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Gas Detection As Control Means Of Microbial Metabolism In Biorefineries And For The Reduction Of Environmental Emissions, Elias Hakalehto 2015 University of Windsor

Gas Detection As Control Means Of Microbial Metabolism In Biorefineries And For The Reduction Of Environmental Emissions, Elias Hakalehto

21st International Conference on Environmental Indicators (ICEI 2015)

No abstract provided.


Fast Indication Of Bacterial Growth In Clinical Specimens By The Pmeu Approach, Elias Hakalehto, Anneli Heitto, Ilkka Pesola, Eva Del Amo, Heikki Paakkanen, Osmo Hänninen, Jouni Pesola 2015 University of Windsor

Fast Indication Of Bacterial Growth In Clinical Specimens By The Pmeu Approach, Elias Hakalehto, Anneli Heitto, Ilkka Pesola, Eva Del Amo, Heikki Paakkanen, Osmo Hänninen, Jouni Pesola

21st International Conference on Environmental Indicators (ICEI 2015)

No abstract provided.


Establishing A National Shellfish Sanitation Program In The Gambia, West Africa, Michael A. Rice, Foday Conteh, Karen Kent, Brian Crawford, Fatou Janha, Ismaila Bojang 2015 University of Rhode Island

Establishing A National Shellfish Sanitation Program In The Gambia, West Africa, Michael A. Rice, Foday Conteh, Karen Kent, Brian Crawford, Fatou Janha, Ismaila Bojang

Michael A Rice

A successful national program to assure sanitary quality of molluscan shellfish requires a multi-disciplinary and multi-agency governmental training, data collection, policy development and management effort in collaboration with members of the shellfish industry. The Tanbi Wetlands and other estuaries of Gambia support shellfisheries for oysters, Crassostrea tulipa, and the senile ark, Senelia senilis, conducted by the TRY Oyster Women’s Association. With low shellfish prices and a small local market, a Gambian National Shellfish Sanitation Program (GNSSP) was begun as a means to boost consumer confidence and allow market access to Gambia’s robust seasonal international tourism trade. Gambian officials ...


Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Transmission And Infection Among Young Zambian Children, Landon Olp 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Kaposi’S Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Transmission And Infection Among Young Zambian Children, Landon Olp

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for all forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)—one of the most common pediatric cancers in sub-Saharan Africa during the AIDS epidemic. KS was endemic in sub-Saharan Africa prior to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, but KS cases drastically increased thereafter. Our laboratory previously observed that KSHV infection is common among Zambian children and saliva is the major route of transmission. However, additional factors associated with the transmission of KSHV to children are poorly understood. Since a vaccine against KSHV is not currently available, it is paramount to understand factors associated with ...


Challenges And Opportunities In Understanding Microbial Communities With Metagenome Assembly (Accompanied By Ipython Notebook Tutorial), Adina C. Howe, Patrick S. G. Chain 2015 Iowa State University

Challenges And Opportunities In Understanding Microbial Communities With Metagenome Assembly (Accompanied By Ipython Notebook Tutorial), Adina C. Howe, Patrick S. G. Chain

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Metagenomic investigations hold great promise for informing the genetics, physiology, and ecology of environmental microorganisms. Current challenges for metagenomic analysis are related to our ability to connect the dots between sequencing reads, their population of origin, and their encoding functions. Assembly-based methods reduce dataset size by extending overlapping reads into larger contiguous sequences (contigs), providing contextual information for genetic sequences that does not rely on existing references. These methods, however, tend to be computationally intensive and are again challenged by sequencing errors as well as by genomic repeats While numerous tools have been developed based on these methodological concepts, they ...


Changes In Microbial Communities Along Redox Gradients In Polygonized Arctic Wet Tundra Soils, David A. Lipson, Ted K. Raab, Melanie Parker, Scott T. Kelley, Colin J. Brislawn, Janet Jansson 2015 San Diego State University

Changes In Microbial Communities Along Redox Gradients In Polygonized Arctic Wet Tundra Soils, David A. Lipson, Ted K. Raab, Melanie Parker, Scott T. Kelley, Colin J. Brislawn, Janet Jansson

Ted K. Raab

This study investigated how microbial community structure and diversity varied with depth and topography in ice wedge polygons of wet tundra of the Arctic Coastal Plain in northern Alaska, and what soil variables explain these patterns. We observed strong changes in community structure and diversity with depth, and more subtle changes between areas of high and low topography, with the largest differences apparent near the soil surface. These patterns are most strongly correlated with redox gradients (measured using the ratio of reduced Fe to total Fe in acid extracts as a proxy): conditions grew more reducing with depth and were ...


