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Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel 2018 Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this work, for the first time, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) were quantified on a laboratory scale. The analyzed CRDF was generated from the torrefaction of municipal waste. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify 84 VOCs, including many that are toxic, e.g., derivatives of benzene or toluene. The highest emissions were measured for nonanal, octanal, and heptanal. The top 10 most emitted VOCs contributed to almost 65% of the total emissions. The VOC mixture emitted from torrefied CRDF differed from that emitted by other types ...


The Pharmaceutical Industry: A Pharmacy Student's Guide, Christian Egly, Yaman Kaakeh 2018 Purdue University

The Pharmaceutical Industry: A Pharmacy Student's Guide, Christian Egly, Yaman Kaakeh

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Christian Egly is a fourth-year (P4) pharmacy student in the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. During his years at Purdue, he worked in labs performing bench research in clinical pharmacology and biochemistry. He plans to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. During his fourth year, he completed rotations in business development at Kashiv Pharma, LLC, and was hired there for an internship in 2017. In the article, Christian describes his personal experiences at Kashiv Pharma, LLC, and how industry can positively affect patient communities.


33 - Identification Of Proteins That Regulate Crispr Dna Uptake Of Pyrococcus Furiosus, Landon Clark 2018 University of Georgia

33 - Identification Of Proteins That Regulate Crispr Dna Uptake Of Pyrococcus Furiosus, Landon Clark

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The CRISPR-Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspace Short Palindromic Repeats-CRISPR associated) system is a prokaryotic, adaptive immune system used by bacterial and archaeal organism to fight infections by viruses and other harmful invasive DNAs. These prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas immune systems have been exploited as powerful genome editing tools that work many different organisms and cells including humans. The newly developed CRISPR-based technologies are transforming medicine and science and have been used in research applications for developing cures for certain cancers, HIV, hemophilia, etc. The function of the CRISPR-Cas systems follow three basis steps: (1) adaptation (invading DNA is integrated into the host genome ...


Mouse Genome-Wide Association Studies And Systems Genetics Uncover The Genetic Architecture Associated With Hepatic Pharmacokinetic And Pharmacodynamic Properties Of A Constrained Ethyl Antisense Oligonucleotide Targeting Malat1, Elaine Pirie, Shayoni Ray, Calvin Pan, Wuxia Fu, Andrew F. Powers, Danielle Polikoff, Colton M. Miller, Katrina M. Kudrna, Edward N. Harris, Aldons J. Lusis, Rosanne M. Crooke, Richard G. Lee 2018 Carlsbad, California

Mouse Genome-Wide Association Studies And Systems Genetics Uncover The Genetic Architecture Associated With Hepatic Pharmacokinetic And Pharmacodynamic Properties Of A Constrained Ethyl Antisense Oligonucleotide Targeting Malat1, Elaine Pirie, Shayoni Ray, Calvin Pan, Wuxia Fu, Andrew F. Powers, Danielle Polikoff, Colton M. Miller, Katrina M. Kudrna, Edward N. Harris, Aldons J. Lusis, Rosanne M. Crooke, Richard G. Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) have demonstrated variation of efficacy in patient populations. This has prompted our investigation into the contribution of genetic architecture to ASO pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Genome wide association (GWA) and transcriptomic analysis in a hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) were used to identify and validate novel genes involved in the uptake and efficacy of a single dose of a Malat1 constrained ethyl (cEt) modified ASO. The GWA of the HMDP identified two significant associations on chromosomes 4 and 10 with hepatic Malat1 ASO concentrations. Stabilin 2 (Stab2) and vesicle associated membrane protein 3 (Vamp3) were identified ...


A Review On Bioconversion Of Agro-Industrial Wastes To Industrially Important Enzymes, Rajeev Ravindran, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams, Amit K, Jaiswal 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

A Review On Bioconversion Of Agro-Industrial Wastes To Industrially Important Enzymes, Rajeev Ravindran, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams, Amit K, Jaiswal

Articles

Agro-industrial waste is highly nutritious in nature and facilitates microbial growth. Most agricultural wastes are lignocellulosic in nature; a large fraction of it is composed of carbohydrates. Agricultural residues can thus be used for the production of various value-added products, such as industrially important enzymes. Agro-industrial wastes, such as sugar cane bagasse, corn cob and rice bran, have been widely investigated via different fermentation strategies for the production of enzymes. Solid-state fermentation holds much potential compared with submerged fermentation methods for the utilization of agro-based wastes for enzyme production. This is because the physical–chemical nature of many lignocellulosic substrates ...


