Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2229 Full-Text Articles 3946 Authors 378498 Downloads 146 Institutions

All Articles in Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health

Faceted Search

2229 full-text articles. Page 1 of 69.

Environmental Res. Bernard Singleton 2016 .Pdf, Joy Semien 2016 Texas Southern University

Environmental Res. Bernard Singleton 2016 .Pdf, Joy Semien

Joy Semien

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest maritime oil spill in history
resulting in the accumulation of genotoxic substances in the air, soil, and water. This has potential far-
reaching health impacts on cleanup field workers and on the populations living in the contaminated
coastal areas. We have employed portable airborne particulate matter samplers (SKC Biosampler Im-
pinger) and a genetically engineered bacterial reporter system (umu-ChromoTest from EBPI) to de-
termine levels of genotoxicity of air samples collected from highly contaminated areas of coastal
Louisiana including Grand Isle, Port Fourchon, and Elmer's ...


The Importance Of Serotonergic And Adrenergic Receptors For The Induction And Expression Of One-Trial Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Krista N. Rudberg 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

The Importance Of Serotonergic And Adrenergic Receptors For The Induction And Expression Of One-Trial Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Krista N. Rudberg

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Addiction is a complex process in which behavioral sensitization may be an important component. While the behavioral effects of sensitization are well established, the intricate neurobiology of the phenomenon is still largely unknown. Dopamine systems mediate the induction of behavioral sensitization in adult rats, but there is a large amount of evidence showing that other neurotransmitter systems also modulate the induction process. For example, the α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptor systems are known to modulate the sensitized responding of adult rats, but the roles that these receptor systems play in the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization during the preweanling ...


A Microbiomic Approach To The Characterization Of The Impacts And Influences Of Viral, Bacterial, And Harmfulalgal Bloom Toxins On The Bottlenose Dolphin, Corey David Russo 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

A Microbiomic Approach To The Characterization Of The Impacts And Influences Of Viral, Bacterial, And Harmfulalgal Bloom Toxins On The Bottlenose Dolphin, Corey David Russo

Dissertations

As apex predators that display high site fidelity Tursiops truncatus (bottlenose dolphin) are indicators of marine ecosystem health. Bottlenose dolphins, additionally, display pathogenesis and immune response similar to that of humans. Humans and coastal bottlenose dolphins, in particular, are constantly exposed to the same industrial, agricultural and domestic toxins and pathogens, contaminants and pollutants. Thus, studies on the bottlenose dolphin are also valuable in bridging the gap between ocean and human health. Bottlenose dolphins are susceptible to viral bacterial and toxin infection. Infection in the bottlenose dolphin manifests itself in the form of mass stranding events, unusual mortality events, chronic ...


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted 2016 East Tennessee State University

Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants that have bioactive properties including antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer. Two isomeric flavone were extracted from Gnaphalium elegans and Achyrocline bogotensis, plants used by the people from the Andean region of South America as remedies for cancer. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5, 7–dihydroxy- 3, 6, 8 trimethoxy flavone/ flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3, 5–dihydroxy-6, 7, 8–trimethoxy flavone/ flavone B) have shown antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cell lines dependent upon their differentiation status. Pharmacokinetic studies reported herein were used to determine dosing for antitumor assays, as ...


Investigating The Effect Of Particulate Hexavalent Chromium On Homologous Recombination Repair, Cynthia L. Browning 2016 University of Maine at Orono

Investigating The Effect Of Particulate Hexavalent Chromium On Homologous Recombination Repair, Cynthia L. Browning

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Homologous recombination (HR) repair protects against genomic instability by maintaining high genomic fidelity during DNA double strand break repair. RAD51 nucleofilament formation is the defining step of HR repair, facilitating the search for a homologous sequence. Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a human lung carcinogen, induces DNA double strand breaks and chromosome instability. Since HR repair has been shown to protect against Cr(VI)-induced chromosome instability, this study investigated the effect of Cr(VI) exposure on HR repair. We showed acute (24 h) Cr(VI) exposure induced a normal HR repair response. In contrast, prolonged (120 h) exposure to ...


Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey 2016 George Washington University

Intranasal Oxytocin Enhances Connectivity In The Neural Circuitry Supporting Social Motivation And Social Perception In Children With Autism., Ilanit Gordon, Allison Jack, Charlotte M Pretzsch, Brent Vander Wyk, James F Leckman, Ruth Feldman, Kevin A. Pelphrey

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Oxytocin (OT) has become a focus in investigations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The social deficits that characterize ASD may relate to reduced connectivity between brain sites on the mesolimbic reward pathway (nucleus accumbens; amygdala) that receive OT projections and contribute to social motivation, and cortical sites involved in social perception. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we show that OT administration in ASD increases activity in brain regions important for perceiving social-emotional information. Further, OT enhances connectivity between nodes of the brain's reward and socioemotional processing systems, and does so preferentially ...


