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Membrane Disruption Antimicrobial Mechanism Of Channa Striatus Lysozyme-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide, Venkatesh Kumaresan 2016 SRM University

Membrane Disruption Antimicrobial Mechanism Of Channa Striatus Lysozyme-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide, Venkatesh Kumaresan

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Channa Striatus Tnfr-1: Molecular Cloning, Characterization And Gene Expression, Rajesh Palanisamy 2016 SRM Institute of Science and Technology

Channa Striatus Tnfr-1: Molecular Cloning, Characterization And Gene Expression, Rajesh Palanisamy

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


A Comparative Statement On Molecular Approach Of Large Hsps From Macrobrachium Rosenbergii, MUKESH KUMAR CHAURASIA 2016 SRM UNIVERSITY

A Comparative Statement On Molecular Approach Of Large Hsps From Macrobrachium Rosenbergii, Mukesh Kumar Chaurasia

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins 2016 Arkansas State University - Main Campus

Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 pandemic continues to thrive due to ineffective HIV-1 vaccines. Historically, the world’s most infectious diseases, such as polio and smallpox, have been eradicated or have come close to eradication due to the advent of effective vaccines. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is able to delay the onset of AIDS but can neither rid the body of HIV-1 proviral DNA nor prevent further transmission. A prophylactic vaccine that prevents the various mechanisms HIV-1 has to evade and attack our immune system is needed to end the HIV-1 pandemic. Recent advances in engineered nuclease systems, like the CRISPR/Cas9 ...


Exploring Barriers To The Adoption Of Pharmacogenomic Technology In The Clinical Setting By Clinical Healthcare Providers, Jason Sudia 2016 Seton Hall University

Exploring Barriers To The Adoption Of Pharmacogenomic Technology In The Clinical Setting By Clinical Healthcare Providers, Jason Sudia

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The changing landscape of healthcare in the US has created new questions about how to best provide cost-effective, individualized care. Personalized medicine and more specifically, pharmacogenomic technology have offered new tools for healthcare providers to use to increase the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of care. However, these tools are not being utilized to their predicted extent in the clinical setting. This study utilized Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations theory to investigate some of the reasons why. A multi-question survey, the PI-created, Pharmacogenomic Adoption Instrument (PAI) ©, was developed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and experience concerning pharmacogenetic technology in a spectrum of ...


Lignocellulose As Carbon Source Promotes Bacterial Synergism And Reduces Antagonism, Yijie Deng 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Lignocellulose As Carbon Source Promotes Bacterial Synergism And Reduces Antagonism, Yijie Deng

Dissertations

Lignocellulose decomposes slowly in nature because it consists of complex polymers resistant to enzymatic degradation by most organisms. Some bacteria are capable of producing cellulolytic enzymes but the way in which bacteria interact within a community to enhance degradation of the recalcitrant substrate is poorly understood. A better understanding of how bacterial interactions affect lignocellulose degradation would provide potential approaches to improve the efficiency of lignocellulose degradation for biofuel production.

To study whether bacterial interactions enhance lignocellulose degradation, I grew environmental bacterial isolates in mixed cultures and pure cultures. I found that bacterial synergism in mixed cultures was common in ...


On The Segregation Of Genetically Modified, Conventional, And Organic Products In European Agriculture: A Multi-Market Equilibrium Analysis, GianCarlo Moschini, Harun Bulut, Luigi Cembalo 2016 Iowa State University

On The Segregation Of Genetically Modified, Conventional, And Organic Products In European Agriculture: A Multi-Market Equilibrium Analysis, Giancarlo Moschini, Harun Bulut, Luigi Cembalo

Giancarlo Moschini

Evaluating the possible benefits of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops must address the issue of consumer resistance as well as the complex regulation thathasensued.IntheEuropeanUnion(EU)thisregulationenvisionsthe“co-existence” of GM food with conventional and quality-enhanced products, mandates the labelling and traceability of GM products, and allows only a stringent adventitious presence of GM content in other products. All these elements are brought together within a partial equilibrium model of the EU agricultural food sector. The model comprises conventional, GM and organic food. Demand is modelled in a novel fashion, whereby organic and conventional products are treated as horizontally ...


