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Improving Management And Conservation Of Cusk (Brosme Brosme): Habitat Distribution, Bycatch Interactions, And Conservation Practices, Jocelyn M. Runnebaum 2017 University of Maine

Improving Management And Conservation Of Cusk (Brosme Brosme): Habitat Distribution, Bycatch Interactions, And Conservation Practices, Jocelyn M. Runnebaum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cusk (Brosme brosme) are a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration species of concern, currently under internal status review for the Endangered Species Act, but are considered data limited. Current concerns for cusk include: decline in abundance, increase in fishing mortality relative to survey biomass, increased patchiness in habitat, and lack of management (72 FR 10710). Future management will require an improved understanding of cusk distribution, habitat use, spatial distribution of bycatch interactions, and the impact of bycatch on the population. This study set out to evaluate changes in cusk distribution and habitat, locations and levels of bycatch, and the feasibility ...


How Strongly Do Oysters Stick?, Nicolás M. Morato, Andrés M. Tibabuzo, Jonathan J. Wilker 2017 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

How Strongly Do Oysters Stick?, Nicolás M. Morato, Andrés M. Tibabuzo, Jonathan J. Wilker

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Biological adhesives are a type of interfacial material that has incredible potential to generate new biomimetic compounds that can replace current strong, but toxic, adhesives. Therefore, a study of the chemical composition and mechanical properties of those bio-adhesives is necessary. However, in the case of oysters, despite known chemical characterization of the adult’s adhesive, there are almost no studies on its mechanical properties. Furthermore, there is no available information on the adhesive properties of spat (oysters in their larvae state). Herein, we present the first mechanical characterization of the spat adhesive, measuring its adhesion strength by hydrodynamic determination using ...


Evidence Of Multidecadal Recruitment In The Ocean Quahog, Arctica Islandica In The Western Atlantic Ocean, Sara M. Pace 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Evidence Of Multidecadal Recruitment In The Ocean Quahog, Arctica Islandica In The Western Atlantic Ocean, Sara M. Pace

Master's Theses

Ocean quahogs (Arctica islandica) are the longest-lived, non-colonial animals known today, with a maximum life span exceeding 500 years. Limited information is available regarding recruitment, making the sustainable management of this valuable fishery a challenge. The objective of this research was to describe the age structure and growth rates for four populations of ocean quahogs from the mid-Atlantic stock to evaluate long-term recruitment trends. Clams were sectioned for age estimation to develop population age frequencies. Initial colonization began approximately 175-250 years ago depending upon site. All sites experienced an increase in recruitment beginning in the late 1800’s to early ...


Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, K. P. ManiKandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova 2017 Chapman University

Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, K. P. Manikandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An anomalously high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) event (>2 mg/m3) during June 2015 in the South Central Red Sea (17.5° to 22°N, 37° to 42°E) was observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. This differs from the low Chl-a values (<0.5 mg/m3) usually encountered over the same region during summertime. To assess this anomaly and possible causes, we used a wide range of oceanographical and meteorological datasets, including Chl-a concentrations, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), ocean current velocity and aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from different sensors and models. Findings confirmed this anomalous behavior in the spatial domain using Hovmöller data analysis techniques, while a time series analysis addressed monthly and daily variability. Our analysis suggests that a combination of factors controlling nutrient supply contributed to the anomalous phytoplankton growth. These factors include horizontal transfer of upwelling water through eddy circulation and possible mineral fertilization from atmospheric dust deposition. Coral reefs might have provided extra nutrient supply, yet this is out of the scope of our analysis. We thought that dust deposition from a coastal dust jet event in late June, coinciding with the phytoplankton blooms in the area under investigation, might have also contributed as shown by our AOD findings. However, a lag cross correlation showed a two- month lag between strong dust outbreak and the high Chl-a anomaly. The high Chl-a concentration at the edge of the eddy emphasizes the importance of horizontal advection in fertilizing oligotrophic (nutrient poor) Red Sea waters.


Biogeophysical And Physiological Processes Drive Movement Patterns In A Marine Predator, Lucy A. Howey, Bradley M. Wetherbee, Emily R. Tolentino, Mahmood S. Shivji 2017 Nova Southeastern University; Microwave Telemetry, Inc.