Theobromine And Related Methylxanthines As Inhibitors Of Primary Amine Oxidase, Padraig Shanahan, Jeffrey O’Sullivan, Keith Tipton, Gemma Kinsella, Barry Ryan, Gary Henehan 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

Theobromine And Related Methylxanthines As Inhibitors Of Primary Amine Oxidase, Padraig Shanahan, Jeffrey O’Sullivan, Keith Tipton, Gemma Kinsella, Barry Ryan, Gary Henehan

Articles

Methylxanthines are the most widely consumed drugs in the world and evidence of their health benefits has been growing in recent years. Primary Amine Oxidase (PrAO) has been recognised as a therapeutic target for amelioration of inflammatory, vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous work in our laboratories showed that caffeine inhibited Bovine PrAO with a Ki of 1.0mM using benzylamine as substrate.

This study aimed to extend our previous work and explore the possibility that related methylxanthines might influence PrAO activity. While paraxanthine, theophylline and 7-methylxanthine had little effect on PrAO, theobromine was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki of ...


Consistent And Reproducible Cultures Of Large-Scale 3d Mammary Epithelial Structures Using An Accessible Bioprinting Platform, John A. Reid, Peter M. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs 2018 Old Dominion University

Consistent And Reproducible Cultures Of Large-Scale 3d Mammary Epithelial Structures Using An Accessible Bioprinting Platform, John A. Reid, Peter M. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Standard three-dimensional (3D) in vitro culture techniques, such as those used for mammary epithelial cells, rely on random distribution of cells within hydrogels. Although these systems offer advantages over traditional 2D models, limitations persist owing to the lack of control over cellular placement within the hydrogel. This results in experimental inconsistencies and random organoid morphology. Robust, high-throughput experimentation requires greater standardization of 3D epithelial culture techniques.

Methods: Here, we detail the use of a 3D bioprinting platform as an investigative tool to control the 3D formation of organoids through the "self-assembly" of human mammary epithelial cells. Experimental bioprinting procedures ...


Induction Of Oil Accumulation By Heat Stress Is Metabolically Distinct From N Stress In The Green Microalgae Coccomyxa Subellipsoidea C169, James W. Allen, Rahul Tevatia, Yaşar Demirel, Concetta C. DiRusso, Paul N. Black 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Induction Of Oil Accumulation By Heat Stress Is Metabolically Distinct From N Stress In The Green Microalgae Coccomyxa Subellipsoidea C169, James W. Allen, Rahul Tevatia, Yaşar Demirel, Concetta C. Dirusso, Paul N. Black

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Algae are often promoted as feedstock organisms to produce a sustainable petroleum fossil fuel alternative. However, to induce lipid accumulation most often requires a severe stress that is difficult to induce in large batch cultures. The objective of this study is to analyze and mathematically model heat stress on growth, chlorophyll content, triacylglyceride, and starch synthesis in algae. We initially screened 30 algal species for the most pronounced induction of lipid droplets from heat stress using confocal microscopy and mass spectroscopy techniques. One species, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C169, was selected and subjected to further biochemical analyses using a jacketed bioreactor amended ...


Developing A Sustainable Insect Pest Management System By Manipulating Plant Volatile Emissions, Scott R. Hughes 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Developing A Sustainable Insect Pest Management System By Manipulating Plant Volatile Emissions, Scott R. Hughes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Herbivorous insects are a constant problem for farmers and growers globally, who rely on insecticides to control pest populations. Alternative measures are required due to insects developing resistance to chemical insecticides, along with increasing pressure from consumers. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs are a popular alternative. IPM uses a multifaceted approach to reduce pest populations below economic injury thresholds. Many plant-insect interactions are modulated by plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Manipulating this communication channel by producing transgenic plants with modified VOC emissions could provide another tool for use in IPM programs. I developed tomato Solanum lycopersicum (L.) plants expressing ...


Phenotypic Screening Identifies Brefeldin A/Ascotoxin As An Inducer Of Lipid Storage In The Algae Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Nishikant Wase, Boqiang Tu, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. DiRusso 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Phenotypic Screening Identifies Brefeldin A/Ascotoxin As An Inducer Of Lipid Storage In The Algae Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Nishikant Wase, Boqiang Tu, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso

Nishikant Wase

The use of microalgae as a biofuel feedstock is highly desired, but current methods to induce lipid accumulation cause severe stress responses that limit biomass and, thus oil yield. To address these issues, a high throughput screening (HTS) method was devised to identify chemical inducers of growth and lipid accumulation. Optimization was performed to determine the most effective cell density, DMSO and Nile Red (NR) concentrations to monitor growth and lipid accumulation. The method was tested using 1717 compounds from National Cancer Institute (NCI) Diversity Set III and Natural Products Set II in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cells were inoculated at low ...


