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Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley 2017 George Washington University

Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM. By disruption of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2), mitofusins (Mfn1/2), and dynamin related protein 1 ...


Fast Shoreline Erosion Induced By Ship Wakes In A Coastal Lagoon: Field Evidence And Remote Sensing Analysis, Luca Zaggia, Giuliano Lorenzetti, Giorgia Manfe, Gian Marco Scarpa, Emanuela Molinaroli, Kevin E. Parnell, John Rapaglia, Maria Gionta, Tarmo Soomere 2017 National Research Council of Italy

Fast Shoreline Erosion Induced By Ship Wakes In A Coastal Lagoon: Field Evidence And Remote Sensing Analysis, Luca Zaggia, Giuliano Lorenzetti, Giorgia Manfe, Gian Marco Scarpa, Emanuela Molinaroli, Kevin E. Parnell, John Rapaglia, Maria Gionta, Tarmo Soomere

John Rapaglia

An investigation based on in-situ surveys combined with remote sensing and GIS analysis revealed fast shoreline retreat on the side of a major waterway, the Malamocco Marghera Channel, in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Monthly and long-term regression rates caused by ship wakes in a reclaimed industrial area were considered. The short-term analysis, based on field surveys carried out between April 2014 and January 2015, revealed that the speed of shoreline regression was insignificantly dependent on the distance from the navigation channel, but was not constant through time. Periods of high water levels due to tidal forcing or storm surges ...


Chemical Defenses In Garlic Mustard (Alliaria Petiolata) And Their Potential Role In Species Interactions In Forest Understories, Don Cipollini 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Chemical Defenses In Garlic Mustard (Alliaria Petiolata) And Their Potential Role In Species Interactions In Forest Understories, Don Cipollini

Don Cipollini

Garlic mustard [Alliaria petiolata [(M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande; Brassicaceae] is a European native biennial herb, first recorded on Long Island, NY in the 1860s, and is expanding rapidly in northeastern and midwestern forests in the U.S. and in southern Canada. Garlic mustard flourishes in moist woodlands with moderate exposure to light, but it can grow in a diversity of other habitats. It is found in natural areas, woodlots, and along edges of agricultural fields and lawns throughout North America. Several life history traits likely contribute to the invasiveness of this species. It has a high inbreeding rate and can produce ...


The Effects Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am) Fungal And Garlic Mustard Introductions On Native Am Fungal Diversity, Alexander M. Koch, Pedro M. Antunes, Kathryn Barto, Don Cipollini, Daniel L. Mummey, John N. Klironomos 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

The Effects Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am) Fungal And Garlic Mustard Introductions On Native Am Fungal Diversity, Alexander M. Koch, Pedro M. Antunes, Kathryn Barto, Don Cipollini, Daniel L. Mummey, John N. Klironomos

Don Cipollini

Introduced, non-native organisms are of global concern, because biological invasions can negatively affect local communities. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities have not been well studied in this context. AM fungi are abundant in most soils, forming symbiotic root-associations with many plant species. Commercial AM fungal inocula are increasingly spread worldwide, because of potentially beneficial effects on plant growth. In contrast, some invasive plant species, such as the non-mycorrhizal Alliaria petiolata, can negatively influence AM fungi. In a greenhouse study we examined changes in the structure of a local Canadian AM fungal community in response to inoculation by foreign AM fungi ...


Evidence For Use Of Alliaria Petiolata In North America By The European Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris Rapae, Sam L. Davis, Don Cipollini 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Evidence For Use Of Alliaria Petiolata In North America By The European Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris Rapae, Sam L. Davis, Don Cipollini

Don Cipollini

Pieris rapae L., an invasive crop pest, may have recently begun using Alliaria petiolata Bieb. (Cavara & Grande), a European invasive biennial. We investigated how P. rapae uses forest habitats for nectar and oviposition and examined larval performance on A. petiolata in the field and laboratory. Being known primarily to occupy open habitats, we found that P. rapae regularly uses forest edge habitats, most surveyed A. petiolata plants had P. rapae damage, and P. rapae successfully used both stages of A. petiolata for larval development.


Freshwater Mussels Of Kansas: Register Of Taxa, Synonyms, And Assumed Misidentifications, Mark E. Eberle 2017 Fort Hays State University

Freshwater Mussels Of Kansas: Register Of Taxa, Synonyms, And Assumed Misidentifications, Mark E. Eberle

Mark E. Eberle

The literature on freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Margaritiferidae and Unionidae) of Kansas includes a collection of names of species and subspecies that makes it difficult for even experienced malacologists to decipher which taxa actually were collected. Compounding this problem is the absence of voucher specimens for some of the studies conducted in the state. This list was compiled to aid those who are conducting research and want to assess their results with reference to the earlier accounts. The alphabetical list of valid taxa, synonyms, and assumed misidentifications of freshwater mussels of Kansas is drawn from the literature and not an examination ...


Recent Diatoms Reported From The Central United States: Register Of Taxa And Synonyms, Mark E. Eberle 2017 Fort Hays State University

Recent Diatoms Reported From The Central United States: Register Of Taxa And Synonyms, Mark E. Eberle

Mark E. Eberle

This list of diatoms summarizes information for more than 1000 taxa and synonyms reported in published accounts of collections made in the central United States, principally within the states of Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma, but also including adjacent areas in eastern Colorado and western Missouri. The objective was to provide people working on diatom projects in this region with a base reference to help them assess the results of their research. Records from Master’s theses and references focused on fossil diatoms were not incorporated into this list. Specimens were not examined, so taxa presented here are those reported in ...


Investigating X Chromosome Non-Disjunction In Drosophila Melanogaster Su(Var)3-9 Mutants, Camerun C. Washington, Kathryn Kohl 2017 Winthrop University

Investigating X Chromosome Non-Disjunction In Drosophila Melanogaster Su(Var)3-9 Mutants, Camerun C. Washington, Kathryn Kohl

The Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin

Meiotic recombination is a highly regulated process necessary for promoting proper chromosome disjunction during the first meiotic division. Notably, reduced levels of meiotic recombination are observed in heterochromatic regions of the chromosome. This study seeks to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation by examining the effects of reduced heterochromatin on non-disjunction rates in Drosophila melanogaster. To accomplish this, we measured non-disjunction in wild-type and reduced heterochromatin mutant su(var)3-9 flies. To begin, we confirmed the presence of a mutation within su(var)3-9 via Sanger sequencing. Next, we created allele-specific primers and designed a PCR protocol to more ...


Targeted Mutagenesis Of Fox0 Transcripts Using The Model Organism Ciona Intestinalis Utilizing The Crispr/Cas9 System, Nicole McMullen, Heather J. Evans-Anderson 2017 Winthrop University

Targeted Mutagenesis Of Fox0 Transcripts Using The Model Organism Ciona Intestinalis Utilizing The Crispr/Cas9 System, Nicole Mcmullen, Heather J. Evans-Anderson

The Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin

The chordate, Ciona intestinalis, has become an excellent model organism for the study of cardiac development. C. intestinalis is a member of the phylum Tunicata, which is the sister phylum to vertebrates. Since both phyla share a common ancestor, an orthologous gene has been identified in C. intestinalis and vertebrates, the FOX0 transcript. Multiple reasons makes Ciona intestinalis an interesting model organism. For instance, ease of access to the animal, close relation to vertebrates, and mapping of the genetic code of Ciona intestinalis makes this an excellent model organism. The FOX0 family of transcripts plays an important role in cardiac ...


Controlling Oct4 Expression Levels Using Invitrogen’S Geneswitch™ System, Autumn S. Leggins, Nick Grossoehme, Matthew M. Stern 2017 Winthrop University

Controlling Oct4 Expression Levels Using Invitrogen’S Geneswitch™ System, Autumn S. Leggins, Nick Grossoehme, Matthew M. Stern

The Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin

Oct4 is a protein that is involved in the retention of pluripotency in adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). Despite this knowledge, Oct4’s exact role in the complex system used in maintaining pluripotency is not known. One approach to explore Oct4’s role would be through the use of cellular assays to control the expression of Oct4. This can possibly be accomplished by introducing a biological switch and the gene of interest into ADSCs. In this project, the GeneSwitch™ System is used to ultimately induce Oct4 expression. Before the GeneSwitch™ System can be used, the Oct4 gene is extracted from ...


