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Recent Articles in Microbiology
Study Of Genes Relating To Degradation Of Aromatic Compounds And Carbon Metabolism In Mycobacterium Sp. Strain Kms, Chun Zhang Utah State University
Study Of Genes Relating To Degradation Of Aromatic Compounds And Carbon Metabolism In Mycobacterium Sp. Strain Kms, Chun Zhang
All Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, produced by anthropological and natural activities, are hazardous through formation of oxidative radicals and DNA adducts. Growth of Mycobacterium sp. strain KMS, isolated from a contaminated soil, on the model hydrocarbon pyrene induced specific proteins. My work extends the study of isolate KMS to the gene level to understand the pathways and regulation of pyrene utilization. Genes encoding pyrene-induced proteins were clustered on a 72 kb section on the KMS chromosome but some also were duplicated on plasmids. Skewed GC content and presence of integrase and transposase genes suggested horizontal transfer of pyrene-degrading gene islands that also ...
Aerobic Degradation Of Α-, Β-, Γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane By Narragansett Bay Bacterioplankton, Ian M. Rambo University of Rhode Island
Aerobic Degradation Of Α-, Β-, Γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane By Narragansett Bay Bacterioplankton, Ian M. Rambo
Senior Honors Projects
Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are a family of chlorinated organic compounds that were previously used as agricultural insecticides. HCHs are recognized as persistent organic pollutants due to their toxicity, recalcitrant properties, and tendency to bioaccumulate in food webs. Although HCH was first synthesized in 1825, its use was not widespread until the discovery of the insecticidal activity of the γ-HCH isomer in 1942. γ-HCH and its toxic waste isomers α-HCH and β-HCH were banned from production and use by the United Nations in 2009, yet these chemicals still present environmental problems due to their persistence in soils and surface waters. HCHs continue ...
Analysis Of The Chondroitinase Operon Of Flavobacterium Columnare, Erin L. Sorlien University of Rhode Island
Analysis Of The Chondroitinase Operon Of Flavobacterium Columnare, Erin L. Sorlien
Senior Honors Projects
Analysis of the chondroitinase operon of Flavobacterium columnare
Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemistry
Dr. David R. Nelson
May 2, 2013
Flavobacterium columnare, columnaris disease, chondroitin AC lyase, complementation, csl operon
Flavobacterium columnare, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen of fish, is the causative agent of columnaris disease (CD). The bacterium is a Gram-negative rod that exhibits gliding motility and avidly forms biofilms. CD affects both wild and cultured freshwater fish, and continues to cause large economic losses to the fish farming industry. According to an investigation conducted by the National Animal Health Monitoring System, CD ...
Viral Infection: An Evolving Insight Into The Signal Transduction Pathways Responsible For The Innate Immune Response, Girish J. Kotwal, Steven Hatch, William L. Marshall University of Massachusetts Medical School
Host-Pathogen Interactions Of Retroviruses, Abdul A. Waheed, Abraham L. Brass, Suryaram Gummuluru, Gilda Tachedjian University of Massachusetts Medical School
Host-Pathogen Interactions Of Retroviruses, Abdul A. Waheed, Abraham L. Brass, Suryaram Gummuluru, Gilda Tachedjian
Open Access Articles
No abstract provided.
Herv-H Rna Is Abundant In Human Embryonic Stem Cells And A Precise Marker For Pluripotency, Federico A. Santoni, Jessica Guerra, Jeremy Luban University of Massachusetts Medical School
Herv-H Rna Is Abundant In Human Embryonic Stem Cells And A Precise Marker For Pluripotency, Federico A. Santoni, Jessica Guerra, Jeremy Luban
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Certain post-translational modifications to histones, including H3K4me3, as well as binding sites for the transcription factor STAT1, predict the site of integration of exogenous gamma-retroviruses with great accuracy and cell-type specificity. Statistical methods that were used to identify chromatin features that predict exogenous gamma-retrovirus integration site selection were exploited here to determine whether cell type-specific chromatin markers are enriched in the vicinity of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs).
