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Do The Evolution: The Effect Of Ksr V. Teleflex On Biotechnology, Josh Harrison 2017 University of Oklahoma College of Law

Do The Evolution: The Effect Of Ksr V. Teleflex On Biotechnology, Josh Harrison

Oklahoma Journal of Law and Technology

No abstract provided.


Heme Regulation Of Human Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity: Insights From Fluorescence And Raman Spectroscopy, Colin L. Weeks, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Ruma Banerjee, Thomas G. Spiro 2017 University of Washington

Heme Regulation Of Human Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity: Insights From Fluorescence And Raman Spectroscopy, Colin L. Weeks, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Ruma Banerjee, Thomas G. Spiro

Colin L. Weeks

Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) plays a central role in cysteine metabolism, and malfunction of the enzyme leads to homocystinuria, a devastating metabolic disease. CBS contains a pyridoxal 5′- phosphate (PLP) cofactor which catalyzes the synthesis of cystathionine from homocysteine and serine. Mammalian forms of the enzyme also contain a heme group, which is not involved in catalysis. It may, however, play a regulatory role, since the enzyme is inhibited when CO or NO are bound to the heme. We have investigated the mechanism of this inhibition using fluorescence and resonance Raman spectroscopies. CO binding is found to induce a tautomeric shift ...


Modulation Of The Heme Electronic Structure And Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity By Second Coordination Sphere Ligands: The Role Of Heme Ligand Switching In Redox Regulation, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Jay Stasser, Colin L. Weeks, Donald Becker, Thomas G. Spiro, James Penner-Hahn, Ruma Banerjee 2017 The University Of Michigan

Modulation Of The Heme Electronic Structure And Cystathionine Β-Synthase Activity By Second Coordination Sphere Ligands: The Role Of Heme Ligand Switching In Redox Regulation, Sangita Singh, Peter Madzelan, Jay Stasser, Colin L. Weeks, Donald Becker, Thomas G. Spiro, James Penner-Hahn, Ruma Banerjee

Colin L. Weeks

In humans, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a hemeprotein, which catalyzes a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent condensation reaction. Changes in the heme environment are communicated to the active site, which is ~20 Å away. In this study, we have examined the role of H67 and R266, which are in the second coordination sphere of the heme ligands, H65 and C52 respectively, in modulating the heme's electronic properties and in transmitting information between the heme and active sites. While the H67A mutation is comparable to wild-type CBS, interesting differences are revealed by mutations at the R266 site. The pathogenic mutant, R266K ...


Damage-Free Peripheral Nerve Stimulation By 12-Ns Pulsed Electric Field, Maura Casciola, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov 2017 Old Dominion University

Damage-Free Peripheral Nerve Stimulation By 12-Ns Pulsed Electric Field, Maura Casciola, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Modern technologies enable deep tissue focusing of nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) for non-invasive nerve and muscle stimulation. However, it is not known if PEF orders of magnitude shorter than the activation time of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) would evoke action potentials (APs). One plausible scenario requires the loss of membrane integrity (electroporation) and resulting depolarization as an intermediate step. We report, for the first time, that the excitation of a peripheral nerve can be accomplished by 12-ns PEF without electroporation. 12-ns stimuli at 4.1-11 kV (3.3-8.8 kV/cm) evoked APs similarly to conventional stimuli (100-250 mus ...


Delayed Hypersensitivity To Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field In Electroporated Cells, Sarah D. Jensen, Vera A. Khorokhorina, Claudia Muratori, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Olga N. Pakhomova 2017 Old Dominion University

Delayed Hypersensitivity To Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field In Electroporated Cells, Sarah D. Jensen, Vera A. Khorokhorina, Claudia Muratori, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Olga N. Pakhomova

Bioelectrics Publications

We demonstrate that conditioning of mammalian cells by electroporation with nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) facilitates their response to the next nsPEF treatment. The experiments were designed to unambiguously separate the electroporation-induced sensitization and desensitization effects. Electroporation was achieved by bursts of 300-ns, 9 kV/cm pulses (50 Hz, n = 3–100) and quantified by propidium dye uptake within 11 min after the nsPEF exposure. We observed either sensitization to nsPEF or no change (when the conditioning was either too weak or too intense, or when the wait time after conditioning was too short). Within studied limits, conditioning never caused ...


