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Anaerobic Oxidation Of Ethane, Propane, And Butane By Marine Microbes: A Mini Review, Rajesh Singh, Michael S. Guzman, Arpita Bose 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Anaerobic Oxidation Of Ethane, Propane, And Butane By Marine Microbes: A Mini Review, Rajesh Singh, Michael S. Guzman, Arpita Bose

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The deep ocean and its sediments are a continuous source of non-methane short-chain alkanes (SCAs) including ethane, propane, and butane. Their high global warming potential, and contribution to local carbon and sulfur budgets has drawn significant scientific attention. Importantly, microbes can use gaseous alkanes and oxidize them to CO2, thus acting as effective biofilters. A relative decrease of these gases with a concomitant 13C enrichment of propane and n-butane in interstitial waters vs. the source suggests microbial anaerobic oxidation. The reported uncoupling of sulfate-reduction (SR) from anaerobic methane oxidation supports their microbial consumption. To date, strain BuS5 ...


The Sponge Microbiome Project, Lucas Moitinho-Silva, Shaun Nielsen, Amnon Amir, Antonio Gonzalez, Gail Ackermann, Carlo Cerrano, Carmen Astudillo-Garcia, Cole Easson, Detmer Sipkema, Fang Liu, Georg Steinert, Giorgos Kotoulas, Grace McCormack, Guofang Feng, James J. Bell, Jan Vicente, Johannes R. Bjork, Jose M. Montoya, Julie B. Olson, Julie Reveillaud, Laura Steindler, Mari-Carmen Pineda, Maria V. Marra, Micha Ilan, Michael W. Taylor, Paraskevi Polymenakou, Patrick M. Erwin, Peter J. Schupp, Rachel L. Simister, Rob Knight, Robert W. Thacker, Rodrigo Costa, Russell T. Hill, Susanna Lopez-Legentil, Thanos Dailianis, Timothy Ravasi, Ute Hentschel, Zhiyong Li, Nicole S. Webster, Torsten Thomas 2017 University of New South Wales - Sydney, Australia

The Sponge Microbiome Project, Lucas Moitinho-Silva, Shaun Nielsen, Amnon Amir, Antonio Gonzalez, Gail Ackermann, Carlo Cerrano, Carmen Astudillo-Garcia, Cole Easson, Detmer Sipkema, Fang Liu, Georg Steinert, Giorgos Kotoulas, Grace Mccormack, Guofang Feng, James J. Bell, Jan Vicente, Johannes R. Bjork, Jose M. Montoya, Julie B. Olson, Julie Reveillaud, Laura Steindler, Mari-Carmen Pineda, Maria V. Marra, Micha Ilan, Michael W. Taylor, Paraskevi Polymenakou, Patrick M. Erwin, Peter J. Schupp, Rachel L. Simister, Rob Knight, Robert W. Thacker, Rodrigo Costa, Russell T. Hill, Susanna Lopez-Legentil, Thanos Dailianis, Timothy Ravasi, Ute Hentschel, Zhiyong Li, Nicole S. Webster, Torsten Thomas

Oceanography Faculty Articles

Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from ...


Additive Negative Effects Of Anthropogenic Sedimentation And Warming On The Survival Of Coral Recruits, Francesca Fourney, Joana Figueiredo 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Additive Negative Effects Of Anthropogenic Sedimentation And Warming On The Survival Of Coral Recruits, Francesca Fourney, Joana Figueiredo

Oceanography Faculty Articles

Corals worldwide are facing population declines due to global climate change and local anthropogenic impacts. Global climate change effects are hard to tackle but recent studies show that some coral species can better handle climate change stress when provided with additional energy resources. The local stressor that most undermines energy acquisition is sedimentation because it impedes coral heterotrophic feeding and their ability to photosynthesize. To investigate if reducing local sedimentation will enable corals to better endure ocean warming, we quantitatively assessed the combined effects of increased temperature and sedimentation (concentration and turbidity) on the survival of coral recruits of the ...


