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Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. LaCount 2017 University of Los Andes, Colombia

Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. Lacount

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Viral hemorrhagic fevers are severe illnesses caused by many different viruses. Lassa Virus is one of these important pathogens in Western Africa, causing hemorrhagic fever and eventually death without early medical treatment. There is no vaccine and there is little information on host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the interaction between viral proteins and host targets is useful to understand Lassa virus’s lifecycle and pathology, and to develop ways to prevent infection. In this project, we study the nucleoprotein of Lassa virus (NP), which has been reported to have anti-interferon (IFN) activity through elimination of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These features could ...


Secreted Ns1 Aids In Dengue Virus Entry By Binding Heparan Sulfate, Morgan E. Schafer, Michael Dibiasio-White, Richard J. Kuhn 2017 Purdue University

Secreted Ns1 Aids In Dengue Virus Entry By Binding Heparan Sulfate, Morgan E. Schafer, Michael Dibiasio-White, Richard J. Kuhn

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

A large portion of the world’s population lives in an area where they are at risk of contracting Dengue Virus (DENV). While infection with DENV can result in a wide range of clinical manifestations, from flu-like symptoms to hemorrhagic shock, vascular leakage, and even death, no treatments currently exist. Previous studies have shown that higher levels of viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in the blood of infected patients correlate with more severe disease. NS1 has been shown to play many roles in the viral lifecycle, but the mechanisms by which NS1 executes these functions are unknown. Preliminary data from ...


Notes On Dairy Bacteriology., L. H. Pammel, I. J. Mead 2017 Iowa State College

Notes On Dairy Bacteriology., L. H. Pammel, I. J. Mead

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

It is a well known fact that milk varies greatly in quality. Some of it will make butter of the highest quality, some again, owing to injurious organisms, will not make prime butter. The injurious fermentations are much worse at times than at others. Milk as it is received at the creamery, is often “off” in odor. It is, therefore, desirable to know what patron is responsible for this tainted milk. It was supposed by patrons that these odors had their origin in weeds, etc.

Some years ago Mr. Monrad gave, at one of the meetings of the Iowa State ...


Differential Disease Susceptibilities In Experimentally Reptarenavirus-Infected Boa Constrictors And Ball Pythons, Mark D. Stenglein, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Valentina E. Garcia, Marylee L. Layton, Laura L. Hoon-Hanks, Scott M. Boback, M. Kevin Keel, Tracy Drazenovich, Michelle G. Hawkins, Joseph L. DeRisi 2017 Dickinson College

Differential Disease Susceptibilities In Experimentally Reptarenavirus-Infected Boa Constrictors And Ball Pythons, Mark D. Stenglein, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Valentina E. Garcia, Marylee L. Layton, Laura L. Hoon-Hanks, Scott M. Boback, M. Kevin Keel, Tracy Drazenovich, Michelle G. Hawkins, Joseph L. Derisi

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious disease originally described in captive snakes. It has traditionally been diagnosed by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and is associated with neurological, gastrointestinal, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Previously, we identified and established a culture system for a novel lineage of arenaviruses isolated from boa constrictors diagnosed with IBD. Although ample circumstantial evidence suggested that these viruses, now known as reptarenaviruses, cause IBD, there has been no formal demonstration of disease causality since their discovery. We therefore conducted a long-term challenge experiment to test the hypothesis that reptarenaviruses cause IBD. We infected boa ...


Bacteriological Results Obtained In Practice With Vat Pasteurization And With One Of The Final Package Methods, B. W. Hammer 2017 Iowa State College

Bacteriological Results Obtained In Practice With Vat Pasteurization And With One Of The Final Package Methods, B. W. Hammer

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

The pasteurization of milk and cream intended for consumption as such has now been practised for a considerable period. Many sets of figures are available showing the bacterial content before and after pasteurization with various methods and much information has been obtained relative to the bacterial content of pasteurized milk at the time of delivery. The data on the influence of pasteurization on the bacterial content over considerable periods of time are not so numerous, however, and it was with the idea of securing information under practical conditions on this point that the work herein reported was carried out.

The ...


