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A Review Of Natural And Engineered Enzymes Involved In Bioethanol Production, Ines Cuesta Urena 2016 University of Montana

A Review Of Natural And Engineered Enzymes Involved In Bioethanol Production, Ines Cuesta Urena

Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers

Alternative petroleum-derived fuels, such as biofuels, is another form to decrease the dependence of non-renewable energy. The most promising alternative energy is cellulosic ethanol because of the abundance of cellulose and the overall lack of concern for the food-versus-fuel dilemma.

In order to produce ethanol from cellulosic materials, pretreatment is required to “open” the lignocellulosic matrix and make cellulose more susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose is an important area of research due to the absence of negative effects in downstream processes in comparison with acid hydrolysis. Both natural enzymes and engineered enzymes can be used in the ...


Fluorescein Tri-Aldehyde Promotes The Selective Detection Of Homocysteine, Aabha Barve, Mark Lowry, Jorge O. Escobedo, Josephrajan Thainashmuthu, Robert M. Strongin 2015 Portland State University

Fluorescein Tri-Aldehyde Promotes The Selective Detection Of Homocysteine, Aabha Barve, Mark Lowry, Jorge O. Escobedo, Josephrajan Thainashmuthu, Robert M. Strongin

Robert M. Strongin

Elevated homocysteine levels are a well-known independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To date, relatively few selective fluorescent probes for homocysteine detection have been reported. The lack of sensing reagents and remaining challenges largely derive from issues of sensitivity and/or selectivity. For example, homocysteine is a structural homologue of the more abundant (ca, 20-25 fold) aminothiol cysteine, differing only by an additional methylene group side chain. Fluorescein tri-aldehyde, described herein, has been designed and synthesized as a sensitive and selective fluorophore for the detection of homocysteine in human plasma samples. It responds to analytes selectively via a photoinduced electron ...


Investigation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Transformation In Two Regenerable Tissue Culture Systems, Atiyyah S. Ferouz 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Transformation In Two Regenerable Tissue Culture Systems, Atiyyah S. Ferouz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The genetic engineering of plants allows for the modification of plant genomes, subsequently improving plant traits. There are, however, plants recalcitrant to established transformation methods, requiring the implementation of novel techniques. This study investigates the viability of cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) transformation using Tat2, a CPP with demonstrated transformation efficiency in plant and animal systems, in two regenerable tissue culture systems, soybean somatic embryos and Arabidopsis protoplasts. Assessments of complex formation, Tat2 cellular translocation, complex uptake, and CPP-mediated transformation were carried out. The results show the formation of a Tat2-plasmid complex and the uptake of Tat2 ...


Effect Of Sugars On Artemisinin Production In Artemisia Annua L.: Transcription And Metabolite Measurements, Patrick Arsenault, Daniel Vail, Kristin Wobbe, Pamela Weathers 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Effect Of Sugars On Artemisinin Production In Artemisia Annua L.: Transcription And Metabolite Measurements, Patrick Arsenault, Daniel Vail, Kristin Wobbe, Pamela Weathers

Kristin K. Wobbe

The biosynthesis of the valuable sesquiterpene anti-malarial, artemisinin, is known to respond to exogenous sugar concentrations. Here young Artemisia annua L. seedlings (strain YU) were used to measure the transcripts of six key genes in artemisinin biosynthesis in response to growth on sucrose, glucose, or fructose. The measured genes are: from the cytosolic arm of terpene biosynthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), farnesyl disphosphate (FPS); from the plastid arm of terpene biosynthesis, 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS), 1-deoxyxylulouse 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR); from the dedicated artemisinin pathway amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), and the P450, CYP71AV1 (CYP). Changes in intracellular concentrations of artemisinin (AN) and its ...


Background Differences In Baseline And Stimulated Mmp Levels Influence Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Susceptibility, Matthew A. Dale, Melissa K. Suh, Shijia Zhao, Trevor Meisinger, Linxia Gu, Vicki J. Swier, Devendra K. Agrawal, Timothy Greiner, Jeffrey S. Carson, B. Timothy Baxter, Wanfen Xiong 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Background Differences In Baseline And Stimulated Mmp Levels Influence Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Susceptibility, Matthew A. Dale, Melissa K. Suh, Shijia Zhao, Trevor Meisinger, Linxia Gu, Vicki J. Swier, Devendra K. Agrawal, Timothy Greiner, Jeffrey S. Carson, B. Timothy Baxter, Wanfen Xiong

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Objective: Evidence has demonstrated profound influence of genetic background on cardiovascular phenotypes. Murine models in Marfan syndrome (MFS) have shown that genetic background-related variations affect thoracic aortic aneurysm formation, rupture, and lifespan of mice. MFS mice with C57Bl/6 genetic background are less susceptible to aneurysm formation compared to the 129/SvEv genetic background. In this study, we hypothesize that susceptibility to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) will be increased in 129/SvEv mice versus C57Bl/6 mice. We tested this hypothesis by assessing differences in aneurysm size, tissue properties, immune response, and MMP expression.

