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Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


A Good Kiwi Isn't Acidic: How Ocean Acidification Is Affecting The New Zealand Economy, Lily G. Hurley 2017 Fordham University

A Good Kiwi Isn't Acidic: How Ocean Acidification Is Affecting The New Zealand Economy, Lily G. Hurley

Student Theses 2015-Present

In a country that houses a mere 4 million people, it is no wonder that agriculture has become the main facet of New Zealand’s economy. However, while the sheep and produce have flourished from land protection laws, marine life has struggled in recent years due to an increase in oceanic carbon levels. In an area of the Pacific that is so rich in coral reefs, Great White breeding areas, and a plethora of fish species, any upset of the natural preexisting chemical balance has a tangible impact. New Zealand is dealing with a crisis with huge economic and ecological ...


Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana 2017 Seton Hall University

Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The killer peptide sequence D-(KLAKLAK)2 has been originally designed and developed as an antibacterial agent. Despite having excellent cytotoxicity towards bacteria, this sequence maintains low cell cytotoxity in malignant mammalian cell types such as cancer. The chemical basis for its selectivity has been attributed to its poly(cationic) amphiphilic nature, which facilitates cell permeability across the negatively charged bacterial membrane, but with limited permeability across the zwitterionic membrane of mammalian cells. The positively charged D-(KLAKLAK)2 sequence has been found to accumulate on the surface of the mitochondria causing dissipation of the negatively charged mitochondrial membrane potential ...


Marine Tardigrades From South Carolina, Usa, Paul J. Bartels, Lilvia J. Bradbury, Diane R. Nelson 2017 Warren Wilson College

Marine Tardigrades From South Carolina, Usa, Paul J. Bartels, Lilvia J. Bradbury, Diane R. Nelson

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Until now, there have been only three studies of marine tardigrades from South Carolina, USA. The Fall 2015 invertebrate zoology class from Warren Wilson College collected four sediment samples from Huntington Beach State Park: shallow beach sand, deep beach sand, shallow salt marsh sediment, and deep salt marsh sediment. No tardigrades were found in the salt marsh, but two species were found in the beach samples. Batillipes pennaki Marcus, 1946 was found in shallow and deep beach sand, and three specimens of a potentially new species of Stygarctus Schulz, 1951 were found in the deep beach sand at groundwater level ...


Expanding Access To Biodiversity Literature, Patrick Randall 2017 Harvard University

Expanding Access To Biodiversity Literature, Patrick Randall

Digital Initiatives Symposium

Expanding Access to Biodiversity Literature (EABL) is an IMLS-funded grant designed to enhance the collection of the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL), a digital library providing open access to over 50 million pages of legacy biodiversity literature.

BHL's collection is built on the digitized holdings of its member libraries, typically large research universities, natural history museums, and other well-funded organizations. EABL, however, solicits content outside the BHL consortium; small organizations that often lack the resources for cataloging and digitization nevertheless have valuable and unique literature to contribute. This has created new challenges for BHL workflows, as well as opportunities for ...


First Record Of Centruroides Alayoni Armas, 1999 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Haiti, Greater Antilles, Luis F. de Armas 2017 Marshall University

First Record Of Centruroides Alayoni Armas, 1999 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Haiti, Greater Antilles, Luis F. De Armas

Euscorpius

Centruroides haitiensis Lourenço, 2016, from Grande Cayemite, Haiti, is regarded as a junior synonym of Centruroides alayoni Armas, 1999, previously known from southern Pedernales Province (215 km east of Grande Cayemite), Dominican Republic. Consequently, C. alayoni is herein recorded for the first time from Haiti. The list of the Haitian species of the genus Centruroides Marx, 1890 is given.


Variation In Density Dependent Seedling Survival Across Forests Of Different Successional Age And Hunting Protection Status, Nohemi Huanca-Nunez 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Variation In Density Dependent Seedling Survival Across Forests Of Different Successional Age And Hunting Protection Status, Nohemi Huanca-Nunez

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Over 50% of the original extent of tropical forests has been cleared. Restoration of secondary forests is important for maintaining the ecosystem services that mature tropical forests provide. Density dependence (DD) is thought to be a major mechanism for shaping forest community structure and may cause reduced spatial aggregation among individuals of the same species, allowing for maintenance of diversity. While much research has focused on DD in mature tropical forests, few studies have examined how DD may influence community structure in secondary forests, many of which are also exposed to hunting. There are several important agents of negative and ...


Rate Of Vegetation Recovery In Restored Prairie Wetlands, Saloni Salaria 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Rate Of Vegetation Recovery In Restored Prairie Wetlands, Saloni Salaria

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Wetlands are restored to compensate for wetland loss and degradation. To determine the potential rate and success of vegetation recovery in restored wetlands, prairie wetlands of different restoration ages (3 to 23 years since restoration), including drained and natural (embedded within both agricultural and protected landscape), were sampled for vegetation in Alberta, Canada. Vegetation was assessed based on species richness, percentage and cover of hydrophytes, natives and non-natives, and community composition. Analysis of covariance with wetland area as a covariate and non-metric multidimensional scaling results indicated that restored wetlands resembled low-integrity natural wetlands that occurred on agricultural landscapes within 3-5 ...