A Bacteriological Study Of The Method Of Pasteurizing And Homogenizing The Ice Cream Mix., B. W. Hammer, L. R. Sanders 2017 Iowa State College

A Bacteriological Study Of The Method Of Pasteurizing And Homogenizing The Ice Cream Mix., B. W. Hammer, L. R. Sanders

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

In continuing the work being carried out at the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station on the bacteriology of ice cream, 1, 2, a study has been made of the method of pasteurizing and homogenizing the ice cream mix. This method is at present of some commercial importance and apparently its use is increasing. It enables the factory operators to prepare the mixes at their convenience instead of shortly before freezing and thus seems to offer certain advantages insofar as the operation of the plant is concerned. I t was the object of the work herein reported to study the method from ...


A Bacteriological Study Of The College Creamery Milk Supply, A Case Of Putrid Butter, Purification Of Milk By The Centrifugal Separator, C. H. Eckles, S. E. Barnes 2017 Iowa State College

A Bacteriological Study Of The College Creamery Milk Supply, A Case Of Putrid Butter, Purification Of Milk By The Centrifugal Separator, C. H. Eckles, S. E. Barnes

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

For several years the Dairy Department has been making experiments in cream ripening and its relation to butter flavor. In the course of this work certain important facts have developed regarding the causes of variation in quality of butter from season to season.

It is a fact understood by all buttermakers that under natural conditions, most of the difficulty experienced in securing the right butter flavor Occurs during the winter season. The annual loss to the dairies and creameries of the state due to this fact is undoubtedly very large.


Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Virus-based expression systems have been widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins in plants during the last three decades. Advances in technology have boosted scale-up manufacturing of plant-made pharmaceuticals to high levels, via the complementation of transient expression and viral vectors. This combination allows proteins of interest to be produced in plants within a matter of days and thus, is well suited for the development of plant-made vaccines or therapeutics against emerging infectious diseases and potential bioterrorism agents. Several plant-based products are currently in varying stages of clinical development. To investigate the viability of virus-based expression systems for plant-made ...


Adenovirus Prime, Env Protein Boost Vaccine Protects Against Neutralization-Resistant Sivsme660 Variants In Rhesus Monkeys, Brandon F. Keele, Wenjun Li, Erica N. Borducchi, Joseph P. Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Bing Chen, Michael S. Seaman, Dan H. Barouch 2017 Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

Adenovirus Prime, Env Protein Boost Vaccine Protects Against Neutralization-Resistant Sivsme660 Variants In Rhesus Monkeys, Brandon F. Keele, Wenjun Li, Erica N. Borducchi, Joseph P. Nkolola, Peter Abbink, Bing Chen, Michael S. Seaman, Dan H. Barouch

Wenjun Li

Previous studies have shown that DNA prime, Ad5 boost vaccines protect against neutralization-sensitive but not neutralization-resistant virus variants within the SIVsmE660 swarm. Here we show that Ad prime, Env protein boost vaccines protect against neutralization-resistant SIVsmE660 variants. We perform two studies in rhesus monkeys with Ad35/Ad26 vectors expressing SIVmac239 Gag/Pol/Env with or without an AS01B-adjuvanted SIVmac32H gp140 protein boost. In a repetitive, low-dose challenge study, we observe robust protection against acquisition of infection by both Ad Alone and Ad/Env vaccines. In a single, high-dose challenge study, only the Ad/Env vaccine affords significant protection against acquisition ...


Some Bacteriological Work In The Dairy, L. H. Pammel 2017 Iowa State College

Some Bacteriological Work In The Dairy, L. H. Pammel

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

Every wide-awake dairyman takes an interest in the subject of bacteriology as related to the various dairy problems.

Iowa dairymen have taken much interest in this subject owing largely to the fact that dairy papers, dairy columns in agricultural papers have, been discussing this subject in an intelligent manner. Then, too, several American publications, notably Conn1 has given us an excellent summary of the work done in Europe and this country. The amount of original work in this line in the United States is comparatively small, most of it having been done by Prof. Conn in Connecticut We must ...