Passive Warming Reduces Stress And Shifts Reproductive Effort In The Antarctic Moss, Polytrichastrum Alpinum, Erin E. Shortlidge, Sarah M. Eppley, Hans Kohler, Todd N. Rosenstiel, Gustavo E. Zúñiga, Angélica Casanova-Katny 2017 Portland State University

Passive Warming Reduces Stress And Shifts Reproductive Effort In The Antarctic Moss, Polytrichastrum Alpinum, Erin E. Shortlidge, Sarah M. Eppley, Hans Kohler, Todd N. Rosenstiel, Gustavo E. Zúñiga, Angélica Casanova-Katny

Todd N. Rosenstiel

Background and Aims The Western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and many biotic communities inhabiting this dynamic region are responding to these well-documented climatic shifts. Yet some of the most prevalent organisms of terrestrial Antarctica, the mosses, and their responses to warming have been relatively overlooked and understudied. In this research, the impacts of 6 years of passive warming were investigated using open top chambers (OTCs), on moss communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. Methods The effects of experimental passive warming on the morphology, sexual reproductive effort and stress physiology of ...


Assessing The Potential Of Land Use Modification To Mitigate Ambient No2 And Its Consequences For Respiratory Health, Meenakshi Rao, Linda A. George, Vivek Shandas, Todd N. Rosenstiel 2017 Portland State University

Assessing The Potential Of Land Use Modification To Mitigate Ambient No2 And Its Consequences For Respiratory Health, Meenakshi Rao, Linda A. George, Vivek Shandas, Todd N. Rosenstiel

Todd N. Rosenstiel

Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC) shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants—and thus human health—is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO2 is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO2 observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA), and the spatial variation of NO2 with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develop a better understanding of the relationship among LULC, ambient NO2 and respiratory health. The impact of land use modifications on ambient NO2, and consequently on respiratory health ...


The Effect Of Concentration Of Co2 On The Average Rate Of Photosynthesis In Spinach Leaf Disks, Amelia Robinson-Brown 2017 Heathwood Hall Episcopal School, Columbia, SC

The Effect Of Concentration Of Co2 On The Average Rate Of Photosynthesis In Spinach Leaf Disks, Amelia Robinson-Brown

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis in spinach leaves. Small circular disks were cut out of the spinach leaves using a standard hole puncher. Then solutions of differing concentrations of carbon dioxide, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1.0%, were all prepared, and each solution was spread equally among five cups. There was also a control solution that contained only water. Any gases within the leaves were then sucked with a syringe, using a specific technique to create a vacuum. For each solution ...


Promoting Critical Thinking In General Biology Courses: The Case Of The White Widow Spider, Joseph S. Wilson 2017 Utah State University - Tooele

Promoting Critical Thinking In General Biology Courses: The Case Of The White Widow Spider, Joseph S. Wilson

Journal on Empowering Teaching Excellence

It is generally accepted that critical thinking is an important and, likely, essential, component of success in college and beyond. Despite the unanimity, only a low percentage of students in the U.S. can demonstrate critical thinking proficiency on standardized exams. This phenomenon may result from instructors using a reductionist view of critical thinking and focusing on learning processes rather than on evaluation of intellectual resources. In general biology courses, I use a non-threatening, active-learning, group activities to promote critical thinking. For example, students are presented with an email from a member of the community and asked to formulate a ...