Biogeophysical And Physiological Processes Drive Movement Patterns In A Marine Predator, Lucy A. Howey, Bradley M. Wetherbee, Emily R. Tolentino, Mahmood S. Shivji

Oceanography Faculty Articles

Background

Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) are among the most abundant and widely distributed of oceanic elasmobranchs. Millions are taken annually in pelagic longline fisheries and comprise the highest component of auctioned fin weight in the international shark fin trade. Though studies of blue sharks outnumber those of other large pelagic sharks, the species’ complicated and sexually segregated life history still confound current understanding of Atlantic movement patterns. Lack of detailed information regarding movement and vertical behavior continues to limit management efforts that require such data for stock assessment and sustainable catch modeling. Therefore, this study aims to describe behavioral and ...


Novel Bio-Logging Tool For Studying Fine-Scale Behaviors Of Marine Turtles In Response To Sound, Reny B. Tyson, Wendy Dow Piniak, Camila Domit, David Mann, Michael Hall, Douglas P. Nowacek, Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes 2017 Sarasota Dolphin Research Program

Novel Bio-Logging Tool For Studying Fine-Scale Behaviors Of Marine Turtles In Response To Sound, Reny B. Tyson, Wendy Dow Piniak, Camila Domit, David Mann, Michael Hall, Douglas P. Nowacek, Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Increases in the spatial scale and intensity of activities that produce marine anthropogenic sound highlight the importance of understanding the impacts and effects of sound on threatened species such as marine turtles. Marine turtles detect and behaviorally respond to low-frequency sounds, however few studies have directly examined their behavioral responses to specific types or intensities of anthropogenic or natural sounds. Recent advances in the development of bio-logging tools, which combine acoustic and fine-scale movement measurements, have allowed for evaluations of animal responses to sound. Here, we describe these tools and present a case study demonstrating the potential application of a ...


Notes On Contributors, 2017 The University of Maine

Notes On Contributors

The Catch

No abstract provided.


The Mackerel Fishermen, Avery B. Stone 2017 Avery Booth Stone

The Mackerel Fishermen, Avery B. Stone

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Cormorant, Judy Kaber 2017 Belfast, ME

Cormorant, Judy Kaber

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Awakening, Angela M. Waldron 2017 Union, Maine

Awakening, Angela M. Waldron

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Editor's Note, Leonore Hildebrandt 2017 University of Maine

Editor's Note, Leonore Hildebrandt

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Full Issue Volume V, 2017 The University of Maine

Full Issue Volume V

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Toward Developing Models To Study The Disease, Ecology, And Evolution Of The Eye In Mollusca, Jeanne M. Serb 2017 Iowa State University

Toward Developing Models To Study The Disease, Ecology, And Evolution Of The Eye In Mollusca, Jeanne M. Serb

Jeanne M Serb

Several invertebrate systems have been developed to study various aspects of the eye and eye disease including Drosophila, Planaria, Platynereis, and most recently, the cubozoan jellyfish Tripedalia; however, molluscs, the second largest metazoan phylum, so far have been underrepresented in eye research. This is surprising as mollusc systems offer opportunities to study visual processes that may be altered by disease, vision physiology, development of the visual system, behavior, and evolution. Malacologists have labored for over a century as morphologists, systematists, physiologists, and ecologists in order to understand the structural and functional diversity in molluscs at all levels of biological organization ...


Introduction To The Symposium “Molluscan Models: Advancing Our Understanding Of The Eye”, Jeanne M. Serb 2017 Iowa State University

Introduction To The Symposium “Molluscan Models: Advancing Our Understanding Of The Eye”, Jeanne M. Serb

Jeanne M Serb

Since the time of Darwin, the eye has been a subject of evolutionary and comparative biologists alike who were intrigued by the structural complexity and morphological diversity of eyes in nature. Much of what we know about the eye—development, structure, physiology, and function—has been determined from only a handful of model organisms, specifically the mouse and the fly. One major phylum in particular, the Mollusca, has been underutilized in investigating the evolution and development of the eye. This is surprising as molluscs display a myriad of eye types, such as simple pit eyes without any apparatus to focus ...