Review Of Seagrassnet Monitoring Photographs In Great Bay, New Hampshire, Usa 2007 - 2014, Frederick T. Short 2017 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Review Of Seagrassnet Monitoring Photographs In Great Bay, New Hampshire, Usa 2007 - 2014, Frederick T. Short

PREP Publications

SeagrassNet is a global monitoring program begun in 2001 and designed to scientifically detect and document seagrass habitat change (Short et al. 2006a, 2014). Monitoring of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Great Bay Estuary using SeagrassNet was conducted in Portsmouth Harbor between 2001 and 2009 (Short et al 2006b, Rivers and Short 2007), and is ongoing in Great Bay itself, from 2007 (Short 2009) to the present. In this report, July quadrat photos taken along the three Great Bay SeagrassNet transects from 2007 – 2014 are presented and discussed. They provide useful documentation of field percent cover measurements of eelgrass ...


Understanding The Transition From Benthic Egg To Dispersive Larvae: Observations On The Intra-Capsular Growth And Development Of A Marine Snail (Kelletia Kelletii), Megan N. Wilson 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Understanding The Transition From Benthic Egg To Dispersive Larvae: Observations On The Intra-Capsular Growth And Development Of A Marine Snail (Kelletia Kelletii), Megan N. Wilson

Biological Sciences

It has long been understood that the larval life stage is responsible for the dispersion of many marine organisms across their biogeographic range. Such organisms have a bipartite life cycle, existing in the water column and subject to oceanographic processes as planktonic larvae before settling to suitable habitat along the benthos where they grow and mature. Previous studies have demonstrated that larval growth rate and behavior in the water column can alter larval position in relation to ocean currents and affects their dispersal pathway. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the growth rate of the earliest larval stage ...


Vertical And Cross-Shore Distributions Of Barnacle Larvae In La Jolla, Ca Nearshore Waters: Implications For Larval Transport Processes, Malloree Lynn Hagerty 2017 University of San Diego

Vertical And Cross-Shore Distributions Of Barnacle Larvae In La Jolla, Ca Nearshore Waters: Implications For Larval Transport Processes, Malloree Lynn Hagerty

Theses

Many marine organisms begin their lives as tiny larvae that are at the mercy of ocean currents. Understanding the transport and subsequent dispersal of larvae is crucial, as it drives population connectivity in the ocean. Larval transport is a complex process involving both physical motions of the water and larval behavior. Vertical positioning is especially important because currents vary throughout the water column, and larvae at different depths will be advected differently. With swimming speeds insufficient to swim against currents, marine larvae can mediate cross-shore transport by controlling their depth distributions. Thus, the overall objective of this study was to ...


Improving Management And Conservation Of Cusk (Brosme Brosme): Habitat Distribution, Bycatch Interactions, And Conservation Practices, Jocelyn M. Runnebaum 2017 University of Maine

Improving Management And Conservation Of Cusk (Brosme Brosme): Habitat Distribution, Bycatch Interactions, And Conservation Practices, Jocelyn M. Runnebaum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cusk (Brosme brosme) are a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration species of concern, currently under internal status review for the Endangered Species Act, but are considered data limited. Current concerns for cusk include: decline in abundance, increase in fishing mortality relative to survey biomass, increased patchiness in habitat, and lack of management (72 FR 10710). Future management will require an improved understanding of cusk distribution, habitat use, spatial distribution of bycatch interactions, and the impact of bycatch on the population. This study set out to evaluate changes in cusk distribution and habitat, locations and levels of bycatch, and the feasibility ...


How Strongly Do Oysters Stick?, Nicolás M. Morato, Andrés M. Tibabuzo, Jonathan J. Wilker 2017 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

How Strongly Do Oysters Stick?, Nicolás M. Morato, Andrés M. Tibabuzo, Jonathan J. Wilker

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Biological adhesives are a type of interfacial material that has incredible potential to generate new biomimetic compounds that can replace current strong, but toxic, adhesives. Therefore, a study of the chemical composition and mechanical properties of those bio-adhesives is necessary. However, in the case of oysters, despite known chemical characterization of the adult’s adhesive, there are almost no studies on its mechanical properties. Furthermore, there is no available information on the adhesive properties of spat (oysters in their larvae state). Herein, we present the first mechanical characterization of the spat adhesive, measuring its adhesion strength by hydrodynamic determination using ...