Novel Mosquito Control: A Natural Approach To Reducing And Repelling Mosquito Populations, Vinita Cheepurupalli 2017 Spring Valley High School, Columbia, SC

Novel Mosquito Control: A Natural Approach To Reducing And Repelling Mosquito Populations, Vinita Cheepurupalli

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Mosquitoes are a major concern to human health because they serve as vectors to pass agents that cause diseases, such as malaria, the Zika virus, and the West Nile virus, which can have a multitude of harmful side effects, such as seizures, conjunctivitis, and death. The overuse of commercial mosquitocidal agents have caused mosquitoes to develop resistance and cause harm to humans and the environment. To prevent this, natural extracts could be used. The purpose of this experiment was to test various plant extracts for their effectiveness in acting as larvicides, adulticides, and repellents against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. It was ...


The Effects Of Tension, Curvature, And Lipid Diffusion On The Enrichment Of Ras Proteins In Model Membranes, Nina Daneshvar 2017 Dutch Fork High School

The Effects Of Tension, Curvature, And Lipid Diffusion On The Enrichment Of Ras Proteins In Model Membranes, Nina Daneshvar

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

An intriguing aspect of the cell membrane that provokes study is lipid-anchor enrichment of lipidated proteins on the cell membrane. Specifically, recent in vitro studies involving the enrichment of Ras proteins were done to see how enrichment was affected by changes in membrane curvature. These studies demonstrated the Ras protein’s inclination to the expanded, or outer, leaflet of highly curved membranes. Other research done in vivo, however, provoked further inquiry into Ras protein behavior, since when highly curved protrusions were created in living cells, Ras proteins showed affinity for the inner leaflet. This inspired research to determine the exact ...


Investigating The Toxicity And Accumulation Of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) And Glyphosate In Eisenia Fetida, Caitlin Lazurick, Nicole Lidzbarski, Rachel Owings, Jeff Brotherton, Edna Steele 2017 Converse College

Investigating The Toxicity And Accumulation Of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) And Glyphosate In Eisenia Fetida, Caitlin Lazurick, Nicole Lidzbarski, Rachel Owings, Jeff Brotherton, Edna Steele

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Glyphosate, the main ingredient in Roundup®, is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It is also used in combination with another effective herbicide, 2,4-D, in the formulation called Enlist Duo®. The EPA approved the use of Enlist Duo® on certain crops including those genetically modified to be resistant to both herbicides. The predicted significant increase in the use of these herbicides raised concerns from the general public because both compounds have been classified as possibly or probably carcinogenic. Since herbicides are applied directly to vegetation, the safety of organisms that come in contact with the herbicides is ...


Table Of Contents, 2017 University of South Carolina

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Sports Related Head Impact On Balance And Neurocognitive Functions, Shaquanda D. Ross-Simmons, Michelle L. Vieyra, Abhishek Jain, Keri Weed 2017 University of South Carolina Aiken

The Effects Of Sports Related Head Impact On Balance And Neurocognitive Functions, Shaquanda D. Ross-Simmons, Michelle L. Vieyra, Abhishek Jain, Keri Weed

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of sports-related head injury on balance, attention, and memory. Reliable differences have been found using measures that directly tap into brain functioning, such as the auditory oddball task combined with EEG recording. We hypothesized that athletes reporting a diagnosed concussion or participation in high-risk sports would have compromised balance and neurocognitive functioning compared to athletes in low risk sports. Forty-five undergraduate participants were identified as either concussed, non-concussed in high-risk sports, or non-concussed in low-risk sports using a survey of athletic history, head trauma and demographics. The Biopac MP36 system ...


Investigation Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract And Its Cancer-Selective Antiproliferative Properties, Reagen H. Welch, Ashlee H. Tietje 2017 Southern Wesleyan University

Investigation Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract And Its Cancer-Selective Antiproliferative Properties, Reagen H. Welch, Ashlee H. Tietje

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Moringa oleifera is a tree native to a number of Asian, African, and Central American countries and has been used in traditional medicine for an assortment of medicinal uses for centuries. Due to bioactive compounds within Moringa leaves, it is believed that Moringa leaf extract may possess cancer-selective antiproliferative properties. Previous research has been conducted in regards to this topic, but poor experimental design due to lack of necessary controls limits the legitimacy of anticancer claims. While previous research has shown that Moringa leaf extract has the potential to kill cancer cells, the research fails to demonstrate the effects of ...


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