Pharmaceutical And Industrial Traits In Genetically Modified Crops: Co-Existence With Conventional Agriculture, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Pharmaceutical And Industrial Traits In Genetically Modified Crops: Co-Existence With Conventional Agriculture, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

This paper discusses the implications of using genetically modified crops to biomanufacture pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds from the perspective of their co-existence with conventional agriculture. Such plant-made pharmaceuticals and plant-made industrial products rely on exciting scientific and technological breakthroughs and promise new opportunities for the agricultural sector, but they also entail novel risks. The management of the externalities and of the possible unintended economic effects that arise in this context is critical and poses difficult questions for regulators.


Pharmaceuticals And Industrial Products In Crops: Economic Prospects And Impacts On Agriculture, Gregory D. Graff, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 University of California, Berkeley

Pharmaceuticals And Industrial Products In Crops: Economic Prospects And Impacts On Agriculture, Gregory D. Graff, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

That biotechnology has brought changes to agriculture in a very short time is, by now, obvious. For the 2004 harvest, for example, it is estimated that 85 percent of U.S. soybean production and 45 percent of U.S. corn production will come from genetically modified (GM) varieties (89 percent and 54 percent, respectively, in Iowa). While the agricultural sector is still dealing with problematic trade effects caused by less-than-enthusiastic consumer acceptance and restrictive regulations overseas, the biotech industry is actively pursuing an array of R&D efforts that could make the current adoption of GM crops just the prototypical ...


Labeling Regulations And Segregation Of First- And Second-Generation Genetically Modified Products: Innovation Incentives And Welfare Effects, GianCarlo Moschini, Harvey Lapan 2016 Iowa State University

Labeling Regulations And Segregation Of First- And Second-Generation Genetically Modified Products: Innovation Incentives And Welfare Effects, Giancarlo Moschini, Harvey Lapan

Giancarlo Moschini

We review some of the most significant issues and results on the economic effects of genetically modified (GM) product innovation, with emphasis on the question of GM labeling and the need for costly segregation and identity preservation activities. The analysis is organized around an explicit model that can accommodate the features of both first-generation and second-generation GM products. The model accounts for the proprietary nature of GM innovations and for the critical role of consumer preferences vis-à-vis GM products, as well as for the impacts of segregation and identity preservation and the effects of a mandatory GM labeling regulation. We ...


In Medio Stat Virtus: Coexistence Policies For Gm And Non-Gm Production In Spatial Equilibrium, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

In Medio Stat Virtus: Coexistence Policies For Gm And Non-Gm Production In Spatial Equilibrium, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

This paper develops a spatial equilibrium model suitable to analyze the economic impacts of measures (such as isolation distances and buffer zones) meant to ensure coexistence between GM and non-GM crops. We show that policies that put the cost of such measures exclusively on GM producers lead to a competitive equilibrium that is biased against GM products (relative to the welfare maximizing allocation). Efficient allocation is restored if the cost of implementing coexistence measures is shared equally between adjacent GM and non-GM farms.


Identity Preservation And Labeling Of Genetically Modified Products: System Design And Enforcement Issues, Harevy E. Lapan, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Identity Preservation And Labeling Of Genetically Modified Products: System Design And Enforcement Issues, Harevy E. Lapan, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

his paper analyzes economic issues that arise in devising a credible and enforceable system of identity preservation and labeling for genetically modified (GM) and non-GM products. The model represents three stages in the supply chain: farm production, marketing handlers, and final users. The possibility of accidental co-mingling of non-GM products is modeled at the marketing stage. Regulation takes the form of a threshold level of purity for non-GM products, a probability of government testing to verify compliance with the threshold level, and a fine for violators. Uncertainty is modeled explicitly, such that would-be suppliers of non-GM products always face some ...


