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Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

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Associations Between Prenatal Exposure To Air Pollution, Small For Gestational Age, And Term Low Birthweight In A State-Wide Birth Cohort, Lisa C. Vinikoor-Imler, J. Allen Davis, Robert E. Meyer, Lynne Messer, Thomas J. Luben 2014 Portland State University

Associations Between Prenatal Exposure To Air Pollution, Small For Gestational Age, And Term Low Birthweight In A State-Wide Birth Cohort, Lisa C. Vinikoor-Imler, J. Allen Davis, Robert E. Meyer, Lynne Messer, Thomas J. Luben

Community Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

A range of health effects, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, have been associated with exposure to ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3). The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and O3 during pregnancy is associated with the risk of term low birthweight and small for gestational age infants in both single and co-pollutant models. Term low birthweight and small for gestational age were determined using all birth certificates from North Carolina from 2003 to 2005. Ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 ...


Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores 2014 Pace University

Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores

Honors College Theses

The human has caused a far greater impact on the planet's biodiversity than any other species in existence, due to the impact of population, afflluence, and technology. This thesis will argue the importance of biological diversity and how affluent populations are reducing biodiversity through the consumption of meat, electronics, and motor vehicles. Aldo Leopold's "The Land Ethic" and Herman Daly's "The Impossibility Theorem", among others, create a rubric evaluating human activities and provide alternative views on economic impossibilities. Consumption is reviewed from an ecocentric perspective, a holistic outlook placing emphasis on the ecosystem. The reader will become ...


Exposure To Environmental Contaminants And Stress As Determinants Of Health In Three Communities: Walpole Island And Attawapiskat First Nations And Naivasha, Kenya, Deirdre Phaedra Henley 2014 Western University

Exposure To Environmental Contaminants And Stress As Determinants Of Health In Three Communities: Walpole Island And Attawapiskat First Nations And Naivasha, Kenya, Deirdre Phaedra Henley

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This project is an interdisciplinary, community-based, participatory Ecosystem Health investigation with two First Nations in Canada, one located in the far south (Walpole Island; WIFN) and one in the far north (Attawapiskat; AttFN), and a large Kenyan community surrounding Lake Naivasha. The increased human health risks from exposure to three classes of environmental contaminants, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), pesticides and metals, and fear from such exposures are pressing concerns in each setting. Sensitive analysis of 15 metals in hair, six metals and 91 POPs in whole blood or serum of WIFN and AttFN volunteers has been conducted. Whole blood samples ...


Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego F. Amado Torres 2014 SelectedWorks

Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego F. Amado Torres

Diego Amado Torres

Proteins have the capacity to bind specific sets of compounds known as ligands, these are small molecules with a recurrent theme in their molecular design that is a characteristic exploited here to (i) identify particular affinities of small molecules for proteins with the aim of using them as ligands, inhibitors, or targeting moieties in more complex systems by means of a methodology that screens small molecules based on protein affinity; (ii) decorate a self-assembling supramolecular system at different positions, making it responsive to a complementary protein with the aim of exploring differences in disassembly and sensitivity of the release of ...


Erythropoietin And Chronic Kidney Disease Alter Hepatic Expression Of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes And Drug Transport Proteins, David A. Feere 2014 Western University

Erythropoietin And Chronic Kidney Disease Alter Hepatic Expression Of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes And Drug Transport Proteins, David A. Feere

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive disease involving the irreversible loss of kidney function. Patients with CKD require concurrent dosing of many medications to manage their disease and associated comorbidities. Pharmacokinetic studies using patients with CKD and previous studies using animal models of CKD have demonstrated changes in hepatic drug metabolism and transport. Our studies aim to examine the effects that end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and continuous dosing of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) have on hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transport proteins. We used an adenine-fed rat model of CKD to demonstrate that EPO decreases ...


Chemical Profiling And Biological Activity Of Two Tunicate-Associated Marine Bacteria, Lyubina Yankova 2014 University of Connecticut

Chemical Profiling And Biological Activity Of Two Tunicate-Associated Marine Bacteria, Lyubina Yankova

Honors Scholar Theses

Marine natural products have recently been an increasingly abundant source of novel antibiotics. Given that there is an increasing resistance to current drug therapies, finding new sources such as marine natural products is essential. Tunicate-associated marine bacteria can be a significant source of antibacterial compounds. Two tunicates of the species Eudistoma were collected from Portobelo National Park on the Salmedina Reef of Panama in the Caribbean Sea. Bacteria associated with the tunicate were isolated, cultured, extracted, and fractionated. Fractions were tested against an array of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens in the BioMAP assay. Two fractions MB0086E and MB0088E demonstrated activity ...


