and development. Disruptions in the auxin biosynthesis pathway result in morphological changes in phenotypes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, including differences in root and leaf formation. Mutations in the Tryptophan Aminotransferase of Arabidopsis (TAA1) and YUCCA (YUC4) genes interfere with the plant's ability to synthesize Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the primary auxin involved in plant development. IBR1 and IBR3 act in the multistep conversion of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to IAA. ILL2, IAR3, and ILR1 hydrolyze IAA-amino acid conjugates into free IAA. The goal of our study was to determine the ...


Mara Repression Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lauren Daugherty, Lon Chubiz PhD 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Mara Repression Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lauren Daugherty, Lon Chubiz Phd

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a bacteria most commonly known for causing the eponymous food-related illness. Due to their rapid reproduction rate and their ability to be propogated and maintained in a lab setting, they are commonly used in lab studies so that we can better understand how Salmonella causes disease in organisms that are more difficult to study. One area of interest is analyzing how Salmonella controls expression of the mechanisms that actually cause disease, called virulence traits, in response to the environment. In this study, antibiotic stress was used to analyze virulence gene expression. MarA is a gene that regulates ampicillin ...


Medical Illustration As A Tool For Health Literacy, Courtney Anne Wombles 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Medical Illustration As A Tool For Health Literacy, Courtney Anne Wombles

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Health literacy is most commonly described as the ability of an individual to obtain, comprehend, and utilize information related to their health. Including the ability to read, write, speak, and display numeracy in medical situations, rates of health literacy impact the ability of an individual to navigate the healthcare system and make informed decisions. As reported by the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, only 12% of individuals have the proficiency to understand and manage their health. This research identifies problems existing in health literacy and doctor-patient communication, with an emphasis on consumer health information. It explores resources used for science ...


Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond 2021 University of Texas at Tyler

Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond

Biology Theses

Increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections by antimicrobial resistant pathogens resulting in higher mortality rates and financial burden is of great concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents one of six highly virulent “ESKAPE” pathogens that exhibit considerable intrinsic drug resistance as well as mechanisms for acquiring further resistance. As many of these mechanisms are regulated through gene expression, we sought to identify regulatory strategies and patterns at play in 23 clinical isolates collected from Baku, Azerbaijan and Tyler, Texas, USA. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on six gene targets implicated in resistance and contrasted with antibiotic phenotypes. We found AmpC cephalosporinase ...


Artificial Night Light And Anthropogenic Noise Interact To Influence Bird Abundance Over A Continental Scale, Ashley A. Wilson, Mark A. Ditmer, Jesse R. Barber, Neil H. Carter, Eliot T. Miller, Luke P. Tyrell, Clinton D. Francis 2021 California Polytechnic State University

Artificial Night Light And Anthropogenic Noise Interact To Influence Bird Abundance Over A Continental Scale, Ashley A. Wilson, Mark A. Ditmer, Jesse R. Barber, Neil H. Carter, Eliot T. Miller, Luke P. Tyrell, Clinton D. Francis

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The extent of artificial night light and anthropogenic noise (i.e., “light” and “noise”) impacts is global and has the capacity to threaten species across diverse ecosystems. Existing research involving impacts of light or noise has primarily focused on noise or light alone and single species; however, these stimuli often co-occur and little is known about how co-exposure influences wildlife and if and why species may vary in their responses. Here, we had three aims: (1) to investigate species-specific responses to light, noise, and the interaction between the two using a spatially explicit approach to model changes in abundance of ...


