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The Antimicrobial, Mechanical, Physical And Structural Properties Of Chitosan-Gallic Acid Films, Xiuxiu Sun, Zhe Wang, Hoda Kadouh, Kequan Zhou 2014 Wayne State University

The Antimicrobial, Mechanical, Physical And Structural Properties Of Chitosan-Gallic Acid Films, Xiuxiu Sun, Zhe Wang, Hoda Kadouh, Kequan Zhou

Nutrition and Food Science Faculty Research Publications

Chitosan films incorporated with various concentrations of gallic acid were prepared and investigated for antimicrobial, mechanical, physical and structural properties. Four bacterial strains that commonly contaminate food products were chosen as target bacteria to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the prepared gallic acid-chitosan films. The incorporation of gallic acid significantly increased the antimicrobial activities of the films against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria innocua and Bacillus subtilis. Chitosan films incorporated with 1.5 g/100 g gallic acid showed the strongest antimicrobial activity. It was also found that tensile strength (TS) of chitosan film was significantly increased when incorporating 0 ...


Evaluation Of Novel Multi-Dimensional Tissue Culturing Methods Using Autonomously Bioluminescent Human Cell Lines, James Dean Webb 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluation Of Novel Multi-Dimensional Tissue Culturing Methods Using Autonomously Bioluminescent Human Cell Lines, James Dean Webb

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Microbe-Mineral Relationships And Biogenic Mineral Transformations In Actively Venting Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimneys, TZIHSUAN J. LIN 2014 SelectedWorks

Microbe-Mineral Relationships And Biogenic Mineral Transformations In Actively Venting Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimneys, Tzihsuan J. Lin

TZIHSUAN J LIN

This dissertation uses a combination of microbiology, mineralogy, and geochemistry to understand dissimilatory iron reduction in hyperthermophilic archaea and the role and potential impact of these and other vent microorganisms within active deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys. The central objective of the dissertation is to determine if mineral composition and chimney type are among the primary determinants of microbial community composition and hyperthermophilic, dissimilatory iron reducer growth, in addition to other environmental factors such as nutrient availability, temperature, pH, and chlorinity. This is done using samples and organisms collected from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the ...


Exploration Of Freshwater Cyanobacteria, Mariya Campbell 2014 Georgia State University

Exploration Of Freshwater Cyanobacteria, Mariya Campbell

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold 2014 Georgia State University

Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Functional Implications Of The Baf-B1 Axis During The Vaccinia Virus Life Cycle, Nouhou Ibrahim 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Functional Implications Of The Baf-B1 Axis During The Vaccinia Virus Life Cycle, Nouhou Ibrahim

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Vaccinia virus is the prototypic member of the Poxviridae family, which includes variola virus, the agent of smallpox. Poxviruses encode their own transcriptional machinery and a set of proteins to evade the host defense system, and thus are able to replicate entirely in the cytoplasm of their host. The poxvirus life cycle occurs in sequential stages: early gene expression, DNA replication, intermediate gene expression and then late gene expression and morphogenesis. The temporally staged poxvirus life cycle makes viral DNA replication a required event for post-replicative events to occur. However, viral DNA replication itself depends on an early viral Ser ...


Predator Vs Aliens: Bacteria Interactions With Acanthamoeba, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui 2014 The Aga Khan University

Predator Vs Aliens: Bacteria Interactions With Acanthamoeba, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui

Department of Anaesthesia

SUMMARY By interactions with other microbes, free-living amoebae play a significant role in microbiology, environmental biology, physiology, cellular interactions, ecology and evolution. Here, we discuss astonishing interactions of bacteria and amoebae, in the light of evolution and functional aspects impacting human health. In favourable environmental conditions, the interaction of Acanthamoeba with non-virulent bacteria results in lysis of the bacteria. However, the interaction with weak-virulent bacteria results in a symbiotic relationship or amoebal lysis may occur. The microbial survival of amoebae in harsh environments, ability to interact with bacteria, and their ability to aid transmission to susceptible hosts is of great ...


