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Investigation Of Competence Heterogeneity In Streptococcus Milleri Group Clinical Isolates, Anne-Marie G. Lacroix 2014 McMaster University

Investigation Of Competence Heterogeneity In Streptococcus Milleri Group Clinical Isolates, Anne-Marie G. Lacroix

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

The Streptococcus Milleri/Anginosus group (SMG) includes Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius. The SMG is found in healthy individuals but these bacteria are most known clinically for being associated with invasive disease and more recently, airway infections including cystic fibrosis (CF). The SMG like many other streptococci are naturally competent, being able to actively bind, uptake and integrate extracellular DNA. Competence regulation involves a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) derived from the ComC precursor and a two- component signaling system (a histidine kinase ComD and its response regulator ComE). In this study, I examined the distribution of CSP/ComD sequences ...


Characterization Of Protein-Protein Interactions Mediated By The Second Exon Of The Varicella-Zoster Virus Orf45/42 Terminase Subunit, Elizabeth A. Syster-Clevenger 2014 Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne

Characterization Of Protein-Protein Interactions Mediated By The Second Exon Of The Varicella-Zoster Virus Orf45/42 Terminase Subunit, Elizabeth A. Syster-Clevenger

Master's Theses

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a member of the Herpesviridae, is ubiquitous human pathogen with significant morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Primary infection causes a systemic viremia and skin rash known as varicella, and more commonly referred to as chickenpox. Latency is established in the nervous system during primary infection and can reactivate to cause zoster, more commonly known as shingles. Current treatments for VZV infection target viral DNA replication, primarily the DNA polymerase. However, novel small molecule inhibitors that target other viral replication processes, for example viral DNA encapsidation, offer additional therapeutic options. Seven conserved open reading frames ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


The Role Of The N-Terminus On The Enzymatic Activity Of Dutpase From Dictyostelium Discoideum, Kyle C. Varon 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Role Of The N-Terminus On The Enzymatic Activity Of Dutpase From Dictyostelium Discoideum, Kyle C. Varon

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The enzyme deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) (EC 3.6.1.23) converts dUTP to dUMP, thus shifting the dUTP to dUMP ratio in the cell. The molecule dUTP is subject to mis-incorporation into DNA due to lack of distinguishing by DNA polymerase. Uracil incorporation can be repaired with base excision repair mechanisms but may create overwhelming DNA strand breaks proving to be detrimental to the cell. Most dUTPases of eukaryotes are homotrimeric and contain five highly conserved motifs responsible for catalysis and substrate binding. Many dUTPases of eukaryotes possess a leading and core region in their sequence. The core region is ...


Investigating The Viability Of Two Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Isolates After Air-Drying, Samantha Lane, Joanna Brooke 2014 DePaul University

Investigating The Viability Of Two Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Isolates After Air-Drying, Samantha Lane, Joanna Brooke

DePaul Discoveries

Abstract

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a water-borne infectious bacterium that is found in both clinical (hospitals) and non-clinical environments. This human pathogen is commonly recovered from respiratory tract infections. A recent study at a hospital in Taiwan suggested that dry patient charts can serve as a vehicle of transmission of this bacterium7. As S. maltophilia is not commonly isolated from dry surfaces, this current study tested the hypothesis that this pathogen can remain viable for some time on a dry surface. This study was designed to determine how long S. maltophilia could remain viable after air-drying by observing culture growth ...


Characterizing The Response Of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Species To The Application Of A Phage Cocktail, Steven Liu 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Characterizing The Response Of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Species To The Application Of A Phage Cocktail, Steven Liu

Symposium

Project Summary: The application of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections is known as phage therapy, which takes advantage of bacteriophage’s natural ability to infect and lyse bacterial hosts. Phages have been shaped by billions of years of evolution to be highly specialized deliverers of bactericidal agents to the cytoplasm of their target bacteria. Ever since discovery of bacteriophages in 1915, phage therapy was recognized as a potentially powerful tool for eliminating bacterial infections. The effectiveness of phage therapy can be increased by creating a mixture of multiple phages to target a wider variety of bacterial strains. Furthermore, phage therapy ...