An Aromatic Bacillus Of Cheese, L. H. Pammel 2017 Iowa State College

An Aromatic Bacillus Of Cheese, L. H. Pammel

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

During the fall of 1892 my attention was called to a rot of cabbage which was doing serious damage. An isolation of the germs responsible for the disease was undertaken, since none of the higher fungi seemed to be present. Among the germs present was one that had a very striking and peculiar odor when grown in bouillon. It was not unlike that peculiar to Limburger cheese. It resembled old and well-cured cheese. The same germ grown in agar had a pleasant, aromatic and nut-like odor, wholly different than the odor i* bouillon. I suggested to Mr. Wallace, who was ...


Experiments With Mallein, W. B. Niles 2017 Iowa State College

Experiments With Mallein, W. B. Niles

Bulletin (Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station)

For the benefit of our readers who are not familiar with the agent Mallein and its uses we will say that it is a preparation obtained by growing in culture media, the bacillus of glanders, and that as yet its only use has been as an aid in the diagnosis of doubtful cases of this disease.

The Mallein used in our experiment was prepared by the Bureau of Animal Industry and kindly sent us by request of Dr. Stalker. In regard to the mode of preparation I quote as follows from an article by Drs. Schweinitz and Kilborn: “Acid peptonized ...


Microbial Ecology Electronic Resources, Michael Bobb 2017 Iowa State University

Microbial Ecology Electronic Resources, Michael Bobb

Michael Bobb

Microbial ecology covers sub-disciplines of both microbiology and ecology. To put it briefly, it is the study of the roles and relationships that microorganisms (predominantly bacteria and fungi) have with the environment and other organisms within the environment. There is much overlap in the topic areas, and often research covers several different sub-disciplines simultaneously. Major topic areas within microbial ecology are ecology, microbiology, soil science, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental science, biogeography, biogeochemistry, oceanography, restoration ecology, and dentistry/biofilm biology. Researchers and research programs cover a broad spectrum of topics; for example, molecular researchers who are interested in the metabolic processes and ...


Dengue Virus Ns2b/Ns3 Protease Inhibitors Exploiting The Prime Side, Kuan-Hung Lin, Akbar Ali, Linah Rusere, Djade I. Soumana, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dengue Virus Ns2b/Ns3 Protease Inhibitors Exploiting The Prime Side, Kuan-Hung Lin, Akbar Ali, Linah Rusere, Djade I. Soumana, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

The mosquito-transmitted dengue virus (DENV) infects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Maturation of DENV particles requires proper cleavage of the viral polyprotein, including processing of 8 of the 13 substrate cleavage sites by dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease. With no available direct-acting antiviral targeting DENV, NS2/NS3 protease is a promising target for inhibitor design. Current design efforts focus on the nonprime side of the DENV protease active site, resulting in highly hydrophilic and nonspecific scaffolds. However, the prime side also significantly modulates DENV protease binding affinity, as revealed by engineering the binding loop of aprotinin, a ...


Parasite Microbiome Project: Systematic Investigation Of Microbiome Dynamics Within And Across Parasite-Host Interactions., Nolwenn M Dheilly, Daniel Bolnick, Seth Bordenstein, Paul J Brindley, Cédric Figuères, Edward C Holmes, Joaquín Martínez Martínez, Anna J Phillips, Robert Poulin, Karyna Rosario 2017 George Washington University

Parasite Microbiome Project: Systematic Investigation Of Microbiome Dynamics Within And Across Parasite-Host Interactions., Nolwenn M Dheilly, Daniel Bolnick, Seth Bordenstein, Paul J Brindley, Cédric Figuères, Edward C Holmes, Joaquín Martínez Martínez, Anna J Phillips, Robert Poulin, Karyna Rosario

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Understanding how microbiomes affect host resistance, parasite virulence, and parasite-associated diseases requires a collaborative effort between parasitologists, microbial ecologists, virologists, and immunologists. We hereby propose the Parasite Microbiome Project to bring together researchers with complementary expertise and to study the role of microbes in host-parasite interactions. Data from the Parasite Microbiome Project will help identify the mechanisms driving microbiome variation in parasites and infected hosts and how that variation is associated with the ecology and evolution of parasites and their disease outcomes. This is a call to arms to prevent fragmented research endeavors, encourage best practices in experimental approaches, and ...


