Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biotechnology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1470 Full-Text Articles 2816 Authors 269181 Downloads 121 Institutions

All Articles in Biotechnology

Faceted Search

1470 full-text articles. Page 1 of 53.

The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li 2017 Purdue University

The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Schwann cells are glial cells that serve the vital role of supporting neurons in the peripheral nervous system. While their primary function is to provide insulation (myelin) for axons, they also help regenerate injured axons by digesting severed axons and providing scaffolding to guide the regeneration process. This specific role of Schwann cells makes them highly important cellular targets following nerve injury. Although some efforts have been made to encourage Schwann cell migration after nerve damage, the use of electric fields to control cell responses remain unexplored; therefore, this experiment serves to characterize the behavior of Schwann cells to weak ...


Metabolic Comparison Of Wild-Type And Transgenic Synechocystis Pcc 6803 Cyanobacteria, Ian A. McLuckey, John A. Morgan, Joel Yu King Hing 2017 Purdue University

Metabolic Comparison Of Wild-Type And Transgenic Synechocystis Pcc 6803 Cyanobacteria, Ian A. Mcluckey, John A. Morgan, Joel Yu King Hing

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The Calvin-Benson (CBB) cycle is an essential part of nature. This phenomenon allows carbon molecules in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to be converted into useful energy in the form of sugars. Cyanobacteria are single-celled organisms capable of utilizing energy from sunlight to drive this cycle and are also readily engineered. In hopes of improving this cycle, we compared a wild-type version of the Synechocystis PCC6803 cyanobacteria to an engineered version overexpressing the enzyme FBA (fructose-biphosphate aldolase), called 70 glpX, to deduce how the overexpressing strain is able to be more photosynthetically efficient. To do this, comparative metabolomics were done ...


Low-Cost Diagnostics: A Novel Aptamer Screening Process, Junkai Xie, Kalie Janece Dicks, Oscar C. Sanchez-Medina, Chongli Yuan 2017 Purdue University

Low-Cost Diagnostics: A Novel Aptamer Screening Process, Junkai Xie, Kalie Janece Dicks, Oscar C. Sanchez-Medina, Chongli Yuan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Low-Cost diagnostic and screening tools are of vital importance for low resources countries like those in Africa. DNA aptamers are becoming an important detection analytical tool to recognize small molecule targets, drugs and metabolites. Compared to alternative recognition motifs, such as antibody, protein and peptides, aptamers are cheaper to produce via chemical synthesis, stable at room temperature and relatively faster in R&D lead time (year). Over the past 15 years, various aptamer based sensors have been developed. Conventionally, aptamers were screened via a Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment(SELEX) process. We have improved the SELEX process to improve the binding affinity of aptamers. A novel aptamer was discovered for α-KG; an oncometabolite which are showing connections with the mutations occurring frequently in gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia. Combined with a fluorescent assay, the aptamer can potentially quantify the concentration of α-KG with high accuracy.


Establishing A Lung Model For Evaluation Of Engineered Lung Microbiome Therapies, Kathryn F. Atherton, Stephen Miloro, Jenna Rickus 2017 Purdue University

Establishing A Lung Model For Evaluation Of Engineered Lung Microbiome Therapies, Kathryn F. Atherton, Stephen Miloro, Jenna Rickus

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Benzene, a toxin and carcinogen found in air polluted by cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and industrial processes, is associated with the development of leukemia and lymphoma. Other than avoiding exposure, there is no current method to deter the effects of benzene. One potential strategy to prevent these effects is to engineer the bacteria of the human lung microbiome to degrade benzene. To evaluate this novel approach, we must verify that the bacteria remain viable within the lung microenvironment. To do so, lungs were harvested from rats and swabbed to determine the contents of the original lung microbiome. Then green fluorescent ...


Gas-Based Perfusion Fmri Cerebrovascular Reactivity Maps And Time Of Arrival Maps, Jinxia Yao, Yunjie Tong, Matthew Robert Derdak 2017 Purdue University

Gas-Based Perfusion Fmri Cerebrovascular Reactivity Maps And Time Of Arrival Maps, Jinxia Yao, Yunjie Tong, Matthew Robert Derdak

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Perfusion MRI is a promising tool used in assessing stroke, brain tumors, and patients with neurodegenerative diseases. However, common perfusion MRI techniques have several disadvantages, such as using exogenous contrast agents, low signal-to-noise ratio and long acquisition time. In this study, we used a computer-controlled gas delivery system RespirAct TM. This system provides a reliable carbon dioxide based vasoactive stimulus. This stimulus will immediately generate large and reliable functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals, which can be used for perfusion imaging. Each subject was required to have three sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which are structural scan, resting state ...


Fluorescent Protein Biosensor For Use In Parkinson's Research, Piper R. Miller, Keelan Trull, Mathew Tantama 2017 Purdue University

Fluorescent Protein Biosensor For Use In Parkinson's Research, Piper R. Miller, Keelan Trull, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Purinergic signaling is a type of extracellular communication that occurs between cells, mediated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine. In Parkinson’s Disease, purinergic signaling is disrupted, which contributes to neurodegeneration. In order to monitor this change in cell-to-cell signaling, there is a need for the development of a fluorescent protein (FP) biosensor to study the changes in the concentration of the signaling molecule ATP and its decomposition bioproduct ADP. This summer a genetically encoded ADP sensor that measures changes in ADP concentration was developed. This sensor utilizes Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) which is a sensing ...


Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Virus-based expression systems have been widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins in plants during the last three decades. Advances in technology have boosted scale-up manufacturing of plant-made pharmaceuticals to high levels, via the complementation of transient expression and viral vectors. This combination allows proteins of interest to be produced in plants within a matter of days and thus, is well suited for the development of plant-made vaccines or therapeutics against emerging infectious diseases and potential bioterrorism agents. Several plant-based products are currently in varying stages of clinical development. To investigate the viability of virus-based expression systems for plant-made ...


Correction For Sandai Et Al., The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown 2017 University of Aberdeen

Correction For Sandai Et Al., The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown

Janet Walker

No abstract provided.


The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown 2017 University of Aberdeen

The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown

Janet Walker

Microbes must assimilate carbon to grow and colonize their niches. Transcript profiling has suggested that Candida albicans, a major pathogen of humans, regulates its carbon assimilation in an analogous fashion to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, repressing metabolic pathways required for the use of alterative nonpreferred carbon sources when sugars are available. However, we show that there is significant dislocation between the proteome and transcriptome in C. albicans. Glucose triggers the degradation of the ICL1 and PCK1 transcripts in C. albicans, yet isocitrate lyase (Icl1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) are stable and are retained. Indeed, numerous enzymes required for the ...


Optimization Of Enzyme Parameters For Fermentative Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Liu, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Lonnie O. Ingram 2017 Iowa State University

Optimization Of Enzyme Parameters For Fermentative Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Liu, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Lonnie O. Ingram

Laura R. Jarboe

Microbial biocatalysts such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively subjected to Metabolic Engineering for the fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. This often entails the introduction of new enzymes, deletion of unwanted enzymes and efforts to fine-tune enzyme abundance in order to attain the desired strain performance. Enzyme performance can be quantitatively described in terms of the Michaelis-Menten type parameters Km, turnover number kcat and Ki, which roughly describe the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate, the speed of a reaction and the enzyme sensitivity to inhibition by regulatory molecules. Here we describe examples of ...


Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang

Laura R. Jarboe

Aim: A standard procedure does not exist to distinguish between attached and unattached micro-organisms. In this study, we compared two methods to quantify between Escherichia coli attached to clay particles and E. coli freely suspended in solution: flow cytometry (attachment assay and viability assay) and settling (or centrifugation followed by settling). Methods and Results: Methods were tested using three environmental strains collected from swine facilities (A, B and C) and one purchased modified pathogenic strain (ATCC 43888); four clay particles: Hectorite, Kaolinite, Ca-Montmorillonite, Montmorillonite K-10; and a range of surface area ratios (particle surface area to E. coli surface area ...


Maize Breeding, J. S. C. Smith, O. S. Smith, Kendall R. Lamkey 2017 Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.

Maize Breeding, J. S. C. Smith, O. S. Smith, Kendall R. Lamkey

Kendall R Lamkey

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a remarkable plant. Human societies depend upon maize for food, health, scientific knowledge, economic growth, culture and spirituality. Maize breeders have improved productivity through selection on phenotype. Future improvements in maize productivity will require more effective utilization of genetic resources including direct selection upon genotype. Success will require a greater understanding of the complex biology of quantitative traits and a more thorough evaluation of the broader genetic base of maize. Maize breeders are fortunate and privileged to work with a species that encompasses a broad array of diversity and which provides a rich source of ...


The 'Pseudomonas Aeruginosa' Psl Polysaccharide Is A Social But Noncheatable Trait In Biofilms, Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E. Roberts, Kasper N. Kragh, Vernita D. Gordon, Jaime B. Hutchison, Rosalind J. Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A. West, Stephen P. Diggle 2017 University of Dayton

The 'Pseudomonas Aeruginosa' Psl Polysaccharide Is A Social But Noncheatable Trait In Biofilms, Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E. Roberts, Kasper N. Kragh, Vernita D. Gordon, Jaime B. Hutchison, Rosalind J. Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A. West, Stephen P. Diggle

Biology Faculty Publications

Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides populationlevel benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic ...


Marine Gastrobot Final Design Report, Wesley B. Williams, Eric Kane Dreischerf, Tommy Nicholas Yath 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Marine Gastrobot Final Design Report, Wesley B. Williams, Eric Kane Dreischerf, Tommy Nicholas Yath

Mechanical Engineering

The Marine Gastrobot sponsored by Dr. Christopher Kitts of the Cal Poly Center for Applications in Biotechnology was a research and development effort intended to explore the use of microbial fuel cell technology as a power source for underwater robots. Our team Ocean Locomotion succeeded in developing a first iteration of an underwater robotic platform suitable for microbial fuel cell integration. The primary feature of the design is its sinusoidal fin propulsion intended for benthic exploration with limited risk of entanglement. During the course of development, Ocean Locomotion explored the use of low power actuation methods and determined their limited ...


B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips 2017 Seton Hall University

B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer-based immunotherapy has led the evolution of biologics that can stimulate immune responses towards tumor eradication. The synthesis of small to intermediate size molecules with the targeting and effector functions of mAb may represent a novel class of immunotherapeutics that may overcome the limitations of their biological counterparts.Towards this objective, B7H6 has been identified as a protein ligand localized on the cell surface of transformed tumor cells. B7H6 binds specifically to the activating receptor NKp30, constitutively expressed on all resting and active NK cells. Upon ligand:receptor binding, B7H6 triggers NK cell activation and release of chemokines and pro-inflammatory ...


Three-Dimensional Folding Of Eukaryotic Genomes, Tsung-Han S. Hsieh 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Three-Dimensional Folding Of Eukaryotic Genomes, Tsung-Han S. Hsieh

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Chromatin packages eukaryotic genomes via a hierarchical series of folding steps, encrypting multiple layers of epigenetic information, which are capable of regulating nuclear transactions in response to complex signals in environment. Besides the 1-dimensinal chromatin landscape such as nucleosome positioning and histone modifications, little is known about the secondary chromatin structures and their functional consequences related to transcriptional regulation and DNA replication. The family of chromosomal conformation capture (3C) assays has revolutionized our understanding of large-scale chromosome folding with the ability to measure relative interaction probability between genomic loci in vivo. However, the suboptimal resolution of the typical 3C techniques ...


A Bug’S Life: Integration Of Anaerobic Digestion And Bioelectrochemical Systems For Enhanced Energy Recovery From Wastewater Solids And Other Waste Substrates, Jeff Ryan Beegle 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Bug’S Life: Integration Of Anaerobic Digestion And Bioelectrochemical Systems For Enhanced Energy Recovery From Wastewater Solids And Other Waste Substrates, Jeff Ryan Beegle

Masters Theses

Organic waste streams, like domestic wastewater and municipal solid waste, have the potential to be used as feedstocks for biotechnology processes to produce high value products and energy. This thesis investigated the technological, economical, and environmental potential for integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and bioelectrochemical system (BES) platforms as they were theoretically and physically evaluated for energy recovery from domestic wastewater. The first chapter of this thesis compared the theoretical energy efficiencies of converting waste directly into electricity, using AD and BES alone and in various combinations. This chapter reviewed the experimentally demonstrated energy efficiencies reported in the literature with comparisons ...


Evaluation Of Hall’S Panicgrass (Panicum Hallii Vasey) As A Model System For Genetic Modification Of Recalcitrance In Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum (L.)), Joshua Nathaniel Grant 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluation Of Hall’S Panicgrass (Panicum Hallii Vasey) As A Model System For Genetic Modification Of Recalcitrance In Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum (L.)), Joshua Nathaniel Grant

Masters Theses

While switchgrass (Panicum virgatum (L.)) has long been recognized as a viable bioenergy feedstock, it and other plants have cell walls with recalcitrance to processing. Recalcitrance is recognized as a major barrier to broad adoption of switchgrass and other feedstocks for cellulosic bioenergy. In an effort to reduce recalcitrance, transgenic plants have been generated with altered cell wall phenotypes such as reduced lignin. Unfortunately, stable transformation of switchgrass and other C4 grasses is time intensive, costly, and genetic analysis is further complicated by polyploid genomic structures. Unlike switchgrass, which can be tetraploid to octoploid, a closely related species, Hall’s ...


Estimating Autoantibody Signatures To Detect Autoimmune Disease Patient Subsets, Zhenke Wu, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Ami A. Shah, Antony Rosen, Scott L. Zeger 2017 Department of Biostatistics and Michigan Institute of Data Science, University of Michigan

Estimating Autoantibody Signatures To Detect Autoimmune Disease Patient Subsets, Zhenke Wu, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Ami A. Shah, Antony Rosen, Scott L. Zeger

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

Autoimmune diseases are characterized by highly specific immune responses against molecules in self-tissues. Different autoimmune diseases are characterized by distinct immune responses, making autoantibodies useful for diagnosis and prediction. In many diseases, the targets of autoantibodies are incompletely defined. Although the technologies for autoantibody discovery have advanced dramatically over the past decade, each of these techniques generates hundreds of possibilities, which are onerous and expensive to validate. We set out to establish a method to greatly simplify autoantibody discovery, using a pre-filtering step to define subgroups with similar specificities based on migration of labeled, immunoprecipitated proteins on sodium dodecyl sulfate ...


Effect Of Cellulosic Hydrolysate Compounds And Biofuels In Escherichia Coli, Patrick Hertzel 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Cellulosic Hydrolysate Compounds And Biofuels In Escherichia Coli, Patrick Hertzel

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Requirements of renewable fuels around the world increases daily as the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions increase as well. Biofuels are one of the several alternative energy sources being heavily invested into by both world governments and corporations to combat both issues. This project focuses on testing the toxicity of common biofuels in Escherichia coli (E. coli) for better use in the fermentation process. Our goal is to improve tolerance to inhibitors produced after treatment of lignocellulose, allowing for better conversions in biofuels. This will result in an increase in production of biofuels and a drop of the land ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress