Effects Of Human Disturbance On Physiology, Behavior, And Ornamentation In The Eastern Bluebird, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Effects Of Human Disturbance On Physiology, Behavior, And Ornamentation In The Eastern Bluebird, Lauren Marjorie Gillespie
Overall, few studies have focused on anthropogenic disturbance on wildlife physiology. Research has typically focused on how environmentally contaminated areas or anthropogenic disturbance (e.g. noise, human activity) influences biodiversity, community structure and behavior of individual animals. However, understanding how disturbance influences some aspects of physiology can require sacrifice of the animal, prohibiting ecologically relevant measures of behavior and reproductive success. This research strives to examine covariation between testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT), plumage ornamentation, and behavior in two populations of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) that differ in degree to which their habitat is modified by human activity.
In this ...
Tlr3 Signaling In Human Bdca-3 Dendritic Cells Results In The Formation Of Several Ilt3 And Ilt4 Populations, 2016 Seton Hall University
Tlr3 Signaling In Human Bdca-3 Dendritic Cells Results In The Formation Of Several Ilt3 And Ilt4 Populations, Nicholas J. Colletti
Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)
Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a population of innate immune cells that are highly efficient at promoting immune responses. DCs are capable of presenting antigens to both CD4 and CD8 T cells. DC presentation and interaction with T cells can result in either immune stimulation or tolerance. This study intends to phenotype a rare subset of DCs found in the human blood and is distinguishable by the expression of various surface markers including: lineage markers (Lin), HLADR, CD1c, and CD141 or BDCA-3. Stimulating BDCA-3 DCs with Poly I:C, a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist, resulted in the up-regulation of various ...
Community Structure And Production Of The Macrobenthos On Four Artificial Reefs In The Mississippi Sound In Relation To Substrate And Profile Type, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Community Structure And Production Of The Macrobenthos On Four Artificial Reefs In The Mississippi Sound In Relation To Substrate And Profile Type, Patrick Daniel Gillam
In recent years, the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources (DMR) has made a concerted effort to enhance its coastal fishery resources by creating artificial reefs. Through this effort, 73 nearshore reefs have been created across the MS coast. Different substrate types used to construct MS artificial reefs include oyster shell and cement rubble. Two types of reef architecture used include high profile breakwater and low profile submerged structures. This study compared the benthic biota associated with oyster shell and cement rubble substrates among four artificial reefs representing high and low profile structures in summer 2011. Colonized benthic biota were quantified ...
The Effect Of Auditory Stimulation On Sleep Disruption In West Indian Manatee (Trichechus Manatus Latirostris), 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
The Effect Of Auditory Stimulation On Sleep Disruption In West Indian Manatee (Trichechus Manatus Latirostris), Natalija Lace
Florida manatees inhabit waterways where motorized boats are common. Although manatee mortalities resulting from boat strikes are well documented, the effect of boat noise on some manatee behaviors, including rest, has not been investigated. This study focuses on rest behavior and used a playback experiment with four manatees at the Lowry Park Zoo in Florida. We tested their responses to playback stimuli of either boat noise, silence, or manatee calls. A playback trial was initiated when the focal animal showed behavioral characteristics of rest.
Results showed that rest was interrupted in response to the playback of boat noise for each ...
Effects Of Fire On Soil Co₂ Efflux In A Mature Longleaf Pine Forest, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Effects Of Fire On Soil Co₂ Efflux In A Mature Longleaf Pine Forest, Knox Lemee Flowers
This study was conducted from 2012-2013 in a 96 year old longleaf pine at the Lake Thoreau Environmental Center located Lamar County, MS. Measurements of soil CO₂ efflux (i.e., soil respiration or SR) rates (µmol m-2 sec-1) were taken across 8 field plots (4 burned, 4 unburned) before and after a prescribed fire on that occurred in May, 2012. These measurements were taken over diurnal cycles using a LICOR LI-8100A automated soil gas flux system with long term chambers. SR rates and soil temperature measurements were collected during 3 sampling periods in 2012 and 1 sampling period ...
Mutations In Two Ku Homologs Define A Dna End-Joining Repair Pathway In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology
Mutations In Two Ku Homologs Define A Dna End-Joining Repair Pathway In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, George Todd Milne, Shengfang Jin, Katie Shannon, David T. Weaver
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in mammalian cells is dependent on the Ku DNA binding protein complex. However, the mechanism of Ku-mediated repair is not understood. We discovered a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (KU80) that is structurally similar to the 80-kDa mammalian Ku subunit. Ku80 associates with the product of the HDF1 gene, forming the major DNA end- binding complex of yeast cells. DNA end binding was absent in ku80Δ, hdf1Δ, or ku80Δ hdf1Δ strains. Antisera specific for epitope tags on Ku80 and Hdf1 were used in supershift and immunodepletion experiments to show that both proteins are directly involved in DNA ...
Mad2 And Bubr1 Function In A Single Checkpoint Pathway That Responds To A Loss Of Tension, 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology
Mad2 And Bubr1 Function In A Single Checkpoint Pathway That Responds To A Loss Of Tension, Katie Shannon, Julie C. Canman, Edward D. Salmon
The spindle checkpoint monitors microtubule attachment and tension at kinetochores to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Previously, PtK1 cells in hypothermic conditions (23°C) were shown to have a pronounced mitotic delay, despite having normal numbers of kinetochore microtubules. At 23°C, we found that PtK1 cells remained in metaphase for an average of 101 min, compared with 21 min for cells at 37°C. The metaphase delay at 23°C was abrogated by injection of Mad2 inhibitors, showing that Mad2 and the spindle checkpoint were responsible for the prolonged metaphase. Live cell imaging showed that kinetochore Mad2 became undetectable soon ...
The Multiple Roles Of Cyk1p In The Assembly And Function Of The Actomyosin Ring In Budding Yeast, 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology
The Multiple Roles Of Cyk1p In The Assembly And Function Of The Actomyosin Ring In Budding Yeast, Katie Shannon, Rong Li
The budding yeast IQGAP-like protein Cyk1p/Iqg1p localizes to the mother-bud junction during anaphase and has been shown to be required for the completion of cytokinesis. In this study, video microscopy analysis of cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged Cyk1p/Iqg1p demonstrates that Cyk1p/Iqg1p is a dynamic component of the contractile ring during cytokinesis. Furthermore, in the absence of Cyk1p/Iqg1p, myosin II fails to undergo the contraction-like size change at the end of mitosis. To understand the mechanistic role of Cyk1p/Iqg1p in actomyosin ring assembly and dynamics, we have investigated the role of the structural domains that Cyk1p ...
Nona-Arginine Facilitates Delivery Of Quantum Dots Into Cells Via Multiple Pathways, 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology
Nona-Arginine Facilitates Delivery Of Quantum Dots Into Cells Via Multiple Pathways, Yi Xu, Betty Revon Liu, Han Jung Lee, Katie Shannon, Jeffrey G. Winiarz, Tien-Chun Wang, Huey-Jenn Chiang, Yue-Wern Huang
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have recently been used to deliver and monitor biomolecules, such as drugs and proteins. However, QDs alone have a low efficiency of transport across the plasma membrane. In order to increase the efficiency, we used synthetic nona-arginine (SR9), a cell-penetrating peptide, to facilitate uptake. We found that SR9 increased the cellular uptake of QDs in a noncovalent binding manner between QDs and SR9. Further, we investigated mechanisms of QD/SR9 cellular internalization. Low temperature and metabolic inhibitors markedly inhibited the uptake of QD/SR9, indicating that internalization is an energy-dependent process. Results from both the pathway ...
Iqgap Family Members In Yeast, Dictyostelium, And Mammalian Cells, 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology
Iqgap Family Members In Yeast, Dictyostelium, And Mammalian Cells, Katie Shannon
IQGAPs are a family of scaffolding proteins with multiple domains, named for the IQ motifs and GTPase activating protein (GAP) related domains. Despite their GAP homology, IQGAP proteins act as effectors for GTP-bound GTPases of the Ras superfamily and do not stimulate GTP hydrolysis. IQGAPs are found in eukaryotic cells from yeast to human, and localize to actin-containing structures such as lamellipodia, membrane ruffles, cell-cell adhesions, phagocytic cups, and the actomyosin ring formed during cytokinesis. Mammalian IQGAPs also act as scaffolds for signaling pathways. IQGAPs perform their myriad functions through association with a large number of proteins including filamentous actin ...
Dephosphorylation Of Iqg1 By Cdc14 Regulates Cytokinesis In Budding Yeast, 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology
Dephosphorylation Of Iqg1 By Cdc14 Regulates Cytokinesis In Budding Yeast, Daniel P. Miller, Hana Kenton Hall, Ryan Chaparian, Madison Mara, Alison Mueller, Mark C. Hall, Katie Shannon
Cytokinesis separates cells by contraction of a ring composed of filamentous actin (F-actin) and type II myosin. Iqg1, an IQGAP family member, is an essential protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for assembly and contraction of the actomyosin ring. Localization of F-actin to the ring occurs only after anaphase and is mediated by the calponin homology domain (CHD) of Iqg1, but the regulatory mechanisms that temporally restrict actin ring assembly are not well defined. We tested the hypothesis that dephosphorylation of four perfect cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) sites flanking the CHD promotes actin ring formation, using site-specific alanine mutants. Cells expressing the ...