Treatment Of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells With The Canady Cold Plasma Conversion System: Preliminary Results, Xiaoqian Cheng, Warren Rowe, Lawan Ly, Alexey Shashurin, Taisen Zhuang, Shruti Wigh, Giacomo Basadonna, Barry Trink, Michael Keidar, Jerome Canady 2018 Jerome Canady Research Institute for Advanced Biological and Technological Sciences

Treatment Of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells With The Canady Cold Plasma Conversion System: Preliminary Results, Xiaoqian Cheng, Warren Rowe, Lawan Ly, Alexey Shashurin, Taisen Zhuang, Shruti Wigh, Giacomo Basadonna, Barry Trink, Michael Keidar, Jerome Canady

Open Access Articles

Triple-negative breast cancer is a phenotype of breast cancer where the expression level of estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptors are low or absent. It is more frequently diagnosed in younger and premenopausal women, among which African and Hispanic have a higher rate. Cold atmospheric plasma has revealed its promising ant-cancer capacity over the past two decades. In this study, we report the first cold plasma jet delivered by the Canady Cold Plasma Conversion Unit and characterization of its electric and thermal parameters. The unit effectively reduced the viability of triple-negative breast cancer up to ...


Illuminating Biology With Membrane Penetrating Sulfonate Delivery Scaffolds And Near-Infrared Azasiline Fluorophores, Adam Choi 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Illuminating Biology With Membrane Penetrating Sulfonate Delivery Scaffolds And Near-Infrared Azasiline Fluorophores, Adam Choi

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Near-infrared (NIR) light, with wavelengths of 650 to 900 nanometers, effectively penetrates tissues. The high signal to noise ratio and low phototoxicity of NIR light makes this wavelength range ideal for deep tissue imaging. However, current NIR fluorophores are generally large hydrophobic molecules that are prone to aggregation. Sulfonation can enhance aqueous solubility, but their anionic nature prevents membrane diffusion, and thus, restricts the applications of sulfonated molecules to in vitro or fixed cells.

The repertoire of commercially available sulfonated NIR probes is mostly limited cyanines, which have low photostability. Moreover, larger cyanines require multiple sulfonates to maintain aqueous solubility ...


The Canady Helios Cold Plasma Scalpel Significantly Decreases Viability In Malignant Solid Tumor Cells In A Dose-Dependent Manner, Warren Rowe, Xiaoqian Cheng, Lawan Ly, Taisen Zhuang, Giacomo Basadonna, Barry Trink, Michael Keidar, Jerome Canady 2018 Jerome Canady Research Institute for Advanced Biological and Technological Sciences

The Canady Helios Cold Plasma Scalpel Significantly Decreases Viability In Malignant Solid Tumor Cells In A Dose-Dependent Manner, Warren Rowe, Xiaoqian Cheng, Lawan Ly, Taisen Zhuang, Giacomo Basadonna, Barry Trink, Michael Keidar, Jerome Canady

Open Access Articles

To determine appropriate treatment doses of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), the Canady Helios Cold Plasma Scalpel was tested across numerous cancer cell types including renal adenocarcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, ovarian adenocarcinoma, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Various CAP doses were tested consisting of both high (3 L/min) and low (1 L/min) helium flow rates, several power settings, and a range of treatment times up to 5 min. The impact of cold plasma on the reduction of viability was consistently dose-dependent; however, the anti-cancer capability varied significantly between cell lines. While the lowest effective dose varied from cell line to ...


Moderate Heat Application Enhances The Efficacy Of Nanosecond Pulse Stimulation For The Treatment Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Sigi Guo, Embo Yang, Chunqi Jiang, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller 2018 Old Dominion University

Moderate Heat Application Enhances The Efficacy Of Nanosecond Pulse Stimulation For The Treatment Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Sigi Guo, Embo Yang, Chunqi Jiang, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulse stimulation as a tumor ablation therapy has been studied for the treatment of various carcinomas in animal models and has shown a significant survival benefit. In the current study, we found that moderate heating at 43°C for 2 minutes significantly enhanced in vitro nanosecond pulse stimulation-induced cell death of KLN205 murine squamous cell carcinoma cells by 2.43-fold at 600 V and by 2.32-fold at 900 V, as evidenced by propidium iodide uptake. Furthermore, the ablation zone in KLN205 cells placed in a 3-dimensional cell-culture model and pulsed at a voltage of 900 V at 43 ...


