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Opsin Repertoire And Expression Patterns In Horseshoe Crabs: Evidence From The Genome Of Limulus Polyphemus (Arthropoda: Chelicerata), Barbara-Anne Battelle, Joseph F. Ryan, Karen E. Kempler, Spencer R. Saraf, Catherine E. Marten, Wesley C. Warren, Patrick J. Minx, Michael J. Montague, Pamela J. Green, Skye A. Schmidt, Lucinda Fulton, Nipam H. Patel, Meredith E. Protas, Richard K. Wilson, Megan L. Porter 2017 Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, Departments of Neuroscience and Biology, University of Florida

Opsin Repertoire And Expression Patterns In Horseshoe Crabs: Evidence From The Genome Of Limulus Polyphemus (Arthropoda: Chelicerata), Barbara-Anne Battelle, Joseph F. Ryan, Karen E. Kempler, Spencer R. Saraf, Catherine E. Marten, Wesley C. Warren, Patrick J. Minx, Michael J. Montague, Pamela J. Green, Skye A. Schmidt, Lucinda Fulton, Nipam H. Patel, Meredith E. Protas, Richard K. Wilson, Megan L. Porter

Meredith Protas

Horseshoe crabs are xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister groupto arachnids. As such, they are important for understandingthemost recent common ancestor of Euchelicerata and the evolution and diversification of Arthropoda. Limulus polyphemus is the most investigated of the four extant species of horseshoe crabs, and the structure and function of its visual system have long been a major focus of studies critical for understanding the evolution of visual systems in arthropods. Likewise, studies of genes encoding Limulus opsins, the protein component of the visual pigments, are critical for understanding opsin evolution and diversification among chelicerates, where knowledge of opsins is limited, and ...


Changes In Cormorant Populations In The Strait Of Georgia, British Columbia, 1955-2015, Harry R. Carter, Trudy A. Chatwin, Mark C. Drever 2017 Carter Biological Consulting

Changes In Cormorant Populations In The Strait Of Georgia, British Columbia, 1955-2015, Harry R. Carter, Trudy A. Chatwin, Mark C. Drever

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Between 1987 and 2000, nesting populations of Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus; PECO) and Double-crested Cormorant (P. auritus; DCCO) declined in the Strait of Georgia, BC. This northern section of the Salish Sea is a rapidly urbanizing area, and piscivorous birds are important indicators of ecosystem health. To update population status, we conducted a complete survey of 35 PECO and 23 DCCO colonies in July 2014 and opportunistic surveys of some colonies between 2001 through 2015. The PECO population decreased from ~2100-2400 nests in 1959-1987 to ~1100 nests by about 2000, and then rose slightly to ~1600 nests by 2015. The ...


Advances In Salish Sea Acoustic Telemetry: 2015 Array Deployments And Promising Transmitter Performance, Erin L. Rechisky, David W. Welch, Aswea D. Porter, Paul Winchell 2017 Kintama Research

Advances In Salish Sea Acoustic Telemetry: 2015 Array Deployments And Promising Transmitter Performance, Erin L. Rechisky, David W. Welch, Aswea D. Porter, Paul Winchell

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The first fish tracking arrays were deployed in the Salish Sea over a decade ago. These arrays have yielded a rich data set which have provided the first direct estimates of early marine-survival and migratory behavior for acoustic-tagged juvenile sockeye, Chinook, Coho and steelhead >130 mm in fork length (FL). In spring of 2015, as part of the Salish Sea Marine Survival Project, the Pacific Salmon Foundation, the Ocean Tracking Network and Kintama Research deployed additional arrays in the Discovery Islands and Johnstone Strait (north of the Strait of Georgia) to provide higher resolution survival data. These new arrays use ...


Simulating The Dispersal Of Invasive Clams In A Freshwater Lake Using A Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model; A Prototype For Simulating Invasions In Marine Ecosystems, Elizabeth Kilanowski, Lambert Rubash 2017 Raincoast GeoResearch

Simulating The Dispersal Of Invasive Clams In A Freshwater Lake Using A Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model; A Prototype For Simulating Invasions In Marine Ecosystems, Elizabeth Kilanowski, Lambert Rubash

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The discovery of several populations of an invasive Asian clam (corbicula fluminea) in Lake Whatcom, the drinking water source for approximately 100,000 people in Northern Washington State, created a need among elected officials, local government staff, and the public for a better understanding of lake hydrodynamics during the reproductive season for the Asian clam, and for times when Quagga and Zebra mussel invasions are likely. Seasonal vertical thermal stratification of the lake and a desire to predict likely locations of additional clam populations or of new populations of mussels led to the choice of a model that could be ...


