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Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

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An Analysis Of The Interaction Of Methylphenidate And Nicotine In Adolescent Rats: Effects On Bdnf, Elizabeth D. Freeman 2015 East Tennessee State University

An Analysis Of The Interaction Of Methylphenidate And Nicotine In Adolescent Rats: Effects On Bdnf, Elizabeth D. Freeman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This investigation was an analysis of the interaction of adolescent exposure to methylphenidate (MPH; trade name: Ritalin) on nicotine sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) in a rodent model and underlying mechanisms of this effect. Animals were treated IP with 1 mg/kg MPH or saline using a ―school day‖ regimen of five days on, two days off, from postnatal day (P) 28-50. During the final two weeks of MPH treatment, animals were either behaviorally sensitized to nicotine (0.5 mg/kg free base) or saline for 10 days, or conditioned to nicotine or saline using the CPP behavioral paradigm ...


Pharmaceuticals And Industrial Products In Crops: Economic Prospects And Impacts On Agriculture, Gregory D. Graff, GianCarlo Moschini 2015 University of California, Berkeley

Pharmaceuticals And Industrial Products In Crops: Economic Prospects And Impacts On Agriculture, Gregory D. Graff, Giancarlo Moschini

Iowa Ag Review

That biotechnology has brought changes to agriculture in a very short time is, by now, obvious. For the 2004 harvest, for example, it is estimated that 85 percent of U.S. soybean production and 45 percent of U.S. corn production will come from genetically modified (GM) varieties (89 percent and 54 percent, respectively, in Iowa). While the agricultural sector is still dealing with problematic trade effects caused by less-than-enthusiastic consumer acceptance and restrictive regulations overseas, the biotech industry is actively pursuing an array of R&D efforts that could make the current adoption of GM crops just the prototypical ...


In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark 2015 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice, Kyong-Sup Yoon, Jennifer K. Ketzis, Samuel W. Andrewes, Christopher S. Wu, Kris Honraet, Dorien Staljanssens, Bart Rossel, J Marshall Clark

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated ...


The Associations Between Environmental Quality And Preterm Birth In The United States, 2000–2005: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Kristen M. Rappazzo, Lynne C. Messer, Jyotsna S. Jagai, Christine L. Gray, Shannon C. Grabich, Danelle T. Lobdell 2015 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

The Associations Between Environmental Quality And Preterm Birth In The United States, 2000–2005: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Kristen M. Rappazzo, Lynne C. Messer, Jyotsna S. Jagai, Christine L. Gray, Shannon C. Grabich, Danelle T. Lobdell

Community Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Many environmental factors have been independently associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, exposure is not isolated to a single environmental factor, but rather to many positive and negative factors that co-occur. The environmental quality index (EQI), a measure of cumulative environmental exposure across all US counties from 2000—2005, was used to investigate associations between ambient environment and PTB.

Methods: With 2000–2005 birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics for the United States (n = 24,483,348), we estimated the association between increasing quintiles of the EQI and county-level and individual-level PTB; we also considered environmental ...


Examining The Toxicity, Exposure, And Regulatory Approach To Potential Human Health Risks Of The Algal Toxin Domoic Acid, Thomas H. Angus 2015 University of Massachusetts Boston

Examining The Toxicity, Exposure, And Regulatory Approach To Potential Human Health Risks Of The Algal Toxin Domoic Acid, Thomas H. Angus

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Domoic acid is a neurotoxin produced by the marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia and causes cell death primarily in the area of the brain responsible for long-term memory. The resulting severe illness has been termed amnesic shellfish poisoning. Domoic acid accumulates in shellfish and planktivorous fish that consume Pseudo-nitzschia, resulting in exposure to humans through consumption of planktivorous seafood. A regulatory standard in seafood was developed shortly after its discovery in 1987 to protect against acute effects. This regulatory standard has not been revised despite significant recent data in the scientific literature.

This dissertation is divided into four sections: (1) an ...


Mourning Wave: Grieving The Loss Of The Natural Environment, Kayla Stewart 2015 University of Washington - Tacoma Campus

Mourning Wave: Grieving The Loss Of The Natural Environment, Kayla Stewart

Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences Master's Projects and Theses

Informed and inspired by the sudden passing of my uncle, Mourning Wave is a physical manifestation of my own experience with grief as it relates to the natural environment. My own personal grief opened the door to experiencing collective grief. Constructed as a wave-shaped altar composed of discarded plastic, Mourning Wave aims to highlight the role of oceanic plastic debris in relation to the damage being done to the environment by humans. The wave is painted black, a traditional color of mourning. Colorful discarded plastic lies within the crest of the wave. This debris was collected several times as a ...


Surface And Subsurface Application Of Chemical Dispersants And Associated Ecosystem Impacts, Adam V. Radpour 2015 University of San Francisco

Surface And Subsurface Application Of Chemical Dispersants And Associated Ecosystem Impacts, Adam V. Radpour

Master's Projects

Chemical dispersants are applied to spilled oil in marine environments when other, less controversial, methods are not adequate for the incident. They are considered to be a response method as opposed to a direct cleanup method, with the intended goals of reducing risk of exposure to sensitive shorelines, reducing environmental injury to surface-dwelling sea birds and marine mammals, and facilitating the biodegradation of spilled oil into the water column.