Identification Of Biologically Essential Nodes Via Determinative Power In Logical Models Of Cellular Processes, Trevor Pentzien, Bhanwart L. Puniya, Tomas Helikar, Mihaela T. Matache 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Identification Of Biologically Essential Nodes Via Determinative Power In Logical Models Of Cellular Processes, Trevor Pentzien, Bhanwart L. Puniya, Tomas Helikar, Mihaela T. Matache

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

A variety of biological networks can bemodeled as logical or Boolean networks. However, a simplification of the reality to binary states of the nodes does not ease the difficulty of analyzing the dynamics of large, complex networks, such as signal transduction networks, due to the exponential dependence of the state space on the number of nodes. This paper considers a recently introduced method for finding a fairly small subnetwork, representing a collection of nodes that determine the states of most other nodes with a reasonable level of entropy. The subnetwork contains the most determinative nodes that yield the highest information ...


Genetically Modified Foods And Organisms: What In The World ...?, Bridget M. Lyons, Teresa Ralabate, Marion Calabrese, Linda Hadfield 2018 Sacred Heart University

Genetically Modified Foods And Organisms: What In The World ...?, Bridget M. Lyons, Teresa Ralabate, Marion Calabrese, Linda Hadfield

Bridget Lyons

This paper examines the current controvery over genetically modified organisms and foods and compares the regulatory response in the United States, European Union and United Kingdom.


Genome Analysis Of Multiple Mycobacteriophage, Emily Kerstiens, Kari Clase, Yi Li, Gillian Smith, Sarah Bell 2018 Purdue University

Genome Analysis Of Multiple Mycobacteriophage, Emily Kerstiens, Kari Clase, Yi Li, Gillian Smith, Sarah Bell

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Bacteriophage are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. They can be used as treatments for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, but more knowledge is needed about phage and how they interact with bacteria in order to develop safe and effective phage therapy treatments. This study examines the genomes of eighteen mycobacteriophage that were isolated from the environment on and surrounding Purdue University. Phage genomes were annotated using several bioinformatics software, including DNA Master, GeneMark, and PECAAN. Evidence was examined to determine the correct location within the genome and the potential function. Approximately two thousand genes were annotated in this study. A ...


Targeting Neuropeptides To Bone Fractures For Accelerated Healing, Nicholas A. Young, Jeffery J. Nielsen, Philip S. Low 2018 Purdue University

Targeting Neuropeptides To Bone Fractures For Accelerated Healing, Nicholas A. Young, Jeffery J. Nielsen, Philip S. Low

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In patients over the age of 65 especially, bone fractures represent a significant disease burden. Non-invasive drug therapies are not available for bone fractures which represents a problem for this population. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP), two neuromodulator peptides in the glucagon superfamily, have demonstrated positive regulation of osteoblast proliferation and activity. Using acidic oligopeptides, we have developed ligands that target to and accumulate at fracture sites. These targeting ligands can be synthesized in sequence with bone anabolic peptides to minimize off target effects and increase potency at the fracture site to create safer and ...


Engineering Bioluminescent Sensors Of Cyclic Amp To Study Opioid Signaling, Alexander L. Tesmer, Alexander R. French, Mathew Tantama 2018 Purdue University

Engineering Bioluminescent Sensors Of Cyclic Amp To Study Opioid Signaling, Alexander L. Tesmer, Alexander R. French, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Opioids are small signaling molecules which bind to opioid receptors on the surface of cells. The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is one of three major types of opioid receptors found in human neurons. When an opioid binds to a KOR, a variety of biochemical signaling pathways are activated inside the cell. Each of these pathways are associated with different physiological effects of KOR activation. The production of a small signaling molecule, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), is known to be inhibited during KOR activation of the analgesic (pain-killing) signaling pathway. The ability to interrogate the individual responses of KOR signaling pathways ...


Cost-Effective Paper-Based Diagnostic Using Split Proteins To Detect Yeast Infections, Zachary R. Berglund, Kevin V. Solomon, Mohit S. Verma, Moiz Rasheed, Zachary Hartley, Kevin Fitzgerald, Kok Zhi Lee, Janice Chan, Julianne Dejoie, Makayla Schacht, Alex Zavala 2018 Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University

Cost-Effective Paper-Based Diagnostic Using Split Proteins To Detect Yeast Infections, Zachary R. Berglund, Kevin V. Solomon, Mohit S. Verma, Moiz Rasheed, Zachary Hartley, Kevin Fitzgerald, Kok Zhi Lee, Janice Chan, Julianne Dejoie, Makayla Schacht, Alex Zavala

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The common yeast infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, affects three out of four women throughout their lifetime and can be spread to their child in the form of oral candidiasis (thrush). This disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is also a major cause of systemic candidiasis, a rarer but deadly disease with up to a 49% lethality rate. Current widely-used diagnostic methods include cell cultures, pH tests, and antibody detection, to assist effective treatment. Despite availability of various diagnostic methods, there is no inexpensive, rapid, and accurate way to detect C. albicans infection. This project aims to develop ...


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