Sub-Inhibitory Antibiotics Enhance Virulence, Persistence, And Pathogenesis Of Uropathogens, Lee W. Goneau 2014 Western University

Sub-Inhibitory Antibiotics Enhance Virulence, Persistence, And Pathogenesis Of Uropathogens, Lee W. Goneau

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In addition to their bactericidal effects, antibiotics are potent signal mediators at sub-inhibitory levels in the environment. The ability to modulate community structure in this niche raises concerns over their capacity to influence pathogenesis in patients during antibiotic therapy. This concept forms the basis of this thesis, and is explored using models of prophylactic therapy for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) management.

Sub-inhibitory ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, and gentamicin were found to augment virulence in vitro, increasing adherence and urothelial cell invasion in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In addition, biofilm formation was increased, and swarming motility decreased. In UPEC ...


The Antimicrobial, Mechanical, Physical And Structural Properties Of Chitosan-Gallic Acid Films, Xiuxiu Sun, Zhe Wang, Hoda Kadouh, Kequan Zhou 2014 Wayne State University

The Antimicrobial, Mechanical, Physical And Structural Properties Of Chitosan-Gallic Acid Films, Xiuxiu Sun, Zhe Wang, Hoda Kadouh, Kequan Zhou

Nutrition and Food Science Faculty Research Publications

Chitosan films incorporated with various concentrations of gallic acid were prepared and investigated for antimicrobial, mechanical, physical and structural properties. Four bacterial strains that commonly contaminate food products were chosen as target bacteria to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the prepared gallic acid-chitosan films. The incorporation of gallic acid significantly increased the antimicrobial activities of the films against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria innocua and Bacillus subtilis. Chitosan films incorporated with 1.5 g/100 g gallic acid showed the strongest antimicrobial activity. It was also found that tensile strength (TS) of chitosan film was significantly increased when incorporating 0 ...


Chlorovirus Skp1 And Core Ankyrin-Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric Andrew Noel 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Chlorovirus Skp1 And Core Ankyrin-Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric Andrew Noel

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a common target of several unrelated viruses that have evolved convergent strategies to redirect host ubiquitin machinery to serve their own needs. Members of the genus Chlorovirus, a group of large dsDNA viruses that infect certain freshwater chlorella-like green algae, encode a conserved Skp1 homolog and ankyrin-repeat (ANK) proteins, some of which contain C-terminal domains characteristic of cellular F-boxes or related viral PRANC domains. These observations suggested that this unique combination of chlorovirus proteins either interact with or imitate the key components of the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box) ubiquitin ligases. Using mass spectrometry, we identified two functional classes ...


Characterization Of Corynebacterium Pseudotuberculosis Biovar Equi Isolates Obtained From Cal Poly Horses And Review Of Application Of Transposons To Better Prevent Pigeon Fever In Horses, Irene Hasen 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Characterization Of Corynebacterium Pseudotuberculosis Biovar Equi Isolates Obtained From Cal Poly Horses And Review Of Application Of Transposons To Better Prevent Pigeon Fever In Horses, Irene Hasen

Animal Science

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Nutrition On The Microbiome In Pregnant Women And The Use Of Micronutrient Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt To Improve Outcomes, Megan Kathleen Enos 2014 Western University

The Effect Of Nutrition On The Microbiome In Pregnant Women And The Use Of Micronutrient Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt To Improve Outcomes, Megan Kathleen Enos

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aims of this study were to characterize the gut, oral, and vaginal microbiotas of pregnant women with varying nutritional status and to determine if daily supplementation with probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and ground Moringa leaves, would ‘normalize’ the microbiota and improve pregnancy outcomes. For the latter, a clinical study was performed in Mwanza, Tanzania, in which consumption of yogurt for 88 ± 31 days, starting from the second trimester, did not result in excess weight gain, altered pregnancy outcomes or increased blood nutrient levels compared to an under-nourished group not taking the yogurt. Ingestion of the probiotic yogurt ...