Do Farm Subsidies Affect Crop Diversification?, Chadwick O'Neal 2017 Georgia College

Do Farm Subsidies Affect Crop Diversification?, Chadwick O'Neal

Georgia College Student Research Events

The United States spends $20 billion each year on farm subsidies. Farmers face increased risk and income variation when their crop portfolio is less diversified. It’s possible for farm subsidies to decrease diversification if they are focused on specific crops. Utilizing state level subsidy and agricultural data from the Environmental Working Group, I used econometric analysis to estimate the effect of farm subsidies on crop diversification. I used the number of acres planted from the 15 top most subsidized and grown crops in the United States to derive my dependent variable, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI). The HHI is a ...


The Influence Of Adjacent Forest And Agriculture On Restored Grassland Diversity And Composition, Rachel A. Chambers 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Influence Of Adjacent Forest And Agriculture On Restored Grassland Diversity And Composition, Rachel A. Chambers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Little native grassland remains in North America due to land-use changes. Conversion to agriculture is a common means of loss. This fragmentation creates edges in the landscape and associated edge effects. Grassland plant communities are susceptible to edge effects, directly via dispersal and indirectly through environment. This study took place in Norfolk County, Ontario, Canada, in a landscape of agriculture, forest, rural development, and patches of grassland restored by Nature Conservancy Canada. I examined restored grassland edges bordering forest and crops. An intensive study at a single site identified spatial and soil environmental influences on plant diversity and composition. I ...


Improving Estimates Of Phytoplankton Populations In The Chesapeake Bay Using Hyperspectral Radiometers, Max Spehlmann 2017 Lake Forest College

Improving Estimates Of Phytoplankton Populations In The Chesapeake Bay Using Hyperspectral Radiometers, Max Spehlmann

Senior Theses

In coastal and estuarine waters, high turbidity and land interference severely diminish the utility of satellite data. This study tested the accuracy of hyperspectral inversion algorithms to better resolve chlorophyll a estimates in the Chesapeake Bay. Hyperspectral instruments measure reflected light with much greater spectral resolution than the multispectral instruments currently deployed on ocean-observing satellites. Increased spectral resolution allows for better approximation of phytoplankton concentrations in optically complex waters. This research seeks to test optical inversion algorithms designed for turbid waters like the Chesapeake Bay. By pairing in situ measurements of chlorophyll with electromagnetic spectrum measurements, we determined the most ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xi. Pandinurus Kmoniceki Sp. N. Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Jana Plíškova, František Šťáhlavský 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xi. Pandinurus Kmoniceki Sp. N. Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Jana Plíškova, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Pandinurus kmoniceki sp. n. from Somaliland is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as its habitat. Hemispermatophore of P. kmoniceki sp. n. is illustrated and described. In addition to the analyses of external morphology and hemispermatophores, we also describe the karyotypes of P. kmoniceki sp. n. (2n=120).


Using Stable Isotopes To Quantify Restoration Progress In A Restoring Northern New England Salt Marsh, Briana Fischella, Tristan Taber, Meg Thurell 2017 University of Southern Maine

Using Stable Isotopes To Quantify Restoration Progress In A Restoring Northern New England Salt Marsh, Briana Fischella, Tristan Taber, Meg Thurell

Thinking Matters

How have the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in flora tissue and soil samples changed in Sherman Marsh, Wiscasset, Maine over the past nine years?

What do potential differences in ratios from 2007 and 2016 suggest about the community composition and connectivity of the food web in the restoring marsh?


A Look At Lichen Elemental Concentrations And Lichen Diversity From Edge To Interior In Canco Woods, Ericka Hutchinson, Jade Deshaies 2017 University of Southern Maine

A Look At Lichen Elemental Concentrations And Lichen Diversity From Edge To Interior In Canco Woods, Ericka Hutchinson, Jade Deshaies

Thinking Matters

Many species of lichen have the ability to acquire nutrients from the atmosphere and to accumulate aerosolized particulates and atmospheric pollutants into their tissues. Studies have found that lichen exhibit species-specific tolerances for pollutants and can have large ranges, making them excellent tools for long-term monitoring of air quality in-situ. In this research, we present preliminary findings for elemental concentrations and lichen diversity between edge and interior sections of a small urban woodlot located in Portland, Maine.

Comparisons of species richness and diversity of lichen growing on mature red maple (Acer rubrum) showed little difference between edge and interior sites ...