Evidence Of Multidecadal Recruitment In The Ocean Quahog, Arctica Islandica In The Western Atlantic Ocean, Sara M. Pace 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Evidence Of Multidecadal Recruitment In The Ocean Quahog, Arctica Islandica In The Western Atlantic Ocean, Sara M. Pace

Master's Theses

Ocean quahogs (Arctica islandica) are the longest-lived, non-colonial animals known today, with a maximum life span exceeding 500 years. Limited information is available regarding recruitment, making the sustainable management of this valuable fishery a challenge. The objective of this research was to describe the age structure and growth rates for four populations of ocean quahogs from the mid-Atlantic stock to evaluate long-term recruitment trends. Clams were sectioned for age estimation to develop population age frequencies. Initial colonization began approximately 175-250 years ago depending upon site. All sites experienced an increase in recruitment beginning in the late 1800’s to early ...


Dna Analysis Of Traded Shark Fins And Mobulid Gill Plates Reveals A High Proportion Of Species Of Conservation Concern, Dirk Steinke, Andrea Bernard, Rebekah L. Horn, Paul Hilton, Robert H. Hanner, Mahmood S. Shivji 2017 University of Guelph - Canada

Dna Analysis Of Traded Shark Fins And Mobulid Gill Plates Reveals A High Proportion Of Species Of Conservation Concern, Dirk Steinke, Andrea Bernard, Rebekah L. Horn, Paul Hilton, Robert H. Hanner, Mahmood S. Shivji

Oceanography Faculty Articles

Continuously increasing demand for plant and animal products causes unsustainable depletion of biological resources. It is estimated that one-quarter of sharks and rays are threatened worldwide and although the global fin trade is widely recognized as a major driver, demand for meat, liver oil, and gill plates also represents a significant threat. This study used DNA barcoding and 16 S rRNA sequencing as a method to identify shark and ray species from dried fins and gill plates, obtained in Canada, China, and Sri Lanka. 129 fins and gill plates were analysed and searches on BOLD produced matches to 20 species ...


The Trophic Role Of A Large Marine Predator, The Tiger Shark Galeocerdo Cuvier, Luciana C. Ferreira, Michele Thums, Michael R. Heithaus, Adam Barnett, Katya G. Abrantes, Bonnie J. Holmes, Lara M. Zamora, Ashley J. Frisch, Julian G. Pepperell, Derek Burkholder, Jeremy Vaudo, Robert Nowicki, Jessica Meeuwig, Mark G. Meekan 2017 University of Western Australia - Crawley

The Trophic Role Of A Large Marine Predator, The Tiger Shark Galeocerdo Cuvier, Luciana C. Ferreira, Michele Thums, Michael R. Heithaus, Adam Barnett, Katya G. Abrantes, Bonnie J. Holmes, Lara M. Zamora, Ashley J. Frisch, Julian G. Pepperell, Derek Burkholder, Jeremy Vaudo, Robert Nowicki, Jessica Meeuwig, Mark G. Meekan

Oceanography Faculty Articles

Tiger sharks were sampled off the western (Ningaloo Reef, Shark Bay) and eastern (the Great Barrier Reef; GBR, Queensland and New South Wales; NSW) coastlines of Australia. Multiple tissues were collected from each shark to investigate the effects of location, size and sex of sharks on δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes among these locations. Isotopic composition of sharks sampled in reef and seagrass habitats (Shark Bay, GBR) reflected seagrass-based food-webs, whereas at Ningaloo Reef analysis revealed a dietary transition between pelagic and seagrass food-webs. In temperate habitats off southern Queensland and NSW coasts, shark diets relied on pelagic food-webs. Tiger ...