Identification And Characterization Of Phytoplankton In Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, Nicole L. Elia 2014 Seton Hall University

Identification And Characterization Of Phytoplankton In Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, Nicole L. Elia

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Barnegat Bay is a marine estuary that encompasses 670-square miles of the eastern coast of New Jersey. The bay serves as a home to thousands of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms. During the summer months, the population of the bay increases from 576,000 to over 1.5 million residents. In 2011, the Barnegat Bay Partnership reported that environmental conditions of the bay are declining due to increased pollutants from nutrient fertilizers and runoff. Increased nitrogen levels have led to eutrophication and proliferation of phytoplankton algal blooms. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause a decrease in dissolved oxygen levels in ...


The Use Of Natural Products As Potential Anti-Pseudomonas Agents, Margaret T. Bell 2014 Seton Hall University

The Use Of Natural Products As Potential Anti-Pseudomonas Agents, Margaret T. Bell

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Pseudomonas is a genus of gram-negative gammaproteobacteria with a large range of diversity. Because of its ability to grow at low temperature, Pseudomonas is a cause of food spoilage. This bacterium is also a very common nosocomial infection of hospital patients. In this study, we investigated the effects of different natural products on Pseudomonas. The products included a polysaccharide, two flavonoids tangeretin and nobiletin and their derivatives, 5’OH-tangeretin and 5’OH-nobiletin, black tea polyphenol – theaflavins (TFs), as well as an herb named Fallopia multiflora (Chinese Knotweed). P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa were used as model organisms. Antimicrobial effects were ...


Identification And Characterization Of Microbial Contaminants And Associated Bacterial Viruses In Bioethanol Production Facilities To Suggest A Potential Alternative To Antibiotic Treatment, Charles Austin Coomer 2014 Western Kentucky University

Identification And Characterization Of Microbial Contaminants And Associated Bacterial Viruses In Bioethanol Production Facilities To Suggest A Potential Alternative To Antibiotic Treatment, Charles Austin Coomer

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In recent years, bioethanol has received worldwide interest as a bioenergy source. This interest has stimulated the production of substantial quantities of ethanol annually. However, the inability to produce bioethanol under sterile conditions plagues the industry, resulting in frequent microbial contamination. Bacterial contamination is one of the more challenging problems facing the bioethanol industry because contaminants drastically lower ethanol yield. Conventional methods of antibiotic application to eradicate bacterial contaminants are expensive and prohibitive. A more sustainable approach to control bacterial contamination of industrial ethanol fermentation systems is to use bacteriophages (phage). The goal of this research was to create a ...


The Role Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus In The Growth, Toxicity, And Distribution Of The Toxic Cyanobacteria, Microcystis Aeruginosa, James Parrish 2014 University of San Francisco

The Role Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus In The Growth, Toxicity, And Distribution Of The Toxic Cyanobacteria, Microcystis Aeruginosa, James Parrish

Master's Projects

Microcystis aeruginosa is among the most common harmful algal-blooming species in the world. Potent microcystins released by M. aeruginosa have been linked to liver failure and death in aquatic mammals, like the endangered California sea otter, and provide a serious public health risk to humans. Once characterized as a freshwater problem, M. aeruginosa is expanding on a global scale, making persistent returns in freshwater, brackish, and coastal marine ecosystems. Though commonly observed dominating aquatic ecosystems in low N:P atomic ratios less than 44:1, the reliability of N:P ratios as a tool for managing and predicting M. aeruginosa ...


Chemical Profiling And Biological Activity Of Two Tunicate-Associated Marine Bacteria, Lyubina Yankova 2014 University of Connecticut

Chemical Profiling And Biological Activity Of Two Tunicate-Associated Marine Bacteria, Lyubina Yankova

Honors Scholar Theses

Marine natural products have recently been an increasingly abundant source of novel antibiotics. Given that there is an increasing resistance to current drug therapies, finding new sources such as marine natural products is essential. Tunicate-associated marine bacteria can be a significant source of antibacterial compounds. Two tunicates of the species Eudistoma were collected from Portobelo National Park on the Salmedina Reef of Panama in the Caribbean Sea. Bacteria associated with the tunicate were isolated, cultured, extracted, and fractionated. Fractions were tested against an array of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens in the BioMAP assay. Two fractions MB0086E and MB0088E demonstrated activity ...


