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Herbert W. Conn: Formative Decades Of Microbiology And Evolutionary Biology, Frederick M. Cohan, Alexa Boesel 2014 Wesleyan University

Herbert W. Conn: Formative Decades Of Microbiology And Evolutionary Biology, Frederick M. Cohan, Alexa Boesel

Frederick M. Cohan

Herbert W. Conn (1859–1917) made outstanding contributions to both microbiology and evolutionary biology, reflecting his intellectual command of several biological disciplines. Conn endeavored to make the unseen world of microbes familiar, real, and consequential to members of the general public. He presciently considered the role of bacteria in our own bodies, describing them as being both harmful and beneficial to our health. He also contributed to our understanding of the concept of species, how they originate, and what those ideas might mean in terms of bacterial speciation. In Conn’s spirit, microbial ecologists studying speciation eschew the “species” taxa ...


Herbert W. Conn: Formative Decades Of Microbiology And Evolutionary Biology, Frederick M. Cohan, Alexa Boesel 2014 Wesleyan University

Herbert W. Conn: Formative Decades Of Microbiology And Evolutionary Biology, Frederick M. Cohan, Alexa Boesel

Division III Faculty Publications

Herbert W. Conn (1859–1917) made outstanding contributions to both microbiology and evolutionary biology, reflecting his intellectual command of several biological disciplines. Conn endeavored to make the unseen world of microbes familiar, real, and consequential to members of the general public. He presciently considered the role of bacteria in our own bodies, describing them as being both harmful and beneficial to our health. He also contributed to our understanding of the concept of species, how they originate, and what those ideas might mean in terms of bacterial speciation. In Conn’s spirit, microbial ecologists studying speciation eschew the “species” taxa ...


From Progesterone In Biopsies To Estimates Of Pregnancy Rates: Large Scale Reproductive Patterns Of Two Sympatric Species Of Common Dolphin, Delphinus Spp. Off California, Usa And Baja, Mexico, Nicholas Marc Kellar, Marisa L. Trego, Susan J. Chivers, Fredrick I. Archer, Wayne L. Perryman 2014 Occidental College

From Progesterone In Biopsies To Estimates Of Pregnancy Rates: Large Scale Reproductive Patterns Of Two Sympatric Species Of Common Dolphin, Delphinus Spp. Off California, Usa And Baja, Mexico, Nicholas Marc Kellar, Marisa L. Trego, Susan J. Chivers, Fredrick I. Archer, Wayne L. Perryman

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Blubber progesterone levels were measured in biopsy samples and used to predict the pregnancy status of 507 female common dolphins (204 long-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus capensis, and 303 short-beaked common dolphins, D. delphis). Samples were collected in the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific between central California, USA and the southern end of Baja California, Mexico. The percentage of females pregnant was similar between the two species: 22.1% (n = 45) of D. capensis and 28.1% (n = 85) of D. delphis. For both species we found strong geographic patterns in pregnancy, suggesting that some areas were more conducive ...


Permaculture Design: On The Practice Of Radical Imagination, Katja Rothe 2014 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Permaculture Design: On The Practice Of Radical Imagination, Katja Rothe

communication +1

Permaculture design is a concept that aims at transforming not only agriculture, but also city planning, architecture, development, etc. In short it aims to change human habitats. It is part of a new ecological paradigm that is currently spreading in popularity from the urban gardening movement to various other alternative movements such as the slow movement, sustainable architecture, etc. Permaculture design defines itself as building on systems theory (as formulated in particular by Howard Thomas Odum and Christopher Alexander). However I would like to propose that the afterlife of systems theory as expressed in the concept of permaculture, first developed ...


Fermented Food: Putting The Power Of Good Health Back Into The Hands Of The People, Marsha L. Thadison 2014 Tuskegee University

Fermented Food: Putting The Power Of Good Health Back Into The Hands Of The People, Marsha L. Thadison

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Editors’ Note: At the December 2013 Professional Agricultural Workers Conference, several women were invited to share, information about their unique businesses. One such presenter was Marsha L. Thadison, owner of Yesterday’s Kitchen 4 Today, a company that focuses on promoting functional foods. Thadison shared that food is produce and consumed differently from previous generations. Today's food, she argued, involves many more agricultural inputs that aid in food preservation, extension of shelf life, and promotion of animal health. She espoused the benefits of fermented food.