Computational And Experimental Analyses Converge To Reveal A Coherent Yet Malleable Aptamer Structure That Controls Chemical Reactivity, Tianjiao Wang, Julie A. Hoy, Monica H. Lamm, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton 2017 Iowa State University

Computational And Experimental Analyses Converge To Reveal A Coherent Yet Malleable Aptamer Structure That Controls Chemical Reactivity, Tianjiao Wang, Julie A. Hoy, Monica H. Lamm, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

Monica H. Lamm

As short nucleic acids, aptamers in solution are believed to be structurally flexible. Consistent with this view, most aptamers examined for this property have been shown to bind their target molecules by mechanisms that can be described as “induced fit”. But, it is not known to what extent this structural flexibility affects the integrity of the target−aptamer interaction. Using the malachite green aptamer (MGA) as a model system, we show that the MGA can protect its bound target, malachite green (MG), from oxidation over several days. Protection is reversed by an oligonucleotide complementary to the MGA binding pocket. Computational ...


Metalloproteases Of The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Roman M. Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Metalloproteases Of The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Roman M. Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The inner mitochondrial membrane (IM) is among most protein-rich cellular compartments. The metastable IM sub-proteome where the concentration of proteins is approaching oversaturation creates a challenging protein folding environment with high probability for protein malfunction or aggregation. Failure to maintain protein homeostasis in such a setting can impair functional integrity of the mitochondria and drive clinical manifestations. The IM is equipped with a series of highly conserved, proteolytic complexes dedicated to the maintenance of normal protein homeostasis within this mitochondrial sub-compartment. Particularly important is a group of membrane-anchored metallopeptidases commonly known as m-AAA and i-AAA proteases, and the ATP-independent Oma1 ...


The Role Of Interactions Of Long Non-Coding Rnas And Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins In Regulating Cellular Functions, Xinghui Sun, Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen Haider Ali, Matthew Moran 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Role Of Interactions Of Long Non-Coding Rnas And Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins In Regulating Cellular Functions, Xinghui Sun, Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen Haider Ali, Matthew Moran

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of various biological processes and human diseases. The mechanisms of action involve their interactions with proteins, RNA and genomic DNA. Most lncRNAs display strong nuclear localization. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a large family of RNA-binding proteins that are important for multiple aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. hnRNPs are also predominantly expressed in the nucleus. This review discusses the interactions of lncRNAs and hnRNPs in regulating gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels or by changing genomic structure, highlighting their involvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, immune response, DNA damage response ...


Fluorescent Protein Biosensor For Use In Parkinson's Research, Piper R. Miller, Keelan Trull, Mathew Tantama 2017 Purdue University

Fluorescent Protein Biosensor For Use In Parkinson's Research, Piper R. Miller, Keelan Trull, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Purinergic signaling is a type of extracellular communication that occurs between cells, mediated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine. In Parkinson’s Disease, purinergic signaling is disrupted, which contributes to neurodegeneration. In order to monitor this change in cell-to-cell signaling, there is a need for the development of a fluorescent protein (FP) biosensor to study the changes in the concentration of the signaling molecule ATP and its decomposition bioproduct ADP. This summer a genetically encoded ADP sensor that measures changes in ADP concentration was developed. This sensor utilizes Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) which is a sensing ...