Relative Abundance Of Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus Griseus) In Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington, Denise Griffing, Shawn Larson, Jeff Christiansen, Joel Hollander, Tim Carpenter 2017 Seattle Aquarium

Relative Abundance Of Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus Griseus) In Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington, Denise Griffing, Shawn Larson, Jeff Christiansen, Joel Hollander, Tim Carpenter

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Sixgill Shark Research Project is designed to address gaps in the body of scientific knowledge on bluntnose sixgill sharks (Hexanchus griseus) in Puget Sound. This project utilizes three interwoven techniques: (1) genetics research, (2) visual marker tagging, and (3) video analysis. Seattle Aquarium biologists monitor sixgill shark sightings reported by local divers (since 1999) and study their relative abundance in Elliott Bay under the Aquarium’s pier (since 2003). Here we report on our findings of relative abundance.

Bluntnose sixgills are a species of conservation concern. Sixgills are listed as “near threatened” on the IUCN Red List. Living mainly ...


Movements Of Sub-Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) In Puget Sound, Washington, As Indicated By Hydroacoustic Tracking, Anna N. Kagley, Joseph Smith, Kurt Fresh, Kinsey Frick, Thomas Quinn 2017 NOAA Fisheries

Movements Of Sub-Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) In Puget Sound, Washington, As Indicated By Hydroacoustic Tracking, Anna N. Kagley, Joseph Smith, Kurt Fresh, Kinsey Frick, Thomas Quinn

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Alternative forms of migratory behavior can have substantial consequences for the growth, survival, and fitness of the individuals involved. Salmonids vary in the tendency of individuals to migrate to marine waters (anadromy) or remain in freshwater habitats. In addition, substantial variation in migratory patterns can exist among anadromous and resident species. This talk summarizes our use of hydroacoustic telemetry to investigate the movement patterns of anadromous Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha remaining in the marine waters of Puget Sound after ocean entry rather than continuing out to the coastal waters of the North Pacific Ocean, as is typical of the species ...


Holding The Line, To Let Shorelines Move Naturally, Kyle Loring 2017 Friends of the San Juans

Holding The Line, To Let Shorelines Move Naturally, Kyle Loring

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

This poster will identify mechanisms for limiting the impacts of residential development on the natural functions of marine shorelines.

First, it will share the results from two recent legal cases that successfully prevented the unnecessary bulkheading of a documented surf smelt spawning beach on San Juan Island. Friends of the San Juans appealed two local permit approvals to the Shoreline Hearings Board. The local permits authorized two-tiered armoring that extended nearly 20 total feet in height and would have removed most of the vegetation that shaded the beaches and supplied insects for juvenile Chinook salmon in an area identified as ...


Synthesis Of Results From Twelve Puget Sound Regulatory Effectiveness And Incentive Investigations, Aimee Kinney, Tessa Francis, Jeff Rice 2017 University of Washington Puget Sound Institute

Synthesis Of Results From Twelve Puget Sound Regulatory Effectiveness And Incentive Investigations, Aimee Kinney, Tessa Francis, Jeff Rice

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Between 2011 and 2014, the Puget Sound Marine and Nearshore Grant Program funded twelve projects relating to shoreline regulatory and incentive programs. Here we provide an overview of overarching themes that emerged from a review of the projects in aggregate. Despite the different approaches to problem identification, data collection, and analysis in these investigations, the conclusions reached and recommendations made are remarkably similar. Key findings and implications of our analysis relate to: (1) armoring compliance rates; (2) compliance monitoring methodologies; (3) local Shoreline Master Program (SMP) capacity limitations; (4) SMP implementation improvements; and (5) incentive programs to encourage the use ...


Resources For Marine Shoreline Design, Theresa Mitchell 2017 Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

Resources For Marine Shoreline Design, Theresa Mitchell

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Shoreline armoring and reducing the use of hard, structural approaches to protecting property is a hot topic across marine communities of North America. As we learn more about the importance of the marine and terrestrial interface (the nearshore zone), we also understand more about how our past practices of hard armoring shorelines can be problematic to the nearshore zone and the ecosystem goods and services it provides. Shifting property owners away from using common hard approaches to erosion protection is difficult to achieve without easy access to information on effective environmentally-friendly alternatives.

The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and ...


