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Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

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A Quantitative Analysis Of The Value-Enhancing Effects Of Nicotine, Bupropion, And Varenicline In Male And Female Rats, Scott Barrett 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Value-Enhancing Effects Of Nicotine, Bupropion, And Varenicline In Male And Female Rats, Scott Barrett

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Smoking and tobacco dependence are serious health concerns in the United States and globally. Reward via the pharmacological effects of nicotine are believed to be the principal motivating factor that drive tobacco dependence. Research reveals differences in sensitivity between males and females to the motivational effects of nicotine in tobacco use. Enhancement of reinforcement value of non-nicotine rewards contributes to overall nicotine reward. Similar value-enhancing effects have been observed by the two most commonly prescribed smoking cessation aids, bupropion and varenicline. The present dissertation investigated the value-enhancing effects of nicotine, bupropion and varenicline in both male and female rats using ...


Numerical Simulations Of In Vitro Nanoparticle Toxicity – The Case Of Poly(Amido Amine) Dendrimers., Marcus A. Maher, Pratap Naha, Sourav Prasanna Mukherjee, Hugh J. Byrne 2014 Dublin Institute of Technology

Numerical Simulations Of In Vitro Nanoparticle Toxicity – The Case Of Poly(Amido Amine) Dendrimers., Marcus A. Maher, Pratap Naha, Sourav Prasanna Mukherjee, Hugh J. Byrne

Articles

A phenomenological rate equation model is constructed to numerically simulate nanoparticle uptake and subsequent cellular response. Polyamidoamine dendrimers (generations 4-6) are modelled and the temporal evolution of the intracellular cascade of; increased levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidant species, caspase activation, mitochondrial membrane potential decay, tumour necrosis factor and interleukin generation is simulated, based on experimental observations.

The dose and generation dependence of several of these response factors are seen to well represent experimental observations at a range of time points. The model indicates that variations between responses of different cell-lines, including murine macrophages, human keratinocytes and colon cells ...


Engaging Communities To Identify And Address Environmental Health Literacy Gaps, Anna G. Hoover 2014 University of Kentucky

Engaging Communities To Identify And Address Environmental Health Literacy Gaps, Anna G. Hoover

Anna G. Hoover

Frequently, decisions about the informational components and delivery mechanisms required to promote effective environmental health literacy are made by such technical experts as toxicologists, chemists, and communication scientists. However, because sensemaking processes are both retrospective and collective, context must be a central component for understanding the particular information needs of communities and stakeholder groups. Individual assessments of and tolerance for environmental health risks are rooted in past and present experiences that are understood, refined, and reinforced through dialogue with others who have shared similar experiences. Thus, the promotion of environmental health literacy requires formative engagement with communities and stakeholders to ...


Utilizing Indicator Of Reduction In Soils Tubes To Affirm A Serpentinitic Hydric Soil On The California Central Coast, Jason DeMoss 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Utilizing Indicator Of Reduction In Soils Tubes To Affirm A Serpentinitic Hydric Soil On The California Central Coast, Jason Demoss

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

Wetlands are vital ecosystems that are crucial in maintaining the life of rare and unique soils, plants, and animals. These ecosystems are key players in water storage, water filtration, carbon storage, and harboring unique species. Since the intervention of human development on the Earth’s surface, almost 50% of the Earth’s original wetlands have either been damaged or destroyed. The identification and assessment of both new and old wetlands is crucial in the survival of these precious ecosystems and their conservation. A 3 month-long study was performed to confirm the hydric status of a soil derived from serpentinitic parent ...


Improving Understanding Of Stress Exposure In Minority Communities With Asthma: Using Geographic Information Systems (Gis) Data Collection Methods, Jeffrey Blossom, Elliot Israel, Francine Laden 2014 EDM Forum

Improving Understanding Of Stress Exposure In Minority Communities With Asthma: Using Geographic Information Systems (Gis) Data Collection Methods, Jeffrey Blossom, Elliot Israel, Francine Laden

Webinars

Overview: Geographic information systems (GIS) provide an important link between health data and spatial information. This webinar described GIS data collection methods and demonstrated how these methods are being used to expand data on environmental and social stress exposure in the PESBART (Effect of Physical Environment and Stress in Blacks in Relation to Asthma Severity and Response to Therapy) study. Specifically, the expanded data* in this study included incidence, prevalence, and severity of asthma in minority communities.

