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Lead Exposure From Aluminum Cookware In Cameroon, Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer, Peter A. Lobunski, Gilbert Kuepouo, Rebecca W. Corbin, Perry Gottesfeld 2014 SelectedWorks

Lead Exposure From Aluminum Cookware In Cameroon, Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer, Peter A. Lobunski, Gilbert Kuepouo, Rebecca W. Corbin, Perry Gottesfeld

Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer

Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead ...


Ligand-Directed Signaling And Trafficking At The Nociceptin Opioid Peptide Receptor, Gina E. Migneco 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

Ligand-Directed Signaling And Trafficking At The Nociceptin Opioid Peptide Receptor, Gina E. Migneco

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters & Abstracts

Traditional opioid receptors such as the μ and κ opioid receptors (MOR and

KOR) are well studied and are found to be common targets for pain and

stress therapies. The nociceptin opioid receptor (NOPR/ORL1) is a most

recently discovered opioid receptor whose complete function is still relatively

unknown, however is of great interest to researchers due to its analgesic

and antidepressant properties. NOPR activation due to ligand binding

triggers a variety of downstream effects, including G-protein signaling,

arrestin-mediated signaling, and receptor internalization. A variety of NOPR

ligands, both putative agonists and antagonists, were characterized by

further examination of these ...


Tissue Engineering: Applications In Developmental Toxicology, Stephanie N. Thiede, Nimisha Bajaj, Kevin Buno, Sherry L. Voytik-Harbin 2014 Purdue University

Tissue Engineering: Applications In Developmental Toxicology, Stephanie N. Thiede, Nimisha Bajaj, Kevin Buno, Sherry L. Voytik-Harbin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In vivo toxicology assays are expensive, low-throughput, and often not predictive of a human response. Three-dimensional in vitro human cell-based tissue systems incorporating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions have promise to provide high-throughput, physiologically-relevant information on the mechanism of the toxin and a more accurate assessment of the toxicity of a chemical before progression to human trials. Quantification of the disruption of vasculogenesis, the de novo formation of blood vessels from endothelial progenitor cells, can serve as an appropriate indicator of developmental toxicity since vasculogenesis is critical to the early development of the circulatory system. The current routinely used in vitro ...


Treating Cocaine Dependency With Psychopharmacotherapy And Behavioral Therapy, Robyn Liebman 2014 Chapman University

Treating Cocaine Dependency With Psychopharmacotherapy And Behavioral Therapy, Robyn Liebman

e-Research: A Journal of Undergraduate Work

Cocaine is an addictive drug that affects more than 14 million people globally, according to the United Nations. This paper is a conceptual meta-analysis of numerous studies that tested the effects of psychopharmacological therapy along with behavioral therapy in the treatment of cocaine addiction. It is hypothesized that cocaine dependent individuals treated with a combination of psychopharmacological and behavioral therapies will be less likely to use cocaine. Measurements of cocaine use throughout the experiments were generally assessed by urine screenings. Results indicate that there is more evidence that a combination of psychopharmacological and behavioral therapies will reduce cocaine use. There ...


Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, DurreeShahwar ZafarAhmed, Qurrat-ul-Ain ZafarAhmed 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, Durreeshahwar Zafarahmed, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Zafarahmed

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

There are many health issues related to the use of cellular phones, wireless local area networks, and other devices that emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some of these systems have become a part of our daily lives and many of us are in direct or indirect contact for extended period of times with these devices. However, the general public is unaware of the health risks associated with the use of these devices. Our research covers studies done by individuals as well as organizations on the harmful effects on the health of people from these devices and their claims. We also present ...


Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian 2014 Seton Hall University

Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Azapeptides are a class of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics), which have served as valuable tools for the development of peptide based therapeutic agents. The therapeutic promise of azapeptides has been correlated to its primary sequence modification which translates into bio-active secondary structures that improves the pharmacological properties of the native peptide sequence. More specifically, azapeptides contain a semicarbazide within the peptide backbone which restricts the peptide bond torsion angles (φ, ψ) into pre-organized b-turn secondary structures. Thus, azapeptides have been shown to stabilize bio-active b-turn secondary structures responsible for high affinity and selective binding to a target receptor or ...