Armoring On Puget Sound: Progress Towards A Better Baseline, Hugh Shipman, Jennifer Burke, Randy Carman, Kurt Fresh 2017 WA Department of Ecology

Armoring On Puget Sound: Progress Towards A Better Baseline, Hugh Shipman, Jennifer Burke, Randy Carman, Kurt Fresh

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The construction of seawalls and similar structures along Puget Sound’s shoreline impacts geomorphic processes and ecological functions. The extent of shoreline armor has been adopted by the Puget Sound Partnership as a vital sign indicator, is used by local, state, and federal groups as a measure of ecosystem function, and has been employed as a tool for prioritizing restoration actions.

As a result, we recognized the importance of accurately characterizing the extent, character, and distribution of shoreline armor. The objectives of our project were to review existing data sources, assess methodologies, identify gaps in data quality or coverage, and ...


Problem To Progress: Understanding And Improving Permitting For Shoreline Armoring In Kitsap County, Kathlene M. Barnhart 2017 Kitsap County, Washington

Problem To Progress: Understanding And Improving Permitting For Shoreline Armoring In Kitsap County, Kathlene M. Barnhart

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Kitsap County partnered with San Juan County and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife to objectively review and assess the effectiveness of existing marine shoreline stabilization permitting programs in achieving a balance between applicant needs and protection of nearshore resources. Utilizing a T.A.C.T. approach (Troubleshooting, Action planning, Course correction and Tracking & monitoring), the agencies worked together to identify gaps and overlap in the permit review and monitoring process, as well as the effectiveness of permit provisions (conditions) through field assessment of recent marine shoreline armoring projects. Actions to correct these internal deficiencies ...


Mapping On The Edge: Shoreline Mapping For Regulation And Voluntary Stewardship, Kate E. Emmings 2017 Islands Trust

Mapping On The Edge: Shoreline Mapping For Regulation And Voluntary Stewardship, Kate E. Emmings

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Nothing generates conversations between landowners and local government like a map! Shoreline mapping is a crucial decision making tool for local governments and regulators. It provides information about appropriate location of shoreline infrastructure, such as docks, and informs landowners about the location of important natural transition areas between the land and the sea. Maps can also provide information that limits the activities of private landowners and as such can cause community conflict if they are inaccurate or unclear. Because mapping can be used to inform regulation, local governments often have different needs than scientists and NGOs, but there is no ...


Assessing Habitat Compensation In The Lower Fraser River And Estuary, Megan A. Lievesley, Dan Stewart, Brad Mason, Rob Knight 2017 Community Mapping Network and BC Conservation Foundation

Assessing Habitat Compensation In The Lower Fraser River And Estuary, Megan A. Lievesley, Dan Stewart, Brad Mason, Rob Knight

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Over the last century, wetland ecosystems along the Lower Fraser River (LFR) have been heavily impacted by foreshore development and industry. Wetlands along the LFR provide important ecosystem services and habitat for wildlife such as rearing grounds for fish and staging grounds for migratory birds. For 30 years, habitat compensation has been the accepted method for offsetting habitat degradation; however, due to a lack of follow-up research and consistent baseline data it is yet to be determined if compensation projects truly replicate habitat lost. This project, funded by the National Wetland Conservation Fund, aims to (1) review, assess, and determine ...


From The Ivory Tower Through The Black Box: Engaging Effectively With Government To Turn Ideas Into Action, Gabriel Mastico 2017 Metro Vancouver

From The Ivory Tower Through The Black Box: Engaging Effectively With Government To Turn Ideas Into Action, Gabriel Mastico

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

When researchers, communities, and/or environmental organizations propose new approaches to address ecological challenges, responsibility for implementing them often falls (in part) to practitioners working within government. Government employees face considerable challenges in synthesizing the available knowledge to support a recommendation for decision-makers to adopt a new approach. This presentation draws on an insider’s experience to help conservation researchers and practitioners understand the key challenges and opportunities that government employees face in navigating their organizations’ decision-making processes. It also suggests best practices to help proponents of new approaches frame conservation finance ideas in ways that resonate with local governments ...


An Inventory Of Environmental Governance In The Salish Sea, Laurie D. Trautman 2017 Border Policy Research Insitute, Western Washington University

An Inventory Of Environmental Governance In The Salish Sea, Laurie D. Trautman

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

How is the natural environment of the Salish Sea governed? The fact that the Salish Sea is bifurcated by a national border has inhibited our ability to answer this question. Indeed, the Salish Sea involves not only two national governments, but also a multitude of both state and non-state actors, which exist across scales, and interact in different frameworks (i.e. First Nations/tribes often seek only to negotiate with federal, rather than state/provincial governments). Environmental governance in the Salish Sea also encompasses informal modes of interaction involving public and private interest groups, social movements and community stakeholders, in ...


Stronger Together: The Cross-Cultural Coalition To Stop Fossil Fuel Exports In The Salish Sea, Margaret Allen 2017 University of Washington

Stronger Together: The Cross-Cultural Coalition To Stop Fossil Fuel Exports In The Salish Sea, Margaret Allen

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

A commonly observed paradox in conservation is that restriction of people’s access to nature and natural resources may protect ecosystem health, but sometimes decreases the wellbeing of local people and can invite conflict and reduce people’s willingness to protect resources. At a middle ground between complete protection and unrestricted commercial use is ecosystem-based management (EBM), which strives to maximize the overall wellbeing of both people and ecosystems. An important domain of human wellbeing to track for the purposes of EBM is resource access, or the ability to gain and maintain uses and benefits of the natural environment. Access ...


Skagit Climate Science Consortium: Using Local Polling To Provide Relevant Science, Carol B. Macilroy, Larry Wasserman Mr. 2017 Skagit Climate Science Consortium

Skagit Climate Science Consortium: Using Local Polling To Provide Relevant Science, Carol B. Macilroy, Larry Wasserman Mr.

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Skagit Climate Science Consortium (SC2) and the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication partnered to conduct a public opinion poll in the spring of 2015 regarding Skagit County resident’s attitudes and perceptions regarding global warming. The effort, part of Yale’s renown 6 America’s Project, also is providing SC2 critical information to help understand local concerns and beliefs about climate change in order to better provide relevant and timely climate science to a broader Skagit community. This presentation will provide an overview of SC2’s theory of change regarding the role of climate science ...


Can Intimate Ecological Knowledge Evoke Spirituality?, Robin B. Clark 2017 Robin B. Clark

Can Intimate Ecological Knowledge Evoke Spirituality?, Robin B. Clark

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The Salish Sea Ecoregion lies within the Marine West Coast Forest Ecoregion (CEC) or the Pacific temperate rain forest (WWF) and others. The marine and upland forested ecosystems are some of the richest and most diverse on the planet. As a registered professional forester and ecologist, I use the biogeoclimatic ecosystem classifications of zones, subzones, site series and edaphic grids in my everyday work in the management of forested ecosystems. I see the forest is a mosaic of interconnectedness that displays with a variety of trees and plants the above and below ground moisture and nutrient regimes. My spirituality arises ...


Assessment Of Nutrient, Metal, And Organic Contaminant Concentrations In Eelgrass (Zostera Marina L.) In Puget Sound, Wa (Usa), Jeff Gaeckle 2017 Washington State Department of Natural Resources

Assessment Of Nutrient, Metal, And Organic Contaminant Concentrations In Eelgrass (Zostera Marina L.) In Puget Sound, Wa (Usa), Jeff Gaeckle

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.), the dominant seagrass in the Pacific Northwest region, is an ecologically important component of the marine nearshore throughout greater Puget Sound, WA. Eelgrass and other seagrasses are known to provide extensive ecosystem services worldwide, but are under threat from a suite of anthropogenic stressors, notably nutrient and sediment loading associated with coastal development and population growth. Loading sources span from atmospheric deposition to thousands of outfalls that range from small manmade or natural drainages to the largest permitted facilities in the country. Research has demonstrated seagrasses uptake nutrients, metals and organic contaminants with varied physiological effects ...


A Nonparametric Statistical Approach To Analyzing Eelgrass Density Data, Traci L. Sanderson, Michelle Spani, Andrew Rippington 2017 Golder Associates Inc.

A Nonparametric Statistical Approach To Analyzing Eelgrass Density Data, Traci L. Sanderson, Michelle Spani, Andrew Rippington

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

As part of continuing work in Port Gamble, WA a diver-based eelgrass survey was completed to support the application for a Hydraulic Project Approval (HPA), as required by the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) for in-water work. The survey was completed following interim guidelines established by WDFW in 2008, although to fit the guidelines to the specific project some methods were modified and approved by WDFW. Collecting statistically robust data proved to be difficult, as shoot density in the eelgrass bed was highly variable. In some areas the variance was so high that power calculations estimated the ...


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