Vpx Rescue Of Hiv-1 From The Antiviral State In Mature Dendritic Cells Is Independent Of The Intracellular Deoxynucleotide Concentration, Christian Reinhard, Dario Bottinelli, Baek Kim, Jeremy Luban 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Vpx Rescue Of Hiv-1 From The Antiviral State In Mature Dendritic Cells Is Independent Of The Intracellular Deoxynucleotide Concentration, Christian Reinhard, Dario Bottinelli, Baek Kim, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: SIVMAC/HIV-2 Vpx recruits the CUL4A-DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to degrade the deoxynucleotide hydrolase SAMHD1. This increases the concentration of deoxynucleotides available for reverse transcription in myeloid cells and resting T cells. Accordingly, transduction of these cells by SIVMAC requires Vpx. Virus-like particles containing SIVMAC Vpx (Vpx-VLPs) also increase the efficiency of HIV-1 transduction in these cells, and rescue transduction by HIV-1, but not SIVMAC, in mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Differences in Vpx mechanism noted at that time, along with recent data suggesting that SAMHD1 gains additional restriction capabilities in the presence of type I IFN prompted ...


Acanthamoeba And Bacteria Produce Antimicrobials To Target Their Counterpart, Junaid Iqbal, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan 2014 The Aga Khan University

Acanthamoeba And Bacteria Produce Antimicrobials To Target Their Counterpart, Junaid Iqbal, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background

In the microbial ecosystem, microbes compete for space and nutrients. Consequently, some have developed the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of other competing microbes by producing antimicrobial substances. As the ‘producer’ species are generally immune to these substances, their compounds act on the competing microbial species and give the producer more space and access to nutrients for growth. Many currently used antibiotics were developed by exploiting this potential of certain microbes.

Findings

Here, the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii, was investigated for its antibacterial activity against representative Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, while bacterial isolates were tested ...


Cultivating Previously Uncultured Bacteria From The Human Oral Cavity, Pallavi Pradeep Murugkar 2014 Northeastern University

Cultivating Previously Uncultured Bacteria From The Human Oral Cavity, Pallavi Pradeep Murugkar

Biology Dissertations

Our knowledge of the bacteria that make up the human microbiome and the roles they play in health and disease is severely limited, and one of the greatest causes of that limitation is the inability to culture many of these organisms. It is estimated that 50% of the human oral flora is uncultured (Aas et al., 2005) and the essential challenge is to develop methods for cultivating these elusive organisms, in order to understand the role of the oral microbiome in human health. It was previously discovered that many natural bacterial isolates from environments outside of the human body were ...


Identification And ß-Lactam Resistance In Aquatic Isolates Of Enterobacter Cloacae And Their Status In Microbiota Of Domica Cave In Slovak Karst (Slovakia), Barbora Gaalova, Alena Donauerova, Milan Seman, Helena Bujdakova 2014 University of South Florida

Identification And ß-Lactam Resistance In Aquatic Isolates Of Enterobacter Cloacae And Their Status In Microbiota Of Domica Cave In Slovak Karst (Slovakia), Barbora Gaalova, Alena Donauerova, Milan Seman, Helena Bujdakova

International Journal of Speleology

Domica Cave is located in the Slovak Karst National Park in southern Slovakia. Heterotrophic cultivable psychrophilic and mesophilic microbiota were confirmed to be prevalent in this cave. Escherichia coli was the most abundant bacterium, followed by Enterobacter species and Serrratia species. Enterobacter cloacae isolates belong to the group of faecal contaminants (coliforms) of concern in water. Their status in cave ecosystem is questionable, but we observed E. cloacae in water samples all years round suggesting an autochthonous origin. We were concerned with possible contamination of the cave water with resistant E. cloacae from animal farms located 2-3 km from the ...