Methods: Mice of C57Bl/6 or ...


Molecular Regulation Of Vascular Calcification In Murine Models Of Atherosclerosis, Shanshan Gao 2015 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Molecular Regulation Of Vascular Calcification In Murine Models Of Atherosclerosis, Shanshan Gao

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background: Calcification occurs often in the atherosclerotic lesions of patients with coronary heart disease and animals with hypercholesterolemia, such as apolipoprotein-E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the development of calcification in atherosclerosis remains unclear. ApoE acts as a lipid transporter, but also has been recognized as a potential regulator of osteogenesis. Little information is available as to whether ApoE has any direct impact on osteogenesis and calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Several signal transduction pathways play a role in regulation of calcification, including the Wnt/β-catenin system and potentially GTAP, an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme responsible for ...


Frequency Of Abo, Rhesus Phenotypes And Most Probable Genotypes And The Type Of Rhd Negative Variants Among Uae Nationals In Al Ain District, Mariam Hamad Zaher Saeed AI Meqbali 2015 United Arab Emirates University

Frequency Of Abo, Rhesus Phenotypes And Most Probable Genotypes And The Type Of Rhd Negative Variants Among Uae Nationals In Al Ain District, Mariam Hamad Zaher Saeed Ai Meqbali

Theses

Knowledge of the frequencies and the phenotypes of ABO and rhesus system is very important for blood bank and transfusion services policies. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of ABO, Rhesus phenotype and most probable genotypes in Al Ain area (UAE). The studied group consisted of 500 locals of both gender from different age groups (17-58 years old). ABO and Rh-hr phenotype reactivity were determined using conventional tube method and gel technology, molecular techniques were also applied. Our study shows the distribution of ABO phenotypes was as follows: 0= 56%, A= 26.2%, B= 14.2 ...


Early Seed Development Responses In Cereals Under Environmental Stresses, Kevin Begcy 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Early Seed Development Responses In Cereals Under Environmental Stresses, Kevin Begcy

Kevin Begcy

Plants are influenced by a large number of environmental factors. The search for higher yields at lower costs requires detailed knowledge of physiology, biochemistry, molecular and genetic level of plants, in order to optimize the relationship between different factors of production for maximum performance. Reproductive development has been demonstrated to be especially highly sensitive to environmental stresses. Within environmental stresses, drought and heat stress are the major restrictors of food production worldwide. With decreasing supplies of freshwater, increase in average temperature and predictions for the increased frequency of extreme precipitation events, there is a critical need for developing crops that ...


Gmos In Europe: A Genetically Modified Ordeal?, GianCarlo Moschini, Jay Corrigan, , 2015 Iowa State

Gmos In Europe: A Genetically Modified Ordeal?, Giancarlo Moschini, Jay Corrigan, ,

Jay R Corrigan

One thing seems certain: we are now familiar with yet another acronym. GMO stands for genetically modified organism and designates a living entity (such as a bacterium, plant, or animal) whose genome has been modified by recombinant DNA technology. The ability to alter the genetic makeup of organisms directly by such methods (i.e., transgenic) constitutes the hallmark of modern biotechnology and has ushered in a new era in agricultural research.


Spatial Soil Heterogeneity Has A Greater Effect On Symbiotic Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities And Plant Growth Than Genetic Modification With Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxin Genes, Tanya Cheeke, Ursel Schütte, Chris Hemmerich, Mitchell Cruzan, Todd Rosenstiel, James Bever 2015 Portland State University

Spatial Soil Heterogeneity Has A Greater Effect On Symbiotic Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities And Plant Growth Than Genetic Modification With Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxin Genes, Tanya Cheeke, Ursel Schütte, Chris Hemmerich, Mitchell Cruzan, Todd Rosenstiel, James Bever

Todd N. Rosenstiel

Maize, genetically modified with the insect toxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is widely cultivated, yet its impacts on soil organisms are poorly understood. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbiotic associations with plant roots and may be uniquely sensitive to genetic changes within a plant host. In this field study, the effects of nine different lines of Bt maize and their corresponding non-Bt parental isolines were evaluated on AMF colonization and community diversity in plant roots. Plants were harvested 60 days after sowing, and data were collected on plant growth and per cent AMF colonization of roots. AMF community composition ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20151027tue, George McNamara 2015 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20151027tue, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

20151027Tue this "75"

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/75

is my update of "65" posting

See text at

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/65/

for text summary. The PDf here in "75" supersedes "65".