The Biological Consequences Of Kaolin Geophagia, Deloris Alexander, Desire Richardson, Lakisha Odom, Kara Cromwell, DeJuana Grant, Micoya Myers, Eddy Cadet, Hamid Mahama, Vijaya Rangari, Ralphenia Pace, Ramble Ankumah, Kokoasse Kpomblekou-A, Curtis Fluker 2015 Tuskegee University

The Biological Consequences Of Kaolin Geophagia, Deloris Alexander, Desire Richardson, Lakisha Odom, Kara Cromwell, Dejuana Grant, Micoya Myers, Eddy Cadet, Hamid Mahama, Vijaya Rangari, Ralphenia Pace, Ramble Ankumah, Kokoasse Kpomblekou-A, Curtis Fluker

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

Kaolin geophagia is associated with the relief of gastrointestinal distress, but it may also cause adverse health effects on the body. This study was designed to: assess kaolin composition; test if 129SvEv mice would consume kaolin and determine the consequences of consumption; and assess rotational stress modulation of consumption. Thirteen kaolin samples were purchased from Alabama and Georgia stores. Chemical and physical properties were characterized for each sample using a Munsell chart, pH meter, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Visible Near-InfraRed Spectra, and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Kaolin was then given to mice as food supplements and ...


Virulence Gene Expression Of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus In The Viable But Nonculturable State, Tiffany Pui-Yun Tse 2015 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Virulence Gene Expression Of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus In The Viable But Nonculturable State, Tiffany Pui-Yun Tse

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen commonly associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood resulting in primary infections of the human gastrointestinal tract. It is estimated to cause about 4500 illnesses each year in the United States. However, infection from this food-borne pathogen can be avoided if this organism is detected in the implicated food, prior to consumption. Current standard methods of detecting this organism are dependent on the culturability of the bacteria. Detection based on an organism’s culturability may be problematic as V. parahaemolyticus has been known to exist in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state ...


Secretion Of Heat-Labile Enterotoxin By Porcine-Origin Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli And Relation To Virulence, Prageeth R. Wijemanne 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Secretion Of Heat-Labile Enterotoxin By Porcine-Origin Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli And Relation To Virulence, Prageeth R. Wijemanne

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an important virulence factor secreted by some strains of porcine-origin enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (pETEC). The prototypic human-origin strain H10407 secretes LT via a type II secretion system (T2SS), but its presence or importance in pETEC has not been established. Exposure of pETEC to glucose has been shown to result in different secretion levels of LT. Furthermore, the relationship between the level of LT secreted and the virulence potential of the respective pETEC strain has not been established. To determine the relationship between the capacity to secrete LT and virulence in wild-type (WT) pETEC, 16 strains isolated ...


Isolation And Characterization Of Microalgae Strains For Live Food In Sulawesi, Indonesia, Wa Iba, Michael A. Rice 2015 University of Rhode Island

Isolation And Characterization Of Microalgae Strains For Live Food In Sulawesi, Indonesia, Wa Iba, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

Four strains of diatoms were isolated from the waters of Kendari Bay in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, including strains of Melosira moniliformis, Chaetoceros, sp. and a larger species that is likely to be Tetraselmis weissflogii. Isolated strains have exhibited a wide range of salinity tolerances in the 20 to 35 psu range. Strains of isolated phytoplankton were able to reach high densities consistent with strains suitable for use as aquaculture feeds. One strain Kbl-3 attained lipid content of 22.3 percent per gram dry weight at salinity of 35 psu, suggesting that it may be a good feed for shrimp larvae ...


The Shellfish Corner -- Vibrios And Shellfish, Michael A. Rice 2015 University of Rhode Island

The Shellfish Corner -- Vibrios And Shellfish, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

Pathogenic Vibrios are becoming an increasing problem for shellfish producers in North America and elsewhere. This paper reviews current research into the pathogenic nature of Vibrios and provides some practical advice for avoiding the propagation of Vibrios on shellfish farms nd in wild harvest molluscan shellfish.


Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Its Role In Gut-Homing Macrophage Generation And Colitis, And Production By Probiotics, Shahab Meshkibaf 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Its Role In Gut-Homing Macrophage Generation And Colitis, And Production By Probiotics, Shahab Meshkibaf

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pleiotropic cytokine granulocyte-colony stimulatory factor (G-CSF) is mainly required for the generation of neutrophils, but its role in macrophage generation has also been reported. In addition, G-CSF is effective for the down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and ameliorating gut disorders, such as colitis. However, the G-CSF function in macrophage generation and gut immunity remains unclear. The first focus of this thesis was to assess the role of G-CSF in macrophage generation and its contribution to gut immunity. G-CSF was found to promote the generation of Gr-1high/F4/80+ macrophages in macrophage (M)-CSF-treated bone marrow cells, most likely through suppressing ...


Generation And Assessment Of Muscular Mutations In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Katie N. Reget 2015 DePaul University

Generation And Assessment Of Muscular Mutations In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Katie N. Reget

DePaul Discoveries

A study of egg laying muscular mutations in C. elegans was conducted over a span of ten weeks. Parent (EGL-19) and wild type (N2) were exposed to mutagenesis and integration mutation techniques to generate genetic and physical different mutants. Overall, four genetic, physical and phenotypically unique worms were generated for the process of mutagenesis. The worms used in the process of integration were found to have shortened life spans, reduced size and decrease numbers of progeny.


Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane 2015 DePaul University

Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane

DePaul Discoveries

Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide5,6. It is estimated that roughly 80% of those infected suffer from persistent infection with the virus; this persistence of infection is progressive, and over time can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma7. Chronic inflammation and apoptotic deregulation are both hallmarks of chronic HCV infection, and many molecular pathways are initiated in both the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection with this viral pathogen. The aim of this review was to survey some of the major molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of chronic ...


Functional Analysis Of The Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Mc160 Death Effector Domain-Containing Protein Rxdl Motif, Sarah Weber 2015 Seton Hall University

Functional Analysis Of The Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Mc160 Death Effector Domain-Containing Protein Rxdl Motif, Sarah Weber

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a member of the Poxviridae family that causes benign skin lesions. MCV lesions persist on average for 8-12 months in otherwise healthy individuals. MCV lesions are characterized by reduced inflammation. The persistence and reduction of inflammation at the site of MCV lesions have been attributed to MCV immune evasion genes. MCV encodes two death effector domain (DED) containing proteins, MC159 and MC160. DEDs are found in cellular proteins such as FADD and procaspase-8. These cellular proteins are involved in several innate immune responses such as apoptosis and activation of interferon (IFN). Presumably, MC159 and ...


The C-Terminal Linker Of Ftsz Acts As An Intrinsically Disordered Peptide During Cell Division In Bacillus Subtilis, Steven Grigsby 2015 Washington University in St Louis

The C-Terminal Linker Of Ftsz Acts As An Intrinsically Disordered Peptide During Cell Division In Bacillus Subtilis, Steven Grigsby

Undergraduate Theses—Unrestricted

The bacterial tubulin homologue FtsZ polymerizes in vitro in a GTP-dependent manner to form long, single stranded filaments. In cells, these filaments assemble at the nascent division site, interacting laterally to form the contractile Z ring. The Z ring serves as a scaffold for the rest of the division machinery and constricts at the leading edge of the invaginating septum during cytokinesis. The FtsZ polypeptide consists of three primary domains: the N-terminal globular core consisting of 315 residues that contains the GTP binding site, a variable and flexible C-terminal linker (CTL) consisting of 50 residues, and a conserved region at ...


