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Biofilm Forming Ability Of Bacteria Isolated From Dental Caries: With Reference To Streptococcus Species, Sonali kaustubh Ambulkar, Vidya Tale, Abhijit Jadhav, Komal Kulkarni 2020 Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, India

Biofilm Forming Ability Of Bacteria Isolated From Dental Caries: With Reference To Streptococcus Species, Sonali Kaustubh Ambulkar, Vidya Tale, Abhijit Jadhav, Komal Kulkarni

Future Dental Journal of Egypt

Dental caries is formed by the group of microorganisms attached to a tooth surface embedded in a matrix of polymers. Biofilm plays an important role in the development of dental caries, plaque and other periodontal diseases. The present study is aimed to isolate, identify and characterize bacteria from dental caries. The ability of biofilm formation of these isolates was confirmed by Congo red agar method, Tube method and Microtitre plate method. High biofilm-forming bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus, Enterococcus faecalis and Rothia dentocariosa are the predominant biofilm forming bacteria associated with dental caries.


Regulation Of Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine By Olfactory Neurons, Kyle J. Foster 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Regulation Of Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine By Olfactory Neurons, Kyle J. Foster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The intestinal epithelium represents one of the first lines of defense against pathogenic bacteria. Immune regulation at this critical barrier is necessary to maintain organismal fitness, and mis-regulation here has been linked to numerous debilitating diseases. Functional relationships between the nervous system and immune system have been found to be critical in the proper coordination of immune defenses at barrier surfaces, however the precise mechanisms underlying theses interactions remains unclear.

Through conducting a forward genetic screen utilizing the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we uncovered a surprising requirement for the olfactory neuron gene olrn-1 in the regulation of intestinal epithelial immunity ...


Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. de Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria de Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo de Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano 2020 Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste

Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. De Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria De Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo De Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano

Animal Science Publications

Background: The impact of extreme changes in weather patterns in the economy and humanity welfare are some of the biggest challenges that our civilization is facing. From the anthropogenic activities that contribute to climate change, reducing the impact of farming activities is a priority, since its responsible for up to 18% of greenhouse gases linked to such activities. To this end, we tested if the ruminal and fecal microbiomes components of 52 Brazilian Nelore bulls, belonging to two experimental groups based on the feed intervention, conventional (A) and byproducts based diet (B), could be used as biomarkers for methane (CH ...


Did You Wash Your Caving Suit? Cavers’ Role In The Potential Spread Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, The Causative Agent Of White-Nose Disease, Violeta Zhelyazkova, Antonia Hubancheva, Georgi Radoslavov, Nia Toshkova, Sebastien J. Puechmaille 2020 National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Did You Wash Your Caving Suit? Cavers’ Role In The Potential Spread Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, The Causative Agent Of White-Nose Disease, Violeta Zhelyazkova, Antonia Hubancheva, Georgi Radoslavov, Nia Toshkova, Sebastien J. Puechmaille

International Journal of Speleology

White-Nose Disease (WND) has killed millions of hibernating bats in the US and Canada. Its causative agent, the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans was introduced to North America, but is native to Europe and Asia, where it is not associated with mass mortality. Although it is nearly impossible to eradicate an emerging wildlife disease, research on P. destructans spread mechanisms can aid in prevention of new introductions and development of better environmental management strategies. It is of particular importance to quantify the potential role of people visiting caves (cavers, tourists, bat researchers, etc.) whom inadvertently move P. destructans spores between sites, and ...


Phylogenetic Analysis Of Sars-Cov-2 In The Boston Area Highlights The Role Of Recurrent Importation And Superspreading Events, Jacob Lemieux, Katherine J. Siddle, Jeremy Luban, Glen R. Gallagher, Lawrence C. Madoff, Sandra Smole, Virginia M. Pierce, Eric Rosenberg, Pardis C. Sabeti, Daniel J. Park, Bronwyn L. MacInnis 2020 Broad Institute

Phylogenetic Analysis Of Sars-Cov-2 In The Boston Area Highlights The Role Of Recurrent Importation And Superspreading Events, Jacob Lemieux, Katherine J. Siddle, Jeremy Luban, Glen R. Gallagher, Lawrence C. Madoff, Sandra Smole, Virginia M. Pierce, Eric Rosenberg, Pardis C. Sabeti, Daniel J. Park, Bronwyn L. Macinnis