For this research, both surface and subsurface application of dispersants were evaluated in terms of oil characteristics and volume, and oceanic and atmospheric conditions. More data exists to support the effectiveness ...


A Geospatial Analysis Of Norovirus Outbreaks In California, And An Investigation Of The Impact Of Environmental Variables, Alexandra Groen 2015 University of San Francisco

A Geospatial Analysis Of Norovirus Outbreaks In California, And An Investigation Of The Impact Of Environmental Variables, Alexandra Groen

Master's Projects

Previous studies and empirical evidence suggest norovirus outbreaks in California exhibit correlation with environmental variables and exhibit spatial spread patterns. Few studies have been done looking at what causes norovirus seasonality in temperate climates and more research is needed on the regional level. This study aims to find what relationships exist with outbreak occurrence and environmental variables in California, as well as any spatial patterns of spread or clustering of outbreaks. Spatial analysis tools were used to find any relationships between California norovirus outbreak data and environmental variables. The results showed a south to north spread of outbreaks in California ...


Reducing The Negative Human-Health Impacts Of Bioenergy Crop Emissions Through Region-Specific Crop Selection, William Christian Porter, Todd N. Rosenstiel, Alex Guenther, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Kelley Barsanti 2015 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Reducing The Negative Human-Health Impacts Of Bioenergy Crop Emissions Through Region-Specific Crop Selection, William Christian Porter, Todd N. Rosenstiel, Alex Guenther, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Kelley Barsanti

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth ...


Acute Toxicity Of Β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (Bmaa) To Fathead Minnow (Pimephales Promelas) And Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Jiayi Wang 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Acute Toxicity Of Β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (Bmaa) To Fathead Minnow (Pimephales Promelas) And Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Jiayi Wang

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by most species of cyanobacteria. Exposure to BMAA has been hypothesized as a cause of ALS and possibly Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases for several decades. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that exposure to elevated concentrations of BMAA can damage motor neurons and cause motor dysfunctions. However, the exact mechanism of BMAA-induced neurotoxicity has not been well understood.

Based on the available literature and in spite of its water-soluble and non-protein nature, BMAA appears to be able to bioaccumulate in organisms. The ubiquity of cyanobacteria and the potential ...


Analysis Of Nanoparticle Exposure On Legionella Pneumophila Biofilm Morphology And Host-Bacteria Interactions, Tara Diane Raftery 2015 Clemson University

Analysis Of Nanoparticle Exposure On Legionella Pneumophila Biofilm Morphology And Host-Bacteria Interactions, Tara Diane Raftery

All Theses

An increase in the amount of money spent on nanotechnology has led to an increase in funding to support nanoparticle (NP) research. Due to their stable, beneficial properties, NPs are found in daily consumer products such as bike frames, socks, cosmetics, and sunscreens. As a result of this, these NPs have the potential to enter the environment and interact with various organisms that play integral roles in the ecosystem as a whole. The effect that NPs have on aquatic systems is largely unknown and understudied. Biofilms are an important structural and functional part of aquatic ecosystems, and comprise various microorganisms ...


Investigating The Bioactive Constituents Of The Edible Blue-Green Alga Spirulina Platensis, Georgette Appiah-Pippim 2015 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Investigating The Bioactive Constituents Of The Edible Blue-Green Alga Spirulina Platensis, Georgette Appiah-Pippim

Honors Scholar Theses

More people die annually from cardiovascular disease than from any other cause. Two risk factors for cardiovascular disease are hyperlipidemia and inflammation. Current drugs that are prescribed to regulate lipid levels often have adverse effects such as liver dysfunction. Blue-green algae (BGA), also known as cyanobacteria, have been consumed for years for their health benefits because they are believed to increase energy and prevent disease. One genus of edible blue-green algae is Spirulina plantesis (SP, Spirulina). Various studies have shown that Spirulina may have anti-cancer and anti-inflammation and anti-bacterial properties. In a previous study, Spirulina platensis lowered triglyceride and cholesterol ...


Mohammed Madai: Significance Of The Earth Day, Ubuntu Institute Students 2015 Ubuntu Institute of Social Justice

Mohammed Madai: Significance Of The Earth Day, Ubuntu Institute Students

Ubuntu Institute Students

One may ask himself: What is the significance of Earth Day? Mohammed Madai explores the significance of this day to our daily lives


How Does The Exploitation And Degradation Of Finite Natural Resources By Industrial Oil Producers Effect Our Future Planetary Environment?, Zachary J. King Mr. 2015 Kennesaw State University

How Does The Exploitation And Degradation Of Finite Natural Resources By Industrial Oil Producers Effect Our Future Planetary Environment?, Zachary J. King Mr.

