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Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay 2017 University of Montana

Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Bartonella bacilliformis is a gram negative alpha-proteobacterium native to the Andes of South America. Bartonella causes Carrion’s disease, a potentially life threatening disease transmitted by the sand fly. It has a mortality rate of 88% when untreated and 10% when treated. Diagnostics and control measures for the disease are underdeveloped and no vaccine is available. Recent outbreaks indicate that the range of the pathogen is increasing with nearly 1.7 million people in western South America at risk. Little is known about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of B. bacilliformis. Recent research done by UC San Diego found a paralogous ...


Diversity Of Cultured Bacteria From The Perennial Ice Block Of Scarisoara Ice Cave, Romania, Corina Iţcuş, Mădălina-Denisa Pascu, Traian Brad, Aurel Perşoiu, Cristina Purcarea 2016 Institute of Biology Bucharest

Diversity Of Cultured Bacteria From The Perennial Ice Block Of Scarisoara Ice Cave, Romania, Corina Iţcuş, Mădălina-Denisa Pascu, Traian Brad, Aurel Perşoiu, Cristina Purcarea

International Journal of Speleology

Cave ice ecosystems represent a poorly investigated glacial environment. Diversity of cave ice bacteria and their distribution in perennial ice deposits of this underground glacial habitat could constitute a proxy for microbial response to climatic and environmental changes. Scarisoara Ice Cave (Romania) hosts one of the oldest and largest cave ice blocks worldwide. Here we report on cultured microbial diversity of recent, 400, and 900 years-old perennial ice from this cave, representing the first characterization of a chronological distribution of cave-ice bacteria. Total cell density measured by SYBR Green I epifluorescence microscopy varied in the 2.4 x 104 ...


Recombination Does Not Hinder Formation Or Detection Of Ecological Species Of Synechococcus Inhabiting A Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat, Melanie C. Melendrez, Eric D. Becraft, Jason M. Wood, Millie T. Olsen, Donald A. Bryant, John F. Heidelberg, Douglas B. Rusch, Frederick M. Cohan, David M. Ward 2016

Recombination Does Not Hinder Formation Or Detection Of Ecological Species Of Synechococcus Inhabiting A Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat, Melanie C. Melendrez, Eric D. Becraft, Jason M. Wood, Millie T. Olsen, Donald A. Bryant, John F. Heidelberg, Douglas B. Rusch, Frederick M. Cohan, David M. Ward

Frederick M. Cohan

Recent studies of bacterial speciation have claimed to support the biological species concept—that reduced recombination is required for bacterial populations to diverge into species. This conclusion has been reached from the discovery that ecologically distinct clades show lower rates of recombination than that which occurs among closest relatives. However, these previous studies did not attempt to determine whether the more-rapidly recombining close relatives within the clades studied may also have diversified ecologically, without benefit of sexual isolation. Here we have measured the impact of recombination on ecological diversification within and between two ecologically distinct clades (A and B’) of ...


Detection Of Fecal Contamination Using Molecular Methods, Kristina K. Bowen 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Detection Of Fecal Contamination Using Molecular Methods, Kristina K. Bowen

Independent Research Projects

This study explores the process of designing a molecular method to detect fecal contamination in the urban watersheds of Rock Island and Moline, Illinois. These urban watersheds are known to contain high ammonia levels and total dissolved solids based on previous studies. Additionally there is concern about the aging combined sewer and storm water system. Therefore, these watersheds are thought to have poor water quality including fecal contamination. Existing molecular methods used for detecting fecal contamination require a considerable amount of resources in the laboratory. Our goal was to design a molecular method that requires fewer resources and can continue ...


Data From: A Higher Activation Threshold Of Memory Cd8+ T Cells Has A Fitness Cost That Is Modified By Tcr Affinity During Tuberculosis, Stephen M. Carpenter, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Sing Sing Way, Samuel M. Behar 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Data From: A Higher Activation Threshold Of Memory Cd8+ T Cells Has A Fitness Cost That Is Modified By Tcr Affinity During Tuberculosis, Stephen M. Carpenter, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Sing Sing Way, Samuel M. Behar

MaPS Research Data

This dataset is the primary data source for a manuscript submitted for publication.