This webinar discussed challenges and goals of the GIS data collection process and the implications for understanding the environmental effects on health data ...


Lead Exposure From Aluminum Cookware In Cameroon, Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer, Peter A. Lobunski, Gilbert Kuepouo, Rebecca W. Corbin, Perry Gottesfeld 2014 SelectedWorks

Lead Exposure From Aluminum Cookware In Cameroon, Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer, Peter A. Lobunski, Gilbert Kuepouo, Rebecca W. Corbin, Perry Gottesfeld

Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer

Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead ...


Ligand-Directed Signaling And Trafficking At The Nociceptin Opioid Peptide Receptor, Gina E. Migneco 2014 Washington University in St. Louis

Ligand-Directed Signaling And Trafficking At The Nociceptin Opioid Peptide Receptor, Gina E. Migneco

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters & Abstracts

Traditional opioid receptors such as the μ and κ opioid receptors (MOR and

KOR) are well studied and are found to be common targets for pain and

stress therapies. The nociceptin opioid receptor (NOPR/ORL1) is a most

recently discovered opioid receptor whose complete function is still relatively

unknown, however is of great interest to researchers due to its analgesic

and antidepressant properties. NOPR activation due to ligand binding

triggers a variety of downstream effects, including G-protein signaling,

arrestin-mediated signaling, and receptor internalization. A variety of NOPR

ligands, both putative agonists and antagonists, were characterized by

further examination of these ...


Treating Cocaine Dependency With Psychopharmacotherapy And Behavioral Therapy, Robyn Liebman 2014 Chapman University

Treating Cocaine Dependency With Psychopharmacotherapy And Behavioral Therapy, Robyn Liebman

e-Research: A Journal of Undergraduate Work

Cocaine is an addictive drug that affects more than 14 million people globally, according to the United Nations. This paper is a conceptual meta-analysis of numerous studies that tested the effects of psychopharmacological therapy along with behavioral therapy in the treatment of cocaine addiction. It is hypothesized that cocaine dependent individuals treated with a combination of psychopharmacological and behavioral therapies will be less likely to use cocaine. Measurements of cocaine use throughout the experiments were generally assessed by urine screenings. Results indicate that there is more evidence that a combination of psychopharmacological and behavioral therapies will reduce cocaine use. There ...


Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, DurreeShahwar ZafarAhmed, Qurrat-ul-Ain ZafarAhmed 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, Durreeshahwar Zafarahmed, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Zafarahmed

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

There are many health issues related to the use of cellular phones, wireless local area networks, and other devices that emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some of these systems have become a part of our daily lives and many of us are in direct or indirect contact for extended period of times with these devices. However, the general public is unaware of the health risks associated with the use of these devices. Our research covers studies done by individuals as well as organizations on the harmful effects on the health of people from these devices and their claims. We also present ...


Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian 2014 Seton Hall University

Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Azapeptides are a class of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics), which have served as valuable tools for the development of peptide based therapeutic agents. The therapeutic promise of azapeptides has been correlated to its primary sequence modification which translates into bio-active secondary structures that improves the pharmacological properties of the native peptide sequence. More specifically, azapeptides contain a semicarbazide within the peptide backbone which restricts the peptide bond torsion angles (φ, ψ) into pre-organized b-turn secondary structures. Thus, azapeptides have been shown to stabilize bio-active b-turn secondary structures responsible for high affinity and selective binding to a target receptor or ...


In Vitro Functional Analysis Of Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Oatp1b1 And Potential Clinical Relevance, Zhiyuan P. Yin 2014 Western University

In Vitro Functional Analysis Of Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Oatp1b1 And Potential Clinical Relevance, Zhiyuan P. Yin

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Statin-induced myopathy is a common adverse reaction of statin therapy. Patients with elevated plasma concentration of statins are thought to be at greater risk for myopathy. Statins are transported from the blood to hepatocytes via organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1). Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in OATP1B1 have been associated with increased statin concentrations, we hypothesize that there may be other SNPs in OATP1B1 that can also contribute to reduced transport activity and increased plasma statin concentrations. OATP1B1 cDNA packaged in pEF6/V5-His TOPO was used as template, and 6 SNPs — c.298G>A, c.419C>T, c.463C ...


Tissue Engineering: Applications In Developmental Toxicology, Stephanie N. Thiede, Nimisha Bajaj, Kevin Buno, Sherry L. Voytik-Harbin 2014 Purdue University

Tissue Engineering: Applications In Developmental Toxicology, Stephanie N. Thiede, Nimisha Bajaj, Kevin Buno, Sherry L. Voytik-Harbin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In vivo toxicology assays are expensive, low-throughput, and often not predictive of a human response. Three-dimensional in vitro human cell-based tissue systems incorporating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions have promise to provide high-throughput, physiologically-relevant information on the mechanism of the toxin and a more accurate assessment of the toxicity of a chemical before progression to human trials. Quantification of the disruption of vasculogenesis, the de novo formation of blood vessels from endothelial progenitor cells, can serve as an appropriate indicator of developmental toxicity since vasculogenesis is critical to the early development of the circulatory system. The current routinely used in vitro ...


Light Pollution Research Through Citizen Science, John Kanemoto 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Light Pollution Research Through Citizen Science, John Kanemoto

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Light pollution (LP) can disrupt and/or degrade the health of all living things, as well as, their environments. The goal of my research at the NOAO was to check the accuracy of the citizen science LP reporting systems entitled: Globe at Night (GaN), Dark Sky Meter (DSM), and Loss of the Night (LoN). On the GaN webpage, the darkness of the night sky (DotNS) is reported by selecting a magnitude chart. Each magnitude chart has a different density/number of stars around a specific constellation. The greater number of stars implies a darker night sky. Within the DSM iPhone ...


Pi3k- And Mtor-Dependent Mechanisms Of Lapatinib Resistance And Resulting Therapeutic Opportunities, Samuel Brady 2014 Texas Medical Center Library

Pi3k- And Mtor-Dependent Mechanisms Of Lapatinib Resistance And Resulting Therapeutic Opportunities, Samuel Brady

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Breast cancers with HER2 amplification represent 20-25% of breast cancer cases and are frequently responsive to the HER2 kinase inhibitor lapatinib, but generally for only short duration. We aimed to understand how breast cancers with HER2 amplification become resistant to lapatinib, in order to identify potential therapies that can overcome lapatinib resistance. To establish lapatinib resistance models we treated three HER2+ breast cancer cell lines with lapatinib for several months until they became lapatinib-resistant. We then compared lapatinib-sensitive (parental) cells with their lapatinib-resistant (LapR) counterparts to identify changes conferring lapatinib resistance. We found that activation of PI3K, specifically the p110α ...


Applications And Improvements In The Molecular Modeling Of Protein And Ligand Interactions, Jason Bret Harris 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Applications And Improvements In The Molecular Modeling Of Protein And Ligand Interactions, Jason Bret Harris

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding protein and ligand interactions is fundamental to treat disease and avoid toxicity in biological organisms. Molecular modeling is a helpful but imperfect tool used in computer-aided toxicology and drug discovery. In this work, molecular docking and structural informatics have been integrated with other modeling methods and physical experiments to better understand and improve predictions for protein and ligand interactions. Results presented as part of this research include:

1.) an application of single-protein docking for an intermediate state structure, specifically, modeling an intermediate state structure of alpha-1-antitrypsin and using the resulting model to virtually screen for chemical inhibitors that can ...


Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of A Newly Implemented, Proactive Approach To Legionellosis Investigations Conducted By The Southern Nevada Health District, Devin Charlotte Raman 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of A Newly Implemented, Proactive Approach To Legionellosis Investigations Conducted By The Southern Nevada Health District, Devin Charlotte Raman

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

This project is an evaluation of a new, more proactive approach to legionellosis investigations conducted by the Southern Nevada Health District. The new protocol was conceived, written and adopted in April of 2012 with the goal of preventing outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease that can have a significant impact on public health and the resort industry of Las Vegas. The objectives of this project were to determine if the remediation methods were successful at eliminating the target organism from water systems and maintaining a negative status throughout the monitoring period, to conduct a cost/benefit analysis, and to compare this protocol ...


Associations Between Prenatal Exposure To Air Pollution, Small For Gestational Age, And Term Low Birthweight In A State-Wide Birth Cohort, Lisa C. Vinikoor-Imler, J. Allen Davis, Robert E. Meyer, Lynne Messer, Thomas J. Luben 2014 Portland State University

Associations Between Prenatal Exposure To Air Pollution, Small For Gestational Age, And Term Low Birthweight In A State-Wide Birth Cohort, Lisa C. Vinikoor-Imler, J. Allen Davis, Robert E. Meyer, Lynne Messer, Thomas J. Luben

Community Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

A range of health effects, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, have been associated with exposure to ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3). The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and O3 during pregnancy is associated with the risk of term low birthweight and small for gestational age infants in both single and co-pollutant models. Term low birthweight and small for gestational age were determined using all birth certificates from North Carolina from 2003 to 2005. Ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 ...


Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores 2014 Pace University

Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores

Honors College Theses

The human has caused a far greater impact on the planet's biodiversity than any other species in existence, due to the impact of population, afflluence, and technology. This thesis will argue the importance of biological diversity and how affluent populations are reducing biodiversity through the consumption of meat, electronics, and motor vehicles. Aldo Leopold's "The Land Ethic" and Herman Daly's "The Impossibility Theorem", among others, create a rubric evaluating human activities and provide alternative views on economic impossibilities. Consumption is reviewed from an ecocentric perspective, a holistic outlook placing emphasis on the ecosystem. The reader will become ...


Analysis Of The Vascular Phenotype Of The Ent1-Null Mouse, Keisha A. Best 2014 Western University

Analysis Of The Vascular Phenotype Of The Ent1-Null Mouse, Keisha A. Best

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Adenosine is important in the regulation of vascular tone and the Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (ENT1) is a regulator of adenosine concentrations. Thus, changes in ENT1 expression and activity may alter vascular tone regulation. We therefore examined the cardiovascular phenotype of ENT1-null (ENT1-/-) as compared to wild type mice (ENT1+/+). Heart rates (HRs) and blood pressures (BPs) of ENT1-/- and ENT1+/+ littermate male mice were obtained while conscious and anaesthetized, and metabolic data were collected over a 24 hr period. Vascular reactivity was assessed in aortic ring segments obtained from 3 month old ENT1-/- and ENT1+/+ mice during both normoxic ...


Exposure To Environmental Contaminants And Stress As Determinants Of Health In Three Communities: Walpole Island And Attawapiskat First Nations And Naivasha, Kenya, Deirdre Phaedra Henley 2014 Western University

Exposure To Environmental Contaminants And Stress As Determinants Of Health In Three Communities: Walpole Island And Attawapiskat First Nations And Naivasha, Kenya, Deirdre Phaedra Henley

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This project is an interdisciplinary, community-based, participatory Ecosystem Health investigation with two First Nations in Canada, one located in the far south (Walpole Island; WIFN) and one in the far north (Attawapiskat; AttFN), and a large Kenyan community surrounding Lake Naivasha. The increased human health risks from exposure to three classes of environmental contaminants, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), pesticides and metals, and fear from such exposures are pressing concerns in each setting. Sensitive analysis of 15 metals in hair, six metals and 91 POPs in whole blood or serum of WIFN and AttFN volunteers has been conducted. Whole blood samples ...


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