In Vitro Functional Analysis Of Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Oatp1b1 And Potential Clinical Relevance, Zhiyuan P. Yin 2014 Western University

In Vitro Functional Analysis Of Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Oatp1b1 And Potential Clinical Relevance, Zhiyuan P. Yin

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Statin-induced myopathy is a common adverse reaction of statin therapy. Patients with elevated plasma concentration of statins are thought to be at greater risk for myopathy. Statins are transported from the blood to hepatocytes via organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1). Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in OATP1B1 have been associated with increased statin concentrations, we hypothesize that there may be other SNPs in OATP1B1 that can also contribute to reduced transport activity and increased plasma statin concentrations. OATP1B1 cDNA packaged in pEF6/V5-His TOPO was used as template, and 6 SNPs — c.298G>A, c.419C>T, c.463C ...


Light Pollution Research Through Citizen Science, John Kanemoto 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Light Pollution Research Through Citizen Science, John Kanemoto

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Light pollution (LP) can disrupt and/or degrade the health of all living things, as well as, their environments. The goal of my research at the NOAO was to check the accuracy of the citizen science LP reporting systems entitled: Globe at Night (GaN), Dark Sky Meter (DSM), and Loss of the Night (LoN). On the GaN webpage, the darkness of the night sky (DotNS) is reported by selecting a magnitude chart. Each magnitude chart has a different density/number of stars around a specific constellation. The greater number of stars implies a darker night sky. Within the DSM iPhone ...


Pi3k- And Mtor-Dependent Mechanisms Of Lapatinib Resistance And Resulting Therapeutic Opportunities, Samuel Brady 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

Pi3k- And Mtor-Dependent Mechanisms Of Lapatinib Resistance And Resulting Therapeutic Opportunities, Samuel Brady

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Breast cancers with HER2 amplification represent 20-25% of breast cancer cases and are frequently responsive to the HER2 kinase inhibitor lapatinib, but generally for only short duration. We aimed to understand how breast cancers with HER2 amplification become resistant to lapatinib, in order to identify potential therapies that can overcome lapatinib resistance. To establish lapatinib resistance models we treated three HER2+ breast cancer cell lines with lapatinib for several months until they became lapatinib-resistant. We then compared lapatinib-sensitive (parental) cells with their lapatinib-resistant (LapR) counterparts to identify changes conferring lapatinib resistance. We found that activation of PI3K, specifically the p110α ...


Applications And Improvements In The Molecular Modeling Of Protein And Ligand Interactions, Jason Bret Harris 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Applications And Improvements In The Molecular Modeling Of Protein And Ligand Interactions, Jason Bret Harris

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding protein and ligand interactions is fundamental to treat disease and avoid toxicity in biological organisms. Molecular modeling is a helpful but imperfect tool used in computer-aided toxicology and drug discovery. In this work, molecular docking and structural informatics have been integrated with other modeling methods and physical experiments to better understand and improve predictions for protein and ligand interactions. Results presented as part of this research include:

1.) an application of single-protein docking for an intermediate state structure, specifically, modeling an intermediate state structure of alpha-1-antitrypsin and using the resulting model to virtually screen for chemical inhibitors that can ...


Associations Between Prenatal Exposure To Air Pollution, Small For Gestational Age, And Term Low Birthweight In A State-Wide Birth Cohort, Lisa C. Vinikoor-Imler, J. Allen Davis, Robert E. Meyer, Lynne Messer, Thomas J. Luben 2014 Portland State University

Associations Between Prenatal Exposure To Air Pollution, Small For Gestational Age, And Term Low Birthweight In A State-Wide Birth Cohort, Lisa C. Vinikoor-Imler, J. Allen Davis, Robert E. Meyer, Lynne Messer, Thomas J. Luben

Community Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

A range of health effects, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, have been associated with exposure to ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3). The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and O3 during pregnancy is associated with the risk of term low birthweight and small for gestational age infants in both single and co-pollutant models. Term low birthweight and small for gestational age were determined using all birth certificates from North Carolina from 2003 to 2005. Ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 ...


Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores 2014 Pace University

Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores

Honors College Theses

The human has caused a far greater impact on the planet's biodiversity than any other species in existence, due to the impact of population, afflluence, and technology. This thesis will argue the importance of biological diversity and how affluent populations are reducing biodiversity through the consumption of meat, electronics, and motor vehicles. Aldo Leopold's "The Land Ethic" and Herman Daly's "The Impossibility Theorem", among others, create a rubric evaluating human activities and provide alternative views on economic impossibilities. Consumption is reviewed from an ecocentric perspective, a holistic outlook placing emphasis on the ecosystem. The reader will become ...


Analysis Of The Vascular Phenotype Of The Ent1-Null Mouse, Keisha A. Best 2014 Western University

Analysis Of The Vascular Phenotype Of The Ent1-Null Mouse, Keisha A. Best

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Adenosine is important in the regulation of vascular tone and the Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (ENT1) is a regulator of adenosine concentrations. Thus, changes in ENT1 expression and activity may alter vascular tone regulation. We therefore examined the cardiovascular phenotype of ENT1-null (ENT1-/-) as compared to wild type mice (ENT1+/+). Heart rates (HRs) and blood pressures (BPs) of ENT1-/- and ENT1+/+ littermate male mice were obtained while conscious and anaesthetized, and metabolic data were collected over a 24 hr period. Vascular reactivity was assessed in aortic ring segments obtained from 3 month old ENT1-/- and ENT1+/+ mice during both normoxic ...


Exposure To Environmental Contaminants And Stress As Determinants Of Health In Three Communities: Walpole Island And Attawapiskat First Nations And Naivasha, Kenya, Deirdre Phaedra Henley 2014 Western University

Exposure To Environmental Contaminants And Stress As Determinants Of Health In Three Communities: Walpole Island And Attawapiskat First Nations And Naivasha, Kenya, Deirdre Phaedra Henley

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This project is an interdisciplinary, community-based, participatory Ecosystem Health investigation with two First Nations in Canada, one located in the far south (Walpole Island; WIFN) and one in the far north (Attawapiskat; AttFN), and a large Kenyan community surrounding Lake Naivasha. The increased human health risks from exposure to three classes of environmental contaminants, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), pesticides and metals, and fear from such exposures are pressing concerns in each setting. Sensitive analysis of 15 metals in hair, six metals and 91 POPs in whole blood or serum of WIFN and AttFN volunteers has been conducted. Whole blood samples ...


Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego F. Amado Torres 2014 SelectedWorks

Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego F. Amado Torres

Diego Amado Torres

Proteins have the capacity to bind specific sets of compounds known as ligands, these are small molecules with a recurrent theme in their molecular design that is a characteristic exploited here to (i) identify particular affinities of small molecules for proteins with the aim of using them as ligands, inhibitors, or targeting moieties in more complex systems by means of a methodology that screens small molecules based on protein affinity; (ii) decorate a self-assembling supramolecular system at different positions, making it responsive to a complementary protein with the aim of exploring differences in disassembly and sensitivity of the release of ...


Erythropoietin And Chronic Kidney Disease Alter Hepatic Expression Of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes And Drug Transport Proteins, David A. Feere 2014 Western University

Erythropoietin And Chronic Kidney Disease Alter Hepatic Expression Of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes And Drug Transport Proteins, David A. Feere

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive disease involving the irreversible loss of kidney function. Patients with CKD require concurrent dosing of many medications to manage their disease and associated comorbidities. Pharmacokinetic studies using patients with CKD and previous studies using animal models of CKD have demonstrated changes in hepatic drug metabolism and transport. Our studies aim to examine the effects that end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and continuous dosing of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) have on hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transport proteins. We used an adenine-fed rat model of CKD to demonstrate that EPO decreases ...


