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Growth And Reproduction Of Southern Flounder (Paralichthys Lethostigma) In The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Morgan Marie Corey 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Growth And Reproduction Of Southern Flounder (Paralichthys Lethostigma) In The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Morgan Marie Corey

Master's Theses

Southern Flounder Paralichthys lethostigma is the most commonly harvested flatfish in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and supports a major inshore recreational fishery, yet knowledge of the species’ life history is greatly limited. The objective of this research was to describe the growth and reproduction of Southern Flounder in the Mississippi stock. Fish were collected during September 2014 to March 2016 using primarily recreational fishing techniques. Otoliths (n = 313) were sectioned to estimate age, and multiple length-at-age models were fit to total length (TL, mm) and age estimate (y) data. Gonadal tissue samples (n = 221) were preserved for histological ...


Community Structure And Production Of The Macrobenthos On Four Artificial Reefs In The Mississippi Sound In Relation To Substrate And Profile Type, Patrick Daniel Gillam 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Community Structure And Production Of The Macrobenthos On Four Artificial Reefs In The Mississippi Sound In Relation To Substrate And Profile Type, Patrick Daniel Gillam

Master's Theses

In recent years, the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources (DMR) has made a concerted effort to enhance its coastal fishery resources by creating artificial reefs. Through this effort, 73 nearshore reefs have been created across the MS coast. Different substrate types used to construct MS artificial reefs include oyster shell and cement rubble. Two types of reef architecture used include high profile breakwater and low profile submerged structures. This study compared the benthic biota associated with oyster shell and cement rubble substrates among four artificial reefs representing high and low profile structures in summer 2011. Colonized benthic biota were quantified ...


The Effect Of Auditory Stimulation On Sleep Disruption In West Indian Manatee (Trichechus Manatus Latirostris), Natalija Lace 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of Auditory Stimulation On Sleep Disruption In West Indian Manatee (Trichechus Manatus Latirostris), Natalija Lace

Dissertations

Florida manatees inhabit waterways where motorized boats are common. Although manatee mortalities resulting from boat strikes are well documented, the effect of boat noise on some manatee behaviors, including rest, has not been investigated. This study focuses on rest behavior and used a playback experiment with four manatees at the Lowry Park Zoo in Florida. We tested their responses to playback stimuli of either boat noise, silence, or manatee calls. A playback trial was initiated when the focal animal showed behavioral characteristics of rest.

Results showed that rest was interrupted in response to the playback of boat noise for each ...


Zooplankton, Tracey Sutton, Scott E. Burghart 2016 University of South Florida

Zooplankton, Tracey Sutton, Scott E. Burghart

Tracey Sutton

No abstract provided.


Who Is Eating Most Of The Zooplankton In The Oceanic Gulf Of Mexico? The Impact Of Mesopelagic Fishes, Tracey Sutton, Scott E. Burghart 2016 Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Inc

Who Is Eating Most Of The Zooplankton In The Oceanic Gulf Of Mexico? The Impact Of Mesopelagic Fishes, Tracey Sutton, Scott E. Burghart

Tracey Sutton

Deep-sea pelagic fishes are the most abundant vertebrates on Earth, yet their role in the overall economy of these is poorly known. Low latitude oligotrophic regimes, typified by the eastern Gulf of Mexico, constitute most of the world ocean and consequently support the largest global ecosystems. Thus, we have little information on the trophic role of most of Earth's vertebrates. To address this, the diets of an entire midwater fish assemblage (164 species, constituting > 99% of assemblage numbers) were analyzed to assess feeding guilds and predation impact. Zooplanktivory was the dominant feeding mode (80% of prey biomass taken), followed ...