A Global Biogeographic Classification Of The Mesopelagic Zone, Tracey Sutton, Malcolm R. Clark, Daniel C. Dunn, Patrick N. Halpin, Alex D. Rogers, John Guinotte, Steven J. Bograd, Martin V. Angel, Jose Angel A. Perez, Karen Wishner, Richard L. Haedrich, Dhugal Lindsay, Jeffrey C. Drazen, Alexander Vereshchaka, Uwe Piatkowski, Telmo Morato, Katarzyna Blachowiak-Samolyk, Bruce H. Robison, Kristina Gjerde, Annelies Pierrot-Bults, Patricio Bernal, Gabriel Reygondeau, Mikko Heino 2017 Nova Southeastern University

A Global Biogeographic Classification Of The Mesopelagic Zone, Tracey Sutton, Malcolm R. Clark, Daniel C. Dunn, Patrick N. Halpin, Alex D. Rogers, John Guinotte, Steven J. Bograd, Martin V. Angel, Jose Angel A. Perez, Karen Wishner, Richard L. Haedrich, Dhugal Lindsay, Jeffrey C. Drazen, Alexander Vereshchaka, Uwe Piatkowski, Telmo Morato, Katarzyna Blachowiak-Samolyk, Bruce H. Robison, Kristina Gjerde, Annelies Pierrot-Bults, Patricio Bernal, Gabriel Reygondeau, Mikko Heino

Oceanography Faculty Articles

We have developed a global biogeographic classification of the mesopelagic zone to reflect the regional scales over which the ocean interior varies in terms of biodiversity and function. An integrated approach was necessary, as global gaps in information and variable sampling methods preclude strictly statistical approaches. A panel combining expertise in oceanography, geospatial mapping, and deep-sea biology convened to collate expert opinion on the distributional patterns of pelagic fauna relative to environmental proxies (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen at mesopelagic depths). An iterative Delphi Method integrating additional biological and physical data was used to classify biogeographic ecoregions and to identify ...


Dna Analysis Of Surfactant-Associated Bacteria In A Natural Sea Slick In The Gulf Of Mexico Observed By Terrasar-X, Kathryn Howe 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Dna Analysis Of Surfactant-Associated Bacteria In A Natural Sea Slick In The Gulf Of Mexico Observed By Terrasar-X, Kathryn Howe

Theses and Dissertations

Under low wind speed conditions, surfactants accumulate at the air-sea interface, dampen short-gravity capillary (Bragg) waves, and form natural sea slicks that are detectable visually and in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. Marine organisms, such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, seaweed, and bacteria, produce and degrade surfactants during various life processes. This study coordinates in situ sampling with TerraSAR-X satellite overpasses in order to help guide microbiological analysis of the sea surface microlayer (SML) and associated subsurface water (SSW). Samples were collected in the Gulf of Mexico during a research cruise (LASER) in February 2016 to determine abundance of surfactant associated bacteria ...


Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, K. P. ManiKandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova 2017 Chapman University

Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, K. P. Manikandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An anomalously high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) event (>2 mg/m3) during June 2015 in the South Central Red Sea (17.5° to 22°N, 37° to 42°E) was observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. This differs from the low Chl-a values (<0.5 mg/m3) usually encountered over the same region during summertime. To assess this anomaly and possible causes, we used a wide range of oceanographical and meteorological datasets, including Chl-a concentrations, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), ocean current velocity and aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from different sensors and models. Findings confirmed this anomalous behavior in the spatial domain using Hovmöller data analysis techniques, while a time series analysis addressed monthly and daily variability. Our analysis suggests that a combination of factors controlling nutrient supply contributed to the anomalous phytoplankton growth. These factors include horizontal transfer of upwelling water through eddy circulation and possible mineral fertilization from atmospheric dust deposition. Coral reefs might have provided extra nutrient supply, yet this is out of the scope of our analysis. We thought that dust deposition from a coastal dust jet event in late June, coinciding with the phytoplankton blooms in the area under investigation, might have also contributed as shown by our AOD findings. However, a lag cross correlation showed a two- month lag between strong dust outbreak and the high Chl-a anomaly. The high Chl-a concentration at the edge of the eddy emphasizes the importance of horizontal advection in fertilizing oligotrophic (nutrient poor) Red Sea waters.


Microbial Community Richness Distinguishes Shark Species Microbiomes In South Florida, Rachael Cassandra Karns 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Microbial Community Richness Distinguishes Shark Species Microbiomes In South Florida, Rachael Cassandra Karns

Theses and Dissertations

The microbiome (microbial community) of individuals is crucial when characterizing and understanding processes that are required for organism function and survival. Microbial organisms, which make up an individual’s microbiome, can be linked to disease or function of the host organism. In humans, individuals differ substantially in their microbiome compositions in various areas of the body. The cause of much of the composition diversity is yet unexplained, however, it is speculated that habitat, diet, and early exposure to microbes could be altering the microbiomes of individuals (Human Microbiome Project Consortium, 2012b, 2012a). To date, only one study has reported on ...