Three Lc-Ms Plant Metabolomics Studies Of Hop (Humulus) Species: Wild H. Neomexicanus, Drought Stress, And Agricultural Terroir, Taylan Morcol 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Three Lc-Ms Plant Metabolomics Studies Of Hop (Humulus) Species: Wild H. Neomexicanus, Drought Stress, And Agricultural Terroir, Taylan Morcol

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The hop plant (Humulus L., Cannabaceae) is a dioecious, perennial, twining vine with a long history of human use. Nowadays, hop plants are generally grown for their inflorescences (“cones”), which are used in brewing for their phytochemical metabolites. Many of these metabolites are involved in plant stress response and communication. Genetics and environment are two major factors that affect plant metabolism. In three separate metabolomics studies, this project examined the effects of both genetic and environmental factors on hop phytochemistry.

In the first study, 23 hop genotypes were grown in two different locations in the Pacific Northwest region of the ...


Evaluation Of Wind Data Reliability By Using Logarithmic And Power Laws: A Case Study In Southern Iraq, Ahmed B. Khamees, Saif F. Yaseen, Khalid S. Heni, Mudar Ahmed Abdulsattar 2021 Ministry of Science and Technology, Renewable Energy Directorate, Iraq

Evaluation Of Wind Data Reliability By Using Logarithmic And Power Laws: A Case Study In Southern Iraq, Ahmed B. Khamees, Saif F. Yaseen, Khalid S. Heni, Mudar Ahmed Abdulsattar

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

In this study, two sites were investigated in the southern region of Iraq: Ali AL-Gharbi and AL-Salman in Mesan and AL-Muthana provinces, respectively. A theoretical extrapolation between wind speed and height was carried out for both locations each month using the Logarithmic Law. Power Law was also applied to achieve calculations of wind shear coefficient (α) by using the actual data collected from the meteorological mast installed in each site at three levels of 10 m, 30 m, and 50 m, at an interval of ten minutes. To compare the effects of each law, two laws are employed.


Polystyrene Molecular Weight Determination Of Submicron Particles Shell, Airat Z. Sakhabutdinov Dr.Sc., Professor, Safaa.M.R.H. Hussein Graduate Student, Alsu R. Ibragimova Researcher, Ph.D., Vladimir Kuklin Lead Engineer, Ph.D., Maxim Petrovich Danilaev D.Sc., Professor, L.Y. Zaharova Chief Researcher, D.Sc. 2021 Kazan National Research Technical University

Polystyrene Molecular Weight Determination Of Submicron Particles Shell, Airat Z. Sakhabutdinov Dr.Sc., Professor, Safaa.M.R.H. Hussein Graduate Student, Alsu R. Ibragimova Researcher, Ph.D., Vladimir Kuklin Lead Engineer, Ph.D., Maxim Petrovich Danilaev D.Sc., Professor, L.Y. Zaharova Chief Researcher, D.Sc.

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The method of determination of the molecular weight of the polystyrene, which is formed as the shell on the surfaces of submicron aluminum oxide particles is considered in the paper. This method is based on the sedimentation of submicron particles, covered by polymer molecules, in a solvent for polystyrene. It is shown that the average polystyrene molecular weight is 39500±11250 amu, when the polymer shells on the surfaces of submicron particles (Al2O3) are formed by the vapor-phase method.


Adaptive Reconstruction Of The Heterogeneous Scan Line Etm+ Correction Technique, Heba Kh. Abbas, Salema S. Salman, Rash Awad Abtan, Anwar H. Al-Saleh, Ali A. Al-Zuky 2021 Department of Physics, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Adaptive Reconstruction Of The Heterogeneous Scan Line Etm+ Correction Technique, Heba Kh. Abbas, Salema S. Salman, Rash Awad Abtan, Anwar H. Al-Saleh, Ali A. Al-Zuky

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

ETM+ is a land-imaging sensor with great and wide use in many fields, however, after May 2003, because of a technical defect in the sensor´s system scan line corrector SLC, it started giving images of earth containing black gap lines at a 22% rate. These gaps made the process of analyzing and extracting accurate information from these images difficult and complicated. Therefore, scientists have developed many techniques to remove the gap lines from all ETM+ band-images and complete the missing data. In this study, three different ETM+ time images with a 16-day interval between them were used to fill ...


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