Bioplastics: Reinventing Conventional Plastic Production And The Future Of Biodegradable Materials, Ruby Roca 2014 Fordham University

Bioplastics: Reinventing Conventional Plastic Production And The Future Of Biodegradable Materials, Ruby Roca

2014 Student Theses

The use of plastic is prevalent in our society due to the increasing amount of new products entering the market that need some form of packaging that is solid enough yet disposable. From everything to yogurt containers to diapers, plastic containers are a large part of our society’s consumption culture and often goes unnoticed. However, people point to plastic water bottles and containers as the only culprit, and often times forget that almost all packaging contains some form of plastic. For my thesis I want to examine how the use of plastics has increased waste material, considering that it ...


Water Water Everywhere: Analyzing Long Island's Water Issues And Finding Solutions For A Sustainable Future, Anthony T. Becker 2014 Fordham University

Water Water Everywhere: Analyzing Long Island's Water Issues And Finding Solutions For A Sustainable Future, Anthony T. Becker

2014 Student Theses

Over three million people call Long Island their home. With access to beautiful landscapes, world-renowned beaches, and proximity to New York City, it is no wonder that so many proudly call this geographic stretch of glacial till their home. However, throughout the years our actions do not necessarily reflect this affection we have to our home. Years of sprawl and human infestation across the island have resulted in widespread environmental degradation. Specifically, the water we drink and the beaches we enjoy have become endangered. I plan on studying the urban ecology of how intensified population growth led to the eutrophication ...


American Ginseng Modulation Of Immune Function And Phytochemical Analysis, Chike G. Azike 2014 Western University

American Ginseng Modulation Of Immune Function And Phytochemical Analysis, Chike G. Azike

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The relationship between American ginseng immunostimulatory and immunoinhibitory effects and the unique bioactive fractions of its different extracts namely aqueous (AQ) and alcoholic (ALC) extracts was investigated. AQ extract up-regulated the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), while ALC extract did not upregulate macrophage function. ALC extract but not AQ extract suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced macrophage NO and TNF-α production. Macrophage-stimulating activity of the AQ extract was inhibited in the presence of ALC extract. Fractionation of AQ extract revealed that its crude polysaccharides (PS) are the only immunostimulatory phytochemical. Fractionation study of ALC extract ...


Environews #9: The Sunshine State Is In A State., Richard B. Philp 2014 Western University

Environews #9: The Sunshine State Is In A State., Richard B. Philp

Richard B. Philp

Sewage contamination and fertilizer runoff are polluting Florida's springs and rivers and legislative protection is weak. Lion fish are invading northern Gulf waters.


Role Of Gluk1 Kainate Receptors In Seizures, Epileptic Discharges, And Epileptogenesis, Brita Fritsch, Janine Reis, Maciej Gasior, Rafal M. Kaminski, Michael A. Rogawski 2014 SelectedWorks

Role Of Gluk1 Kainate Receptors In Seizures, Epileptic Discharges, And Epileptogenesis, Brita Fritsch, Janine Reis, Maciej Gasior, Rafal M. Kaminski, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit have an impact on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in brain regions, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are relevant to seizures and epilepsy. Here we used 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), a potent and selective agonist of kainate receptors that include the GluK1 subunit, in conjunction with mice deficient in GluK1 and GluK2 kainate receptor subunits to assess the role of GluK1 kainate receptors in provoking seizures and in kindling epileptogenesis. We found that systemic ATPA, acting specifically via GluK1 kainate receptors, causes locomotor arrest and forelimb extension (a unique behavioral characteristic of ...


Effect Of Ascorbate On Coagulation And Fibrinolytic Factors In The Septic Microvasculature, Scott Swarbreck 2014 Western University

Effect Of Ascorbate On Coagulation And Fibrinolytic Factors In The Septic Microvasculature, Scott Swarbreck

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to an infection, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The microcirculation during sepsis fails, in part, due to microthrombosis and the resulting plugging of capillaries, precipitating organ failure. Intravenous injection of ascorbate has been shown to reduce capillary plugging, however the mechanism of this protective effect is unclear. We hypothesized that ascorbate-mediated destabilization of the microthrombi through promoting fibrinolysis could contribute to this protection.