Effects Of Xs® Energy Drink On Aerobic Exercise Capacity Of Athletes, 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus
Effects Of Xs® Energy Drink On Aerobic Exercise Capacity Of Athletes, Kevin M. Sheehan, Lynn K. Hartzler
Lynn K. Hartzler
A small increase in performance is often the difference between winning and losing for athletes, and energy supplements are marketed to give them a competitive edge. One such supplement is XS® Energy Drink which contains B vitamins, caffeine, taurine, and an herbal adaptogen blend. XS® Energy Drink is primarily designed and marketed as an alertness stimulus; however, it is also marketed to athletes as a performance enhancing supplement. The hypothesis of this investigation was that the consumption of XS® Energy Drink before exercise would increase aerobic capacity (an increase in Vo2max) and time to fatigue, and would decrease time for ...
Addressing Misconceptions About Evolution, 2016 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy
Addressing Misconceptions About Evolution, Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll, Don Dosch
"Leave with effective ways to identify and address misconceptions about evolution, with a particular focus on supporting explanations with evidence."
2a: "Illinois Carbon Dioxide Emissions Activity", 2016 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy
2a: "Illinois Carbon Dioxide Emissions Activity", Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll, Crystal Randall
Your goal for this activity is to compare the different sources of carbon dioxide emissions, stemming from the consumption of fossil fuels, in Illinois. To do this you will be working with data spanning from 1980 to 2012.
3: "The Current Extinction: Defaunation & Ecosystem Disruption", 2016 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy
3: "The Current Extinction: Defaunation & Ecosystem Disruption", Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll, Crystal Randall
Information taken from: Dirzo, R. et al (2014). Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science, 345(401). Scientists estimate, conservatively, that there are 5 to 9 million different animal species on the planet. But that number is continually changing, and unfortunately, dropping, as we are likely losing 11,000- 58,000 species annually, and evidence suggests that on average, there has been a decline of about 28% in terms of numbers of individuals within a species over the last four decades. Both of these statistics are vitally important. The critical nature of the first is perhaps more obvious, as total loss of ...
1. "Investigating The Impact Of Changes In Carbon Dioxide Concentration On Ecosystems", 2016 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy
1. "Investigating The Impact Of Changes In Carbon Dioxide Concentration On Ecosystems", Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll, Crystal Randall
Question: Does the concentration of carbon dioxide affect air temperature in a closed environment?
Bub2 Regulation Of Cytokinesis And Septation In Budding Yeast, 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology
Bub2 Regulation Of Cytokinesis And Septation In Budding Yeast, Su Young Park, Addie E. Cable, Jessica Blair, Katherine E. Stockstill, Katie Shannon
Background: The mitotic exit network (MEN) is required for events at the end of mitosis such as degradation of mitotic cyclins and cytokinesis. Bub2 and its binding partner Bfa1 act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) to negatively regulate the MEN GTPase Tem1. The Bub2/Bfa1 checkpoint pathway is required to delay the cell cycle in response to mispositioned spindles. In addition to its role in mitotic exit, Tem1 is required for actomyosin ring contraction. Results: To test the hypothesis that the Bub2 pathway prevents premature actin ring assembly, we compared the timing of actin ring formation in wild type ...
Taxol-Stabilized Microtubules Can Position The Cytokinetic Furrow In Mammalian Cells, 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology
Taxol-Stabilized Microtubules Can Position The Cytokinetic Furrow In Mammalian Cells, Katie Shannon, Julie C. Canman, C. Ben Moree, Jennifer S. Tirnauer, E. D. Salmon
How microtubules act to position the plane of cell division during cytokinesis is a topic of much debate. Recently, we showed that a subpopulation of stable microtubules extends past chromosomes and interacts with the cell cortex at the site of furrowing, suggesting that these stabilized microtubules may stimulate contractility. To test the hypothesis that stable microtubules can position furrows, we used taxol to rapidly suppress microtubule dynamics during various stages of mitosis in PtK1 cells. Cells with stabilized prometaphase or metaphase microtubule arrays were able to initiate furrowing when induced into anaphase by inhibition of the spindle checkpoint. In these ...
Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, 2016 Rockhurst University
Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr.
Journal of Evolution and Health
As rates of overweight and obesity have risen in the US, the public has sought effective strategies for weight loss through dietary modification. A proliferation of processed foods and changing governmental nutrition guidelines have both impacted dietary intake patterns. While physicians are considered respectable sources of weight-loss information, increasingly the public has turned to the media, particularly magazines, for weight loss advice. This study investigated the dietary recommendations found in the five leading US health-related magazines and compared those recommendations to ancestral diets. With a couple notable exceptions, leading health magazines present consistent recommendations for dietary modifications to promote weight ...
Implicit Mental Processes Are An Improbable Basis For Personhood, 2016 East Tennessee State University
Implicit Mental Processes Are An Improbable Basis For Personhood, Michael L. Woodruff
Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling
Rowlands argues that animals have implicit pre-reflective awareness and that this is adequate to create the unity of conscious thought required for personhood. For him pre-reflective awareness does not include intentionality and is probably an unconscious process. I suggest that his sense of implicit leads to significant difficulties for his argument and that including intentionality in the definition of a first-person perspective provides a stronger base for viewing animals as persons.