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a severe, ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 in Massachusetts with 111,070 confirmed cases and 8,433 deaths as of August 1, 2020. To investigate the introduction, spread, and epidemiology of COVID-19 in the Boston area, we sequenced and analyzed 772 complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the region, including nearly all confirmed cases within the first week of the epidemic and hundreds of cases from major outbreaks at a conference, a nursing facility, and among homeless shelter guests and staff. The data reveal over 80 introductions into the Boston area, predominantly from elsewhere in the United States and Europe ...


Host Immunity Increases Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Reliance On Cytochrome Bd Oxidase, Yi Cai, Eleni Jaecklein, Jared Mackenzie, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Michigan State University, Xinchun Chen, Africa Health Research Institute, Christopher M. Sassetti 2020 Shenzhen University

Host Immunity Increases Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Reliance On Cytochrome Bd Oxidase, Yi Cai, Eleni Jaecklein, Jared Mackenzie, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Michigan State University, Xinchun Chen, Africa Health Research Institute, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In order to sustain a persistent infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must adapt to a changing environment that is shaped by the developing immune response. This necessity to adapt is evident in the flexibility of many aspects of Mtb metabolism, including a respiratory chain that consists of two distinct terminal cytochrome oxidase complexes. Under the conditions tested thus far, the bc1/aa3 complex appears to play a dominant role, while the alternative bd oxidase is largely redundant. However, presence of two terminal oxidases in this obligate pathogen implies that respiratory requirements might change during infection. We report that the ...


A Cross-Reactive Human Iga Monoclonal Antibody Blocks Sars-Cov-2 Spike-Ace2 Interaction, Ejemel Monir, Qi Li, Shurong Hou, Zachary Schiller, Aaron Wallace, Alla Amcheslavsky, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Jacqueline R. Toomey, Ryan Schneider, Anudeep S. Ramchetty, Chandrashekar Ganesa, Lisa Cavacini, Mark S. Klempner, Celia A. Schiffer, Yan Wang 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Cross-Reactive Human Iga Monoclonal Antibody Blocks Sars-Cov-2 Spike-Ace2 Interaction, Ejemel Monir, Qi Li, Shurong Hou, Zachary Schiller, Aaron Wallace, Alla Amcheslavsky, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Jacqueline R. Toomey, Ryan Schneider, Anudeep S. Ramchetty, Chandrashekar Ganesa, Lisa Cavacini, Mark S. Klempner, Celia A. Schiffer, Yan Wang

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic requiring the development of interventions for the prevention or treatment to curtail mortality and morbidity. No vaccine to boost mucosal immunity, or as a therapeutic, has yet been developed to SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we discover and characterize a cross-reactive human IgA monoclonal antibody, MAb362. MAb362 binds to both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and competitively blocks ACE2 receptor binding, by overlapping the ACE2 structural binding epitope. Furthermore, MAb362 IgA neutralizes both pseudotyped SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in 293 cells expressing ACE2. When converted to secretory IgA, MAb326 also neutralizes authentic SARS-CoV-2 ...


Draft Genome Sequences Of Six Strains Isolated From The Rhizosphere Of Wheat Grown In Cadmium-Contaminated Soil, Vira Hovorukha, Ankita Bhattacharyya, Olga Iungin, Hanna Tashyreva, Victoria Romanovska, Olesia Havyrliuk, Olena Bielikova, Claire Blackwell, Brian Burks, Cara Cothern, Jakia Elliott, Jonathan Hoover, Alexis Jones, Christian Leise, Linda Lowmiller, Ahmed Mohamed, Tiffany Mullen, Ethan Nettleton, Karshanda Polk, Benny Tran, Teresa Tran, Manuel Vega, Landon Ware, Emily Welch, Leandra Williams, Madison Woodward, Kaylin Young, Olga Mavrodi, Oleksandr Tashyrev, Dmitri Mavrodi 2020 National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Draft Genome Sequences Of Six Strains Isolated From The Rhizosphere Of Wheat Grown In Cadmium-Contaminated Soil, Vira Hovorukha, Ankita Bhattacharyya, Olga Iungin, Hanna Tashyreva, Victoria Romanovska, Olesia Havyrliuk, Olena Bielikova, Claire Blackwell, Brian Burks, Cara Cothern, Jakia Elliott, Jonathan Hoover, Alexis Jones, Christian Leise, Linda Lowmiller, Ahmed Mohamed, Tiffany Mullen, Ethan Nettleton, Karshanda Polk, Benny Tran, Teresa Tran, Manuel Vega, Landon Ware, Emily Welch, Leandra Williams, Madison Woodward, Kaylin Young, Olga Mavrodi, Oleksandr Tashyrev, Dmitri Mavrodi

