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Identification And Characterization Of A Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Bacteriophage, Rachel Persinger 2020 James Madison University

Identification And Characterization Of A Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Bacteriophage, Rachel Persinger

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

Growing antibiotic resistance of the human pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has become a great concern in healthcare as many current treatment options are being exhausted. Thus, an interest in phage therapy has developed as a possible treatment to alleviate this problem. In this study, bacteriophages that infect P. aeruginosa were isolated and analyzed. Two methods of discovery were used to isolate potential phages using P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. A direct method used environmental samples to test for infection of one of four P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. As a result, one clinical isolate-infecting phage was found. It was sequenced and named “Persinger ...


Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver 2020 Olivet Nazarene University

Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver

Pence-Boyce STEM Student Scholarship

Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease that is characterized by the hardening of arteries through the formation of cholesterol plaques. Cyclodextrins could potentially treat atherosclerosis by shrinking plaques. These cyclic oligosaccharides can make complexes with cholesterol but have also shown toxic side effects. This study looked for potential negative effects of cyclodextrins and cholesterol on gut bacteria. It was hypothesized that Bacteroides vulgatus will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cholesterol. In contrast, Clostridium bolteae will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cyclodextrins. Due to the fact that these bacteria are anaerobic, Clostridium bolteae and Bacteroides vulgatus ...


Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr 2020 Georgia College and State University

Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr

The Corinthian

Shigella bacteria cause half a million infections, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 70 deaths annually in the United States. These bacteria are of particular concern due to their high survivability, low infectious dose, and high adaptability. Cases of shigellosis from Shigella sonnei are becoming a more prevalent issue in the U.S. as the bacteria continues to develop higher resistance to today’s strongest antibiotics. Much of this resistance is connected to the exchange of genes between strains of Shigella due to insertion sequences (IS), intercontinental travel, and men who have sex with men (MSM). As a result of increased resistance ...


Evaluation Of The Attitudes Of Phytotherapists Towards The Herbal Treatment Of Obesity In The Light Of Ancient And Modern Theoretical Knowledge - Field Study In Tlemcen (Algeria), Chahrazed Bessenouci 2020 University Center of Naama, Algeria

Evaluation Of The Attitudes Of Phytotherapists Towards The Herbal Treatment Of Obesity In The Light Of Ancient And Modern Theoretical Knowledge - Field Study In Tlemcen (Algeria), Chahrazed Bessenouci

Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

This research aimed to reveal the phytotherapists attitudes towards medicinal plants therapy used to treat obesity through identifying the nature of these attitudes and their degree of compatibility with what is in the ancient scientific manuscripts and the research publications in the modern chemistry. To do this, a choice was made of an intentional sample of 34 Herbalists-Phytotherapists (from several regions of the province of Tlemcen). Then the researchers used a face-to-face interview to survey the attitudes using a 27-item Likert-scale test. To determine the nature of the sample's attitudes and also the level of their knowledge, a descriptive ...


The Impact Of Sample Processing And Media Chemistry On The Culturable Diversity Of Bacteria Isolated From A Cave, Katey E. Bender, Katelyn Glover, Alexander Archey, Hazel A. Barton 2020 University of Akron

The Impact Of Sample Processing And Media Chemistry On The Culturable Diversity Of Bacteria Isolated From A Cave, Katey E. Bender, Katelyn Glover, Alexander Archey, Hazel A. Barton

International Journal of Speleology

Although molecular approaches can identify members of microbial communities in the environment, genomic information does not necessarily correlate with environmental phenotype. Understanding functional roles can be done by cultivating representative species, yet the culturablility of bacteria from caves remains low, at 0.02%, limiting our understanding of microbial community interactions and processes. We have investigated several factors influencing culturability of bacteria from a single sample location in Maxwelton Sink Cave, WV, USA. Extended incubation of inoculated plates showed a significant increase in colony counts from two to four weeks, indicating that extended incubations increase culturability. There were no significant differences ...