Recombinant Interleukin-21 Plus Sorafenib For Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Phase 1/2 Study, Shailender Bhatia, Brendan, Marc S. Ernstoff, Michael, Elisabeth I. Heath, Wilson H. Miller Jr, Igor Puzanov, David I. Quinn, Thomas, Peter VanVeldhuizen, Kelly, Jeremy, Rachel, Naomi, Sonia, John A. Thompson 2014 Wayne State University

Recombinant Interleukin-21 Plus Sorafenib For Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Phase 1/2 Study, Shailender Bhatia, Brendan, Marc S. Ernstoff, Michael, Elisabeth I. Heath, Wilson H. Miller Jr, Igor Puzanov, David I. Quinn, Thomas, Peter Vanveldhuizen, Kelly, Jeremy, Rachel, Naomi, Sonia, John A. Thompson

Wayne State University Associated BioMed Central Scholarship

Abstract

Background

Despite the positive impact of targeted therapies on metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), durable responses are infrequent and an unmet need exists for novel therapies with distinct mechanisms of action. We investigated the combination of recombinant Interleukin 21 (IL-21), a cytokine with unique immunostimulatory properties, plus sorafenib, a VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

Methods

In this phase 1/2 study, 52 mRCC patients received outpatient treatment with oral sorafenib 400 mg twice daily plus intravenous IL-21 (10–50 mcg/kg) on days 1–5 and 15–19 of each 7-week treatment course. The safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic ...


Targeting Cxcr4 With Ctce-9908 Inhibits Prostate Tumor Metastasis, Donald Wong, Pridvi Kandagatla, Walter Korz, Sreenivasa R. Chinni 2014 Wayne State University

Targeting Cxcr4 With Ctce-9908 Inhibits Prostate Tumor Metastasis, Donald Wong, Pridvi Kandagatla, Walter Korz, Sreenivasa R. Chinni

Wayne State University Associated BioMed Central Scholarship

Abstract

Background

CXCL12/CXCR4 transactivation of epidermal growth factor family receptors in lipid raft membrane microdomains on cell surface is thought to mediate tumor growth and subsequent development of metastatic disease. CTCE-9908 is a known inhibitor of CXCR4. Herein, we tested the efficacy of CTCE-9908 in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, invasion, and metastasis.

Methods

We used a panel ofin vitroassays utilizing human prostate cancer cell lines and anin vivoorthotopic prostate cancer model to assess the anti-tumoral activity of CTCE-9908.

Results

We demonstrated that (a) CTCE-9908 treatment resulted in no significant change in the growth of PC-3 and C4-2B cells ...


The Composition And Stability Of The Vaginal Microbiota Of Normal Pregnant Women Is Different From That Of Non-Pregnant Women, Roberto Romero, Sonia S. Hassan, Pawel Gajer, Adi L. Tarca, Douglas W. Fadrosh, Lorraine Nikita, Marisa Galuppi, Ronald F. Lamont, Piya Chaemsaithong, Jezid Miranda, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Jacques Ravel 2014 Wayne State University

The Composition And Stability Of The Vaginal Microbiota Of Normal Pregnant Women Is Different From That Of Non-Pregnant Women, Roberto Romero, Sonia S. Hassan, Pawel Gajer, Adi L. Tarca, Douglas W. Fadrosh, Lorraine Nikita, Marisa Galuppi, Ronald F. Lamont, Piya Chaemsaithong, Jezid Miranda, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Jacques Ravel

Wayne State University Associated BioMed Central Scholarship

Abstract

Background

This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term.

Results

A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota ...


Nuclear Import And Interactions Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus Nucleocapsid, Matrix, And Phosphoprotein, Gavin Lloyd Franklin Anderson 2014 University of Kentucky

Nuclear Import And Interactions Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus Nucleocapsid, Matrix, And Phosphoprotein, Gavin Lloyd Franklin Anderson

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV) is the type species of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus and, like all members of this genus, replication and morphogenesis occurs inside the nuclei of infected cells. Protein localization prediction algorithms failed to identify a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in PYDV nucleocapsid (N) protein, although PYDV-N has been shown to localize exclusively to the nucleus when expressed as a green fluorescent protein (GFP):N fusion in plant cells. Deletion analysis and alanine-scanning mutagenesis identified two amino acid motifs, 419QKR421 and 432KR433, that were shown to be essential for nuclear import and interaction with ...


Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim 2013 Western University

Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human vaginal microbiome undoubtedly has a significant role in reproductive health and for protection from infectious organisms. Recent efforts to characterize the bacterial species of the vagina using molecular techniques have uncovered an unexpected diversity. Using high-throughput sequencing I sought to describe the structure and function of the vaginal microbiome under different physiological states including healthy, bacterial vaginosis (BV), post-menopausal vaginal atrophy, and acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that healthy, asymptomatic women most often have vaginal biotas dominated by Lactobacillus iners or L. crispatus. In contrast, BV is a heterogeneous, highly diversified condition with ...


Effects Of Formalin-Inactivated Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Fi-Rsv) In The Perinatal Lamb Model Of Rsv, Rachel J. Derscheid, Jack M. Gallup, Cory J. Knudson, Steven M. Varga, Drew D. Grosz, Albert G. Van Geelen, Shannon Jones Hostetter, Mark R. Ackermann 2013 Iowa State University

Effects Of Formalin-Inactivated Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Fi-Rsv) In The Perinatal Lamb Model Of Rsv, Rachel J. Derscheid, Jack M. Gallup, Cory J. Knudson, Steven M. Varga, Drew D. Grosz, Albert G. Van Geelen, Shannon Jones Hostetter, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children worldwide. There are currently no licensed vaccines or effective antivirals. The lack of a vaccine is partly due to increased caution following the aftermath of a failed clinical trial of a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV) conducted in the 1960’s that led to enhanced disease, necessitating hospitalization of 80% of vaccine recipients and resulting in two fatalities. Perinatal lamb lungs are similar in size, structure and physiology to those of human infants and are susceptible to human strains of RSV that induce similar lesions as ...


Impact Of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus And Triticum Mosaic Virus On Transmission By Aceria Tosichella Keifer (Eriophyidae) And Virus Epidemiology In Wheat, Camila F. de Oliveira 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus And Triticum Mosaic Virus On Transmission By Aceria Tosichella Keifer (Eriophyidae) And Virus Epidemiology In Wheat, Camila F. De Oliveira

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits a complex of viruses, Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) and Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), to wheat, Triticum aestivum, in the Great Plains. Co-infection of wheat by these viruses is frequently observed, increasing disease severity and yield loss.

Current genetic work classifies WCM populations into two genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2. It has been shown that different mite genotypes are able to transmit viruses at varying rates. WCM-virus relations are very specific and can impact vector biology. In this study, the primary objective was to determine if ...


C-Jun N-Terminal Kinases Regulate Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy And Antigen Presentation, Sarah R. Klein 2013 Texas Medical Center Library

C-Jun N-Terminal Kinases Regulate Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy And Antigen Presentation, Sarah R. Klein

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Targeted immunotherapy with recombinant, oncolytic adenoviruses is under investigation for the treatment of cancer. Evidence indicates adenoviruses induce autophagy that is required for oncolysis, but the molecular regulation of autophagy in infected cells remains under investigation. Our data suggested the canonical pathway regulating starvation-induced autophagy was not implemented in adenovirus-induced autophagy; however, adenovirus infection triggered phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) that was essential for autophagy. Adenoviral replication within the host cell elicited JNK pathway activation leading to B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) phosphorylation. JNK-dependent Bcl-2 phosphorylation stimulated the dissociation of Bcl-2/beclin 1 heterodimers, enabling beclin 1 to initiate autophagy ...


Characterization Of The Role(S) Of Env Protein Of Human Endogenous Retrovirus-K In Multiple Human Cancers, Ming Li 2013 Texas Medical Center Library

Characterization Of The Role(S) Of Env Protein Of Human Endogenous Retrovirus-K In Multiple Human Cancers, Ming Li

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants from ancient retroviral infections, and most of them are inactive in normal tissues. One family of HERV, HERV-K, is found to be associated with multiple human cancers including breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and melanoma, but the causal relationship between HERV-K and cancer is still unclear. Increased expression of HERV-K in melanoma cells correlates with malignant transformation, while a serological response to HERV-K in breast cancer or melanoma patients correlates with survival probability. However, the mechanism behind these observations remains obscure. Our laboratory reported that anti-HERV-K envelope (Env) protein antibodies show antitumor potential in targeting ...


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