Faculty Publications

This study presents high-quality draft genome assemblies of six bacterial strains isolated from the roots of wheat grown in soil contaminated with cadmium. The results of this study will help to elucidate at the molecular level how heavy metals affect interactions between beneficial rhizobacteria and crop plants.


Isolation, Enumeration And Antibiotic Profiling Of Vibrio Vulnificus And V. Parahaemolyticus From Coastal Virginia, Stanley Peyton 2020 James Madison University

Isolation, Enumeration And Antibiotic Profiling Of Vibrio Vulnificus And V. Parahaemolyticus From Coastal Virginia, Stanley Peyton

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are gram-negative, halophilic bacteria that reside in estuarine waters and are associated with infections in humans. These bacteria can cause gastroenteritis through their presence in raw fish and shellfish consumed by humans. V. vulnificus can also produce wound infections leading to severe septicemia, and in some cases, death if not treated promptly. With increasing incidence of infections due to these two organisms, research efforts have focused on potential reservoirs and environmental conditions that can increase human exposure to, and infection, with these species of bacteria. This study was conducted in order to examine the role ...


The Dhodh Inhibitor Ptc299 Arrests Sars-Cov-2 Replication And Suppresses Induction Of Inflammatory Cytokines, Jeremy Luban, Caterina Strambio De Castilla, Yetao Wang, Allan Jacobson, Stuart Peltz 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Dhodh Inhibitor Ptc299 Arrests Sars-Cov-2 Replication And Suppresses Induction Of Inflammatory Cytokines, Jeremy Luban, Caterina Strambio De Castilla, Yetao Wang, Allan Jacobson, Stuart Peltz

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created an urgent need for therapeutics that inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 virus and suppress the fulminant inflammation characteristic of advanced illness. Here, we describe the anti-COVID-19 potential of PTC299, an orally available compound that is a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. In tissue culture, PTC299 manifests robust, dose-dependent, and DHODH-dependent inhibition of SARS CoV-2 replication (EC50 range, 2.0 to 31.6 nM) with a selectivity index >3,800. PTC299 also blocked replication of other RNA viruses, including Ebola virus. Consistent with known ...


Adapting Biotoxin Monitoring For The Future: An Opportunity For A Harmful Algae Bloom (Hab) Network In Casco Bay, Maine, Zachary B. Gordon 2020 University of New England

Adapting Biotoxin Monitoring For The Future: An Opportunity For A Harmful Algae Bloom (Hab) Network In Casco Bay, Maine, Zachary B. Gordon

All Theses And Dissertations

Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs) related to marine biotoxins have considerable impacts on coastal communities and have been increasing in size and frequency globally. Maine is recognized as a leader in biotoxin management as it relates to bivalve shellfish, but it has been unclear how current management practices effect the growth of shellfish aquaculture and how they will adapt to future conditions. This research uses a collaborative approach to analyze the current state of biotoxin management in Maine. First, the current management practices in Maine were compared and contrasted with five other states dealing with similar issues. Then, the perspectives of ...