Who's Eating Whom? Identification And Quantification Of Deep-Pelagic Prey Fishes In The North Atlantic Ocean, A. Heger, Tracey Sutton 2016 Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Inc

Who's Eating Whom? Identification And Quantification Of Deep-Pelagic Prey Fishes In The North Atlantic Ocean, A. Heger, Tracey Sutton

Tracey Sutton

Understanding the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems requires accurate knowledge of trophic interactions. Trophic ecology studies generally underestimate prey diversity due to the difficulties imposed by digestion. Further, this degradation leads to uncertainty in the quantification of prey biomass (i.e., energy flow between various ecosystem components). Trophic interactions in the deep sea are poorly known relative to coastal ecosystems due to an incomplete inventory of meso-and bathypelagic species composition. The CoML field project MAR-ECO has increased our knowledge of the faunal structure of the mid-North Atlantic. Deep-pelagic fish specimens from the 2004 MARECO expedition provided a basis for ...


Vertical Ecology Of The Pelagic Ocean: Quantified Patterns And New Perspectives, Tracey Sutton 2016 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Vertical Ecology Of The Pelagic Ocean: Quantified Patterns And New Perspectives, Tracey Sutton

Tracey Sutton

Applications of acoustic and optical sensing and intensive, discrete-depth sampling, in concert with collaborative international research programs, have substantially advanced our knowledge of pelagic ecosystems in the 17 years since the last Deep-water Fishes FSBI Symposium. Although the epipelagic habitat is the best-known, and remote sensing and high-resolution modeling allow near-synoptic investigation of upper layer biophysical dynamics, ecological studies within the mesopelagic and deep-demersal habitats have begun to link lower and upper trophic level processes. Bathypelagic taxonomic inventories are far from complete but recent projects (MAR-ECO and CMarZ, supported by the Census of Marine Life program) have quantitatively strengthened distribution ...


The Importance Of Stealth: Recent Findings With The Eye-In-The-Sea Deep-Sea Observatory, Edith A. Widder, E. H. Raymond, Tracey Sutton 2016 Ocean Research and Conservation Association

The Importance Of Stealth: Recent Findings With The Eye-In-The-Sea Deep-Sea Observatory, Edith A. Widder, E. H. Raymond, Tracey Sutton

Tracey Sutton

The Eye-in-the-Sea (EITS) observatory was designed to be acoustically quiet and to use far-red illumination to observe deep-sea animals unobtrusively. The EITS has clearly demonstrated the critical importance of stealth in research ocean observatories. Its use has revealed both animals and behaviors never seen before. Additionally recordings of animal activity under different lighting conditions and in the presence or absence of different sound-producing vehicles (ROVs and submersibles) have revealed to what extent tools for exploration bias observations. Recent recordings made during a 2007 NOAA Ocean Exploration mission to deep waters around the Bahamas provide excellent additional examples of the importance ...


Vertical Distribution Of Deep-Pelagic (0-3000 M) Fishes Over The Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone Region Of The Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, April B. Cook, Tracey Sutton, John K. Galbraith, M. Vecchione 2016 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Vertical Distribution Of Deep-Pelagic (0-3000 M) Fishes Over The Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone Region Of The Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, April B. Cook, Tracey Sutton, John K. Galbraith, M. Vecchione

Tracey Sutton

Only a tiny fraction of the world’s largest volume of living space, the ocean’s midwater biome, has ever been sampled. As part of the International Census of Marine Life field project, MAR-ECO, a discrete-depth trawling survey was conducted in 2009 aboard the NOAA ship Henry B. Bigelow to examine pelagic assemblage structure and distribution over the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The bottom topography in this region ranges from 4500 m in the channel to 700-800 m on top of adjacent seamounts. Sampling was conducted at 11 stations from 0-3000 m using a Norwegian “Krill ...


Trophic Ecology Of The Deep-Sea Fish Malacosteus Niger (Pisces: Stomiidae): An Enigmatic Feeding Ecology To Facilitate A Unique Visual System?, Tracey Sutton 2016 Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Inc

Trophic Ecology Of The Deep-Sea Fish Malacosteus Niger (Pisces: Stomiidae): An Enigmatic Feeding Ecology To Facilitate A Unique Visual System?, Tracey Sutton

Tracey Sutton

The ‘dragonfishes’ and their relatives (family Stomiidae) are among the top predators of the mesopelagic zone of the open ocean. Based on feeding morphology (e.g., large gape, long fangs, and no gill-rakers or ethmoid membrane), the meso/bathypelagic fish Malacosteus niger would also be expected to be a large-item predator, as are the other members of its family. However, analysis of specimens from different ocean basins revealed that the most common prey items are calanoid copepods, despite an apparent inability to handle such small prey. Malacosteus niger is considered advanced within the Stomiidae, so this feeding mode represents a ...


