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Investigating Sociodemographic Disparities In Cancer Risk Using Web-Based Informatics, Hong-Jun Yoon, Georgia Tourassi 2018 Biomedical Sciences, Engineering, and Computing Group Health Data Sciences Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Investigating Sociodemographic Disparities In Cancer Risk Using Web-Based Informatics, Hong-Jun Yoon, Georgia Tourassi

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Cancer health disparities due to demographic and socioeconomic factors are an area of great interest in the epidemiological community. Adjusting for such factors is important when developing cancer risk models. However, for digital epidemiology studies relying on online sources such information is not readily available. This paper presents a novel method for extracting demographic and socioeconomic information from openly available online obituaries. The method relies on tailored language processing rules and a probabilistic scheme to map subjects’ occupation history to the occupation classification codes and related earnings provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. Using this information, a case-control study ...


Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Liquid Solvents Propylene Glycol And Vegetable Glycerin On User Nicotine Delivery, Heart Rate, Subjective Effects, And Puff Topography, Tory Spindle 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Effects Of Electronic Cigarette Liquid Solvents Propylene Glycol And Vegetable Glycerin On User Nicotine Delivery, Heart Rate, Subjective Effects, And Puff Topography, Tory Spindle

Theses and Dissertations

Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are a class of tobacco products that use a heating element to aerosolize a liquid, typically containing nicotine, allowing for user inhalation. Despite their rapid growth in popularity, little is known about ECIGs including how certain device and liquid factors influence nicotine delivery, user physiological and subjective responses, and puffing behavior (puff topography). Limited pre-clinical research has demonstrated that the ratio of two solvents commonly found in ECIG liquids, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG), may have an influence on the nicotine content of ECIG aerosols. However, the extent to which PG:VG ratio in ECIG ...


Molecular Characterization Of The Mummichog (Fundulus Heteroclitus) Ovarian Steroidogenic Pathway And Implications For Exogenous Estrogen Effects During Follicular Development, Thiviya Kanagasabesan 2018 Wilfrid Laurier University

Molecular Characterization Of The Mummichog (Fundulus Heteroclitus) Ovarian Steroidogenic Pathway And Implications For Exogenous Estrogen Effects During Follicular Development, Thiviya Kanagasabesan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study investigated ovarian development in Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog), through molecular characterization of key mediators in the ovarian steroidogenic pathway; these included ovarian StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), cytochrome P450 enzymes, estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ1 and ERβ2), and gonadotropin receptors (FSHr and LHr); additionally, hepatic vitellogenin (VTG1) and ERs, and brain P450 aromatase (P450arom; CYP19b) were studied. Fish were staged into cortical alveolus, vitellogenic, early mature, late mature, and ovulating stages of maturation; blood (plasma), ovary (tissue and isolated ovarian follicles per stage), liver, and brains were collected. Testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) and maturation inducing steroid (MIS), measured from ...


Exploring Science Identity: The Lived Experiences Of Underserved Students In A University Supplemental Science Program, Lynette D. Perrault 2017 University of New Orleans

Exploring Science Identity: The Lived Experiences Of Underserved Students In A University Supplemental Science Program, Lynette D. Perrault

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Underserved students attending under-resourced schools experience limited opportunities to engage in advanced science. An exploration into the influence a supplemental science program has on underserved students’ acquisition of science knowledge and skills to increase their pursuit of science was conducted to help explain science identity formation in students. The proliferation of supplemental science programs have emerged as a result of limited exposure and resources in science for underserved students, thus prompting further investigation into the influence supplemental science programs have on underserved students interest and motivation in science, attainment of science knowledge and skills, and confidence in science to promote ...


Justin's Save The Frogs Project, Justin Sather 2017 Westside Neighborhood School

Justin's Save The Frogs Project, Justin Sather

The STEAM Journal

Justin’s Save the Frog Project goals are 1) to spread the awareness about the rapid decline in frog population 2) inspire others to make the environment a better place for people and animals 3) make an impact by building wetlands in California specifically for the CA Red-Legged Frogs and Foothill Yellow Legged.


Structural Determination Of The Broadly Reactive Anti-Ighv1-69 Anti-Idiotypic Antibody G6 And Its Idiotope, Yuval Avnir, Kristina L. Prachanronarong, Shurong Hou, Brendan J. Hilbert, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A. Marasco 2017 Harvard Medical School

Structural Determination Of The Broadly Reactive Anti-Ighv1-69 Anti-Idiotypic Antibody G6 And Its Idiotope, Yuval Avnir, Kristina L. Prachanronarong, Shurong Hou, Brendan J. Hilbert, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A. Marasco

Schiffer Lab Publications

The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab) responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3) in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80. The core of the hG6.3 idiotope is a continuous string of CDR-H2 ...