Discriminating Active Tuberculosis From Latent Tuberculosis Infection By Flow Cytometric Measurement Of Cd161-Expressing T Cells, Qianting Yang, Qian Xu, Qi Chen, Jin Li, Mingxia Zhang, Yi Cai, Haiying Liu, Yiping Zhou, Guofang Deng, Qunyi Deng, Boping Zhou, Hardy Kornfeld, Xinchun Chen 2015 Guangdong Medical College

Discriminating Active Tuberculosis From Latent Tuberculosis Infection By Flow Cytometric Measurement Of Cd161-Expressing T Cells, Qianting Yang, Qian Xu, Qi Chen, Jin Li, Mingxia Zhang, Yi Cai, Haiying Liu, Yiping Zhou, Guofang Deng, Qunyi Deng, Boping Zhou, Hardy Kornfeld, Xinchun Chen

Open Access Articles

Interferon-gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) significantly increases the possibility for early diagnosis of tuberculosis, but IGRAs alone cannot discriminate active TB from LTBI. Therefore, fast and reliable discrimination of active tuberculosis, especially bacteriology negative tuberculosis, from LTBI is a great necessity. Here we established an assay based on flow cytometric multiparameter assay assessing expression of CD161 along with CD3, CD4, and CD8, whereby a set of indices formulated by the percentages of CD3(+)CD161(+), CD3(+)CD4(+)CD161(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+)CD161(+) T cells multiplied with lymphocyte/monocyte ratio were established. Application of the CD3(+)CD8(+)CD161(+) index to compare a cohort ...


Fungi On White-Nose Infected Bats (Myotis Spp.) In Eastern Canada Show No Decline In Diversity Associated With Pseudogymnoascus Destructans (Ascomycota: Pseudeurotiaceae), Karen J. Vanderwolf, David Malloch, Donald F. McAlpine 2015 New Brunswick Museum

Fungi On White-Nose Infected Bats (Myotis Spp.) In Eastern Canada Show No Decline In Diversity Associated With Pseudogymnoascus Destructans (Ascomycota: Pseudeurotiaceae), Karen J. Vanderwolf, David Malloch, Donald F. Mcalpine

International Journal of Speleology

The introduction of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) to North America has stimulated research on the poorly known mycology of caves. It is possible that the introduction of Pd reduces the diversity of fungi associated with bats hibernating in caves. To test this hypothesis we examined the fungal assemblages associated with hibernating bats (Myotis spp.) pre- and post- white-nose syndrome (WNS) infection in eastern Canada using culture-dependent methods. We found the mean number of fungal taxa isolated from bats/hibernaculum was not significantly different between pre-infection (29.6 ± 6.1SD) and post-infection with WNS (32.4 ± 4.3). Although ...


Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Inland waters cover about 2.5 percent of our planet and harbor huge numbers of known and unknown microorganisms including viruses. Viruses likely play dynamic, albeit largely undocumented roles in regulating microbial communities and in recycling nutrients in the ecosystem. Phycodnaviruses are a genetically diverse, yet morphologically similar, group of large dsDNA-containing viruses (160- to 560-kb) that inhabit aquatic environments. Members of the genus Chlorovirus are common in freshwater. They replicate in eukaryotic, single-celled, chlorella-like green algae that normally exist as endosymbionts of protists in nature. Very little is known about the natural history of the chloroviruses and how they ...


Discovery & Born-Digital Archiving: Open Source Systems For Preservation And Access, L. Bryan Cooper, Margarita Perez Martinez 2015 Florida International University

Discovery & Born-Digital Archiving: Open Source Systems For Preservation And Access, L. Bryan Cooper, Margarita Perez Martinez

Works of the FIU Libraries

The Everglades Explorer (EE) portal at http://ee.fiu.edu continues to evolve with the addition of the Internet Archive's Archive-It, and future planned alignment with the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA). The reasons for the development of the portal continue to exist, as originally perceived four years ago. Adaptations to ongoing change and system testing continues, and the use of Archive-It has broad institutional potential beyond EE. Cross-walking skills continue to grown, and will benefit future syndication and discovery system integration. The metadata normalization and harmonization will help save time for the end-user. Preservation and access to ...


Utilizing Cmp-Sialic Acid Analogs To Unravel Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance And Design Novel Therapeutics, Sunita Gulati, Ian C. Schoenhofen, Dennis M. Whitfield, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St Michael, Evgeny V. Vinogradov, Jacek Stupak, Bo Zheng, Makoto Ohnishi, Magnus Unemo, Lisa A. Lewis, Rachel E. Taylor, Corinna S. Landig, Sandra Diaz, George W. Reed, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Utilizing Cmp-Sialic Acid Analogs To Unravel Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance And Design Novel Therapeutics, Sunita Gulati, Ian C. Schoenhofen, Dennis M. Whitfield, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St Michael, Evgeny V. Vinogradov, Jacek Stupak, Bo Zheng, Makoto Ohnishi, Magnus Unemo, Lisa A. Lewis, Rachel E. Taylor, Corinna S. Landig, Sandra Diaz, George W. Reed, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram

Open Access Articles

Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP)-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO) sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a sialic acid (Sia) abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH), an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation ("serum-resistance"). We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac) and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac), to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While ...


A Lipidomics Approach To The Viral-Host Dynamics Of The Unicellular, Eukaryotic Alga Chlorella Variabilis And Its Viral Pathogen, Pbcv-1, Suzanne Rose 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Lipidomics Approach To The Viral-Host Dynamics Of The Unicellular, Eukaryotic Alga Chlorella Variabilis And Its Viral Pathogen, Pbcv-1, Suzanne Rose

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

This thesis focuses on the sterol and sphingolipid composition in the unicellular, green alga Chlorella variabilis and the lipidomic changes that occur during viral infection. Using lipid analysis by mass spectrometry, we have identified the major sterol, ergosterol and sphingolipid, glucosyl inositol phosphoceramide (GIPC) as constituents of C. variabilis cell membranes. Sterols and sphingolipids have essential biological functions such as hormone-based signaling, plant defense, and apoptosis as well as critical roles in structural components of the cell and organelle membranes. In chapters two and three, we focus on the characterization of sterol composition among both freshwater and marine alga and ...


Epidemiology Of Select Species Of Filarial Nematodes In Free-Ranging Moose (Alces Alces) Of North America, Caroline Mae Grunenwald 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Epidemiology Of Select Species Of Filarial Nematodes In Free-Ranging Moose (Alces Alces) Of North America, Caroline Mae Grunenwald

Doctoral Dissertations

North American moose (Alces alces) are a culturally and economically valued species. Recent population declines raise concern for the survivability of this natural resource. The Minnesota population has experienced the most dramatic decline, with a 60% loss in total numbers since 2006. Nematode parasites, particularly some species of filarids, are important pathogens of moose and could be contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study investigates the eco-epidemiology of two filarial parasites of moose: Rumenfilaria andersoni and Elaeophora schneideri. By surveying cervid species from six U.S. states, we discovered R. andersoni was present in moose from all sample locations with ...


Method Assessment For Microalgae Quantification In Wastewater Treatment And Biofuel Production, Kristen S. Harrison 2015 University of Arkansas at Fayetteville

Method Assessment For Microalgae Quantification In Wastewater Treatment And Biofuel Production, Kristen S. Harrison

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

There is growing interest in the use of microalgae for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. However, there is not yet a reliable, user-friendly method of quantifying the biomass and lipid production of a large sample of algae. This study aims to establish and validate new methods for green microalgae quantification using the Microplate reader and the Coulter Counter. Chlorella vulgaris was chosen as the ‘ideal’ algal species for wastewater treatment and biofuel production due to its structure, lipid production, and pollution removal ability. Three traditional quantification methods -- microscope cell count, lipid separation, and chlorophyll extraction -- were compared to the Microplate ...


Identification Of Purinyl-Cobamide As A Novel Corrinoid Cofactor Of Tetrachloroethene Reductive Dehalogenases In Desulfitobacterium Spp., Meng Bi 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Identification Of Purinyl-Cobamide As A Novel Corrinoid Cofactor Of Tetrachloroethene Reductive Dehalogenases In Desulfitobacterium Spp., Meng Bi

Masters Theses

Corrinoids (e.g. vitamin B12) [cyanocobalamin] are a group of structurally similar, cobaltcontaining tetrapyrrole compounds involved in a number of important biochemical reactions. In organohalide respiration, vitamin B12 analogues carrying different lower bases are obligate cofactors for the reductive dehalogenases (RDases) that catalyze reductive dechlorination reactions. The focus of this research was on the isolation and characterization of a novel natural corrinoid cofactor that enables the dechlorination-coupled energy conservation in organohaliderespiring Desulfitobacterium strains. Analysis of the purified corrinoid in the cyano form using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), UV-Vis [Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy] and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution ...


The Mixing Of A River Into Coastal Waters At Two Beaches: Environmental Factors, E. Coli Contributions And Applications For Predictive Models, Adrian Jordan Koski 2015 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

The Mixing Of A River Into Coastal Waters At Two Beaches: Environmental Factors, E. Coli Contributions And Applications For Predictive Models, Adrian Jordan Koski

Theses and Dissertations

Beach closures and public health protection are confounded by analytical procedures that result in delays in notification of adverse water quality conditions and the lack of affordable analytical methods to identify pollutant sources. Attempts have been made to develop predictive frameworks using ancillary hydrometeorological data to statistically anticipate deteriorated water quality. Many urban coastal beaches are impacted by river runoff. In Kenosha Wisconsin, beach sanitary survey data from two beaches adjacent to the mouth of the Pike River were examined to ascertain whether simple river-lake mixing models identified river influence on coastal water quality and improved predictions of beach advisories ...