Metabolic Interactions In Microbial Communities, Elizabeth A. Shank 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Metabolic Interactions In Microbial Communities, Elizabeth A. Shank

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

The Shank laboratory studies the chemical and physical interactions of microbes with each other and their hosts. Microbes live everywhere, and their activities can have profound impacts on their hosts as well as on ecosystem‐level processes. How microbes interact within these communities, however, remains largely unknown. We are fascinated by the idea that microbes are able to generate and secrete chemical cues (known as specialized or secondary metabolites) that can act as interspecies signals to influence the physiology and metabolism of their microbial neighbors, and thus contribute to the stability and functioning of complex microbial communities. Our research dissects ...


Nhr-49/Paarα And Hlh-30/Tfeb Cooperate For C. Elegans Host Defense Via A Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase, Khursheed A. Wani 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Nhr-49/Paarα And Hlh-30/Tfeb Cooperate For C. Elegans Host Defense Via A Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase, Khursheed A. Wani

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

During bacterial infection, the host is confronted with multiple overlapping signals that are integrated at the organismal level to produce defensive host responses. How multiple signals are sensed by the host and how they elicit the transcription of specific host defense genes is much less understood at the whole-animal level than at the cellular level. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans is known to mount transcriptional defense responses against intestinal bacterial infections that elicit overlapping starvation and infection responses, but the specific regulation of such responses is not well understood. By directly comparing C. elegans that were either starved or infected ...


Characterizing The Diversity Of The Eukaryotic Microbiome In Marine Crustacean Zooplankton., Rose-Lynne Savage 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Diversity Of The Eukaryotic Microbiome In Marine Crustacean Zooplankton., Rose-Lynne Savage

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Understanding zooplankton productivity is critical for modeling marine food web function, of which one poorly known factor is the influence of zooplankton symbionts. Zooplankton protist symbiont diversity is underestimated due to the limited surveys and techniques previously used. Using 18S V4 metabarcoding, I characterized the eukaryotic microbiomes associated with crustacean zooplankton from the northern Strait of Georgia, BC. Apostome ciliates were most abundant in all hosts except for cyclopoid copepods, which were dominated by Syndiniales. Most symbiont lineages were more abundant in one or two hosts, suggesting some degree of host preference. Microbiome data also provided information on diet, confirming ...


A Timely Update Of Global Covid-19 Vaccine Development, Linda Klavinskis, Margaret Liu, Shan Lu 2020 King's College London

A Timely Update Of Global Covid-19 Vaccine Development, Linda Klavinskis, Margaret Liu, Shan Lu

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

The International Society for Vaccines (ISV) launched a virtual congress series www.ISVCongress.org as the leading platform for key COVID‐19 vaccine developersto share their progress and for the global vaccine community to contribute their collective expertise and wisdom about broader aspects of the global pandemic vaccine response. The aims were threefold: 1) to provide timely information about the processes put in place by regulatory agencies and NGOs for COVID-19 vaccine development, 2) to present primary data from groups developing vaccines, and 3) to provide a forum for discussion by experts about key challenges that confront the COVID-19 vaccine ...


Is Smaller Better? Vaccine Targeting Recombinant Receptor-Binding Domain Might Hold The Key For Mass Production Of Effective Prophylactics To Fight The Covid-19 Pandemic, Manish Muhuri, Guangping Gao 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Is Smaller Better? Vaccine Targeting Recombinant Receptor-Binding Domain Might Hold The Key For Mass Production Of Effective Prophylactics To Fight The Covid-19 Pandemic, Manish Muhuri, Guangping Gao

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

A recent report by Yang et al. published in Nature reported a recombinant vaccine utilizing recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.This vaccine candidate successfully induced potent functional antibody responses in the immunized mice, rabbits, and non-human primates. The study highlights the critical role of the immunogenicity of the RBD domain upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and the alternate vaccine designs that could serve as effective prophylactics against the pandemic.


Endothelial Cell Contributions To Covid-19, Alexandra E. Oxford, Fabio Halla, Evan B. Robertson, Brad E. Morrison 2020 Boise State University

Endothelial Cell Contributions To Covid-19, Alexandra E. Oxford, Fabio Halla, Evan B. Robertson, Brad E. Morrison

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Understanding of the clinical, histological and molecular features of the novel coronavirus 2019 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has remained elusive. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by this virus has unusual clinical presentation with regard to other related coronaviruses. Recent reports suggest that SARS-CoV-2, unlike other related viruses, infects and replicates within endothelial cells, which may explain a significant portion of the observed clinical pathology. Likewise, mounting evidence associates vascular and endothelial cell dysfunction with increased mortality. This review focuses on understanding how endothelial cell pathology is caused by SARS-CoV-2 at the molecular and cellular levels and how ...


