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Hypothesis Generation And Testing: A Template For Biomedical Research, Michael Hoffmann 2014 SelectedWorks

Hypothesis Generation And Testing: A Template For Biomedical Research, Michael Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This argument map provides a template for the testing of hypotheses in biomedical research. It can be used in science education to direct students' attention to all components that need to be clarified to justify a scientific hypothesis in a specific experimental setting, including the justification of appropriate sample sizes in experiments, determination of background theories, description of experimental design, data collection methods, significance level, etc. To use this template, go to http://agora.gatech.edu/, search for argument map 3363, and copy the map.


Long-Acting Antituberculous Therapeutic Nanoparticles Target Macrophage Endosomes, Benson J. Edagwa, Dongwei Guo, Pavan Puligujja, Han Chen, JoEllyn McMillan, Xinming Liu, Howard Gendelman, Prabagaran Narayanasamy 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Long-Acting Antituberculous Therapeutic Nanoparticles Target Macrophage Endosomes, Benson J. Edagwa, Dongwei Guo, Pavan Puligujja, Han Chen, Joellyn Mcmillan, Xinming Liu, Howard Gendelman, Prabagaran Narayanasamy

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Eradication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection requires daily administration of combinations of rifampin (RIF), isoniazid [isonicotinylhydrazine (INH)], pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, among other drug therapies. To facilitate and optimize MTB therapeutic selections, a mononuclear phagocyte (MP; monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell)-targeted drug delivery strategy was developed. Long-acting nanoformulations of RIF and an INH derivative, pentenyl- INH (INHP), were prepared, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated. This included the evaluation of MP particle uptake and retention, cell viability, and antimicrobial efficacy. Drug levels reached 6 μg/106 cells in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) for nanoparticle treatments compared with 0.1 μg ...


Comparative Studies Of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor Circinelloides And Trichoderma Reesei) For Effective Wastewater Treatment And Bio-Oil Production, Anshuman Bhanja, Gauri P. Minde, Sandip S. Magdum, Kalyanraman V. 2014 SelectedWorks

Comparative Studies Of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor Circinelloides And Trichoderma Reesei) For Effective Wastewater Treatment And Bio-Oil Production, Anshuman Bhanja, Gauri P. Minde, Sandip S. Magdum, Kalyanraman V.

Sandip S. Magdum

iological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 88.72% and 86.75% in 96 hrs and the observed substrate based biomass yields were 0.21 mg VSS/mg COD and 0 ...


Quest: Creating A Biotechnology Workforce Pipeline, Lynette Hazleton MPH 2014 Thomas Jefferson University

Quest: Creating A Biotechnology Workforce Pipeline, Lynette Hazleton Mph

Population Health Matters (Formerly Health Policy Newsletter)

No abstract provided.


Cryopreservation Of Hepatocyte (Hepg2) Cell Monolayers: Impact Of Trehalose, Blake Stokich, Quinn Osgood, David Grimm, Shhyam Moorthy, Nilay Chakraborty, Michael A. Menze 2014 Eastern Illinois University

Cryopreservation Of Hepatocyte (Hepg2) Cell Monolayers: Impact Of Trehalose, Blake Stokich, Quinn Osgood, David Grimm, Shhyam Moorthy, Nilay Chakraborty, Michael A. Menze

Michael Menze

A simple method to cryogenically preserve hepatocyte monolayers is currently not available but such a technique would facilitate numerous applications in the field of biomedical engineering, cell line development, and drug screening. We investigated the effect of trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) in cryopreservation of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in suspension and monolayer formats. HepG2 cell monolayers were incubated for 24 h at varying concentrations of trehalose (50–150 mM) prior to cryopreservation to identify the optimum concentration for such preincubation. When trehalose alone was used as the cryoprotective agent (CPA), cells in monolayer format did not survive freezing ...


The Effect Of Transient Hmg-Coa Reductase And 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Synthase Overexpression On Terpene Production In Transgenic Tomato Fruits, Scott A. Gentry, Michael Gutensohn, Laura Henry, Natalia Dudareva 2014 Purdue University

The Effect Of Transient Hmg-Coa Reductase And 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Synthase Overexpression On Terpene Production In Transgenic Tomato Fruits, Scott A. Gentry, Michael Gutensohn, Laura Henry, Natalia Dudareva

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Isoprenoids are secondary metabolites that control numerous plant functions including signaling, growth, photosynthesis, and membrane structure. The bioengineering of isoprenoid synthesis could produce plants with a variety of beneficial traits. Plants form isoprenoids using two different pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the methylerithritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, which cooperate via metabolic cross-talk. Transgenic tomato lines expressing both the plastidic and cytosolic forms of the snapdragon nerolidol/linalool terpene synthase under a fruit ripening specific promoter were transiently transformed to overexpress key enzymes in the two isoprenoid pathways. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) is the rate limiting enzyme in the MVA pathway ...


Self-Assembled Gold Nanoplexes For Cancer-Targeted Sirna Delivery, Yongliang Shi 2014 The University of Southern Mississippi

Self-Assembled Gold Nanoplexes For Cancer-Targeted Sirna Delivery, Yongliang Shi

Master's Theses

Through layer-by-layer method, the authors have constructed three Au nanoplexes: AuPEI/RNA/PEI, AuPEI/RNA/PEI-mPEG, and AuPEI/NA/PEI-PEG-FA. All the nanoplexes are characterized by UV-vis spectrometry, DLS, and zeta potential. The surface density of the first layer PEI and second layer RNA were also determined. Moreover, the Au nanoplexes can protect siRNA from RNase degradation and are stable in cell culture medium.

siGLuc-ppp, ssRNA80, and siF17 were delivered by the assembled Au nanoplexes, and the results were analyzed by GLuc assay, TB assay, and Luciferase assay. In terms of RNA delivery, the Au nanoplexes AuPEI/RNA/PEI ...


Applications And Improvements In The Molecular Modeling Of Protein And Ligand Interactions, Jason Bret Harris 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Applications And Improvements In The Molecular Modeling Of Protein And Ligand Interactions, Jason Bret Harris

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding protein and ligand interactions is fundamental to treat disease and avoid toxicity in biological organisms. Molecular modeling is a helpful but imperfect tool used in computer-aided toxicology and drug discovery. In this work, molecular docking and structural informatics have been integrated with other modeling methods and physical experiments to better understand and improve predictions for protein and ligand interactions. Results presented as part of this research include:

1.) an application of single-protein docking for an intermediate state structure, specifically, modeling an intermediate state structure of alpha-1-antitrypsin and using the resulting model to virtually screen for chemical inhibitors that can ...


Experimental Demonstration Of Bindingless Signal Delivery In Human Cells Via Microfluidics, Fang-Tzu Chuang 2014 SelectedWorks

Experimental Demonstration Of Bindingless Signal Delivery In Human Cells Via Microfluidics, Fang-Tzu Chuang

Fang-Tzu Chuang

The cellular signal transduction is commonly believed to rely on the direct “contact” or “binding” of the participating molecule reaction that depends positively on the corresponding molecule concentrations. In living systems, however, it is somewhat difficult to precisely match the corresponding rapid “binding,” depending on the probability of molecular collision, existing in the cellular receptor-ligand interactions. Thus, a question arises that if there is another mechanism (i.e., bindingless) that could promote this signal communication. According to this hypothesis, we report a cellular model based on the examination of intracellular calcium concentration to explore whether the unidentified signal delivery in ...


Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores 2014 Pace University

Affluent Populations And Their Effect On Biological Diversity Through The Consumption Of Meat, Electronics, And Motor Vehicles, Melody Flores

Honors College Theses

The human has caused a far greater impact on the planet's biodiversity than any other species in existence, due to the impact of population, afflluence, and technology. This thesis will argue the importance of biological diversity and how affluent populations are reducing biodiversity through the consumption of meat, electronics, and motor vehicles. Aldo Leopold's "The Land Ethic" and Herman Daly's "The Impossibility Theorem", among others, create a rubric evaluating human activities and provide alternative views on economic impossibilities. Consumption is reviewed from an ecocentric perspective, a holistic outlook placing emphasis on the ecosystem. The reader will become ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140602mon, George McNamara 2014 The University of Texas

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20140602mon, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20140602Mon

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/42

Please see also http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/26

Tattletales: multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors by spatial localization with TALE-FPs, Cas9-FPs, ZF-FPs, LacI-FPs, TetR-FPs, etc.

T-Bow: Rainbow T-cells and Tumor cells (and ES cells, iPS cells, other cells and organisms). You can think of this as "Brainbow meets TALENs/Cas9/ZFNs/other DNA sequence specific binding proteins".

If not familiar with Brainbow, see

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainbow

If not familiar with TALENs, Cas9, etc, see

http://www.addgene.org/genome_engineering/

Big idea: localizing fluorescent proteins - and/or Nano-Lanterns ...


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Somatosensory Impairment And Balance Dysfunction In Multiple Sclerosis, Stephanie Jones 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Somatosensory Impairment And Balance Dysfunction In Multiple Sclerosis, Stephanie Jones

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Impaired balance and gait function are highly prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life in those with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence implicates the somatosensory system as a major contributor to balance dysfunction in this population. As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Advanced Computational and Technological Approaches to Mitigating Mobility Dysfunction in People with Multiple Sclerosis," this presentation will discuss evidence supporting the role of reduced somatosensation in balance for those with MS and introduce a new paradigm to assess sensation during functional postures in the clinical and laboratory settings.


Effect Of Oligopeptide Orientation On Polymer-Based Dna Delivery, Sangram S. Parelkar, Rachel Letteri, Jayne Ellis, Robert Elder, Arthi Jayaraman, Todd S. Emrick 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Effect Of Oligopeptide Orientation On Polymer-Based Dna Delivery, Sangram S. Parelkar, Rachel Letteri, Jayne Ellis, Robert Elder, Arthi Jayaraman, Todd S. Emrick

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Non-viral synthetic gene therapy reagents offer excellent structural and chemical versatility within non-immunogenic delivery systems, coupled with high therapeutic gene carrying capacity and long shelf life, making them attractive alternatives to viral systems. The success of non-viral transfection using polymers hinges on efficient nuclear uptake of nucleic acid cargo and overcoming intra- and extracellular barriers. This poster will describe the integration of the PKKKRKV heptapeptide (the Simian virus SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization sequence, NLS) onto a polymer backbone, and the resultant high reporter gene expression in mice when administered by intramuscular ultrasound-mediated delivery. These novel polymers afforded protein expression ...


Targeted Mutagenesis Of A Therapeutic Human Monoclonal Igg1 Antibody Prevents Gelation At High Concentrations, Paul Casaz, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Rachel Wollacott, Sadettin S. Ozturk, William D. Thomas Jr., Yan Wang 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Targeted Mutagenesis Of A Therapeutic Human Monoclonal Igg1 Antibody Prevents Gelation At High Concentrations, Paul Casaz, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Rachel Wollacott, Sadettin S. Ozturk, William D. Thomas Jr., Yan Wang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

A common challenge encountered during development of high concentration monoclonal antibody formulations is preventing self-association. Depending on the antibody and its formulation, self-association can be seen as aggregation, precipitation, opalescence or phase separation. Here we report on an unusual manifestation of self-association, formation of a semi-solid gel or “gelation”. Therapeutic monoclonal antibody C4 was isolated from human B cells based on its strong potency in neutralizing bacterial toxin in animal models. The purified antibody possessed the unusual property of forming a firm, opaque white gel when it was formulated at concentrations >40 mg/mL and the temperature was <6oC. Gel formation was reversible and was affected by salt concentration or pH, suggesting a charge interaction between IgG monomers. However, formulation optimization could not completely prevent gelation at high concentrations so a protein engineering approach was sought to resolve the problem. A comparison of the heavy and light chain amino acid sequences to consensus germline sequences revealed 16 amino acid sequence differences in the framework regions that could be involved with gelation. Restoring the C4 framework sequence to consensus germline residues by targeted mutagenesis resulted in no gel formation at 50 mg/ml at temperatures as low as 0oC. Additional genetic analysis was used to identify the key residue(s) involved in the gelation. A single substitution in the native antibody, replacing heavy chain glutamate 23 with lysine, was found sufficient to prevent gelation, while a double mutation, replacing heavy chain serine 85 and threonine 87 with arginine, increased the temperature at which gel formation initiated. These results indicate that the temperature dependence of gelation may be related to conformational changes near the charged residues or the regions interact with. Our work provided a molecular strategy that can be applied to improve the solubility of other therapeutic antibodies.


Advanced Nanomanufacturing For Wearable Human Performance Monitoring Sensor Platforms, Jeffrey Morse 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Advanced Nanomanufacturing For Wearable Human Performance Monitoring Sensor Platforms, Jeffrey Morse

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Creating Devices for Personalized Health Monitoring," Dr. Morse discusses advances in transitioning nanofabrication processes for realizing sensors for personalized health monitoring, including the development of wearable microfluidic sensors for detection of biomarkers indicative of stress and fatigue. Examples from current projects include nanoparticle field effect transistor (FET) sensors, printed microfluidics, and replication of antimicrobial/anti-fouling surfaces via high throughput, roll-to-roll processes.


Creating Devices For Personal Health Monitoring, D. Joseph Jerry 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Creating Devices For Personal Health Monitoring, D. Joseph Jerry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Creating Devices for Personalized Health Monitoring," Dr. Jerry introduces the symposium with a presentation about the Center for Personalized Health Monitoring (CPHM). The CPHM is an interdisciplinary research, training, and technology development center in wearable sensor systems for personalized health and biometric monitoring. CPHM’s mission is to conduct basic and translational research with world-leading impact across the entire technical roadmap for advanced personalized health monitoring for acute care and tele-medicine settings.


Creating Devices For Personalized Health Monitoring: Cardiovascular Monitoring Case Studies, David D. McManus 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Creating Devices For Personalized Health Monitoring: Cardiovascular Monitoring Case Studies, David D. Mcmanus

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Creating Devices for Personalized Health Monitoring," Dr. McManus presents recent work related to cardiac monitoring using smartphone and bioimpedance sensors, including arrhythmia, blood volume, and heart failure monitoring.


Validating And Testing Wearable Sensors To Assess Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior In The Center For Personalized Health Monitoring, Patty Freedson 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Validating And Testing Wearable Sensors To Assess Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior In The Center For Personalized Health Monitoring, Patty Freedson

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Creating Devices for Personalized Health Monitoring," Dr. Freedson highlights her group’s research on the calibration and validation of wearable physical activity sensors and how these sensors are used to examine the relationship between physical activity dose and health-related responses. She also discusses research pertaining to sleep monitoring sensors conducted by Dr. Rebecca Spencer in the Department of Psychology.


Water Water Everywhere: Analyzing Long Island's Water Issues And Finding Solutions For A Sustainable Future, Anthony T. Becker 2014 Fordham University

Water Water Everywhere: Analyzing Long Island's Water Issues And Finding Solutions For A Sustainable Future, Anthony T. Becker

2014 Student Theses

Over three million people call Long Island their home. With access to beautiful landscapes, world-renowned beaches, and proximity to New York City, it is no wonder that so many proudly call this geographic stretch of glacial till their home. However, throughout the years our actions do not necessarily reflect this affection we have to our home. Years of sprawl and human infestation across the island have resulted in widespread environmental degradation. Specifically, the water we drink and the beaches we enjoy have become endangered. I plan on studying the urban ecology of how intensified population growth led to the eutrophication ...


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