The Innate Immune Response In Eisenia Fetida To Microbial Challenges, Aaron Schindler 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Innate Immune Response In Eisenia Fetida To Microbial Challenges, Aaron Schindler

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The common earthworm, Eisenia fetida, exhibits a rudimentary immune system. The earthworm needs cellular and chemical responses against a constant microbial exposure from its natural environment. Some cellular and chemical responses are found in the coelomic fluid and have been shown to demonstrate anti-microbial characteristics. This project uses microscopy and modified staining techniques to differentiate and categorize the cellular components found in the coelomic fluid. Following a microbial challenge by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an inflammatory response was initiated. Six groups of earthworms were injected with 0.05 ml of 1.0 x 106 cfu /ml K. pneumoniae on day one and ...


Effect Of Conditioned Medium On The Recovery Of Dormant Mycobacteria In Culture, Kelly E. Rock 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Effect Of Conditioned Medium On The Recovery Of Dormant Mycobacteria In Culture, Kelly E. Rock

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mpt) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic intestinal disease in cattle that threatens the economic viability of dairy farming. Diagnostic culture is typically unrewarding until several years after infection when clinical signs can be observed. This leads to widespread infection within the herd. Difficulty in culturing Mpt may be a result of oxidative damage due to the increased metabolic rate when dormant organisms are recovered in a nutrient rich medium. In order to improve recovery it is believed that some organisms secrete a growth factor in times of environmental stress which enables ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Clostridium Thermocellum Populus Hydrolysate-Tolerant Mutant Strain Shows Increased Cellular Efficiency In Response To Populus Hydrolysate Compared To The Wild Type Strain, Jessica L. Linville, Miguel Rodriguez, Steve D. Brown, Jonathan R. Mielenz, Chris D. Cox 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Clostridium Thermocellum Populus Hydrolysate-Tolerant Mutant Strain Shows Increased Cellular Efficiency In Response To Populus Hydrolysate Compared To The Wild Type Strain, Jessica L. Linville, Miguel Rodriguez, Steve D. Brown, Jonathan R. Mielenz, Chris D. Cox

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

Background: The thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum is a model organism for consolidated processing due to its efficient fermentation of cellulose. Constituents of dilute acid pretreatment hydrolysate are known to inhibit C. thermocellum and other microorganisms. To evaluate the biological impact of this type of hydrolysate, a transcriptomic analysis of growth in hydrolysate-containing medium was conducted on 17.5%?v/v Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant (PM) and wild type (WT) strains of C. thermocellum.ResultsIn two levels of Populus hydrolysate medium (0% and 10%?v/v), the PM showed both gene specific increases and decreases of gene expression compared to the ...


Diversity Of Bacteria Carried By Pinewood Nematode In Usa And Phylogenetic Comparison With Isolates From Other Countries, Diogo Neves Proença, Luís Fonseca, Thomas Powers, Isabel M.O. Abrantes, Paula V. Morais 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Diversity Of Bacteria Carried By Pinewood Nematode In Usa And Phylogenetic Comparison With Isolates From Other Countries, Diogo Neves Proença, Luís Fonseca, Thomas Powers, Isabel M.O. Abrantes, Paula V. Morais

Papers in Plant Pathology

Pine wilt disease (PWD) is native to North America and has spread to Asia and Europe. Lately, mutualistic relationship has been suggested between the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus the causal nematode agent of PWD, and bacteria. In countries where PWN occurs, nematodes from diseased trees were reported to carry bacteria from several genera. However no data exists for the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial community carried by B. xylophilus, isolated from different Pinus spp. with PWD in Nebraska, United States. The bacteria carried by PWN belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (79 ...


Characterization Of Protein-Protein Interactions Mediated By The Second Exon Of The Varicella-Zoster Virus Orf45/42 Terminase Subunit, Elizabeth A. Syster-Clevenger 2014 Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne

Characterization Of Protein-Protein Interactions Mediated By The Second Exon Of The Varicella-Zoster Virus Orf45/42 Terminase Subunit, Elizabeth A. Syster-Clevenger

Master's Theses

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a member of the Herpesviridae, is ubiquitous human pathogen with significant morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Primary infection causes a systemic viremia and skin rash known as varicella, and more commonly referred to as chickenpox. Latency is established in the nervous system during primary infection and can reactivate to cause zoster, more commonly known as shingles. Current treatments for VZV infection target viral DNA replication, primarily the DNA polymerase. However, novel small molecule inhibitors that target other viral replication processes, for example viral DNA encapsidation, offer additional therapeutic options. Seven conserved open reading frames ...