The Noaa Nrda Gulf Of Mexico Offshore Fish And Nekton Program: Rationale, Design And Sampling/Sensing Synopsis, Tracey Sutton, K. M. Boswell 2016 Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center

The Noaa Nrda Gulf Of Mexico Offshore Fish And Nekton Program: Rationale, Design And Sampling/Sensing Synopsis, Tracey Sutton, K. M. Boswell

Tracey Sutton

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was not only unique for its material volume but also for its depth, ~1500 m, necessitating a wholewater- column approach for assessment. Given the absence of data regarding the pelagic fauna at these depths, a large-scale program was developed that included at-sea sampling/sensing, sample analysis, and database management. A four-cruise survey aboard the NOAA ship Pisces was conducted to provide data on the pelagic nekton from the surface to 1600 m, with emphasis between 800-1400 m (subsurface plume depth). Multi-frequency acoustic data were collected simultaneously to further characterize the horizontal and vertical distribution of ...


Spatial Distributions Of Bathypelagic Fishes Along The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, C. I. H. Anderson, J. Horne, Tracey Sutton 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Spatial Distributions Of Bathypelagic Fishes Along The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, C. I. H. Anderson, J. Horne, Tracey Sutton

Tracey Sutton

The spatial distribution of organisms plays a key role in facilitating biological processes, such as trophic interactions, which influence pelagic ecosystem structure and function. This study combines discrete trawl net sampling with continuous, full water column, acoustic measurements to investigate the distribution of bathypelagic (1000- 3000 m depth) nekton biomass along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores in the North Atlantic. Two, previously unknown, distinct bathypelagic acoustic scattering layers (ASLs) were observed using 18 kHz echosounder data. One, extending down on average ~200 m from 2000 m depth, appears ubiquitous wherever bottom depth allows, while the second, found ...


Species Composition, Abundance, And Vertical Distribution Of The Stomiid (Pisces: Stomiiformes) Fish Assemblage Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Tracey Sutton, T. L. Hopkins 2016 University of South Florida

Species Composition, Abundance, And Vertical Distribution Of The Stomiid (Pisces: Stomiiformes) Fish Assemblage Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Tracey Sutton, T. L. Hopkins

Tracey Sutton

Species composition, abundance, and vertical distribution of the stomiid fish assemblage were investigated in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, a low-latitude, oligotrophic oceanic ecosystem. Seventy-two described species, representing 18 genera, and one undescribed species were identified from 1155 trawl samples. With an additional 10 species reported elsewhere, the stomiid species number now known equals 83, making the Stomiidae the most diverse fish family in the Gulf of Mexico. The assemblage was dominated by three species,Photostomias guernei, Chauliodus sloani and Stomias affinis. These species, as well as four other common species, exhibited an asynchronous diel vertical migration pattern (450–900 ...


Standardized Catch Rates Of Sandbar Sharks And Dusky Sharks In The Vims Longline Survey: 1975-2009, Jason G. Romine, Kristene T. Parsons, R. Dean Grubbs, John A. Musick, Tracey Sutton 2016 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Standardized Catch Rates Of Sandbar Sharks And Dusky Sharks In The Vims Longline Survey: 1975-2009, Jason G. Romine, Kristene T. Parsons, R. Dean Grubbs, John A. Musick, Tracey Sutton

Tracey Sutton

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science has conducted a fishery-independent longline survey during summer months since 1974. Data for sandbar sharks and dusky sharks captured in the survey between 1975 and 2009 are presented. Most of the sandbar sharks encountered by the survey were immature, with females composing almost all of the mature sandbar catch. Almost all dusky sharks captured were immature. Most of the catch since the early 1990’s has been composed of 0-4 year age classes. Nominal and standardized catch rates are presented. CPUE for both species decreased from the early 1980’s to minima in 1992 ...