[Review Of] National Research Council, Issues In Risk Assessment, Diane M. Albert 2016 University of New Hampshire

[Review Of] National Research Council, Issues In Risk Assessment, Diane M. Albert

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of: National Research Council, Issues in Risk Assessment (National Academy Press). Appendices, executive summary, figures, preface, references, tables. LC 92-61838; ISBN 0-309-04786-2. [374 pp. Paper $37.50 - S&H, $4 for first and $0.50 for each additional copy. 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington DC 20418.]


[Review Of] M. Stuart Madden, Toxic Torts Deskbook, Laura Marron 2016 University of New Hampshire

[Review Of] M. Stuart Madden, Toxic Torts Deskbook, Laura Marron

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

M. Stuart Madden, Toxic Torts Deskbook (Lewis Publishers 1992). Acknowledgements, case index, general index, notes, preface. LC 91-48238; ISBN 0- 87371-508-X. [230 pp. Cloth $69.95 domestic, $84.00 elsewhere. 2000 Corporate Boulevard, NW, Boca Raton FL 33431.]Review of:


Use Of A Modified Greenscreen Tool To Conduct A Screening-Level Comparative Hazard Assessment Of Conventional Silver And Two Forms Of Nanosilver., Jennifer Sass, Lauren Heine, Nina Hwang 2016 George Washington University

Use Of A Modified Greenscreen Tool To Conduct A Screening-Level Comparative Hazard Assessment Of Conventional Silver And Two Forms Of Nanosilver., Jennifer Sass, Lauren Heine, Nina Hwang

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Increased concern for potential health and environmental impacts of chemicals, including nanomaterials, in consumer products is driving demand for greater transparency regarding potential risks. Chemical hazard assessment is a powerful tool to inform product design, development and procurement and has been integrated into alternative assessment frameworks. The extent to which assessment methods originally designed for conventionally-sized materials can be used for nanomaterials, which have size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have not been well established. We contracted with a certified GreenScreen profiler to conduct three GreenScreen hazard assessments, for conventional silver and two forms of nanosilver. The contractor summarized publicly ...


Dietary Oil Composition Differentially Modulates Intestinal Endotoxin Transport And Postprandial Endotoxemia, Venkatesh Mani, James H. Hollis, Nicholas K. Gabler 2016 Iowa State University

Dietary Oil Composition Differentially Modulates Intestinal Endotoxin Transport And Postprandial Endotoxemia, Venkatesh Mani, James H. Hollis, Nicholas K. Gabler

James Hollis

Background: Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia using swine as a model. We hypothesized that oils rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) would augment, while oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) would attenuate intestinal endotoxin transport and circulating concentrations. Methods: Postprandial endotoxemia was measured in twenty four pigs following a porridge ...


Regulate Pollution Or Land Use - Managing Toxic Air Contaminants In Southern California, Marc Dohan 2016 University of New Hampshire

Regulate Pollution Or Land Use - Managing Toxic Air Contaminants In Southern California, Marc Dohan

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

A California air quality management district recently proposed to limit the location of potential receivers, in contrast with sources, of air toxics. The author argues that, although this particular proposal was later abandoned, it amounted to land use regulation. He also argues that such action usurps local control and is unwarranted.


Daubert's Significance, Thomas G. Field Jr., Colleen M. Keegan 2016 University of New Hampshire School of Law

Daubert's Significance, Thomas G. Field Jr., Colleen M. Keegan

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors review and note the limited reach of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals. They also address its implications for concerned non-lawyers.


Does The Presence Of Oil And Gas Infrastructure Potentially Increase Risk Of Harvest In Northern Bobwhite?, Evan P. Tanner, R. Dwayne Elmore, Craig A. Davis, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, David K. Dahlgren, Eric T. Thacker, Jeremy P. Orange 2016 Oklahoma State University

Does The Presence Of Oil And Gas Infrastructure Potentially Increase Risk Of Harvest In Northern Bobwhite?, Evan P. Tanner, R. Dwayne Elmore, Craig A. Davis, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, David K. Dahlgren, Eric T. Thacker, Jeremy P. Orange

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Beyond organisms experiencing direct impacts (mortality) from the presence of anthropogenic features, interactive relationships may exacerbate the effects of anthropogenic disturbance within the context of these features. For example, mortality risk may be affected by the road infrastructure associated with energy development by influencing space use of predators including human hunters. To assess these relationships, we conducted research on northern bobwhite Colinus virginianusacross a hunted and non-hunted area of Beaver River Wildlife Management Area, Oklahoma, using radiotelemetry from 2012–2015. We found that bobwhite mortality risk decreased as the distance from primary roads (m) increased across weeks (hazard ratio ...


Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor Type 1 Signaling In Epilepsy And Traumatic Brain Injury, V V Chakravarthi Narla 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor Type 1 Signaling In Epilepsy And Traumatic Brain Injury, V V Chakravarthi Narla

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stress increases the frequency by which epileptic seizures occur. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral response to stress. This thesis sought to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CRF regulates the activity of neural circuits in the piriform cortex (PC) in normal and epileptic states. The PC is richly innervated by CRF and 5-HT containing axons arising from the central amygdala and raphe nucleus. CRFR1 and 5-HT2A/CRs have been shown to interact in a manner where CRFR activation subsequently potentiates the activity of 5-HT2A/CRs. The first purpose of this ...


Book Review, James R. Baum 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review, James R. Baum

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of: MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS AGENTS. Vol. 1: INDUSTRIAL AND REGULATORY APPROACHES. Vol. 2: SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND POLICY ASPECTS. (Duane G. LeVine & Arthur C. Upton eds., Praeger 1992). Each volume contains: bibliography, series foreword, foreword, figures, notes, biographical references, tables, index. Vol. 1: [194 pp.] LC-92-167 ISBN 0-275-94322-4. Vol. 2: [188 pp.] ISBN 0-275-94323-2. [Cloth, each $49.95. 88 Post Road West; Westport CT 06881.]


Book Review, Allan M. Soobert 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review, Allan M. Soobert

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of: VALERIE M. FOGLEMAN, HAZARDOUS WASTE CLEANUP, LIABILITY AND LITIGATION: A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO SUPERFUND LAW. (Quorum Books 1992) [320 pp.] Acronyms, index, preface, selected bibliography. LC 91-47999, ISBN 0-89930-647-0. [$59.95 cloth. 88 Post Road West; Westport CT 06881.)


Toxics Use Reduction: Pro And Con, Francine Laden, George M. Gray 2016 University of New Hampshire

Toxics Use Reduction: Pro And Con, Francine Laden, George M. Gray

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

With the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act as an example, important issues related to the goals and effectiveness of TUR are examined. The benefits as claimed by proponents are contrasted with shortcomings outlined by opponents in point-counterpoint style. Ultimately, the authors call for more balanced analysis.


Back To The Future. Metabolic Effects Of A 4-Day Outdoor Trip Under Simulated Paleolithic Conditions – New Insights From The Eifel Study, Jens Freese, Daniel J. Pardi, Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, Sebastian Schwarz, Regula Heynck, Robert Renner, Philipp Zimmer, Helmut Lötzerich 2016 German Sports University Cologne, Institute of Outdoor Sports and Environmental Science

Back To The Future. Metabolic Effects Of A 4-Day Outdoor Trip Under Simulated Paleolithic Conditions – New Insights From The Eifel Study, Jens Freese, Daniel J. Pardi, Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, Sebastian Schwarz, Regula Heynck, Robert Renner, Philipp Zimmer, Helmut Lötzerich

Journal of Evolution and Health

Background: The observation that the emergence of common Western diseases takes place with much greater prevalence as societies migrate from natural-living cultures to modernized societies, has been well documented. For approximately 84,000 generations humans lived under hunter-gatherer conditions but recently endured dramatic change from our native lifestyle with the occurrence of the agricultural, industrial, and digital revolutions. The massive technological advancement that occurred within a relatively recent timeframe enabled humans to live in manner that is remarkably different than our pre-agricultural past. Consequently, the shift from a natural to a modern lifestyle likely promotes a gene-environment mismatch which causes ...


‘Wannabe Toxic-Free?’ From Precautionary Consumption To Corporeal Citizenship, Dayna Scott, Jennie Haw, Robyn Lee 2016 Osgoode Hall Law School of York University

‘Wannabe Toxic-Free?’ From Precautionary Consumption To Corporeal Citizenship, Dayna Scott, Jennie Haw, Robyn Lee

Articles & Book Chapters

Ecological citizens are increasingly encouraged to adopt ‘precautionary consumption’ – a set of practices aimed at shielding them from the potential health harms of exposures to everyday toxics. The utility and the effects of precautionary consumption in relation to common chemical exposures are investigated. Precautionary consumption is not only of questionable utility, but is fundamentally misguided as an approach for inspiring antitoxics organizing. The failure of this approach is in part due to its assumption of a naturally bounded, autonomous individual who is able to maintain an impermeable boundary between herself and the environment. Drawing on the work of material feminist ...


Human Exposure Modeling Using Sheds, Luther Smith, William Graham Glen 2016 Alion Science & Technology Inc

Human Exposure Modeling Using Sheds, Luther Smith, William Graham Glen

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress