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Two Distinct Microbial Communities Revealed In The Sponge Cinachyrella, Marie L. Cuvelier, Emily Blake, Rebecca Mulheron, Peter J. McCarthy, Patricia Blackwelder, Rebecca Vega-Thurber, Jose V. Lopez 2014 Nova Southeastern University

Two Distinct Microbial Communities Revealed In The Sponge Cinachyrella, Marie L. Cuvelier, Emily Blake, Rebecca Mulheron, Peter J. Mccarthy, Patricia Blackwelder, Rebecca Vega-Thurber, Jose V. Lopez

Oceanography Faculty Articles

Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the ...


Wentworth Point History Bulletin # 10, Randy Lackovic 2014 The University of Maine

Wentworth Point History Bulletin # 10, Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This is a history of the marine and freshwater sciences activity at the University of Maine from 1865 - 1965.


Wentworth Point History Bulletin # 12, Randy Lackovic 2014 The University of Maine

Wentworth Point History Bulletin # 12, Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This history recounts the formation of the Darling Marine Center from 1963 - 1966.


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser Fulvescens), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser Fulvescens), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) occurrences in the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border are historically sporadic and rare. Presently, the wild Lake Sturgeon population in this river reach may be extirpated. A Recovery Program initiated by the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) has stocked almost 150,000 hatchery-reared Lake Sturgeon into the lower Missouri River at several sites in Missouri. As a result, the number of Lake Sturgeon collected has increased. Since monitoring began in 2003, no Lake Sturgeon have been collected above Gavins Point Dam while 40 fish were collected downstream of Gavins Point Dam. The majority of ...


The Centennial Of The Smith-Lever Act And Aquaculture Extension, Michael A. Rice 2014 University of Rhode Island

The Centennial Of The Smith-Lever Act And Aquaculture Extension, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

May 8, 2014 marked the centennial of the landmark Smith-Lever Act in the United States that created the Cooperative Extension service at Land Grant Universities nationwide. Major contributors to the 1914 Act were Seaman A. Knapp and Kenyon L. Butterfield. A half century later the Sea Grant College Program was proposed by Athelstan F. Spilhaus expanding Extension programming to the sea. Together these two programs have been a major force in promoting the growth of the aquaculture industry in America.


The Shellfish Corner -- Shellfish And The Problem Of Ocean Acidification, Michael A. Rice 2014 University of Rhode Island

The Shellfish Corner -- Shellfish And The Problem Of Ocean Acidification, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

The acidification of the world's oceans due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is creating a problem in the dissolution of larval shells of mollusks and creating problems for shellfish hatcheries. Hatcheries can mitigate the problem by treating incoming seawater with alkaline sodium carbonate, but there is evidence that acidic sediments in some locations are a source of considerable post-settlement loss of newly set juveniles.


From Progesterone In Biopsies To Estimates Of Pregnancy Rates: Large Scale Reproductive Patterns Of Two Sympatric Species Of Common Dolphin, Delphinus Spp. Off California, Usa And Baja, Mexico, Nicholas Marc Kellar, Marisa L. Trego, Susan J. Chivers, Fredrick I. Archer, Wayne L. Perryman 2014 Occidental College

From Progesterone In Biopsies To Estimates Of Pregnancy Rates: Large Scale Reproductive Patterns Of Two Sympatric Species Of Common Dolphin, Delphinus Spp. Off California, Usa And Baja, Mexico, Nicholas Marc Kellar, Marisa L. Trego, Susan J. Chivers, Fredrick I. Archer, Wayne L. Perryman

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Blubber progesterone levels were measured in biopsy samples and used to predict the pregnancy status of 507 female common dolphins (204 long-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus capensis, and 303 short-beaked common dolphins, D. delphis). Samples were collected in the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific between central California, USA and the southern end of Baja California, Mexico. The percentage of females pregnant was similar between the two species: 22.1% (n = 45) of D. capensis and 28.1% (n = 85) of D. delphis. For both species we found strong geographic patterns in pregnancy, suggesting that some areas were more conducive ...


Microalgae In Eastern Pacific White Shrimp Hatcheries: A Review On Roles And Culture Environments, Wa Iba, Michael A. Rice, Gary H. Wikfors 2014 University of Rhode Island

Microalgae In Eastern Pacific White Shrimp Hatcheries: A Review On Roles And Culture Environments, Wa Iba, Michael A. Rice, Gary H. Wikfors

Michael A Rice

Demand for shrimp, particularly the eastern Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931), will continue to increase in Asian and worldwide seafood markets. Providing shrimp farms with a robust, healthy, and continuous supply of shrimp seed is a challenge that must be addressed to meet the demand. Shrimp feed during hatchery production still relies on live microalgae, despite many years of effort to find suitable full or partial-replacement diet alternatives. Successful mass production of microalgae for hatchery feed to obtain good quality shrimp seedstock depends on a number of environmental factors that determine the growth and nutritional values of various ...


Estimating Migration Rates Between Populations Of Zostera Marina In The San Francisco Bay, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Estimating Migration Rates Between Populations Of Zostera Marina In The San Francisco Bay, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is a highly clonal marine angiosperm that can also reproduce sexually through flowering and seed formation. In a previous study, Fst values from six microsatellite loci suggested that a perennial San Francisco Bay subpopulation at Point Molate (Richmond, California) was able to recover from a drastic 2006 die-off through seed recruitment from neighboring eelgrass subpopulations, changing its reproductive strategy from clonal to sexual. Although Fst measures continue to be widely used in population genetics, the assumptions under which they operate are not always appropriate given certain circumstances, such small population sizes and/or asymmetrical migration rates. Our ...


Modeling Maine’S Rockweed Harvest, Meagan Hennessey 2014 Colby College

Modeling Maine’S Rockweed Harvest, Meagan Hennessey

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

Currently, Maine is in a political struggle over the best way to manage the harvesting of Rockweed, or Ascophyllum nodosum. As the dominant macro algae along the state’s rocky intertidal zone it supports over 150 different species, meaning its loss could impact food web stability, protection of endangered species, and support of economically viable harvests. This work takes parameters found in the literature to create a Stella model, which is then manipulated to explore the relative impact of possible management strategies. It is found that a strictly accurate model is not possible to create given the current biological knowledge ...


Internesting Diving Behavior And Population Structure Of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys Imbricata) On St. Croix, Usvi, Jacob E. Hill 2014 Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne

Internesting Diving Behavior And Population Structure Of Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys Imbricata) On St. Croix, Usvi, Jacob E. Hill

Master's Theses

Hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are distributed circumtropically and populations in many locations have been severely depleted. Developing management plans for this species is hindered by major gaps in knowledge concerning habitat use, behavior, and population structure. This study addresses these knowledge gaps for hawksbill sea turtles nesting at Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Specifically, I will focus on research priorities identified by the US Fish and Wildlife Service in the Recovery Plan for Hawksbill Sea Turtles in the US Caribbean Sea.

The first chapter addresses Recovery Plan Objective 111: Identify Important Nesting Beaches. Three ...


Salinity And Temperature Distribution Of Jellyfish In The San Francisco Estuary, Trisha Huynh, Brooke Bemowski, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Salinity And Temperature Distribution Of Jellyfish In The San Francisco Estuary, Trisha Huynh, Brooke Bemowski, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Jellyfish are generally characterized by their jelly-like bodies and internal lining (two tissue layers). They found both in the phylum Ctenophora and the phylum Cnidaria. Ctenophores differ from cnidarians primarily due to the rows of “combs”, or cilia, which are used for transportation. Additionally, ctenophores possess sticky cells while cindarians possess stinging cells. Jellyfish depend on zooplankton (small floating aquatic animals) as a food source; as a result, they are potential competitors and predators to plankton-eating fish and may negatively impact fish populations.

As recently as 1950, jellyfish have entered the San Francisco Bay from the Mediterranean Sea (probably in ...


Jellyfish Throwdown: Invasive Versus Native, Brooke Bemowski, Trisha Huynh, Lindsay J. Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Jellyfish Throwdown: Invasive Versus Native, Brooke Bemowski, Trisha Huynh, Lindsay J. Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

The San Francisco Bay Estuary is home to many species of marine and wildlife that create a delicate ecological balance. Invasive jellyfish introduced to the bay though cargo shipping are believed to be competing with the endangered delta smelt for the same food source of copepods. Samples of zooplankton were taken from high and low salinity zones in the San Francisco Bay over three years in months June through February to correlate with the peak of the jellyfish lifecycle. The preserved samples are looked through and jellyfish are removed and recorded. The species of jellyfish is determined using features such ...


Sex Ratio Assessment Of Endangered Kemp’S Ridley Sea Turtle Foraging Populations: Validation Of A Testosterone Elisa For Juvenile Sex Determination, William A. Hilton, Camryn D. Allen 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Sex Ratio Assessment Of Endangered Kemp’S Ridley Sea Turtle Foraging Populations: Validation Of A Testosterone Elisa For Juvenile Sex Determination, William A. Hilton, Camryn D. Allen

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Currently all species of sea turtles are listed as threatened or endangered with extinction under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In order to effectively construct management approaches we need as much information on various sea turtle populations as possible including demography, genetic origin, and critical habitat. One demographic piece of data that is lacking is the sex ratio of turtle populations in foraging habitats, as this information is integral in determining overall population abundance. Because secondary sex characteristics (i.e. males have longer tails) are not evident until turtles start to reach sexual maturity, the sex of juvenile turtles ...