RESULTS: Among retro-elements in the human genome, the gamma-retrovirus HERV-H was highly associated with H3K4me3, though this association was only observed in embryonic stem (ES) cells (p < 10-300) and, to a lesser extent, in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. No significant association was observed in nearly 40 differentiated cell types, nor was any association observed with other retro-elements. Similar strong association was observed between HERV-H and the binding sites within ES cells for the pluripotency transcription factors NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2. NANOG binding sites were located within the HERV-H 5'LTR itself. OCT4 and SOX2 binding sites were within 1 kB and 2 kB of the 5'LTR, respectively. In keeping with these observations, HERV-H RNA constituted 2% of all poly A RNA in ES cells. As ES cells progressed down a differentiation pathway, the levels of HERV-H RNA decreased progressively. RNA-Seq datasets showed HERV-H transcripts to be over 5 kB in length and to have the structure 5'LTR-gag-pro-3'LTR, with no evidence of splicing and no intact open reading frames.
CONCLUSION: The developmental regulation of HERV-H ...
Prevalence Of Avian-Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Strain O1 Genomic Islands Among Extraintestinal And Commensal E. Coli Isolates, Timothy J. Johnson, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, James R. Johnson, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan Iowa State University
Prevalence Of Avian-Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Strain O1 Genomic Islands Among Extraintestinal And Commensal E. Coli Isolates, Timothy J. Johnson, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, James R. Johnson, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan
Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications and Papers
Escherichia coli strains that cause disease outside the intestine are known as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and include pathogens of humans and animals. Previously, the genome of avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC) O1:K1:H7 strain O1, from ST95, was sequenced and compared to those of several other E. coli strains, identifying 43 genomic islands. Here, the genomic islands of APEC O1 were compared to those of other sequenced E. coli strains, and the distribution of 81 genes belonging to 12 APEC O1 genomic islands among 828 human and avian ExPEC and commensal E. coli isolates was determined. Multiple islands ...
Interaction Of Bacillus Anthracis Exosporium Protein Bcla With Complement Factor H And Spore Persistence In The Lung, Sarah A. Jenkins Texas Medical Center Library
Interaction Of Bacillus Anthracis Exosporium Protein Bcla With Complement Factor H And Spore Persistence In The Lung, Sarah A. Jenkins
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
Anthrax outbreaks in the United States and Europe and its potential use as a bioweapon have made Bacillus anthracis an interest of study. Anthrax infections are caused by the entry of B. anthracis spores into the host via the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, cuts or wounds in the skin, and injection. Among these four forms, inhalational anthrax has the highest lethality rate and persistence of spores in the lungs of animals following pulmonary exposure has been noted for decades. However, details or mechanisms of spore persistence were not known. In this study, we investigated spore persistence in a mouse ...
Novel Neutralizing Antibody Assays For Recombinant Human Hookworm Na-Gst-1 Vaccine, Xi Chen, Brian Keegan, Peter J. Hotez, Jeffrey M. Bethony, Amar R. Jariwala Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, The George Washington University
Novel Neutralizing Antibody Assays For Recombinant Human Hookworm Na-Gst-1 Vaccine, Xi Chen, Brian Keegan, Peter J. Hotez, Jeffrey M. Bethony, Amar R. Jariwala
GW Research Days 2013
Necator Americanus, a human hookworm causes approximately 85% of the global hookworm infections. Hookworm ingest hemoglobin containing erythrocytes. Hemoglobin is further digested to Heme and Globin by hookworm's gut enzymes. Iron-containing Heme is a potent enzyme inhibitor and generates toxic reactive oxygen species which is toxic to hookworms. Hookworm's gut enzyme Na-GST-1 (Necator Americanus Glutathione S-Transferase-1) has been hypothesized to detoxify Heme. Na-GST-1 adjuvanted with Alhydrogel® is a new vaccine which is currently under clinical development. Na-GST-1 has two active sites, the ligand binding or Heme detoxification site (H-site) and the catalytic active glutathione ...
Antilisterial Characteristics Of Volatile Essential Oils, Leeann L. Slaughter University of Kentucky
Antilisterial Characteristics Of Volatile Essential Oils, Leeann L. Slaughter
Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences
This study explored the in vitro and in situ antilisterial inhibitory activity of 16 essential oils during indirect exposure: Spanish Basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), Bay oil (Pimenta racemosa), Italian Bergamot oil (Citrus bergamia), Roman Chamomile oil (Anthemis nobilis), Sir Lanka Cinnamon oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Citral, Clove Bud oil (Syzygium aromaticum), Cumin Seed oil (cuminum cyminum), Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus), Eugenol, Geranium extract (Pelargonium graveolens), Marjoram oil (Origanum majorana), Neroli extract (Citrus aurantium), Peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L.), Rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),and Spanish Sage oil (Salvia officinalis L.). All essential oils were tested against Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 4644). In ...
