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Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay 2017 University of Montana

Molecular Biology Of A Surface-Exposed Protein Family Of Bartonella Bacilliformis, Hannah Fay

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Bartonella bacilliformis is a gram negative alpha-proteobacterium native to the Andes of South America. Bartonella causes Carrion’s disease, a potentially life threatening disease transmitted by the sand fly. It has a mortality rate of 88% when untreated and 10% when treated. Diagnostics and control measures for the disease are underdeveloped and no vaccine is available. Recent outbreaks indicate that the range of the pathogen is increasing with nearly 1.7 million people in western South America at risk. Little is known about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of B. bacilliformis. Recent research done by UC San Diego found a paralogous ...


The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe- Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe- Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette

Master's Theses

The elasmobranch osmoregulatory strategy is predicated on the accumulation of nitrogenous compounds, primarily urea and trimethylamine n¬-oxide (TMAO). Despite the abundance of these plasma osmolytes, it is notable that elasmobranchs appear to lack urease and TMA oxidase (Tmase), enzymes that scavenge urea-nitrogen and synthesize TMAO, respectively. However, urease and Tmase are found in many species of bacteria. Therefore, I hypothesized that intestinal bacteria are responsible for urease and Tmase activity in elasmobranchs. Absent dietary nitrogen sources, I evaluated the effects of reduced intestinal microbiota on osmoregulation in Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) in vivo. D. sabina were given daily broad-spectrum ...


Fecal Bacterial Communities As An Indicator Of Trophic Interactions Among Anuran Larvae, Steven Jacob Everman 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Fecal Bacterial Communities As An Indicator Of Trophic Interactions Among Anuran Larvae, Steven Jacob Everman

Master's Theses

Anurans are mass spawners, often with multiple females spawning together, resulting in thousands of tadpoles sharing a habitat. Such large numbers of tadpoles with limited dispersal can lead to intense competition for resources. Inter and intra-specific competition for food could have negative impacts on the growth and survival of smaller tadpoles. Fecal bacterial communities have the potential to be used as indicators of changes in diet making it possible to determine if tadpoles in the wild are eating the same food or not. After feeding on two prepared diets that differed in the percentage of complex carbohydrates, the fecal bacterial ...


Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Epidemiology Of White Spot Syndrome Virus In The Daggerblade Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes Pugio) And The Gulf Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca Panacea), Muhammad

Dissertations

Ever since the first outbreaks of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which causes White Spot Disease (WSD), in Asia in the early 1990s, the pathogen has been a major constraint to the profitability of the shrimp aquaculture industry across the globe. WSSV has a broad host range and is routinely detected in wild decapod crustaceans. In the present study, two common species in the tidal salt marsh along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and the Gulf sand fiddler crab (Uca panacea), were investigated for their role as reservoirs of WSSV and ...


A Microbiomic Approach To The Characterization Of The Impacts And Influences Of Viral, Bacterial, And Harmfulalgal Bloom Toxins On The Bottlenose Dolphin, Corey David Russo 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

A Microbiomic Approach To The Characterization Of The Impacts And Influences Of Viral, Bacterial, And Harmfulalgal Bloom Toxins On The Bottlenose Dolphin, Corey David Russo

Dissertations

As apex predators that display high site fidelity Tursiops truncatus (bottlenose dolphin) are indicators of marine ecosystem health. Bottlenose dolphins, additionally, display pathogenesis and immune response similar to that of humans. Humans and coastal bottlenose dolphins, in particular, are constantly exposed to the same industrial, agricultural and domestic toxins and pathogens, contaminants and pollutants. Thus, studies on the bottlenose dolphin are also valuable in bridging the gap between ocean and human health. Bottlenose dolphins are susceptible to viral bacterial and toxin infection. Infection in the bottlenose dolphin manifests itself in the form of mass stranding events, unusual mortality events, chronic ...