Phytoplankton Response To Intrusions Of Slope Water On The West Florida Shelf: Models And Observations, John J. Walsh, Robert H. Weisberg, Dwight A. Dieterle, Ruoying He, Brian P. Darrow, Jason K. Jolliff, Kristen M. Lester, Gabriel A. Vargo, Gary J. Kirkpatrick, Kent A. Fanning, Tracey Sutton, Ann E. Jochens, Douglas C. Biggs, Bisman Nababan, Chuanmin Hu, Frank E. Muller-Karger 2016 University of South Florida

Phytoplankton Response To Intrusions Of Slope Water On The West Florida Shelf: Models And Observations, John J. Walsh, Robert H. Weisberg, Dwight A. Dieterle, Ruoying He, Brian P. Darrow, Jason K. Jolliff, Kristen M. Lester, Gabriel A. Vargo, Gary J. Kirkpatrick, Kent A. Fanning, Tracey Sutton, Ann E. Jochens, Douglas C. Biggs, Bisman Nababan, Chuanmin Hu, Frank E. Muller-Karger

Tracey Sutton

Previous hypotheses had suggested that upwelled intrusions of nutrient-rich Gulf of Mexico slope water onto the West Florida Shelf (WFS) led to formation of red tides of Karenia brevis. However, coupled biophysical models of (1) wind- and buoyancy-driven circulation, (2) three phytoplankton groups (diatoms, K. brevis, and microflagellates), (3) these slope water supplies of nitrate and silicate, and (4) selective grazing stress by copepods and protozoans found that diatoms won in one 1998 case of no light limitation by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The diatoms lost to K. brevis during another CDOM case of the models. In the real ...


Microzooplankton Grazing And Productivity In The Central And Southern Sector Of The Indian River Lagoon, Florida, Jennifer Putland, Tracey Sutton 2016 Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Inc

Microzooplankton Grazing And Productivity In The Central And Southern Sector Of The Indian River Lagoon, Florida, Jennifer Putland, Tracey Sutton

Tracey Sutton

Microzooplankton grazing was measured with the dilution method in the central and southern sectors of the Indian River Lagoon during summer 2006 and 2007. Microzooplankton actively grazed phytoplankton during all experiments. Grazing rates averaged (± SD) 0.956 ± 0.19 d-1 and ranged from 0.54 to 1.36 d-1. Phytoplankton carbon, measured by microscopy, averaged 314 ± 251 μg C L-1 and ranged from 115 to 936 μg C L-1. Microzooplankton ingestion rates averaged 303 ± 260 μg C L-1d-1 and ranged from 90 to 907 μg C L-1d-1. Microzooplankton potential productivity ...


New Species Of Eustomias (Teleostei: Stomiidae) From The Western North Atlantic, With A Review Of The Subgenus Neostomias, Tracey Sutton, Karsten E. Hartel 2016 Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Inc

New Species Of Eustomias (Teleostei: Stomiidae) From The Western North Atlantic, With A Review Of The Subgenus Neostomias, Tracey Sutton, Karsten E. Hartel

Tracey Sutton

A new species of the deep-sea dragonfish genus Eustomias is described from 14 specimens from the western North Atlantic. This species belongs to the subgenus Neostomias, which is defined principally by the presence of a single pectoral ray, plus one small rudimentary ray. It is unique among members of the subgenus in having a combination of characters that includes a short mental barbel, multiple proximal bulbs on the barbel main stem, and a unique terminal bulb morphology. Analysis of similar species warrants resurrection of Eustomias monodactylus, previously placed in synonymy with Eustomias filifer. A revised key to the species of ...