Growing Conditions For Algae, Angeles Mora, Tamar Melkonian, Alejandro Calderon-Urrea 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Growing Conditions For Algae, Angeles Mora, Tamar Melkonian, Alejandro Calderon-Urrea

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

With the growing demands of water in California and the increasing cost of fossil fuels to operate water-cleaning equipment, Algae was cultivated in different concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (NPK) during different trails to identify the best growing conditions for the removal water contaminates. Before testing algae in waste water, the Algae: Dunaliella Primolecta, Chlorella Vulgaris, and Scenedesmus Dimorphus were cultivated in four different media containing distilled water and plant vitamins. The different mediums used include: Orchid Grow More (20-20-20), Miracle Grow (30-10-10), Murashige & Skoog, and Orchid Bloom Boster (11-35-15). As a result of the investigation, the algae, Scenedesmus ...


Phylogenetic Diversity Of Microbial Isolates From The Mars Pathfinder, Kyla BradyLong, Adriana Blachowicz, Parag Vaishampayan, James N. Benardini, Wayne Schubert 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Phylogenetic Diversity Of Microbial Isolates From The Mars Pathfinder, Kyla Bradylong, Adriana Blachowicz, Parag Vaishampayan, James N. Benardini, Wayne Schubert

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

As spacecraft are sent to different planets, they take with them microscopic pieces of life from Earth. It is the task of the Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group to keep as much of this life off other planets as possible as well as document any life that may have been sent. During the construction of the Mars Pathfinder, samples were collected from various locations on the spacecraft to test for contamination. These samples were then isolated, grown, documented, preserved and their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced for identification. The 16S rRNA gene sequence is utilized because it is a highly ...


Detection Of Microbial Catecholamines In A Model Wound Environment, Ryan F. Wasurick 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Detection Of Microbial Catecholamines In A Model Wound Environment, Ryan F. Wasurick

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Chronic wounds are defined as an injury that does not heal in a predictable pattern or time frame. The healing process is composed of specific stages and chronic wounds have been interrupted in one or more stages of this process. This project focuses on the bacterial component of an infected wound, specifically on the catecholamines influencing the bacteria in the wound site. The assay developed in this experiment is designed to optimally grow bacteria in a simulated eukaryotic wound environment, and evaluate biofilm expression and catecholamine production of the bacteria. Bacteria used in this study are Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas ...


Ice Caves On Extraterrestrial Bodies: What Are The Prospects For Speleogenesis And Detection?, Penelope J. Boston 2014 University of South Florida

Ice Caves On Extraterrestrial Bodies: What Are The Prospects For Speleogenesis And Detection?, Penelope J. Boston

The International Workshop on Ice Caves

Potential mechanisms for creating cavities in icy extraterrestrial bodies have been tentatively explored by several authors. On one hand we have examples of mechanisms that create caves in water ice here on Earth. In addition, there may be unique mechanisms on other Solar System objects that do not occur on Earth but might produce cavities, e.g. sublimation of comets upon perihelion passage. The methods of detecting such cavities depend upon the nature of the icy body in question, the potential for orbital or landed missions to visit those bodies in the future, and remote or landed methods for detecting ...


Comparison Of The Promega And Kikkoman Atp Devices, Ryan Hendrickson, James Nick Benardini, Kasthuri Venkateswaran 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Comparison Of The Promega And Kikkoman Atp Devices, Ryan Hendrickson, James Nick Benardini, Kasthuri Venkateswaran

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Planetary Protection (PP) is a scientific discipline that aims to protect other celestial bodies from microorganisms found on Earth by preventing forward and backward contamination. Forward contamination is bringing life from Earth to a given celestial body and backward contamination is preventing contamination of eventual sample return missions from Mars back to Earth. PP verifies that NASA Planetary Protection requirements are met in part via the NASA Standard Assay in order to support the launch approval process and to comply with international law. The NASA Standard Assay verifies these bioburden requirements by quantifying any aerobic, heterotrophic, and heat-shock resistant isolates ...