Xpert Mtb/Rif Assay Shows Faster Clearance Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Dna With Higher Levels Of Rifapentine Exposure., A Jayakumar, R M Savic, C K Everett, Debra Benator, D Alland, C M Heilig, M Weiner, S O Friedrich, N A Martinson, A Kerrigan, C Zamudio, S V Goldberg, W C Whitworth, J L Davis, P Nahid 2016 George Washington University

Xpert Mtb/Rif Assay Shows Faster Clearance Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Dna With Higher Levels Of Rifapentine Exposure., A Jayakumar, R M Savic, C K Everett, Debra Benator, D Alland, C M Heilig, M Weiner, S O Friedrich, N A Martinson, A Kerrigan, C Zamudio, S V Goldberg, W C Whitworth, J L Davis, P Nahid

Medicine Faculty Publications

The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is both sensitive and specific as a diagnostic test. Xpert also reports quantitative output in cycle threshold (CT) values, which may provide a dynamic measure of sputum bacillary burden when used longitudinally. We evaluated the relationship between Xpert CT trajectory and drug exposure during tuberculosis (TB) treatment to assess the potential utility of Xpert CT for treatment monitoring. We obtained serial sputum samples from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB who were consecutively enrolled at 10 international clinical trial sites participating in study 29X, a CDC-sponsored Tuberculosis Trials Consortium study evaluating the tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial ...


Visualizing A Plant Cell, Rudaba R. Hasan 2016 Siddiqui’s International School

Visualizing A Plant Cell, Rudaba R. Hasan

The STEAM Journal

Why visualizing science is important, especially as a school student.


Toll-Like Receptor 9-Mediated Inflammation Triggers Alveolar Bone Loss In Experimental Murine Periodontitis, Paul D. Kim, Xia Xia-Juan, Katie E. Crump, Toshiharu Abe, George Hajishengallis, Sinem E. Sahingur 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Toll-Like Receptor 9-Mediated Inflammation Triggers Alveolar Bone Loss In Experimental Murine Periodontitis, Paul D. Kim, Xia Xia-Juan, Katie E. Crump, Toshiharu Abe, George Hajishengallis, Sinem E. Sahingur

Katie Crump

Chronic periodontitis is a local inflammatory disease induced by a dysbiotic microbiota and leading to destruction of the tooth-supporting structures. Microbial nucleic acids are abundantly present in the periodontium, derived through release after phagocytic uptake of microbes and/or from biofilm-associated extracellular DNA. Binding of microbial DNA to its cognate receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), can trigger inflammation. In this study, we utilized TLR9 knockout (TLR9−/−) mice and wild-type (WT) controls in a murine model of Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis and report the first in vivo evidence that TLR9 signaling mediates the induction of periodontal bone loss.P. gingivalis-infected ...


Genetic Characterization And Role In Virulence Of The Ribonucleotide Reductases Of Streptococcus Sanguinis, DeLacy V. Rhodes, Katie E. Crump, Olga Makhlynets, Melanie Snyder, Xiuchun Ge, Ping Xu, JoAnne Stubbe, Todd Kitten 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Genetic Characterization And Role In Virulence Of The Ribonucleotide Reductases Of Streptococcus Sanguinis, Delacy V. Rhodes, Katie E. Crump, Olga Makhlynets, Melanie Snyder, Xiuchun Ge, Ping Xu, Joanne Stubbe, Todd Kitten

Katie Crump

Streptococcus sanguinis is a cause of infective endocarditis and has been shown to require a manganese transporter called SsaB for virulence and O2 tolerance. Like certain other pathogens, S. sanguinis possesses aerobic class Ib (NrdEF) and anaerobic class III (NrdDG) ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) that perform the essential function of reducing ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The accompanying paper (Makhlynets, O., Boal, A. K., Rhodes, D. V., Kitten, T., Rosenzweig, A. C., and Stubbe, J. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 6259–6272) indicates that in the presence of O2, the S. sanguinis class Ib RNR self-assembles an essential diferric-tyrosyl radical (FeIII2-Y•) in vitro ...