Intellectual Property Rights And Crop-Improving R&D Under Adaptive Destruction, Oleg Yerokhin, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Intellectual Property Rights And Crop-Improving R&D Under Adaptive Destruction, Oleg Yerokhin, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

This paper studies how the strength of intellectual property rights (IPRs) affects investments in biological innovations when the value of an innovation is stochastically reduced to zero because of the evolution of pest resistance. We frame the problem as a research and development (R&D) investment game in a duopoly model of sequential innovation. We characterize the incentives to invest in R&D under two competing IPR regimes, which differ in their treatment of the follow-on innovations that become necessary because of pest adaptation. Depending on the magnitude of the R&D cost, ex ante firms might prefer an intellectual ...


Gmos In Europe: A Genetically Modified Ordeal?, GianCarlo Moschini, Jay Corrigan 2016 Iowa State

Gmos In Europe: A Genetically Modified Ordeal?, Giancarlo Moschini, Jay Corrigan

Giancarlo Moschini

One thing seems certain: we are now familiar with yet another acronym. GMO stands for genetically modified organism and designates a living entity (such as a bacterium, plant, or animal) whose genome has been modified by recombinant DNA technology. The ability to alter the genetic makeup of organisms directly by such methods (i.e., transgenic) constitutes the hallmark of modern biotechnology and has ushered in a new era in agricultural research.


Biotechnology And The Development Of Food Markets: Retrospect And Prospects, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Biotechnology And The Development Of Food Markets: Retrospect And Prospects, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

Biotechnology has had an important impact on the agricultural and food industries over the last twelve years by way of fast and extensive adoption of a few genetically modified (GM) crops. This has produced large efficiency gains, including higher yields and reduced costs of weed and pest control, as well as some environmental benefits. The expected development of crops with additional agronomic traits, and with output traits to improve the nutrition and health attributes of food products, holds the potential for even more pervasive impacts. Full realisation of such promises may require overcoming the constraining effects of restrictive GM product ...


Economic Benefits And Costs Of Biotechnology Innovations In Agriculture, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Economic Benefits And Costs Of Biotechnology Innovations In Agriculture, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the larger share of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the issues of labeling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations, and a number of related regulation ...


Innovation And Trade With Endogenous Market Failure: The Case Of Genetically Modified Products, Harvey E. Lapan, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Innovation And Trade With Endogenous Market Failure: The Case Of Genetically Modified Products, Harvey E. Lapan, Giancarlo Moschini

Harvey Lapan

We build a partial-equilibrium, two-country model to analyze some implications of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products. In the model, innovators hold proprietary rights on the new technology, whereas farmers are (competitive) adopters; some consumers deem food produced from GM products to be inferior to traditional food; countries trade both traditional and GM products; countries can adopt regulations (such as mandatory labeling of GM products) that have direct trade implications; and, crucially, the mere introduction of GM crops affects the costs of non-GM food (because it makes it necessary to implement costly identity preservation). The analysis shows that, although ...


Technical Efficiency Of Grain Production In Ukraine, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Helen H. Jensen 2016 Iowa State University

Technical Efficiency Of Grain Production In Ukraine, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Helen H. Jensen

Helen Jensen

A stochastic production frontier model with technical inefficiency effects is estimated on a representative sample of Ukrainian state and collective grain-producing farms. Technical efficiency declined from 1989 to 1992. More experienced managers were found to be more productive, with the effect of experience diminishing with age. We found that on-farm provision of production infrastructure was associated with higher efficiency, a result supporting the hypothesis that disorganization causes output to decline in transition economies.


Biotechnology And Pest Resistance: An Economic Assessment Of Refuges, Terrance M. Hurley, Bruce A. Babcock, Richard L. Hellmich 2016 Iowa State University

Biotechnology And Pest Resistance: An Economic Assessment Of Refuges, Terrance M. Hurley, Bruce A. Babcock, Richard L. Hellmich

Bruce Babcock

Biologists now engineer transgenic crop varieties that offer farmers a new tool for effectively managing pests. Concern over pest resistance, however, has prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to require resistance management plans. This paper develops an economic model of pest management with pest resistance to estimate the constant proportion of cropland planted in refuge that maximizes farm income over a fixed planning horizon. Results indicate a clear economic tradeoff between the pest control benefits of a transgenic variety and the resistance management benefits afforded by refuge.


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