Low-Cost Diagnostics: A Novel Aptamer Screening Process, Junkai Xie, Kalie Janece Dicks, Oscar C. Sanchez-Medina, Chongli Yuan 2017 Purdue University

Low-Cost Diagnostics: A Novel Aptamer Screening Process, Junkai Xie, Kalie Janece Dicks, Oscar C. Sanchez-Medina, Chongli Yuan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Low-Cost diagnostic and screening tools are of vital importance for low resources countries like those in Africa. DNA aptamers are becoming an important detection analytical tool to recognize small molecule targets, drugs and metabolites. Compared to alternative recognition motifs, such as antibody, protein and peptides, aptamers are cheaper to produce via chemical synthesis, stable at room temperature and relatively faster in R&D lead time (year). Over the past 15 years, various aptamer based sensors have been developed. Conventionally, aptamers were screened via a Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment(SELEX) process. We have improved the SELEX process to improve the binding affinity of aptamers. A novel aptamer was discovered for α-KG; an oncometabolite which are showing connections with the mutations occurring frequently in gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia. Combined with a fluorescent assay, the aptamer can potentially quantify the concentration of α-KG with high accuracy.


Establishing A Lung Model For Evaluation Of Engineered Lung Microbiome Therapies, Kathryn F. Atherton, Stephen Miloro, Jenna Rickus 2017 Purdue University

Establishing A Lung Model For Evaluation Of Engineered Lung Microbiome Therapies, Kathryn F. Atherton, Stephen Miloro, Jenna Rickus

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Benzene, a toxin and carcinogen found in air polluted by cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and industrial processes, is associated with the development of leukemia and lymphoma. Other than avoiding exposure, there is no current method to deter the effects of benzene. One potential strategy to prevent these effects is to engineer the bacteria of the human lung microbiome to degrade benzene. To evaluate this novel approach, we must verify that the bacteria remain viable within the lung microenvironment. To do so, lungs were harvested from rats and swabbed to determine the contents of the original lung microbiome. Then green fluorescent ...


Metabolic Comparison Of Wild-Type And Transgenic Synechocystis Pcc 6803 Cyanobacteria, Ian A. McLuckey, John A. Morgan, Joel Yu King Hing 2017 Purdue University

Metabolic Comparison Of Wild-Type And Transgenic Synechocystis Pcc 6803 Cyanobacteria, Ian A. Mcluckey, John A. Morgan, Joel Yu King Hing

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The Calvin-Benson (CBB) cycle is an essential part of nature. This phenomenon allows carbon molecules in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to be converted into useful energy in the form of sugars. Cyanobacteria are single-celled organisms capable of utilizing energy from sunlight to drive this cycle and are also readily engineered. In hopes of improving this cycle, we compared a wild-type version of the Synechocystis PCC6803 cyanobacteria to an engineered version overexpressing the enzyme FBA (fructose-biphosphate aldolase), called 70 glpX, to deduce how the overexpressing strain is able to be more photosynthetically efficient. To do this, comparative metabolomics were done ...


Gas-Based Perfusion Fmri Cerebrovascular Reactivity Maps And Time Of Arrival Maps, Jinxia Yao, Yunjie Tong, Matthew Robert Derdak 2017 Purdue University

Gas-Based Perfusion Fmri Cerebrovascular Reactivity Maps And Time Of Arrival Maps, Jinxia Yao, Yunjie Tong, Matthew Robert Derdak

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Perfusion MRI is a promising tool used in assessing stroke, brain tumors, and patients with neurodegenerative diseases. However, common perfusion MRI techniques have several disadvantages, such as using exogenous contrast agents, low signal-to-noise ratio and long acquisition time. In this study, we used a computer-controlled gas delivery system RespirAct TM. This system provides a reliable carbon dioxide based vasoactive stimulus. This stimulus will immediately generate large and reliable functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals, which can be used for perfusion imaging. Each subject was required to have three sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which are structural scan, resting state ...