Functional Analysis Of Microrna Pathway Genes In The Somatic Gonad And Germ Cells During Ovulation In C. Elegans, Carmela Rios 2017 Marquette University

Functional Analysis Of Microrna Pathway Genes In The Somatic Gonad And Germ Cells During Ovulation In C. Elegans, Carmela Rios

Dissertations (2009 -)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-­transcriptional regulators of gene expression that play critical roles in animal development and physiology, though functions for most miRNAs remain unknown. Worms with reduced miRNA biogenesis due to loss of Drosha or Pasha/DGCR8 activity are sterile and fail to ovulate, indicating that miRNAs are required for the process of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Starting with this penetrant sterile phenotype and using new strains created to perform tissue-­specific RNAi, we characterize the roles of the C. elegans Pasha, pash-­1, and two miRNA-­specific Argonautes, alg-­1 and alg-­2, in somatic gonad cells and ...


Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth 2017 Iowa State University

Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth

W. Allen Miller

The recent article by Li et al. (1) lacks adequate evidence to support the authors’ assertion that a plant virus propagates or replicates in honeybees. Instead, it is possible that tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) virions associate with the honeybee and parasitic Varroa mites in the absence of TRSV replication.


Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Growth Kinetics, Setarah Mohammad Nader 2017 Portland State University

Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Growth Kinetics, Setarah Mohammad Nader

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Geothermal and hypersaline environments are rich in viral particles, among which spindle-shaped morphologies predominate. Currently, viruses with spindle- or lemon-shaped virions are unique to Archaea and belong to two distinct viral families. The larger of the two families, the Fuselloviridae, encompasses spindle-shaped viruses with very short tails, which infect Sulfolobus solfataricus and close relatives. Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1) is the best-known member of the family and was one of the first hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses to be isolated. However, our knowledge of fuselloviral life cycles and the relationships between these viruses and their hosts is still limited. As a result ...


Increasing Diterpene Yield With A Modular Metabolic Engineering System In E. Coli: Comparison Of Mev And Mep Isoprenoid Precursor Pathway Engineering, Dana Morrone, Luke Lowry, Mara K. Determan, David M. Hershey, Meimei Xu, Reuben J. Peters 2017 Iowa State University

Increasing Diterpene Yield With A Modular Metabolic Engineering System In E. Coli: Comparison Of Mev And Mep Isoprenoid Precursor Pathway Engineering, Dana Morrone, Luke Lowry, Mara K. Determan, David M. Hershey, Meimei Xu, Reuben J. Peters

Reuben J. Peters

Engineering biosynthetic pathways in heterologous microbial host organisms offers an elegant approach to pathway elucidation via the incorporation of putative biosynthetic enzymes and characterization of resulting novel metabolites. Our previous work in Escherichia coli demonstrated the feasibility of a facile modular approach to engineering the production of labdane-related diterpene (20 carbon) natural products. However, yield was limited (<0.1 mg/L), presumably due to reliance on endogenous production of the isoprenoid precursors dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. Here, we report incorporation of either a heterologous mevalonate pathway (MEV) or enhancement of the endogenous methyl erythritol phosphate pathway (MEP) with our modular metabolic engineering system. With MEP pathway enhancement, it was found that pyruvate supplementation of rich media and simultaneous overexpression of three genes (idi, dxs, and dxr) resulted in the greatest increase in diterpene yield, indicating distributed metabolic control within this pathway. Incorporation of a heterologous MEV pathway in bioreactor grown cultures resulted in significantly higher yields than MEP pathway enhancement. We have established suitable growth conditions for diterpene production levels ranging from 10 to >100 mg/L of E. coli culture. These amounts are sufficient for nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, enabling characterization of enzymatic products and hence, pathway elucidation. Furthermore, these results represent an up to >1,000-fold improvement in diterpene production from our facile, modular platform ...


Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li 2017 Marshall University

Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li

Qun Wang

Improved management of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in agro-ecosystems represents an important strategy for ensuring food security and sustainable agricultural development in China. Accurate estimates of the distribution of soil C and N stores and their relationship to crop yield are crucial to developing appropriate cropland management policies. The current study examined the spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), and associated variables in the surface layer (0–40 cm) of soils from intensive agricultural systems in 19 counties within Henan Province, China, and compared these patterns with crop yield. Mean soil C ...


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