Diverse Community Of Arsenic Resistant Bacteria Display Arsenate Reducing Capabilities, Stephanie Maeda 2020 University of San Diego

Diverse Community Of Arsenic Resistant Bacteria Display Arsenate Reducing Capabilities, Stephanie Maeda

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Naturally found in soil and water environments arsenic is toxic to many organisms, carcinogenic to humans, and poses a significant public health risk. Yet communities of bacteria found thriving in arsenic ridden environments have evolved mechanisms to tolerate and exploit both oxidation states of this heavy metal (arsenite and arsenate). As the site of an old arsenic mine, Black Mountain Open Space Park in San Diego, California has yielded concentrations of arsenic in the soil between 111-14,800 ppm. Exceeding average arsenic soil concentrations and levels considered safe in the environment by the World Health Organization, we sought to characterize ...


Trace Metal Availability Affects Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Microbial Functional Group Abundance In Freshwater Wetland Sediments, George Giannopoulos, Katherine R. Hartop, Bonnie L. Brown, Bongkeun Song, Lars Elsgaard, Rima B. Franklin 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Trace Metal Availability Affects Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Microbial Functional Group Abundance In Freshwater Wetland Sediments, George Giannopoulos, Katherine R. Hartop, Bonnie L. Brown, Bongkeun Song, Lars Elsgaard, Rima B. Franklin

VIMS Articles

We investigated the effects of trace metal additions on microbial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycling using freshwater wetland sediment microcosms amended with micromolar concentrations of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), iron (Fe), and all combinations thereof. In addition to monitoring inorganic N transformations (NO3, NO2, N2O, NH4+) and carbon mineralization (CO2, CH4), we tracked changes in functional gene abundance associated with denitrification (nirS, nirK, nosZ), dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA; nrfA), and methanogenesis (mcrA). With regards to N cycling, greater availability of Cu led to more complete denitrification (i.e., less N ...


Microbial Diversity In The Sawmill Environment: Implications On The Health Of Sawmill Workers And Merchants, Nigeria, Ebere J. Okafor-Elenwo EJ, Odaro S. Imade Os, Osazee E. Izevbuwa EO 2020 Igbinedion university okada

Microbial Diversity In The Sawmill Environment: Implications On The Health Of Sawmill Workers And Merchants, Nigeria, Ebere J. Okafor-Elenwo Ej, Odaro S. Imade Os, Osazee E. Izevbuwa Eo

Journal of Bioresource Management

There is an increasingly high suspicion of occupational health diseases amongst workers in sawmill factories. Hence this study aimed to determine the microbial diversity in some sawmill factories in Okada, Edo State, Nigeria to evaluate potential implications of the factory’s processing area on the health of the workers and wood merchants. Bacteria and fungi count in the bioaerosols within the processing area of each factory was performed with the passive air sampling technique. While in the sawdust samples, microbial counts were carried out with the pour plate technique. Identification of the microbes was performed with macroscopic and microscopic examinations ...


Seroprevalence Of Sars-Cov-2-Specific Igg Antibodies Among Adults Living In Connecticut: Post-Infection Prevalence (Pip) Study [Preprint], Shiwani Mahajan, Lokinendi V. Rao, Harlan M. Krumholz 2020 Yale University

Seroprevalence Of Sars-Cov-2-Specific Igg Antibodies Among Adults Living In Connecticut: Post-Infection Prevalence (Pip) Study [Preprint], Shiwani Mahajan, Lokinendi V. Rao, Harlan M. Krumholz

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Background: A seroprevalence study can estimate the percentage of people with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the general population, however, most existing reports have used a convenience sample, which may bias their estimates.

Methods: We sought a representative sample of Connecticut residents, aged ≥18 years and residing in non-congregate settings, who completed a survey between June 4 and June 23, 2020 and underwent serology testing for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies between June 10 and July 29, 2020. We also oversampled non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic subpopulations. We estimated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies and the prevalence of symptomatic illness and self-reported adherence to ...