Potential Roles Of Peroxidases In Caenorhabditis Elegans Innate Immunity, George R. Tiller, george r. tiller 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

Potential Roles Of Peroxidases In Caenorhabditis Elegans Innate Immunity, George R. Tiller, George R. Tiller

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in response to pathogen detection is a rapid, nonspecific response that is evolutionarily conserved from nematodes to humans. ROS serve as direct and indirect effectors of innate and adaptive immunity. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a ROS burst is observed during infection and is mediated by the dual oxidase BLI-3, which produces H2O2. RNAi (RNA interference) to reduce the amount of BLI-3 results in a significant increase in susceptibility to pathogens, suggesting BLI-3 has a role in the immune response. However, H2O2 by itself is not a potent antimicrobial ...


Relationships Among Prochlorococcus Ecotypes Across Oceanic Temperature Ranges, Jeremy Werner Chandler 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Relationships Among Prochlorococcus Ecotypes Across Oceanic Temperature Ranges, Jeremy Werner Chandler

Doctoral Dissertations

Prochlorococcus, the world’s smallest known photosynthetic organism, is an open ocean cyanobacterium, thought to be globally significant in nutrient cycling. Genetically and physiologically distinct “ecotypes” of Prochlorococcus populate the world’s subtropical and tropical oceans. A few of these key ecotypes comprise the majority of these populations, with the dominant ecotypes frequently varying as a function of depth and latitude. The mechanisms underlying the specific distributions of the ecotypes remain poorly understood, but temperature was believed to play a key role in latitudinal partitioning. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was used to assess ecotypic abundances across transects spanning the Pacific Ocean ...


Development Of An Experimental And Computational Platform For Enhanced Characterization Of Modified Peptides And Proteins In Environmental Proteomics, Ritin Sharma 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Development Of An Experimental And Computational Platform For Enhanced Characterization Of Modified Peptides And Proteins In Environmental Proteomics, Ritin Sharma

Doctoral Dissertations

Over the last decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has been established as the front-runner in systems-level protein expression studies. However, with the field progressing into research of more and more complex samples, novel challenges have been raised with respect to efficient protein extraction and computational matching. In this dissertation, various aspects in the proteomics workflow, including experimental and computational approaches, have been developed, optimized and systematically evaluated. In this work, some of the critical factors with respect to proteomics sample preparation, like available biomass, detergent removal methods, and intact protein fractionation to achieve deeper proteome measurements were evaluated. The presented ...


Urea As A Nitrogen Source For Microcystis Aeruginosa, Bernard Shafer Belisle 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Urea As A Nitrogen Source For Microcystis Aeruginosa, Bernard Shafer Belisle

Masters Theses

Over the last decade, Lake Erie has experienced annual harmful algal blooms events dominated by the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. It is still unclear what causes Microcystis blooms to occur, but there is broad agreement that eutrophication of freshwater systems from anthropogenic sources (urban, industrial, etc.), has led to their proliferation. In particular, the organic compound urea has been implicated as an important source of anthropogenic nitrogen, due to its increased use in agricultural practices. Currently, urea constitutes more than 50% of the nitrogen used for agricultural fertilizer globally, and its usage has increased more than a 100-fold over the ...


Energy Stress Causes Chaperones To Assemble Into Cytoplasmic Complexes, Kimberly J. Cope 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

Energy Stress Causes Chaperones To Assemble Into Cytoplasmic Complexes, Kimberly J. Cope

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The majority of proteins require molecular chaperones to assist their folding into tertiary and quaternary structures. Certain stresses can compromise the weak hydrophobic forces responsible for these structures and lead to protein unfolding, misfolding, and aggregation. Aggregates of proteins are hallmarks of devastating diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. Fortunately, bacteria, plants, and fungi have a potent disaggregase, named Hsp104 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, heat-induced aggregates, termed Q-bodies, were found to contain three molecular chaperones: Hsp70, Hsp104, and Hsp42. Their coalescence from small puncta into larger inclusions required Hsp104. During glucose deprivation, a stress that ...


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