Peroxiredoxin Ii Regulates Effector And Secondary Memory Cd8+ T Cell Responses, Ryan D. Michalek, Katie E. Crump, Ashley E. Weant, Elizabeth M. Hiltbold, Daniel G. Juneau, Eun-Yi Moon, Dae-Yeul Yu, Leslie B. Poole, Jason M. Grayson 2016 Metabolon Corporation

Peroxiredoxin Ii Regulates Effector And Secondary Memory Cd8+ T Cell Responses, Ryan D. Michalek, Katie E. Crump, Ashley E. Weant, Elizabeth M. Hiltbold, Daniel G. Juneau, Eun-Yi Moon, Dae-Yeul Yu, Leslie B. Poole, Jason M. Grayson

Katie Crump

Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) generated in response to receptor stimulation play an important role in cellular responses. However, the effect of increased H2O2on an antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response was unknown. Following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, the expression and oxidation of peroxiredoxin II (PrdxII), a critical antioxidant enzyme, increased in CD8+ T cells. Deletion of PrdxII increased ROI, S phase entry, division, and death during in vitro division. During primary acute viral and bacterial infection, the number of effector CD8+ T cells in PrdxII-deficient mice was increased, while the number of memory cells were similar ...


Antioxidant Treatment Regulates The Humoral Immune Response During Acute Viral Infection, Katie E. Crump, P. Kent Langston, Sujana Rajkarnikar, Jason M. Grayson 2016 Wake Forest University School of Medicine

Antioxidant Treatment Regulates The Humoral Immune Response During Acute Viral Infection, Katie E. Crump, P. Kent Langston, Sujana Rajkarnikar, Jason M. Grayson

Katie Crump

Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) following antigen receptor ligation is critical to promote cellular responses. However, the effect of antioxidant treatment on humoral immunity during a viral infection was unknown. Mice were infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and treated with Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP), a superoxide dismutase mimetic, from days 0 to 8 postinfection. On day 8, at the peak of the splenic response in vehicle-treated mice, virus-specific IgM and IgG antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were decreased 22- and 457-fold in MnTBAP-treated animals. By day 38, LCMV-specific IgG ASC were decreased 5-fold in the bone ...


Role Of Multicellular Aggregates In Biofilm Formation, Kasper N. Kragh, Jaime B. Hutchison, Gavin Melaugh, Chris Rodesney, Aled E. L. Roberts, Yasuhiko Irie, Peter Ø. Jensen, Stephen P. Diggle, Rosalind J. Allen, Vernita Gordon, Thomas Bjarnsholt 2016 University of Copenhagen

Role Of Multicellular Aggregates In Biofilm Formation, Kasper N. Kragh, Jaime B. Hutchison, Gavin Melaugh, Chris Rodesney, Aled E. L. Roberts, Yasuhiko Irie, Peter Ø. Jensen, Stephen P. Diggle, Rosalind J. Allen, Vernita Gordon, Thomas Bjarnsholt

Yasuhiko Irie

In traditional models of in vitro biofilm development, individual bacterial cells seed a surface, multiply, and mature into multicellular, three-dimensional structures. Much research has been devoted to elucidating the mechanisms governing the initial attachment of single cells to surfaces. However, in natural environments and during infection, bacterial cells tend to clump as multicellular aggregates, and biofilms can also slough off aggregates as a part of the dispersal process. This makes it likely that biofilms are often seeded by aggregates and single cells, yet how these aggregates impact biofilm initiation and development is not known. Here we use a combination of ...


Chip-Seq And Rna-Seq Reveal An Amrz-Mediated Mechanism For Cyclic Di-Gmp Synthesis And Biofilm Development By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Christopher J. Jones, David Newsom, Benjamin Kelly, Yasuhiko Irie, Laura K. Jennings, Binjie Xu, Dominique H. Limoli, Joe J. Harrison, Matthew R. Parsek, Peter White, Daniel J. Wozniak 2016 The Ohio State University

Chip-Seq And Rna-Seq Reveal An Amrz-Mediated Mechanism For Cyclic Di-Gmp Synthesis And Biofilm Development By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Christopher J. Jones, David Newsom, Benjamin Kelly, Yasuhiko Irie, Laura K. Jennings, Binjie Xu, Dominique H. Limoli, Joe J. Harrison, Matthew R. Parsek, Peter White, Daniel J. Wozniak

Yasuhiko Irie

The transcription factor AmrZ regulates genes important for P. aeruginosa virulence, including type IV pili, extracellular polysaccharides, and the flagellum; however, the global effect of AmrZ on gene expression remains unknown, and therefore, AmrZ may directly regulate many additional genes that are crucial for infection. Compared to the wild type strain, a ΔamrZ mutant exhibits a rugose colony phenotype, which is commonly observed in variants that accumulate the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). Cyclic di-GMP is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDE). We hypothesized that AmrZ limits the intracellular accumulation of c-di-GMP through transcriptional repression ...


Shaping The Growth Behaviour Of Biofilms Initiated From Bacterial Aggregates, Gavin Melaugh, Jaime B. Hutchison, Kasper N. Kragh, Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E. L. Roberts, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stephen P. Diggle, Vernita Gordon, Rosalind J. Allen 2016 University of Edinburgh

Shaping The Growth Behaviour Of Biofilms Initiated From Bacterial Aggregates, Gavin Melaugh, Jaime B. Hutchison, Kasper N. Kragh, Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E. L. Roberts, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stephen P. Diggle, Vernita Gordon, Rosalind J. Allen

Yasuhiko Irie

Bacterial biofilms are usually assumed to originate from individual cells deposited on a surface. However, many biofilm-forming bacteria tend to aggregate in the planktonic phase so that it is possible that many natural and infectious biofilms originate wholly or partially from pre-formed cell aggregates. Here, we use agent-based computer simulations to investigate the role of pre-formed aggregates in biofilm development. Focusing on the initial shape the aggregate forms on the surface, we find that the degree of spreading of an aggregate on a surface can play an important role in determining its eventual fate during biofilm development. Specifically, initially spread ...


The Cababc Operon Essential For Biofilm And Rugose Colony Development In Vibrio Vulnificus, Jin Hwan Park, Youmi Jo, Song Yee Jang, Haenaem Kwon, Yasuhiko Irie, Matthew R. Parsek, Myung Hee Kim, Sang Ho Choi 2016 Seoul National University

The Cababc Operon Essential For Biofilm And Rugose Colony Development In Vibrio Vulnificus, Jin Hwan Park, Youmi Jo, Song Yee Jang, Haenaem Kwon, Yasuhiko Irie, Matthew R. Parsek, Myung Hee Kim, Sang Ho Choi

Yasuhiko Irie

A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix ...


Otopathogenic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Enters And Survives Inside Macrophages, Rahul Mittal, Christopher V. Lisi, Hansi Kumari, M'hamed Grati, Patricia Blackwelder, Denise Yan, Chaitanya Jain, Kalai Mathee, Paulo H. Weckwerth, Xue Zhong Liu 2016 University of Miami

Otopathogenic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Enters And Survives Inside Macrophages, Rahul Mittal, Christopher V. Lisi, Hansi Kumari, M'Hamed Grati, Patricia Blackwelder, Denise Yan, Chaitanya Jain, Kalai Mathee, Paulo H. Weckwerth, Xue Zhong Liu

Biology Faculty Articles

Otitis media (OM) is a broad term describing a group of infectious and inflammatory disorders of the middle ear. Despite antibiotic therapy, acute OM can progress to chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) characterized by ear drum perforation and purulent discharge. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen associated with CSOM. Although, macrophages play an important role in innate immune responses but their role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa-induced CSOM is not known. The objective of this study is to examine the interaction of P. aeruginosa with primary macrophages. We observed that P. aeruginosa enters and multiplies inside human ...