Biofilm Forming Ability Of Bacteria Isolated From Dental Caries: With Reference To Streptococcus Species, Sonali kaustubh Ambulkar, Vidya Tale, Abhijit Jadhav, Komal Kulkarni 2020 Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, India

Biofilm Forming Ability Of Bacteria Isolated From Dental Caries: With Reference To Streptococcus Species, Sonali Kaustubh Ambulkar, Vidya Tale, Abhijit Jadhav, Komal Kulkarni

Future Dental Journal of Egypt

Dental caries is formed by the group of microorganisms attached to a tooth surface embedded in a matrix of polymers. Biofilm plays an important role in the development of dental caries, plaque and other periodontal diseases. The present study is aimed to isolate, identify and characterize bacteria from dental caries. The ability of biofilm formation of these isolates was confirmed by Congo red agar method, Tube method and Microtitre plate method. High biofilm-forming bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus, Enterococcus faecalis and Rothia dentocariosa are the predominant biofilm forming bacteria associated with dental caries.


Antibody Responses In Covid-19 Patients, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu 2020 SL Consulting

Antibody Responses In Covid-19 Patients, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Measuring virus-specific antibody responses to emerging pathogens is a well-established and highly useful tool to diagnose such infections, understand interactions between the immune system and pathogens, and provide potential clues for the development of vaccines or therapeutic agents against such pathogens. Since the beginning of 2020, the discovery of SARS-CoV-2 as the emerging virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic has provided new insight into the complexity of antibody responses to this dangerous virus. The current review aims to sort out diverse and sometimes seemingly confusing findings to put together a cohesive understanding on the profile of antibody responses elicited in ...


Regulation Of Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine By Olfactory Neurons, Kyle J. Foster 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Regulation Of Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine By Olfactory Neurons, Kyle J. Foster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The intestinal epithelium represents one of the first lines of defense against pathogenic bacteria. Immune regulation at this critical barrier is necessary to maintain organismal fitness, and mis-regulation here has been linked to numerous debilitating diseases. Functional relationships between the nervous system and immune system have been found to be critical in the proper coordination of immune defenses at barrier surfaces, however the precise mechanisms underlying theses interactions remains unclear.

Through conducting a forward genetic screen utilizing the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we uncovered a surprising requirement for the olfactory neuron gene olrn-1 in the regulation of intestinal epithelial immunity ...


Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. de Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria de Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo de Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano 2020 Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste

Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. De Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria De Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo De Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano

Animal Science Publications

Background: The impact of extreme changes in weather patterns in the economy and humanity welfare are some of the biggest challenges that our civilization is facing. From the anthropogenic activities that contribute to climate change, reducing the impact of farming activities is a priority, since its responsible for up to 18% of greenhouse gases linked to such activities. To this end, we tested if the ruminal and fecal microbiomes components of 52 Brazilian Nelore bulls, belonging to two experimental groups based on the feed intervention, conventional (A) and byproducts based diet (B), could be used as biomarkers for methane (CH ...


Contributions Of Ifn-Gamma And Granulysin To The Clearance Of Plasmodium Yoelii Blood Stage, Natalia Satchiko Hojo-Souza, Patrick Orestes de Azevedo, Julia Teixeira de Castro, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Judy Lieberman, Caroline Junqueira, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli 2020 Oswaldo Cruz Foundation

Contributions Of Ifn-Gamma And Granulysin To The Clearance Of Plasmodium Yoelii Blood Stage, Natalia Satchiko Hojo-Souza, Patrick Orestes De Azevedo, Julia Teixeira De Castro, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Judy Lieberman, Caroline Junqueira, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Open Access Articles

P. vivax-infected Retics (iRetics) express human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I), are recognized by CD8+ T cells and killed by granulysin (GNLY) and granzymes. However, how Plasmodium infection induces MHC-I expression on Retics is unknown. In addition, whether GNLY helps control Plasmodium infection in vivo has not been studied. Here, we examine these questions using rodent infection with the P. yoelii 17XNL strain, which has tropism for Retics. Infection with P. yoelii caused extramedullary erythropoiesis, reticulocytosis and expansion of CD8+CD44+CD62L- IFN-gamma-producing T cells that form immune synapses with iRetics. We now provide evidence that MHC-I expression by iRetic ...


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