The Path To The Sea: Leatherback Hatchling Orientation At Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, Christina MacMillan, Kelly Stewart 2014 California Polytechnic State University

The Path To The Sea: Leatherback Hatchling Orientation At Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, Christina Macmillan, Kelly Stewart

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Once sea turtle hatchlings emerge from their nest, they must find their way to the ocean by using cues such as a bright horizon and the slope of the beach. While moving toward the water, hatchlings often must navigate past predators and through vegetation, sticks, footprints in the sand, and other dangers such as ghost crab holes. Sometimes hatchlings become confused (or disoriented) and turn in circles to find the right route to the water. Sea turtle hatchlings also may become disoriented as a result of human impacts such as town lights or trash. The purpose of our experiment was ...


Habitat Preference Of The Introduced Green Crab Carcinus Maenas, Brittany Susan Daum, Andy Chang 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Habitat Preference Of The Introduced Green Crab Carcinus Maenas, Brittany Susan Daum, Andy Chang

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

The aim of this experiment was to determine if Carcinus Maenas (European Green Crab) hhas a habitat preference in Seadrift Lagoon located in Stinson Beach, California. This experiment was accomplished by placing crab traps on the two types of substrate in Seadrift (sand and algae). The traps were pulled up every 24 hours and the size and sex of crabs was recorded. The data was analyzed to see if there was a difference in habitat preference based upon size, sex, and number of crabs. Using a Poisson Regression model, the size and sex of crabs were not significantly different between ...


Salinity Distribution Of Microplankton In The San Francisco Estuary, Carrie Ann Sharitt, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Salinity Distribution Of Microplankton In The San Francisco Estuary, Carrie Ann Sharitt, Lindsay Sullivan, Wim Kimmerer

STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program Posters

Microplankton are a diverse group of planktonic organisms ranging from 0.02 to 0.2 millimeters. Since the group is defined solely by size, it spans numerous taxonomic groups, including both heterotrophs and autotrophs. Microplankton are abundant in all aquatic ecosystems and are important prey for many organisms, including bivalves, crustaceans, and fish. The San Francisco Bay is truly an estuary as saltwater enters the estuary under the Golden Gate Bridge and freshwater flows in from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. Thus, there is a gradient of salinity from freshwater (0) in the rivers to saltwater by the Golden ...


Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta Caretta) Hatchling Disorientation In Broward County, Florida, Allison Durland Donahou 2014 Nova Southeastern University

Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta Caretta) Hatchling Disorientation In Broward County, Florida, Allison Durland Donahou

Theses and Dissertations

Hatchling disorientation after emergence is a major factor impacting sea turtle populations. This study utilized data from over 1,200 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) Marine Turtle Disorientation Report forms from years 2006 to 2011 to assess changes in the severity and locations of disorientation events and the impact of municipal beach lighting ordinances. While the FWC forms were completed for all sea turtle species observed, this study focused only on loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). A Disorientation Severity Index (DSI) was derived from the number of hatchlings and the direction of their tracks leaving the nests to ...


Rapid: Natural Laboratories In The Chilean Fjords: Studying Reproduction And Development In Emergent Deep-Sea Corals, Rhian G. Waller 2014 The University of Maine

Rapid: Natural Laboratories In The Chilean Fjords: Studying Reproduction And Development In Emergent Deep-Sea Corals, Rhian G. Waller

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Final Reports

The northern Patagonian fjords lie on the interface between the high Andes Mountains in the east and the South Pacific Ocean, formed thousands of years ago through erosive glacial activity and tectonic sinking (Borgel, 1970). Around 12,000 years ago the icefields in the Chiloé Interior Sea began to open, leaving behind over 15,000km2 of fjords, channels and gulfs (Clapperton, 1994). The waters within the fjords are influenced by strong tides, large volumes of freshwater runoff, and upwelling of deep-ocean waters as well as steep climatic gradients from north to south (observed in parameters such as temperature, wind intensity ...


A Mitogenomics View Of The Population Structure And Evolutionary History Of The Basking Shark Cetorhinus Maximum, Kimberly A. Finnegan 2014 Nova Southeastern University

A Mitogenomics View Of The Population Structure And Evolutionary History Of The Basking Shark Cetorhinus Maximum, Kimberly A. Finnegan

Theses and Dissertations

The basking shark, Cetorhinus maximus, has historically been a target of international fisheries, leading to well-documented declines in parts of its global distribution. Currently, the basking shark is listed as globally ‘Vulnerable’ and regionally ‘Endangered’ (North Pacific and Northeast Atlantic) on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, rendering the species an international conservation priority. Here, we assessed the global matrilineal genetic population structure and evolutionary history of the basking shark by completing the first whole mitochondrial genome sequence level survey of animals sampled from three globally widespread geographic regions: the western North Atlantic (n = 11), the eastern North Atlantic ...


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