Morphometric Studies On Subadult Liza Subviridis And Sillago Sihama From Sonmiani Bay (Miani Hor), Balochistan, Pakistan, Muhammad A. Gondal, Naureen A. Qureshi, Noor U. Saher 2014 Wright State University

Morphometric Studies On Subadult Liza Subviridis And Sillago Sihama From Sonmiani Bay (Miani Hor), Balochistan, Pakistan, Muhammad A. Gondal, Naureen A. Qureshi, Noor U. Saher

Journal of Bioresource Management

Length-weight relationship of Liza subviridis and Sillago sihama (Family: Mugilidae; Class: Pisces and Family: Sillaginidae; Class: Pisces) in subadults sampled from Somiani Bay Balochistan, Pakistan during 2002, 2003 and 2006 was analyzed. Liza subviridis showed positive allometry (3.23) in 2002, and negative allometry during 2003 (2.95) and 2006 (1.95). Sub adults of Sillago sihama showed positive allometry during 2002 (3.10) and 2003 (3.13). An isometric condition (3.02) was observed in the samples of Sillago sihama collected from Bhaira in 2006.


On Individual, Sex And Age Differentiation Of Indian House Crow (Corvus Splendens) Call: A Preliminary Study In Potohar, Pakistan, Waqas Hameed, Inayat Ullah, Safia Janjua, Fakhar -I- Abbas, Afsar Mian 2014 Wright State University

On Individual, Sex And Age Differentiation Of Indian House Crow (Corvus Splendens) Call: A Preliminary Study In Potohar, Pakistan, Waqas Hameed, Inayat Ullah, Safia Janjua, Fakhar -I- Abbas, Afsar Mian

Journal of Bioresource Management

Considering importance of acoustics studies in population biology, 500 calls of the Indian House Crow (Corvus splendens) were recorded in morning - mid-afternoon hours (January-February, 2009) from 23 sites of urban areas of Potahar (Punjab, Pakistan). Calls were recorded using Sony CFS 1030 S sound records (sampling rate = 48 KHz) and edited using Sound Analysis Pro (Version 1.02). software using FFT method rate 50%, data window 9.27 ms, advanced window 1.36 ms. Through editing of calls, we selected 60 (37 ♂♂, 17 ♀♀, 6 Juvenile ♂♂) good quality spectrograms for detailed analysis. Spectrograms were characterized by rapid frequency modulations using 6 ...


Review: Pollination, Pollinated And Pollinators Interaction In Pakistan, Mohammad Irshad, Elizabeth Stephen 2014 Wright State University

Review: Pollination, Pollinated And Pollinators Interaction In Pakistan, Mohammad Irshad, Elizabeth Stephen

Journal of Bioresource Management

The agriculture sector is important in the overall economy and export earnings of Pakistan. Pollination is an essential ecosystem service that depends on symbiosis between species, the pollinated and the pollinator. Animal mediated pollination contributes to the sexual production of over 90% species of modern angiosperms. Effective pollination results in increased crop production, quality improvement and more seed production. Many fruits, vegetables, edible oil crops, stimulant crops and nuts are highly dependent on bee pollination. Worldwide value of pollinators is €153 billion (217 billion US dollars). The production value of pollinated dependent crop in Pakistan is quantified to be 1 ...


Research Note: Contribution To Mushroom Flora Of Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan, Kishwar Sultana, Naveeda Riaz, Gulshan Irshad, Ali Nauman Khan 2014 Wright State University

Research Note: Contribution To Mushroom Flora Of Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan, Kishwar Sultana, Naveeda Riaz, Gulshan Irshad, Ali Nauman Khan

Journal of Bioresource Management

Seven hymenomycetous fungi (mushrooms) were collected from the twin cities area during July 2008. These were identified as the members of the order Agaricales, class Basidiomycetes. They belong to five genera: *Clitocybe fragrans, *Collybia cookie, *Coprinus radians, *Coprinus sterculinus, *Volvariella bingensis, Volvariella parvula, and Termitomyces microcarpus. Five of them, marked with asterisk were reported for the first time from Pakistan.


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