Fret Biosensors: Engineering Fluorescent Proteins As Biological Tools For Studying Parkinson’S Disease, Nathan J. LeRoy, Jacob R. Norley, Saranya Radhakrishnan, Mathew Tantama 2017 Purdue University

Fret Biosensors: Engineering Fluorescent Proteins As Biological Tools For Studying Parkinson’S Disease, Nathan J. Leroy, Jacob R. Norley, Saranya Radhakrishnan, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease with over 200,000 new cases each year. In general, the cause of the disease is unknown, but oxidative stress inside of neurons has been associated with the disease’s pathology for some time. Currently, techniques to study the onset of PD inside of neurons are limited. This makes treatments and causes difficult to discover. One solution to this has been fluorescent protein biosensors. In short, these proteins can be engineered to glow when a certain state is achieved inside a cell. The present research discusses the engineering of a genetically-encoded ...


The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li 2017 Purdue University

The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Schwann cells are glial cells that serve the vital role of supporting neurons in the peripheral nervous system. While their primary function is to provide insulation (myelin) for axons, they also help regenerate injured axons by digesting severed axons and providing scaffolding to guide the regeneration process. This specific role of Schwann cells makes them highly important cellular targets following nerve injury. Although some efforts have been made to encourage Schwann cell migration after nerve damage, the use of electric fields to control cell responses remain unexplored; therefore, this experiment serves to characterize the behavior of Schwann cells to weak ...


Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Virus-based expression systems have been widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins in plants during the last three decades. Advances in technology have boosted scale-up manufacturing of plant-made pharmaceuticals to high levels, via the complementation of transient expression and viral vectors. This combination allows proteins of interest to be produced in plants within a matter of days and thus, is well suited for the development of plant-made vaccines or therapeutics against emerging infectious diseases and potential bioterrorism agents. Several plant-based products are currently in varying stages of clinical development. To investigate the viability of virus-based expression systems for plant-made ...


Correction For Sandai Et Al., The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown 2017 University of Aberdeen

Correction For Sandai Et Al., The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown

Janet Walker

No abstract provided.


The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown 2017 University of Aberdeen

The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown

Janet Walker

Microbes must assimilate carbon to grow and colonize their niches. Transcript profiling has suggested that Candida albicans, a major pathogen of humans, regulates its carbon assimilation in an analogous fashion to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, repressing metabolic pathways required for the use of alterative nonpreferred carbon sources when sugars are available. However, we show that there is significant dislocation between the proteome and transcriptome in C. albicans. Glucose triggers the degradation of the ICL1 and PCK1 transcripts in C. albicans, yet isocitrate lyase (Icl1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) are stable and are retained. Indeed, numerous enzymes required for the ...


Optimization Of Enzyme Parameters For Fermentative Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Liu, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Lonnie O. Ingram 2017 Iowa State University

Optimization Of Enzyme Parameters For Fermentative Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Liu, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Lonnie O. Ingram

Laura R. Jarboe

Microbial biocatalysts such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively subjected to Metabolic Engineering for the fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. This often entails the introduction of new enzymes, deletion of unwanted enzymes and efforts to fine-tune enzyme abundance in order to attain the desired strain performance. Enzyme performance can be quantitatively described in terms of the Michaelis-Menten type parameters Km, turnover number kcat and Ki, which roughly describe the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate, the speed of a reaction and the enzyme sensitivity to inhibition by regulatory molecules. Here we describe examples of ...


Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang

Laura R. Jarboe

Aim: A standard procedure does not exist to distinguish between attached and unattached micro-organisms. In this study, we compared two methods to quantify between Escherichia coli attached to clay particles and E. coli freely suspended in solution: flow cytometry (attachment assay and viability assay) and settling (or centrifugation followed by settling). Methods and Results: Methods were tested using three environmental strains collected from swine facilities (A, B and C) and one purchased modified pathogenic strain (ATCC 43888); four clay particles: Hectorite, Kaolinite, Ca-Montmorillonite, Montmorillonite K-10; and a range of surface area ratios (particle surface area to E. coli surface area ...


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