Midwater Fishes And Shrimps As Competitors And Resource Partitioning In Low Latitude Oligotrophic Ecosystems, T. L. Hopkins, Tracey Sutton 2016 University of South Florida

Midwater Fishes And Shrimps As Competitors And Resource Partitioning In Low Latitude Oligotrophic Ecosystems, T. L. Hopkins, Tracey Sutton

Tracey Sutton

Oligotrophic tropical-subtropical oceanic regimes constitute the largest and most ancient ecosystem on earth, with these enormous areas being characterized by high faunal diversity. The stability and age of the ecosystem have enabled the evolution of many similar species niches where there is considerable overlap in niche parameters such as food and space, resulting in high species packing, especially in the epi- and mesopelagic zones. Competition for limited resources undoubtedly exists and has been described by MacArthur (1972; Geographical ecology, Harper and Row, New York) as diffuse competition where each species is impacted by many other species sharing the environment. Most ...


Net And Acoustic Examination Of Bathypelagic Nekton On The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, C. I. H. Anderson, J. Horne, Tracey Sutton 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Net And Acoustic Examination Of Bathypelagic Nekton On The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, C. I. H. Anderson, J. Horne, Tracey Sutton

Tracey Sutton

Spatial distributions of organisms play a key role in facilitating trophic interactions, which influence pelagic ecosystem structure and function. This study combines discrete net trawl sampling with continuous acoustic measurements to investigate the distribution of bathypelagic (1000- 3000 m depth) nekton biomass along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores. Two, previously unknown, acoustic scattering layers (ASLs) were observed using 18 kHz echosounder data. The first extended approximately 200 m from 2000 m depth and was ubiquitous wherever bottom depth allowed. The second, found within the 1500-2000 m depth stratum, only occurred south of the Sub-Polar Front. Backscatter from ...


Does Presence Of A Mid-Ocean Ridge Enhance Biomass And Biodiversity?, Imants G. Priede, Odd Aksel Bergstad, Peter I. Miller, M. Vecchione, Andrey Gebruk, Tone Falkenhaug, David S. M. Billett, Jessica Craig, Andrew C. Dale, Mark A. Shields, Gavin H. Tilstone, Tracey Sutton, Andrew J. Gooday, Mark E. Inall, Daniel O. B. Jones, Victor Martinez-Vicente, Gui Menezes, Tomasz Niedzielski, Thorsteinn Sigurdsson, Nina Rothe, Antonina Rogacheva, Claudia H. S. Alt, Timothy Brand, Richard Abell, Andrew S. Brierley, Nicola J. Cousins, Deborah Crockard, A. Rus Hoelzel, Age Hoines, Tom B. Letessier, Jane F. Read, Tracy Shimmield, Martin J. Cox, John K. Galbraith, John D. M. Gordon, Tammy Horton, Francis Neat, Pascal Lorance 2016 University of Aberdeen - United Kingdom

Does Presence Of A Mid-Ocean Ridge Enhance Biomass And Biodiversity?, Imants G. Priede, Odd Aksel Bergstad, Peter I. Miller, M. Vecchione, Andrey Gebruk, Tone Falkenhaug, David S. M. Billett, Jessica Craig, Andrew C. Dale, Mark A. Shields, Gavin H. Tilstone, Tracey Sutton, Andrew J. Gooday, Mark E. Inall, Daniel O. B. Jones, Victor Martinez-Vicente, Gui Menezes, Tomasz Niedzielski, Thorsteinn Sigurdsson, Nina Rothe, Antonina Rogacheva, Claudia H. S. Alt, Timothy Brand, Richard Abell, Andrew S. Brierley, Nicola J. Cousins, Deborah Crockard, A. Rus Hoelzel, Age Hoines, Tom B. Letessier, Jane F. Read, Tracy Shimmield, Martin J. Cox, John K. Galbraith, John D. M. Gordon, Tammy Horton, Francis Neat, Pascal Lorance

Tracey Sutton

In contrast to generally sparse biological communities in open-ocean settings, seamounts and ridges are perceived as areas of elevated productivity and biodiversity capable of supporting commercial fisheries. We investigated the origin of this apparent biological enhancement over a segment of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) using sonar, corers, trawls, traps, and a remotely operated vehicle to survey habitat, biomass, and biodiversity. Satellite remote sensing provided information on flow patterns, thermal fronts, and primary production, while sediment traps measured export flux during 2007–2010. The MAR, 3,704,404 km2 in area, accounts for 44.7% lower bathyal habitat (800 ...


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