Evidence Of Intermittent Residency In The Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus Ursinus)., Megan Foley 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Evidence Of Intermittent Residency In The Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus Ursinus)., Megan Foley

Theses and Dissertations

This study found evidence of intermittent, multi-year residency periods in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using stable isotope ratios in vibrissae and canine teeth. Northern fur seals migrate from the Bering Sea during summer months to lower latitudes and slightly warmer waters of the northeastern Pacific Ocean and California Current in the winter. To determine the length of time spent away from the Bering Sea, growth rate was estimated using the covarying oscillations δ13C and δ15N, estimated to be 0.09 mm/day. The δ13C and δ15N in vibrissae from 30 male ...


Coral Vs. Macroalgae: Relative Susceptibility To Sedimentation And Ocean Warming, Ashton J. Galarno 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Coral Vs. Macroalgae: Relative Susceptibility To Sedimentation And Ocean Warming, Ashton J. Galarno

Theses and Dissertations

Sedimentation and ocean warming are two major anthropogenic stressors that directly affect coral recruitment and recovery. Many coral-dominated reefs have undergone phase shifts becoming macroalgae-dominated because of the coral population’s inability to tolerate these increasing stressors. Predicting these phase shifts requires a determination of the relative susceptibility of coral and macroalgae to these stressors. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the synergistic effects of sedimentation and elevated temperature on the survival and growth of Montastraea cavernosa newly settled coral juveniles, and fragments of the macroalgae, Dictyota ciliolata. A crossed experimental design tested the two temperatures and ...


Investigating The Effect Of Mechanical Beach Cleaning On Nesting, Hatching And Emergence Success Of Loggerhead (Caretta Caretta) And Green (Chelonia Mydas) Sea Turtles In Broward County, Florida, Megan A. Earney 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Investigating The Effect Of Mechanical Beach Cleaning On Nesting, Hatching And Emergence Success Of Loggerhead (Caretta Caretta) And Green (Chelonia Mydas) Sea Turtles In Broward County, Florida, Megan A. Earney

Theses and Dissertations

Sea turtles face many threats to their populations globally. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) are listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as Endangered. In Florida, loggerhead and green sea turtles nest along the coastline during April-September. Mechanical beach cleaning is an aesthetic service performed daily on some beaches in Florida to clean the wrack line and/or the entire beach of debris. Alterations made to beaches by methods such as mechanical beach cleaning have the potential to impact sea turtle nesting, hatching, and emergence success. Generalized linear mixed ...


Shark Bycatch In Commercial Fisheries: A Global Perspective, Stephanie M. Bettis 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Shark Bycatch In Commercial Fisheries: A Global Perspective, Stephanie M. Bettis

Student Capstones

Many shark species have global distributions and are caught incidentally in different types of fisheries. Over the last two decades, shark populations have declined tremendously, with one of the leading causes of this decline bycatch in primarily teleost fisheries. Bycatch occurs throughout the world’s fisheries, but is not well documented in terms of species composition and numbers of each species captured. Information on shark bycatch is spread through the primary and grey literature, but has not been compiled in summary to date. The goal of my capstone is to present global shark bycatch data and provide a comparative review ...


Reconciling The Challenge Of Aphanic Species Within Marine Conservation, Kerri L. Bolow 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Reconciling The Challenge Of Aphanic Species Within Marine Conservation, Kerri L. Bolow

Student Capstones

Aphanic species are those within a taxonomic complex that may not be readily distinguishable from other sympatric species. The existence of these species is becoming apparent at an increasing rate through the use of technological tools like molecular genetic analyses. A lack of clarity on the definitions of terms used to describe similar species, how these species are identified, and how prevalent they are can confound identification, description, and management of these organisms. This review collects and defines the terms used to describe these hidden species and suggests the use of the term aphanic for situations where additional information (and ...


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