Assessing And Mitigating The Environmental Impacts Of Shipping In The Arctic, Lilitha Pongolini, Jonas Pålsson, Jennie Folkunger, Jennie Larsson, Anne Bouyssou, Lawrence Hildebrand, Neil Bellefontaine 2017 World Maritime University

Assessing And Mitigating The Environmental Impacts Of Shipping In The Arctic, Lilitha Pongolini, Jonas Pålsson, Jennie Folkunger, Jennie Larsson, Anne Bouyssou, Lawrence Hildebrand, Neil Bellefontaine

Assessing and mitigating the environmental impacts of shipping in the Arctic

Report by World Maritime University for the Total Foundation project "Assessing and mitigating the environmental impacts of shipping in the Arctic - Focus on the introduction of invasive species and pathogens".


The Role Of Dietary Highly Unsaturated N-3 Fatty Acids In Northern Quahogs, Mercenaria Mercenaria, Through Decreasing Temperature, Sixto E. Portilla 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Dietary Highly Unsaturated N-3 Fatty Acids In Northern Quahogs, Mercenaria Mercenaria, Through Decreasing Temperature, Sixto E. Portilla

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The series of investigations described in this thesis were designed to assess the effect of diet on mortality through decreasing temperature in two genetic varieties of M. mercenaria important to the natural environment and the aquaculture industry: “wild” from natural stocks and “notata” selected for fast growth. Data from these novel investigations demonstrate a temperature specific sensitivity to each dietary component designating 20:5n-3 as homeoviscously favorable in the upper thermal range above 12°C, and 22:6n-3 as favorable in the lower. Statistical analyses of variance demonstrate distinct cumulative mortalities among the 5 dietary treatments (P < 0.05) for each genetic variety at each thermal range, upper (>12°C) and ...


Marine Gastrobot Final Design Report, Wesley B. Williams, Eric Kane Dreischerf, Tommy Nicholas Yath 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Marine Gastrobot Final Design Report, Wesley B. Williams, Eric Kane Dreischerf, Tommy Nicholas Yath

Mechanical Engineering

The Marine Gastrobot sponsored by Dr. Christopher Kitts of the Cal Poly Center for Applications in Biotechnology was a research and development effort intended to explore the use of microbial fuel cell technology as a power source for underwater robots. Our team Ocean Locomotion succeeded in developing a first iteration of an underwater robotic platform suitable for microbial fuel cell integration. The primary feature of the design is its sinusoidal fin propulsion intended for benthic exploration with limited risk of entanglement. During the course of development, Ocean Locomotion explored the use of low power actuation methods and determined their limited ...


Marine Biomass Analyzer, Kai Jay Staal, Brian Paris, Tyler Cottle 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Marine Biomass Analyzer, Kai Jay Staal, Brian Paris, Tyler Cottle

Mechanical Engineering

This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing for a marine biomass analyzer. The goal of the project and constructed system was to determine the validity and efficacy of a process that could flatten benthic macrofauna to a consistent thickness such that a biomass for the collected sample could be accurately determined. The system that was built and tested consists of a drive train that turns a mill subassembly where the organisms are flattened, supply and collection spools that hold the white fabric and clear film used to capture the organisms, a collection zone where the sample is injected, and ...


The Shellfish Corner: How Many Shellfish Can I Grow On My Farm?, Michael A. Rice 2017 University of Rhode Island

The Shellfish Corner: How Many Shellfish Can I Grow On My Farm?, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

For many shellfish farmers a key question is how many shellfish could be grown on their farms, but more importantly, how many shellfish could be grown to maximize farm profitability or overall long-term sustainability with minimal environmental impact. The various measures of carrying capacity of shellfish farms are explained.


Brine Shrimp Grazing And Fecal Production Increase Sedimentation To The Deep Brine Layer (Monimolimnion) Of Great Salt Lake, Utah, Piotr Maszczyk, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh 2017 University of Warsaw

Brine Shrimp Grazing And Fecal Production Increase Sedimentation To The Deep Brine Layer (Monimolimnion) Of Great Salt Lake, Utah, Piotr Maszczyk, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Great Salt Lake (Utah) has a monimolimnion with high concentrations of salts, particulate matter, nutrients, and mercury. To test the importance of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) grazing on particulate matter flux, we created salinity gradients in 160-cm high columns, reflecting the lake’s gradient. Two experiments were performed in replicated columns with or without Artemia. Sediment traps were positioned at the bottoms of the mixolimnion (95 cm), chemolimnion (105 cm), or monimolimnion (140 cm). We hypothesized that because of the high salt densities of the monimolimnia, greater accumulation of sediments would be in the lower chemocline, than in the monimolimnia ...


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