Investigation Of An Elevational Gradient Reveals Strong Differences Between Bacterial And Eukaryotic Communities Coinhabiting Nepenthes Phytotelmata, Kadeem J. Gilbert, Leonora S. Bittleston, Mark Arcebal K. Naive, Anthony E. Kiszewski, Perry Archival C. Buenavente, David J. Lohman, Naomi E. Pierce 2020 Harvard University

Investigation Of An Elevational Gradient Reveals Strong Differences Between Bacterial And Eukaryotic Communities Coinhabiting Nepenthes Phytotelmata, Kadeem J. Gilbert, Leonora S. Bittleston, Mark Arcebal K. Naive, Anthony E. Kiszewski, Perry Archival C. Buenavente, David J. Lohman, Naomi E. Pierce

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Elevation is an important determinant of ecological community composition. It integrates several abiotic features and leads to strong, repeatable patterns of community structure, including changes in the abundance and richness of numerous taxa. However, the influence of elevational gradients on microbes is understudied relative to plants and animals. To compare the influence of elevation on multiple taxa simultaneously, we sampled phytotelm communities within a tropical pitcher plant (Nepenthes mindanaoensis) along a gradient from 400 to 1200 m a.s.l. We use a combination of metabarcoding and physical counts to assess diversity and richness of bacteria, micro-eukaryotes, and arthropods, and ...


Connections Between Hydrothermal System Geochemistry And Microbiology: Traversing Tectonic Boundaries In The South-Central Peruvian Andes, Heather Upin 2020 Utah State University

Connections Between Hydrothermal System Geochemistry And Microbiology: Traversing Tectonic Boundaries In The South-Central Peruvian Andes, Heather Upin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Geochemistry and microbiology are inherently tied in the natural world. The study of geomicrobiology has historically taken place in extreme systems, like hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and deep-sea hydrothermal vents, because the organisms that exist there have deep lineages on the tree of life and provide insight into early life on Earth. These microbes use chemical energy from nutrients available in their environment rather than relying on photosynthesis, energy obtained from the sun, to support their metabolism. The goal of this study is to improve our understanding of geological controls (for example the tectonic setting) on hot spring ...


Mutations Within And Between Early Cell Division Proteins And Their Effects On Division Regulation In Escherichia Coli, Kara Schoenemann 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Mutations Within And Between Early Cell Division Proteins And Their Effects On Division Regulation In Escherichia Coli, Kara Schoenemann

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cell division is a highly regulated process that must coordinate multiple implicit activities in different locations in the cell simultaneously. E. coli utilizes a macromolecular machine known as the divisome to accomplish cytokinesis. Assembly of the divisome begins with the assembly of a simpler structure known as the proto-ring. The proto-ring consists mainly of three essential proteins: FtsZ and its membrane tethers FtsA and ZipA. In this work, I aimed to understand the early regulation of division in E. coli by investigating the structure/function relationships of the proto-ring proteins, as well as their interactions with one another and how ...


Investigating Evolutionary Innovation In Yeast Heat Shock Protein 90, Pamela Cote-Hammarlof 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Investigating Evolutionary Innovation In Yeast Heat Shock Protein 90, Pamela Cote-Hammarlof

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential and highly conserved chaperone that facilitates the maturation of a wide array of client proteins, including many kinases. These clients in turn regulate a wide array of cellular processes, such as signal transduction, and transcriptional reprogramming. As a result, the activity of Hsp90 has the potential to influence physiology, which in turn may influence the ability to adapt to new environments. Previous studies using a deep mutational scanning approach, (EMPIRIC) identified multiple substitutions within a 9 amino acid substrate-binding loop of yeast Hsp90 that provides a growth advantage for yeast under ...


Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Evasion Of Guanylate Binding Protein-Mediated Host Defense In Mice Requires The Esx1 Secretion System, Andrew J. Olive, Clare M. Smith, Christina E. Baer, Jörn Coers, Christopher M. Sassetti 2020 Michigan State University

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Evasion Of Guanylate Binding Protein-Mediated Host Defense In Mice Requires The Esx1 Secretion System, Andrew J. Olive, Clare M. Smith, Christina E. Baer, Jörn Coers, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cell-intrinsic immune mechanisms control intracellular pathogens that infect eukaryotes. The intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) evolved to withstand cell-autonomous immunity to cause persistent infections and disease. A potent inducer of cell-autonomous immunity is the lymphocyte-derived cytokine IFNγ. While the production of IFNγ by T cells is essential to protect against Mtb, it is not capable of fully eradicating Mtb infection. This suggests that Mtb evades a subset of IFNγ-mediated antimicrobial responses, yet what mechanisms Mtb resists remains unclear. The IFNγ-inducible Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are key host defense proteins able to control infections with intracellular pathogens. GBPs were previously shown ...