Expression Of The Primary Carbohydrate Component Of The Bordetella Bronchiseptica Biofilm Matrix Is Dependent On Growth Phase But Independent Of Bvg Regulation, Yasuhiko Irie, Andrew Preston, Ming H. Yuk 2016 University of Dayton

Expression Of The Primary Carbohydrate Component Of The Bordetella Bronchiseptica Biofilm Matrix Is Dependent On Growth Phase But Independent Of Bvg Regulation, Yasuhiko Irie, Andrew Preston, Ming H. Yuk

Yasuhiko Irie

We previously showed that the Bvg virulence control system regulates biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica (Y. Irie, S. Mattoo, and M. H. Yuk, J. Bacteriol. 186:5692-5698, 2004). Analyses of the extracellular components of B. bronchiseptica biofilm matrix revealed that the major sugar component in the matrix was xylose, and linkage analysis indicated a majority of it to be in a 4-linked polymeric form. The production of xylose was independent of Bvg regulation but instead was dependent on bacterial growth phase. In addition, N-acetyl-glucosamine in the matrix was found to be important for the initial development of the biofilm ...


Fluorescence-Based Reporter For Gauging Cyclic Di-Gmp Levels In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Morten T. Rybtke, Bradley R. Borlee, Keiji Murakami, Yasuhiko Irie, Morten Hentzer, Thomas E. Nielsen, Michael Givskov, Matthew R. Parsek, Tim Tolker-Nielsen 2016 University of Copenhagen

Fluorescence-Based Reporter For Gauging Cyclic Di-Gmp Levels In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Morten T. Rybtke, Bradley R. Borlee, Keiji Murakami, Yasuhiko Irie, Morten Hentzer, Thomas E. Nielsen, Michael Givskov, Matthew R. Parsek, Tim Tolker-Nielsen

Yasuhiko Irie

The increased tolerance toward the host immune system and antibiotics displayed by biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other bacteria in chronic infections such as cystic fibrosis bronchopneumonia is of major concern. Targeting of biofilm formation is believed to be a key aspect in the development of novel antipathogenic drugs that can augment the effect of classic antibiotics by decreasing antimicrobial tolerance. The second messenger cyclic di-GMP is a positive regulator of biofilm formation, and cyclic di-GMP signaling is now regarded as a potential target for the development of antipathogenic compounds. Here we describe the development of fluorescent monitors that can gauge ...


Comparative Single-Cell Genomics Of Chloroflexi From The Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere, Craig L. Moyer 2016 Selected Works

Comparative Single-Cell Genomics Of Chloroflexi From The Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere, Craig L. Moyer

Craig L. Moyer

Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi. Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep ...


Hydrothermal Venting And Mineralization In The Crater Of Kick’Em Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles), Steven Carey, Rene Olsen, Katherine L. C. Bell, Robert Ballard, Frederic Dondin, Chris Roman, Clara Smart, Marvin Lilley, John Lupton, Brad Seibel, Winton Cornell, Craig L. Moyer 2016 Western Washington University

Hydrothermal Venting And Mineralization In The Crater Of Kick’Em Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles), Steven Carey, Rene Olsen, Katherine L. C. Bell, Robert Ballard, Frederic Dondin, Chris Roman, Clara Smart, Marvin Lilley, John Lupton, Brad Seibel, Winton Cornell, Craig L. Moyer

Craig L. Moyer

Kick’em Jenny is a frequently erupting, shallow submarine volcano located 7.5 km off the northern coast of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~70 3 110 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 m. Much of the crater is blanketed with a layer of fine-grained tephra that has undergone hydrothermal alteration. Clear fluids and gas are being discharged near the center of the depression from mound-like vents at a maximum temperature of 180ᵒC. The gas consists ...


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