The Genome Of Pelobacter Carbinolicus Reveals Surprising Metabolic Capabilities And Physiological Features, Muktak Aklujkar, Shelley A. Haveman, Raymond DiDonato, Olga Chertkov, Cliff S. Han, Miriam L. Land, Peter Brown, Derek Lovley University of Massachusetts - Amherst
The Genome Of Pelobacter Carbinolicus Reveals Surprising Metabolic Capabilities And Physiological Features, Muktak Aklujkar, Shelley A. Haveman, Raymond Didonato, Olga Chertkov, Cliff S. Han, Miriam L. Land, Peter Brown, Derek Lovley
The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species.
Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and ...
Validation Of Microwave Heating Instructions For The Destruction Of Salmonella Spp. In Microwaveable Foods, Carol J. Valenzuela University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Validation Of Microwave Heating Instructions For The Destruction Of Salmonella Spp. In Microwaveable Foods, Carol J. Valenzuela
Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology
Microwave heating instructions for three products (chicken nuggets, turkey pot-pies and mashed potato) were developed and validated based on end point temperatures using two microwave ovens (2,459 MHz; 700 W and 1,350 W). Heating instructions for chicken nuggets were validated using different configuration of product placement (edge or center of the carousel) and number of units (4, 6 and 8). Salmonella spp. reductions of 6.56 log CFU/g (700 W) were observed in chicken nuggets heated in groups of 4 and placed at the center of the carousel with 1 min 26 s of heating time with ...
An Investigation Of Plant-Microbe Interactions Under Cadmium Stress In Agar-Based Medium, Hydroponics, And Soil Studies, Melanie P. Columbus Western University
An Investigation Of Plant-Microbe Interactions Under Cadmium Stress In Agar-Based Medium, Hydroponics, And Soil Studies, Melanie P. Columbus
University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
This thesis investigated plant-microbe-metal interactions at two scales: a single plant-microbe system and an agricultural rhizobacterial community. The first objective was to investigate the effectiveness of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) on mediating cadmium stress in a plant model system. Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 was inoculated with Pseudomonas putida UW4, which in its wild type form has been reported to reduce plant stress by simultaneously metabolizing the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) with the enzyme ACC deaminase and stimulating plant growth through the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). A mutant strain that lacks ACC deaminase and a no bacteria treatment were used ...
Is Your Immunity Compromised By Being Nice To Your Bacteria? Insights From A Social Amoeba, William E. Callison Washington University in St. Louis
Is Your Immunity Compromised By Being Nice To Your Bacteria? Insights From A Social Amoeba, William E. Callison
Undergraduate Research Symposium
Eukaryotes are dependent on beneficial microbes, but can be killed by harmful ones. How have they evolved responses that protect themselves from harmful bacteria while coddling the beneficial ones? An ideal system for investigating this relationship is the eukaryote social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum because some clones carry commensal bacteria through the social state to use as future seed corn, while others do not. Most of its life, D. discoideum amoeba consume bacteria and divide by binary fission. Under starvation, amoebae aggregate into a multicellular body which crawls to light, then forms a fruiting body of 20% dead stalk cells and ...
Improving Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Through Modulation Of The Anti-Tumour Immune Response, Kyle B. Stephenson McMaster University
Improving Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Through Modulation Of The Anti-Tumour Immune Response, Kyle B. Stephenson
Open Access Dissertations and Theses
Despite improvements in detection and treatment, cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Current treatment modalities have not been able to improve the mortality rates and significant toxicities limit efficacy. Therefore there is a need for development of novel therapeutics.
Oncolytic viruses have the ability to efficiently replicate in and destroy tumours while leaving normal tissues unharmed. These treatment platforms have been gaining momentum in recent years due to pre-clinical and clinical successes. Oncolytic viruses are extremely safe with limited toxicity observed in phase I/II clinical trials, and objective responses have been observed in some patients treated with ...
Exploring Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination At Low Ph Environments, Yi Yang University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Exploring Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination At Low Ph Environments, Yi Yang
Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), are ubiquitously pollutants in aquifer sediments and groundwater due to their heavy usage in industry and inappropriate disposal in the last century. Among about 1300 NPL (National Priorities List) sites, PCE and TCE are the two most frequently detected hazardous contaminants.
Engineered bioremediation, including biostimulation and bioaugmentation, is a promising technology to clean those PCE and/or TCE contaminated sites. However, in many contaminated groundwater systems and hazardous waste sites, pH can be lower than 5 to 6. And release of HCl (strong acid) from anaerobic reductive dechlorination may ...
Fatty Acid Synthase 1 In Candida Albicans Virulence And The In Vitro Effects Of Fluconazole, Tetracycline In Combinatorial Therapy, Marissa Mandy Rodrigues University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Fatty Acid Synthase 1 In Candida Albicans Virulence And The In Vitro Effects Of Fluconazole, Tetracycline In Combinatorial Therapy, Marissa Mandy Rodrigues
Candida albicans, the causative agent of superficial and invasive mycoses, is a significant fungal pathogen associated with high mortality rates and considerable health-related costs. The most effective class of antifungals used for the treatment of candidiasis includes polyenes, echinocandins and azoles. However with the emergence of resistant strains, new antifungals are warranted for the effective treatment of candidiasis. Genes involved in biosynthetic enzymatic pathways that regulate metabolic processes are important for the survival of pathogenic fungi and can thus be exploited for the development of better antifungals. Fatty acid synthase 1, which is involved in the de novo biosynthesis of ...
Characterization Of Genes And Pathways Controlling Biofilm Formation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Neha Sarode University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Characterization Of Genes And Pathways Controlling Biofilm Formation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Neha Sarode
Biofilms are a mode of growth where aggregated cells adhere to a foreign surface and grow as a complex community. Biofilms have found wide utility in commercial industries, however infections caused by biofilms in clinical settings are a major cause of concern. Understanding molecular details of biofilm formation could help in exploitation or elimination efforts.
We utilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to study biofilm formation. S. cerevisiae strain belonging to genetic background Σ [sigma] 1278b is capable of forming biofilms, on low density (0.3%) agar media. When grown at 25°[degree] C for 5 days, it develops ...
Efficacy Of Biopesticides For Organic Management Of Cucumber Beetles, Mary A. Rogers University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Efficacy Of Biopesticides For Organic Management Of Cucumber Beetles, Mary A. Rogers
Organic growers are limited in crop protection techniques for cucumber beetle management. Spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) and striped (Acalymma vitatta) cucumber beetles and are significant pests of cucurbits in the U.S. Feeding results in aesthetic damage and reduction in marketable yields as well as transmission of bacterial wilt that can result in plant mortality. Biopesticides are products formulated from naturally occurring organisms such as fungi and bacteria that are pathogenic or toxic to insect pests. Advantages to these products are that they have low environmental risk, low risk to non-target organisms including mammals and beneficial insects, and can help ...
Small Interfering Rna-Mediated Translation Repression Alters Ribosome Sensitivity To Inhibition By Cycloheximide In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Xinrong Ma University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Small Interfering Rna-Mediated Translation Repression Alters Ribosome Sensitivity To Inhibition By Cycloheximide In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Xinrong Ma
Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences
RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved gene silencing mechanism in eukaryotes, with regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes, including cell cycle, cell differentiation, physiological and metabolic pathways, and stress responses. RNAi can function by transcriptional silencing, mRNA target cleavage, translation repression and/or DNA elimination. In this study, we used the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system to study RNAi-mediated translation repression. We demonstrated that small RNAs (sRNAs) generated from exogenously introduced inverted repeat transgenes, with perfect complementarity to the 3’UTR of a target transcript, can inhibit protein synthesis, without or with only ...
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A World Review Of Fungi, Yeasts, And Slime Molds In Caves, Karen Vanderwolf, Donald McAlpine, Graham Forbes, David Malloch
Synthesis Of An Antimicrobial Textile Coating, William Morris
Cure From The Cave: Volcanic Cave Actinomycetes And Their Potential In Drug Discovery, Tara Sadoway, Devon Rule, Kent Watson, Paul Moote, Laiel Soliman, Nicholas Azad, Kingsley Donkor, Derrick Horne, Naowarat (Ann) Cheeptham
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