Deacetylation Of Hsd17b10 By Sirt3 Regulates Cell Growth And Cell Resistance Under Oxidative And Starvation Stresses., Lu Liu, Shuaiyi Chen, Miao Yu, Chenxu Ge, Mengmeng Ren, Boya Liu, Xin Yang, Thomas W Christian, Ya-Ming Hou, Junhua Zou, Wei-Guo Zhu, Jianyuan Luo 2020 Department of Medical Genetics, Center for Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China

Deacetylation Of Hsd17b10 By Sirt3 Regulates Cell Growth And Cell Resistance Under Oxidative And Starvation Stresses., Lu Liu, Shuaiyi Chen, Miao Yu, Chenxu Ge, Mengmeng Ren, Boya Liu, Xin Yang, Thomas W Christian, Ya-Ming Hou, Junhua Zou, Wei-Guo Zhu, Jianyuan Luo

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 10 (HSD17B10) plays an important role in mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism and is also involved in mitochondrial tRNA maturation. HSD17B10 missense mutations cause HSD10 mitochondrial disease (HSD10MD). HSD17B10 with mutations identified from cases of HSD10MD show loss of function in dehydrogenase activity and mitochondrial tRNA maturation, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. It has also been implicated to play roles in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD) and tumorigenesis. Here, we found that HSD17B10 is a new substrate of NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). HSD17B10 is acetylated at lysine residues K79, K99 and K105 by the acetyltransferase CBP, and the ...


Preliminary Assessment Of Microbial Community Structure Of Wind-Tidal Flats In The Laguna Madre, Texas, Usa, I-Shuo Huang, Lee J. Pinnell, Jeffrey W. Turner, et al 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Preliminary Assessment Of Microbial Community Structure Of Wind-Tidal Flats In The Laguna Madre, Texas, Usa, I-Shuo Huang, Lee J. Pinnell, Jeffrey W. Turner, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Aside from two samples collected nearly 50 years ago, little is known about the microbial composition of wind tidal flats in the hypersaline Laguna Madre, Texas. These mats account for ~42% of the lagoon’s area. These microbial communities were sampled at four locations that historically had mats in the Laguna Madre, including Laguna Madre Field Station (LMFS), Nighthawk Bay (NH), and two locations in Kenedy Ranch (KRN and KRS). Amplicon sequencing of 16S genes determined the presence of 51 prokaryotic phyla dominated by Bacteroidota, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Desulfobacteria, Firmicutes, Halobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The microbial community structure of NH and KR ...


Covid-19: In The Absence Of Vaccination – ‘Mask-The-Nation’, Roy D. Sleator, Steven Darby, Alan Giltinan, Niall Smith 2020 Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology

Covid-19: In The Absence Of Vaccination – ‘Mask-The-Nation’, Roy D. Sleator, Steven Darby, Alan Giltinan, Niall Smith

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

“In the absence of a vaccine, or effective antiviral, one of our only remaining strategies for controlling COVID-19 is to physically block the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the community”


Dissecting Regulatory Mechanisms Of Quorum Sensing Pathways In Bacillus Subtilis, Patrick Hill 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Dissecting Regulatory Mechanisms Of Quorum Sensing Pathways In Bacillus Subtilis, Patrick Hill

Doctoral Dissertations

Living organisms generally share a small number of characteristics, among which include maintaining homeostasis, growth, and responding to changing environments. Wherever we find life, we typically observe this life performing these tasks. Likely no environment is truly barren, so organisms must be able to continue living in crowded conditions. Humans use their senses to determine the quality of their local environment. Individuals use languages, written, spoken and digital to communicate these findings to their neighbors. Bacteria have evolved complex systems to sense these conditions, and to trigger appropriate developmental programs to help them survive, grow, and respond in changing environments ...


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