Cave Cyanobacteria Showing Antibacterial Activity, Vasiliki Lamprinou, Kyriaki Tryfinopoulou, Emmanuel N. Velonakis, Alkiviadis Vatopoulos, Smaragdi Antonopoulou, Elizabeth Fragopoulou, Adriani Pantazidou, Athena Economou-Amilli 2015 University of Athens, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology & Systematics

Cave Cyanobacteria Showing Antibacterial Activity, Vasiliki Lamprinou, Kyriaki Tryfinopoulou, Emmanuel N. Velonakis, Alkiviadis Vatopoulos, Smaragdi Antonopoulou, Elizabeth Fragopoulou, Adriani Pantazidou, Athena Economou-Amilli

International Journal of Speleology

Cave Cyanobacteria - thriving in an ‘extreme’ environment with interesting species biodiversity - are supposed to be a potential source of bioactive compounds. Lipid extracts from pure cultures of two recently established Cyanobacteria from Greek caves, Toxopsis calypsus and Phormidium melanochroun, were used for antibacterial screening against human pathogenic bacteria (reference and clinical isolates). Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing for both taxa was carried out using the disc-diffusion (Kirby Bauer) method, while preliminary data applying the standard broth microdilution method for the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) are given only for T. calypsus. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated against the Gram-positive clinical and ...


Human And Murine Clonal Cd8+ T Cell Expansions Arise During Tuberculosis Because Of Tcr Selection, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Stephen M. Carpenter, Alissa C. Rothchild, Constance J. Martin, Danielle Desjardins, Katherine Steblenko, Henrik N. Kløverpris, Rajhmun Madansein, Duran Ramsuran, Alasdair Leslie, Margarida Correia-Neves, Samuel M. Behar 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Human And Murine Clonal Cd8+ T Cell Expansions Arise During Tuberculosis Because Of Tcr Selection, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Stephen M. Carpenter, Alissa C. Rothchild, Constance J. Martin, Danielle Desjardins, Katherine Steblenko, Henrik N. Kløverpris, Rajhmun Madansein, Duran Ramsuran, Alasdair Leslie, Margarida Correia-Neves, Samuel M. Behar

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

The immune system can recognize virtually any antigen, yet T cell responses against several pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are restricted to a limited number of immunodominant epitopes. The host factors that affect immunodominance are incompletely understood. Whether immunodominant epitopes elicit protective CD8+ T cell responses or instead act as decoys to subvert immunity and allow pathogens to establish chronic infection is unknown. Here we show that anatomically distinct human granulomas contain clonally expanded CD8+ T cells with overlapping T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. Similarly, the murine CD8+ T cell response against M. tuberculosis is dominated by TB10.44-11-specific T cells ...


Effect Of Cmvil-10 On Exosome Production By Human Breast Cancer Cells, Susanna N. Basappa 2015 University of San Francisco

Effect Of Cmvil-10 On Exosome Production By Human Breast Cancer Cells, Susanna N. Basappa

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that infects 70-90% of the general population, primarily the immunocompromised, but has been implicated in several forms of cancer, including breast cancer. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in women in North America, usually from metastasis. Exosomes are 30-100nm vesicles produced by most cells which carry protein and RNA to cells in their microenvironment. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of HCMV-infection of a secreted viral cytokine, cmvIL-10, on exosome production by highly metastatic breast cancer cells.

MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in vitro, and ...


Characterization And Fluorescence Of Yellow Biofilms In Karst Caves, Southwest Slovenia, Janez Mulec, Andreea Oarga-Mulec, Rok Tomazin, Tadeja Matos 2015 Karst Research Institute, Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Characterization And Fluorescence Of Yellow Biofilms In Karst Caves, Southwest Slovenia, Janez Mulec, Andreea Oarga-Mulec, Rok Tomazin, Tadeja Matos

International Journal of Speleology

Biofilms of different colours that colonize surfaces within karst caves represent a source of nutrients. They occur commonly and abundantly at sites with sediments, and close to seepages or underground rivers. Golden-yellow subaerial biofilms are particularly well observed because of their contrast with their surroundings, the characteristics of the pigment and recently, even more, due to the characteristics of light-emitting diode (LED) illumination. Yellow microbial biofilms were sampled from three caves in southwestern Slovenia, Dimnice, Križna jama and Sveta jama. The highest concentration of cultivable microbes (2.33×108 CFU/g) and the biggest number of identified bacteria (66 ...


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