Antineoplastic Effects Of Rhodiola Crenulata On B16f10 Melanomas, Maxine Dudek, Richard B. Arenas, Kaityln Wong, Carmen Mora, Lotfi M. Bassa, Sallie S. Schneider 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Antineoplastic Effects Of Rhodiola Crenulata On B16f10 Melanomas, Maxine Dudek, Richard B. Arenas, Kaityln Wong, Carmen Mora, Lotfi M. Bassa, Sallie S. Schneider

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Hypothesis: Rhodiola crenulata extract is derived from Tibetan plant’s roots and has been shown to have anti-cancer properties. Previously, we have shown that Rhodiola extract has toxic effects on B16 F10 mouse melanoma cells in vitro. The purpose of this project was to determine if a daily topical application of Rhodiola extract on melanoma tumors in mice leads to a reduction in tumor size and improved survival.

Methods: 1x106 B16F10 melanoma cells were subcutaneously injected above the scapular fat pad in C57/BL6 mice. Rhodiola extract was dissolved in a 10% DMSO Eucerine based cream. Twenty-four hours following tumor ...


Isolation Of Human Antigen-Specific Antibodies From Memory B-Cells Nearly Two Years Post Vaccination, Stuart Nelson, Andrew Crowley, William D. Thomas Jr., Colby A. Souders 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Isolation Of Human Antigen-Specific Antibodies From Memory B-Cells Nearly Two Years Post Vaccination, Stuart Nelson, Andrew Crowley, William D. Thomas Jr., Colby A. Souders

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Isolation and production of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) traditionally utilizes a handful of techniques including antibody engineering, phage display, hybridoma generation from transgenic mice or EBV immortalization of B-cells. Over the past decade a new approach has emerged that attempts to extract antigen-specific memory B-cells from the peripheral blood of individuals vaccinated or infected with the target. Initial attempts focused on culturing B-cells and inducing differentiation to plasmablasts for analysis of antibody-antigen specificity, but results were largely mixed due to difficult culture conditions and/or rarity of target cells. With advancing technology in cell sorting, single antigen-specific memory B-cells ...


A Novel Approach To Targeted Oncologic Therapy - Co-Culture Viability Of Polymer Prodrug Conjugation To Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Kaitlyn Wong, Nicholas Panzarino, Samantha McRae Page, Richard Arenas, Sallie S. Schneider, Todd S. Emrick 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Novel Approach To Targeted Oncologic Therapy - Co-Culture Viability Of Polymer Prodrug Conjugation To Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Kaitlyn Wong, Nicholas Panzarino, Samantha Mcrae Page, Richard Arenas, Sallie S. Schneider, Todd S. Emrick

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background/Purpose: Conjugation of polymer prodrugs to tumor homing cells, such as Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), could provide a vehicle for actively targeted delivery of polymer prodrugs.

Methods: Human Bone Marrow MSCs were conjugated to either a doxorubicin polymer prodrug or free doxorubicin and were co-cultured with T-cells. Viability was assessed through the use of a Vi-cell counter. In Vivo Migration Analysis was performed NOD SCID mice implanted with subcutaneous MDA MB-231 breast cancer xenografts. Following tumor establishment, mice were injected via lateral tail vein injection with either saline or polymer loaded MSCs. Five days following stem cell injection, mice ...


Effect Of Oligopeptide Orientation On Polymer-Based Dna Delivery, Sangram S. Parelkar, Rachel Letteri, Jayne Ellis, Robert Elder, Arthi Jayaraman, Todd S. Emrick 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Effect Of Oligopeptide Orientation On Polymer-Based Dna Delivery, Sangram S. Parelkar, Rachel Letteri, Jayne Ellis, Robert Elder, Arthi Jayaraman, Todd S. Emrick

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Non-viral synthetic gene therapy reagents offer excellent structural and chemical versatility within non-immunogenic delivery systems, coupled with high therapeutic gene carrying capacity and long shelf life, making them attractive alternatives to viral systems. The success of non-viral transfection using polymers hinges on efficient nuclear uptake of nucleic acid cargo and overcoming intra- and extracellular barriers. This poster will describe the integration of the PKKKRKV heptapeptide (the Simian virus SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization sequence, NLS) onto a polymer backbone, and the resultant high reporter gene expression in mice when administered by intramuscular ultrasound-mediated delivery. These novel polymers afforded protein expression ...


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