Historians' Reaction To The Documentary, The Dust Bowl, Pamela Riney-Kehrberg, Geoff Cunfer, R. Douglas Hurt, Julie Courtwright 2017 Iowa State University

Historians' Reaction To The Documentary, The Dust Bowl, Pamela Riney-Kehrberg, Geoff Cunfer, R. Douglas Hurt, Julie Courtwright

Pamela Riney-Kehrberg

Historical documentaries have a wider audience and often a greater visceral impact than written histories. They frequently resonate deeply with viewers through the use of images, first-person narratives, and evocative filming. To wield such emotional power responsibly demands great attention to accuracy and nuance. In the fall of 2013 these four historians met at the Northern Great Plains History Conference to discuss Ken Burns's latest work on the Dust Bowl. Each of the panelists presents a different critique of the documentary. By looking at the piece's sources, its music, its narration, and, most importantly, its message, they concluded ...


Identification And Quantification Of Cyanide And Its Metabolites In Lemur Urine, Jeremy Peralta 2017 City University of New York (CUNY)

Identification And Quantification Of Cyanide And Its Metabolites In Lemur Urine, Jeremy Peralta

Student Theses

Cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the monovalent groups of carbon and nitrogen. This substance is considered a rapidly acting deadly chemical. However, some animals such as lemurs consume food products that are known to contain elevated levels of cyanide without major consequences. The mechanism by which the lemur can handle this high exposure to cyanide is unknown. In this study, we developed and validated two analytical methods for the determination of cyanide and two metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in lemur urine. The method was applied to 47 authentic lemur urine samples collected from 4 different species ...


Type 1 Diabetes Alters Lipid Handling And Metabolism In Human Fibroblasts And Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Albert R. Jones IV, Emily L. Coleman, Nicholas R. Husni, Jude T. Deeney, Forum Raval, Devin Steenkamp, Hans Dooms, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Barbara E. Corkey 2017 Boston University

Type 1 Diabetes Alters Lipid Handling And Metabolism In Human Fibroblasts And Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Albert R. Jones Iv, Emily L. Coleman, Nicholas R. Husni, Jude T. Deeney, Forum Raval, Devin Steenkamp, Hans Dooms, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Barbara E. Corkey

Center for Clinical and Translational Science Faculty Publications

Triggers of the autoimmune response that leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D) remain poorly understood. A possibility is that parallel changes in both T cells and target cells provoke autoimmune attack. We previously documented greater Ca2+ transients in fibroblasts from T1D subjects than non-T1D after exposure to fatty acids (FA) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). These data indicate that metabolic and signal transduction defects present in T1D can be elicited ex vivo in isolated cells. Changes that precede T1D, including inflammation, may activate atypical responses in people that are genetically predisposed to T1D. To identify such cellular differences ...


Using Film To Inspire Advocacy: An Interview With Shalini Kantayya, Mahvish Ilyas, Siga Wu, Dechan Dalrymple 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Using Film To Inspire Advocacy: An Interview With Shalini Kantayya, Mahvish Ilyas, Siga Wu, Dechan Dalrymple

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

No abstract provided.


Art Reinvented: Connecting Back To Mother Nature, Dechan Dalrymple 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Art Reinvented: Connecting Back To Mother Nature, Dechan Dalrymple

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

No abstract provided.


Notes From The Field: An Assessment Of Wash Programs In West Bengal, India, Mark Lotto 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Notes From The Field: An Assessment Of Wash Programs In West Bengal, India, Mark Lotto

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

No abstract provided.


Caloric Expenditure As An Indicator Of Access To Water, Jeff La Frenierre 2017 Gustavus Adolphus College

Caloric Expenditure As An Indicator Of Access To Water, Jeff La Frenierre

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Building upon the stated success of the Millennium Development Goal to "halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water", Goal 6.1 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SD Gs) aims to "by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all." However, 'access' as currently defined allows for a water source to be outside of the home, by tradition as much as 1 kilometer away. As a result, as many as 2.3 billion people live in households considered to have achieved 'access' but who remain reliant on ...


Empowering Women In The Wash Sector: A Woman's Burden, Yari Greeney, Becky Chanis, Gemma Bulos, Rachel Cardone 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Empowering Women In The Wash Sector: A Woman's Burden, Yari Greeney, Becky Chanis, Gemma Bulos, Rachel Cardone

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

No abstract provided.


Arsenic Poisoning In Rural Bangladesh-An Intersectional Analysis Of Impact In Women, Louise Andersson, Dr. Martina Angela Caretta 2017 Stockholm University

Arsenic Poisoning In Rural Bangladesh-An Intersectional Analysis Of Impact In Women, Louise Andersson, Dr. Martina Angela Caretta

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Based on a qualitative case study in six arsenic acute villages in southwest Bangladesh, this paper presents the intersectional impact of the arsenic poisoning crisis in rural Bangladesh. Findings indicate that the arsenic poisoning crisis is aggravating existing gender inequalities as well as gender roles and responsibilities. The gender inequalities related to arsenicosis are manifested in the access to health care and in the degree of social stigma: women are the biggest victims, unmarried women in particular. The study shows that multiple axis of oppression as class, disability and age are crucial in determining the magnitude of the arsenic poisoning ...


Comparing The Effectiveness Of Alternative And Prescription Antibiotics Against Gram-Positive Bacteria, Rachel Jenkins, Roan Dickenson, Sam Turnbull, Marcela Torres 2017 Lesley University

Comparing The Effectiveness Of Alternative And Prescription Antibiotics Against Gram-Positive Bacteria, Rachel Jenkins, Roan Dickenson, Sam Turnbull, Marcela Torres

Senior Theses

The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global public health concern that threatens the efficacy of antibiotic drugs. We found that natural remedies, specifically coconut oil, honey and cinnamon essential oil, have the potential to be used as a clinical alternative to treat antibiotic-resistant infections. In this experiment, we performed a disk diffusion test and measured the area of inhibition of each treatment to compare the effectiveness of natural and prescription antibiotics. Cinnamon essential oil showed significantly greater antibiotic activity compared to a prescription treatment, amoxicillin. With bacterial resistance continuously expanding, more work needs to be done to determine ...


Translating Genetic And Preclinical Findings Into Autism Therapies, Maria Chahrour, Robin Kleiman, M Chiara Manzini 2017 George Washington University

Translating Genetic And Preclinical Findings Into Autism Therapies, Maria Chahrour, Robin Kleiman, M Chiara Manzini

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits and repetitive/restrictive interests. ASD is associated with multiple comorbidities, including intellectual disability, anxiety, and epilepsy. Evidence that ASD is highly heritable has spurred major efforts to unravel its genetics, revealing possible contributions from hundreds of genes through rare and common variation and through copy-number changes. In this perspective, we provide an overview of the current state of ASD genetics and of how genetic research has spurred the development of in vivo and in vitro models using animals and patient cells to evaluate the impact of genetic ...


Age-Related Host Factors Regulate Lung Cancer Progression., John Caleb Greenwell 2017 University of Louisville

Age-Related Host Factors Regulate Lung Cancer Progression., John Caleb Greenwell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is largely a disease of the elderly. In the United States alone, 87% of all cancers in 2017 will be diagnosed in individuals aged 50 years or older. Among them, lung cancer is the deadliest, accounting for 1 in 4 cancer deaths. The 5-year survival rate is below 20%, a number which has not changed substantially over the past several decades. This underscores a desperate need for new strategies in prevention, early detection and treatment of this deadly disease. While tobacco use is unquestionably the number one risk factor for the development of lung cancer, the majority of diagnoses ...


Challenges In Characterizing The Environmental Fate And Effects Of Carbon Nanotubes And Inorganic Nanomaterials In Aquatic Systems, Peter Laux, Christian Riebeling, Andy M. Booth, Joseph D. Brain, Josephine Brunner, Cristina Cerrillo, Otto Creutzenberg, Irina Estrela-Lopis, Thomas Gebel, Gunnar Johanson, Harald Jungnickel, Heiko Kock, Jutta Tentschert, Ahmed Tlili, Andreas Schäffer, Adriënne J. A. M. Sips, Robert A. Yokel, Andreas Luch 2017 German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Germany

Challenges In Characterizing The Environmental Fate And Effects Of Carbon Nanotubes And Inorganic Nanomaterials In Aquatic Systems, Peter Laux, Christian Riebeling, Andy M. Booth, Joseph D. Brain, Josephine Brunner, Cristina Cerrillo, Otto Creutzenberg, Irina Estrela-Lopis, Thomas Gebel, Gunnar Johanson, Harald Jungnickel, Heiko Kock, Jutta Tentschert, Ahmed Tlili, Andreas Schäffer, Adriënne J. A. M. Sips, Robert A. Yokel, Andreas Luch

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

The current lack of commonly used protocols for dispersion, characterization, and aquatic toxicity testing of nanomaterials (NMs) has resulted in inconsistent results, which make meaningful comparisons difficult. The need for standardized sample preparation procedures that allow the reproducible generation of relevant test conditions remains a key challenge for studies of the environmental fate and aquatic toxicity of NMs. Together with the further development of optimized and cost-effective analytical techniques for physicochemical characterization that depend on reproducible sample preparation, such methods have the potential to overcome the current uncertainties with regard to NM dispersion properties, effective dose, and particle dissolution. In ...


Air Pollution In India: Questions Of Advocacy And Ethics, Roger Worthington, Michelle McLean, Neelam Doshi 2017 Yale University

Air Pollution In India: Questions Of Advocacy And Ethics, Roger Worthington, Michelle Mclean, Neelam Doshi

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

In large cities around the world, the effects of air pollution on human health present a growing problem. In this commentary, we assert that governments alone are not responsible for addressing such issues and health care professionals (HCPs) need to consider whether their duty of care should extend beyond normal clinical boundaries. When considering the ethics around the generation and effects of air pollution, especially in relation to justice and health care, actions taken by HCPs (e.g. in a country such as India) potentially extend beyond treating individual patients one-at-a-time for toxic effects of emissions and include advocating on ...


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