The PDF here has 10 pages added to the end from the "65" version (pages 40-49 of PDF when including the bepress cover page)..

here is the text in my cover page (bepress may add its own cover):

20151027Tue: added 10 page e-poster at bottom explaining Binary Tattletales and T-Bow. That is, binary with respect to protein components. For one color (number of repeats, epitope tags ...


Mcnamara 201412 Nih Scap Innocentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-Cells And Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – Plus Supplement Plus Posters - 20151027 - Please Download "75" Instead, George McNamara 2015 M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Mcnamara 201412 Nih Scap Innocentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-Cells And Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – Plus Supplement Plus Posters - 20151027 - Please Download "75" Instead, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 201412 NIH SCAP InnoCentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-cells and Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – plus supplement plus posters - 20151027.

///

Please download the current 20151027 (October 27, 2015) Tattletales and T-Bow update from

http://works.bepress.com/gmcnamara/75/

The bepress web site is not letting me replace the old pdf here at "65" with the additional 10 pages update.

///

The download is my/Cooper lab solution (submission) to the 2014 NIH Single Cell Analysis Program (SCAP) InnoCentive Challenge, "Follow That Cell". I submitted the Solution on 20141215Mon (with 20 minutes to spare). The Challenge web ...


Evaluation Of Effective Operational Cycle Time And Bioprocess Parameters In A Sequential Batch Reactor For Efficient Organic And Nutrient Removal From Domestic Sewage, Sandip S. Magdum, Siva Kumar Varigala, Yogesh N. Patil, Gauri P. Minde, Janardhan B. Bornare, V. Kalyanraman 2015 Pune university

Evaluation Of Effective Operational Cycle Time And Bioprocess Parameters In A Sequential Batch Reactor For Efficient Organic And Nutrient Removal From Domestic Sewage, Sandip S. Magdum, Siva Kumar Varigala, Yogesh N. Patil, Gauri P. Minde, Janardhan B. Bornare, V. Kalyanraman

Sandip S. Magdum

Anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic environment can be simulated in the single stage sequential batch reactor (SBR) . Various design conditions viz., combinations of different phase time and different cycle time, hydraulic residence time (HRT), substrate loading rate, sludge age (SRT) and aeration time were analyzed for optimum biological treatment. The pilot runs were evaluated with the design conditions of food/microbe ratio (F/M) 0.2 per day and MLSS of 4950 mg/L. For the given design conditions 4, 5 and 6 hours cycle lengths were analyzed for their efficient performance with 30-33% of decant volume for sewage containing C ...


Feeding, Nourishing And Medicating An Exploding Global Population: An Argument For Genetic Modification, William A. Price PhD 2015 La Salle University

Feeding, Nourishing And Medicating An Exploding Global Population: An Argument For Genetic Modification, William A. Price Phd

Explorer Café

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Rogfp2-Orp1 Fluorescent Biosensor For Detecting Oxidative Stress In Mammalian Cells, Sara A. Doan, Stevie Norcross, Mathew Tantama 2015 Purdue University

Characterizing The Rogfp2-Orp1 Fluorescent Biosensor For Detecting Oxidative Stress In Mammalian Cells, Sara A. Doan, Stevie Norcross, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease involving the death of neurons in the substantia nigra and loss of the neurotransmitter, dopamine. The disease leads to progressive loss of motor control. Exact causes and mechanisms by which Parkinson’s disease proceeds are unknown, however, previous experiments determine oxidative stress in mitochondria as a factor that results in cell death. Strategies have been implemented to generate fluorescent biosensors to monitor reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations while simultaneously measuring the spatiotemporal distribution and correlation between the ROS, cellular function and organelle. Orp1, an enzyme found in yeast, is a sensitive oxidizing species ...


Neutrophil Responses To Sterile Implant Materials, Siddharth Jhunjhunwala, Stephanie Aresta-DaSilva, Katherine Tang, David Alvarez, Matthew J. Webber, Benjamin C. Tang, Danya M. Lavin, Omid Veiseh, Joshua C. Doloff, Suman Bose, Arturo Vegas, Minglin Ma, Gaurav Sahay, Alan Chiu, Andrew Bader, Erin Langan, Sean Siebert, Jie Li, Dale L. Greiner, Peter E. Newburger, Ulrich H. von Andrian, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson 2015 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Neutrophil Responses To Sterile Implant Materials, Siddharth Jhunjhunwala, Stephanie Aresta-Dasilva, Katherine Tang, David Alvarez, Matthew J. Webber, Benjamin C. Tang, Danya M. Lavin, Omid Veiseh, Joshua C. Doloff, Suman Bose, Arturo Vegas, Minglin Ma, Gaurav Sahay, Alan Chiu, Andrew Bader, Erin Langan, Sean Siebert, Jie Li, Dale L. Greiner, Peter E. Newburger, Ulrich H. Von Andrian, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson

Open Access Articles

In vivo implantation of sterile materials and devices results in a foreign body immune response leading to fibrosis of implanted material. Neutrophils, one of the first immune cells to be recruited to implantation sites, have been suggested to contribute to the establishment of the inflammatory microenvironment that initiates the fibrotic response. However, the precise numbers and roles of neutrophils in response to implanted devices remains unclear. Using a mouse model of peritoneal microcapsule implantation, we show 30-500 fold increased neutrophil presence in the peritoneal exudates in response to implants. We demonstrate that these neutrophils secrete increased amounts of a variety ...


A Plant-Made Vaccine Candidate To Protect Ruminants Against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli, Sean Miletic 2015 The University of Western Ontario

A Plant-Made Vaccine Candidate To Protect Ruminants Against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli, Sean Miletic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are enteropathogens colonizing the digestive tracts of humans and animals worldwide. STEC are shed in the manure of cattle and frequently contaminate beef products, vegetables, and drinking water. Immunizing cattle herds against STEC is a promising strategy to reduce STEC colonization in cattle and therefore decrease contamination in the food supply. The goal of this project is to produce a plant-made vaccine to protect ruminants against STEC. Several recombinant proteins were designed as vaccine candidates and expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana and transplastomically Nicotiana tabacum. One vaccine candidate, an E. coli secreted protein A (EspA ...


Estimation Of Diversity And Community Structure Through Restriction-Fragment-Length-Polymorphism Distribution Analysis Of Bacterial 16s Ribosomal-Rna Genes From A Microbial Mat At An Active, Hydrothermal Vent System, Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, Craig Moyer, Fred Dobbs, David Karl 2015 Old Dominion University

Estimation Of Diversity And Community Structure Through Restriction-Fragment-Length-Polymorphism Distribution Analysis Of Bacterial 16s Ribosomal-Rna Genes From A Microbial Mat At An Active, Hydrothermal Vent System, Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, Craig Moyer, Fred Dobbs, David Karl

Craig L. Moyer

PCR was used to amplify (eu)bacterial small-subunit (16S) rRNA genes from total-community genomic DNA. The source of total-community genomic DNA used for this culture-independent analysis was the microbial mats from a deep-sea, hydrothermal vent system, Pele's Vents, located at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions in the 16S rRNA-encoding DNA (rDNA) of bacteria were used to direct the synthesis of PCR products, which were then subcloned by blunt-end ligation into phagemid vector pBluescript II. Restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns, created by using tandem tetrameric restriction endonucleases, revealed the presence of 12 groups of 16S rRNA genes ...


Phylogenetic Diversity Of The Bacterial Community From A Microbial Mat At An Active, Hydrothermal Vent System, Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, Craig Moyer, Fred Dobbs, David Karl 2015 Old Dominion University

Phylogenetic Diversity Of The Bacterial Community From A Microbial Mat At An Active, Hydrothermal Vent System, Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, Craig Moyer, Fred Dobbs, David Karl

Craig L. Moyer

The phylogenetic diversity of small-subunit rRNA genes associated,vith the domain Bacteria was examined (by using previously defined operational taxonomic units [C. L. Moyer, F. C. Dobbs, and D. M. Karl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:871-879, 1994]; those for Pele's Vents Bacteria are hereafter abbreviated PVB OTUs) with samples from a microbial mat at an active, deep-sea hydrothermal vent system. A cluster of phylogenetically related PVB OTUs (OTUs 2, 3, 6, and 8) was closely affiliated with Thiovulum sp. contained within the epsilon subclass of the class Proteobacteria and accounted for 60.5% of the small-subunit rRNA bacterial clone ...


The Application Of The Ultrafine Technology In Improving The Biocompatibility And Osteo-Inductivity Of Dental Implants, Nicholas Y. Hou 2015 The University of Western Ontario

The Application Of The Ultrafine Technology In Improving The Biocompatibility And Osteo-Inductivity Of Dental Implants, Nicholas Y. Hou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dental implants are very effective medical devices. However, although stable, the conventional titanium implants are not very bioactive which in some instances could reduce their efficacy. This thesis described the research progress of using polymeric ultrafine-particles with bioactive additives to enrich the surface of titanium substrate, thereby increasing the biocompatibility and osteo-inductivity of the biomaterial. During this doctoral project, three different types of polymers were examined, initially the conventional polyester, and later the novel epoxy as well as the epoxy/polyester hybrid polymers. Physical characterizations confirmed that all of the coating powders were ultrafine particles, and homogeneous surfaces were constructed ...


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