Symposium of Student Scholars

Zachary King

Dr. Tu

26 March 2015

GEOG 3700

Abstract

The purpose of this presentation is to communicate content of the reports given by credible institution on the degradation and exploitation of finite natural resources by corporate institutions, for short term financial gain, and how it will effect the future planetary environment. Methods used in obtaining this research range from point source observation directly from oil spills in the Gulf or pipe leaks in the Mid-West, to analytical and numerical data quantifications gathered over a period of two decades. This presentation encompasses a wide scope of information concerning the way ...


Effect Of Fibre Blend Ratios On Yarn Properties, Innovative Research Publications IRP India, A. Ghosh, M. Raihan 2015 Innovative Research Publications

Effect Of Fibre Blend Ratios On Yarn Properties, Innovative Research Publications Irp India, A. Ghosh, M. Raihan

Innovative Research Publications IRP India

Yarn properties can be altered through blending fibres. According to the requirement different properties can be achieved by different blending ratios. Among the different blends cotton and polyester, cotton and wool, wool and acrylic, cotton and nylon, jute and acrylic, cotton and rayon etc are common. Flax and polyester has been a popular blend now-adays and depicts excellent properties than their individual yarn properties. Different proportion of flax and polyester has been tested to observe the yarn properties and it is found that polyester was perfectly fits with low proportion of flax. Their blends with specific ratios exhibit excellent properties ...


Waste Management And Environmental Initiatives In Accra, Ghana, Aoife Genevieve Duna 2015 SIT Study Abroad

Waste Management And Environmental Initiatives In Accra, Ghana, Aoife Genevieve Duna

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Title: Waste Management and Environmental Initiatives in Accra, Ghana

Author: Aoife Genevieve Duna (aoifeduna@gmail.com; Middlebury College, Anthropology and Dance major)

Objective: The objective of this project was fourfold: • To study the current waste management practices by government and private waste companies • To observe the perspectives of residents on waste disposal • To explore environmental initiatives by citizens, NGOs, and student groups • To investigate the potential projects that could reduce waste

Methodology: For my project, I conducted interviews, made observations, participated in daily personal waste management, visited a landfill, and visited a composting project.

Findings: Waste collection is currently inadequate ...


An Evaluation Of Carbon Concentrations Associted With Biodiesel Particulate Matter In An Underground Metal Mine, David Evans 2015 Montana Tech of the University of Montana

An Evaluation Of Carbon Concentrations Associted With Biodiesel Particulate Matter In An Underground Metal Mine, David Evans

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Exposure to diesel particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been shown to have adverse health effects in humans. In 2012 The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified diesel exhaust as a group 1 know human carcinogen. Because of the associated health effects, there has been a strong push to reduce the amount of diesel exhaust present in the mining industry. Biodiesel is one to the more common and promising control options used to reduce the amount of diesel particulate matter that is generated during fuel combustion. The use of biodiesel over petroleum diesel has been shown to reduce not ...


Microbial Communities Of The Providence River, Jacqueline Kratch 2015 Bryant University

Microbial Communities Of The Providence River, Jacqueline Kratch

Honors Projects in Science and Technology

The Providence River has been industrialized for over one-hundred years. Industries such as oil storage and metal recycling facilities have left high levels of pollutant metals, including lead (Pb), in the soil and water. The elevated Pb concentrations in these environments influence the selection of Pb resistance mechanisms in the bacterial community1. One mechanism of heavy metal resistance is the Pb efflux pump, consisting of proteins in the cell membrane that aid in the transport of Pb out of the cell2. In this study we investigated the co-occurrence of Pb efflux pumps and antibiotic efflux pumps in bacteria from Pb ...


Fighting For The Right To Breathe: Exploring Perspectives Of Environmenal Threats In The South Durban Basin, Kayleigh Bhangdia 2015 SIT Study Abroad

Fighting For The Right To Breathe: Exploring Perspectives Of Environmenal Threats In The South Durban Basin, Kayleigh Bhangdia

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The goal of this project is to understand the way in which community members in South Durban perceive the environmental threats that they face. I have contextualized the current environmental injustices present in the wake of the Apartheid legacy. I worked closely with the South Durban Environmental Conservation Alliance in preparing my questions and conducting my interviews. I conducted 24 interviews in three different communities in the South Durban Basin including Wentworth, Merebank, and Clairwood. Following the interviews in Merebank and Clairwood, I engaged the participants in a short participatory mapping exercise in which they highlighted where the pollution was ...


The Pelagic Artisanal Fishing Of Mangapwani, Northern Unguja, Shavonne Stanek 2015 SIT Study Abroad

The Pelagic Artisanal Fishing Of Mangapwani, Northern Unguja, Shavonne Stanek

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

A total of 99 interviews were conducted. Over a period of 28 days from April 5- May 2, 2015, a total of 75 interviews were conducted with 72 fishermen, 2 drying processors and 1 Bwana Diko. During a 5 day preliminary period from March 12-16, 2015, a total of 24 interviews were conducted with 7 fishermen and 14 drying processors. The interviews focused on their work in the local fishing industry, the amount of fish caught and dried, and their opinions on the sustainability of their industry. The interviews were conducted using a translator who relayed the responses in English ...


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