Distribution And Conservation Status Of The Freshwater Gastropods Of Nebraska, Bruce J. Stephen 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Distribution And Conservation Status Of The Freshwater Gastropods Of Nebraska, Bruce J. Stephen

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

This survey of freshwater gastropods within Nebraska includes 159 sample sites and encompasses the four primary level III ecoregions of the State. I identified sixteen species in five families. Six of the seven species with the highest incidence, Physa gyrina, Planorbella trivolvis, Stagnicola elodes, Gyraulus parvus, Stagnicola caperata, and Galba humilis were collected in each of Nebraska’s four major level III ecoregions. The exception, Physa acuta, was not collected in the Western High Plains ecoregion. Seven indigenous species, Valvata tricarinata, Helisoma anceps, Campeloma decisum, Galba bulimoides, Physa jennessi, Ferrissia rivularis, and Planorbula armigera, display incidence rarity, being collected at ...


The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

Although the 12 species representing three waterfowl tribes described in this volume are not closely related, they fortuitously provide an instructive example of adaptive evolutionary radiation within the much larger waterfowl lineage (the family Anatidae), especially as to their divergent morphologies, life histories, and social behaviors.

The whistling-ducks (Dendrocygna), with three known North American species, are notable for their permanent pair-bonds, extended biparental family care, and strong social cohesion. In contrast, males of the five typical pochards of North American diving ducks (Aythya) establish monogamous pair-bonds that are maintained only long enough to assure that the female’s eggs are ...


Some Taxonomic Corrections To The Genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

Some Taxonomic Corrections To The Genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel

Euscorpius

In the present paper, the taxonomic status of several Hispaniolan members of the genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1966 is revised after examination of almost all primary types and abundant supplementary material. This resulted in six new synonymies, which involve both extant and fossil species. The extant taxa herein synonymized are Tityus anasilviae Armas et Abud, 2004 under Tityus ottenwalderi Armas, 1999, Tityus bahoruco Teruel et Armas, 2006 under Tityus crassimanus (Thorell, 1876), Tityus ebanoverde Armas, 1999 under Tityus elii Armas et Marcano, 1992, and Tityus septentrionalis Armas et Abud, 2004 under Tityus portoplatensis Armas et Marcano, 1992. The fossil ...


Early Emergence And Seasonality Of The Red-Bellied Snake (Storeria Occipitomaculata) Along The Platte River In South-Central Nebraska, Usa, Simon P. Tye, Keith Geluso, Mary J. Harner 2017 University of Nebraska, Kearney

Early Emergence And Seasonality Of The Red-Bellied Snake (Storeria Occipitomaculata) Along The Platte River In South-Central Nebraska, Usa, Simon P. Tye, Keith Geluso, Mary J. Harner

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Red-bellied Snake (Storeria occipitomaculata) primarily inhabits moist woodlands of eastern North America, with two disjunct populations occurring in the Great Plains, one of which is in south-central Nebraska. This species is listed as at-risk in Nebraska, in part, due to being uncommon with limited information available about the ecology and natural history of this isolated population. We amassed 48 observations of Red-bellied Snakes in Nebraska from museum specimens and published accounts, including our observations and others reported to us published herein. The previous earliest documented date of spring emergence was 6 April from a specimen collected in 1999. On ...


Hitching A Ride: First Record Of A Least Chipmunk (Tamias Minimus) In Eastern Nebraska, Keith Geluso, Michael L. Forsberg 2017 University of Nebraska—Kearney

Hitching A Ride: First Record Of A Least Chipmunk (Tamias Minimus) In Eastern Nebraska, Keith Geluso, Michael L. Forsberg

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

On 10 October 2016, a Least Chipmunk (Tamias minimus) was discovered in a residential area of Lincoln, Lancaster County, Nebraska. The closest populations of Least Chipmunks reside > 640 km to the west in northwestern Nebraska and southeastern Wyoming. The most parsimonious explanation for this unusual observation is that the chipmunk was transported to the city by humans. A likely scenario is that the chipmunk hitched a ride to Lincoln in a motor vehicle on 2 October 2016, when one of us drove 1500 km in a single day from Jackson, Teton County, Wyoming, after residing in that area for 10 ...


P08. Unravelling Organelle Genome Evolution Architecture Using Rna-Sequencing Data, Matheus Sanita Lima, David Roy Smith 2017 Western University

P08. Unravelling Organelle Genome Evolution Architecture Using Rna-Sequencing Data, Matheus Sanita Lima, David Roy Smith

Western Research Forum

Background: Mitochondria genomes vary from 11 Mb to 6 kb, while plastids can vary from 1 Mb to 30 kb. Non-coding DNA accounts for most of this size variation, but the mechanistic and evolutionary reasons for that are still unknown. Next generation sequencing has generated unprecedented amounts of genomic and transcriptomic data that can be used for organelle genome evolution studies. However, most of these data is used only for the study of cell nucleus. Therefore, I decided to use these untapped data source to investigate the transcription of organelle genomes in plastid-bearing protists.

Methods: I mapped the transcriptomes over ...


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