Recombinase-Based In Vivo Expression Technology Identifies A Streptococcus Pyogenes Bacteriocin Important For Niche Adaptation In The Nasopharynx, Brent D. Armstrong 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Recombinase-Based In Vivo Expression Technology Identifies A Streptococcus Pyogenes Bacteriocin Important For Niche Adaptation In The Nasopharynx, Brent D. Armstrong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive, human-specific bacterial pathogen with the ability to cause a wide range of diseases from strep throat to necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. In addition, S. pyogenes may also induce post-streptococcal sequelae including rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis, and reactive arthritis. Although primarily recognized as a pathogen, S. pyogenes also colonizes the skin and throat often without causing disease, and while numerous surface adhesions are important to attach to these surfaces, additional factors important for colonization and persistence by S. pyogenes are poorly understood. In addition to host defence mechanisms, the upper respiratory tract also contains ...


Direct Visualization Of Hiv-1 Replication Intermediates Shows That Capsid And Cpsf6 Modulate Hiv-1 Intra-Nuclear Invasion And Integration, Christopher R. Chin, Jill Perreira, George Savidis, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Aaron M. Aker, Eric M. Feeley, Miles C. Smith, Abraham L. Brass 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Direct Visualization Of Hiv-1 Replication Intermediates Shows That Capsid And Cpsf6 Modulate Hiv-1 Intra-Nuclear Invasion And Integration, Christopher R. Chin, Jill Perreira, George Savidis, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Aaron M. Aker, Eric M. Feeley, Miles C. Smith, Abraham L. Brass

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

Direct visualization of HIV-1 replication would improve our understanding of the viral life cycle. We adapted established technology and reagents to develop an imaging approach, ViewHIV, which allows evaluation of early HIV-1 replication intermediates, from reverse transcription to integration. These methods permit the simultaneous evaluation of both the capsid protein (CA) and viral DNA genome (vDNA) components of HIV-1 in both the cytosol and nuclei of single cells. ViewHIV is relatively rapid, uses readily available reagents in combination with standard confocal microscopy, and can be done with virtually any HIV-1 strain and permissive cell lines or primary cells. Using ViewHIV ...


Determining The Minimum Infectious Dose Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv) In A Feed Matrix, L. L. Schumacher, J. C. Woodworth, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones, R. A. Hesse, Rodger G. Main, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip Charles Gauger, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach 2015 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Determining The Minimum Infectious Dose Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv) In A Feed Matrix, L. L. Schumacher, J. C. Woodworth, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones, R. A. Hesse, Rodger G. Main, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip Charles Gauger, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Understanding the magnitude of transmissible risk Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV)-infected feed imposes and establishing the minimum infectious dose of PEDV in a feed matrix are important components in strengthening virus prevention and control methods. In this study, an experiment was performed involving 30 crossbred, 10-d-old pigs that were used as a bioassay model for the minimum infectious dose of PEDV in feed. The PEDV was first diluted using tissue culture media to form 8 serial 10-fold dilutions. An aliquot of the original stock virus at 5.6 x 105 tissue culture infectious dose/ml (TCID50/ml ...


Novel Host Defence Peptide Prodrugs For Use In Cystic Fibrosis, Eanna Forde 2015 Royal College of Surgeons In Ireland

Novel Host Defence Peptide Prodrugs For Use In Cystic Fibrosis, Eanna Forde

PhD theses

Host defence peptides (HDPs) are short antimicrobial peptides that form a crucial component of the innate immune system. Deficiencies in HDP activity contribute to enhanced susceptibility to infections; this is the case in cystic fibrosis (CF). Exogenously-applied HDPs can compensate for these deficiencies and are attractive as new antiinfectives, but their development as antimicrobials is limited by cytotoxicity. This thesis describes the development of a series of HDP prodrugs whose cytotoxicity is reduced by net-charge decrease. As high levels of the host protease neutrophil elastase (NE) are colocalised in the lung with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, the enzyme is the target ...


Degradation Of The Cancer Genomic Dna Deaminase Apobec3b By Siv Vif, Allison M. Land, Jiayi Wang, Emily K. Law, Ryan Aberle, Andrea Kirmaier, Annabel Krupp, Welkin E. Johnson, Reuben S. Harris 2015 Minnesota State University - Mankato

Degradation Of The Cancer Genomic Dna Deaminase Apobec3b By Siv Vif, Allison M. Land, Jiayi Wang, Emily K. Law, Ryan Aberle, Andrea Kirmaier, Annabel Krupp, Welkin E. Johnson, Reuben S. Harris

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

APOBEC3B is a newly identified source of mutation in many cancers, including breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, and ovarian. APOBEC3B is a member of the APOBEC3 family of enzymes that deaminate DNA cytosine to produce the promutagenic lesion, uracil. Several APOBEC3 family members function to restrict virus replication. For instance, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H combine to restrict HIV-1 in human lymphocytes. HIV-1 counteracts these APOBEC3s with the viral protein Vif, which targets the relevant APOBEC3s for proteasomal degradation. While APOBEC3B does not restrict HIV-1 and is not targeted by HIV-1 Vif in CD4-positive T cells, we asked whether ...


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