We showed that streptokinase, a pro-fibrinolytic agent, reduced the capillary plugging to a similar degree as ascorbate. This similarity provided the impetus for studying the effect of ascorbate ...


Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce 2014 Western University

Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the only de novo source of thymidylate (dTMP) for DNA synthesis and repair. Drugs targeting TS protein are a mainstay in cancer treatment but off-target effects and toxicity limit their use. Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) and mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) contribute to an alternative dTMP-producing pathway, by salvaging thymidine from the tumour milieu, and may modulate resistance to TS-targeting drugs. We have previously shown that TS antisense molecules (oligodeoxynucleotides, ODNs, and small interfering siRNA, siRNA) sensitize tumour cells, both in vitro and in vivo, to TS targeting drugs. As both TS and TKs contribute to cellular ...


Exploration Of Freshwater Cyanobacteria, Mariya Campbell 2014 Georgia State University

Exploration Of Freshwater Cyanobacteria, Mariya Campbell

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Picrotoxin And Ethanol On Crayfish Escape And Central Motor Pattern Neural Circuits, Rebecca Bierman, Nathan Hardcastle, Colin Istvan 2014 Georgia State University

The Effects Of Picrotoxin And Ethanol On Crayfish Escape And Central Motor Pattern Neural Circuits, Rebecca Bierman, Nathan Hardcastle, Colin Istvan

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Nickel Bioaccumulation As A Predictor Of Toxicity, Erin M. Leonard 2014 McMaster University

Nickel Bioaccumulation As A Predictor Of Toxicity, Erin M. Leonard

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Recently, the focus of metal toxicity has shifted from concentrations within the aqueous environment to bioaccumulation within the organism. In this regard, the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) relates the binding of metal at specific toxic sites (“ligands”) to eventual toxicity, whereas the Tissue Residue Approach (TRA) relates metal burdens at whole body, tissue, or subcellular levels to eventual toxicity. However, much less is currently known regarding Ni in comparison to other metals. This thesis addresses this knowledge gap by evaluating the use of Ni bioaccumulation as a predictor of toxicity in a number of fish and invertebrate species; bioaccumulation endpoints ...


Wind Power And Air Quality: Reducing Air Pollution And Carbon Emissions In Michigan, Erik Edward Nordman, Jon VanderMolen 2014 Grand Valley State University

Wind Power And Air Quality: Reducing Air Pollution And Carbon Emissions In Michigan, Erik Edward Nordman, Jon Vandermolen

Erik Edward Nordman

No abstract provided.


Big Pharma Is Hurt, Singapore Management University 2014 Singapore Management University

Big Pharma Is Hurt, Singapore Management University

Perspectives@SMU

Cutting down R&D inefficiency and restoring the trust of investors and consumers are key to curing the industry’s ills.


Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, Christopher N. Banks, Dongren Yang, Pamela J. Lein, Michael A. Rogawski 2014 SelectedWorks

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, Christopher N. Banks, Dongren Yang, Pamela J. Lein, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (2,6-dithia-1,3,5,7-tetraazadamantane,2,2,6,6-tetraoxide, TETS) is a highly toxic heteroadamantane rodenticide. It is an odorless, tasteless,white crystalline powder that is slightly soluble in water (0.25 mg ml-1), dimethylsulfoxide and acetone. It was originally synthesized in 1933 as a resinous condensation product of sulfamide and formaldehyde and used commercially in pillows and upholstery as animpregnating stiffening and anti mold agent. However, in 1950, a massive poisoning of German workers in the furniture manufacturing industry was linked to ‘Crinex’ wool, which contained TETS as a by product of processing.


Spatiotemporal Expression Of Manf In The Developing Rat Brain, Haiping Wang, Zunji Ke, Alexander Alimov, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A. Frank, Shengyun Fang, Jia Luo 2014 University of Kentucky

Spatiotemporal Expression Of Manf In The Developing Rat Brain, Haiping Wang, Zunji Ke, Alexander Alimov, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A. Frank, Shengyun Fang, Jia Luo

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is an evolutionarily conserved neurotrophic factor which exhibited neuroprotective properties. Recent studies suggested that MANF may play a role in the neural development of Drosophila and zebra fishes. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of MANF in the brain of postnatal and adult rats. MANF expression appeared wide spread and mainly localized in neurons. In the cerebral cortex, neurons in layer IV and VI displayed particularly strong MANF immunoreactivity. In the hippocampus, intensive MANF expression was observed throughout the subfields of Cornu Amonis (CA1, CA2, and CA3) and the granular layer of the ...


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