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Antifungal Defense Molecules From Bacterial Symbionts Of North American Trachymyrmex Ants, Georgia Scherer 2020 Claremont Colleges

Antifungal Defense Molecules From Bacterial Symbionts Of North American Trachymyrmex Ants, Georgia Scherer

CMC Senior Theses

Defensive symbioses, in which microbes provide molecular defenses for an animal host, hold great potential as untapped sources of therapeutically useful antibiotics. Fungus-growing ants use antifungal defenses from bacterial symbionts to suppress pathogenic fungi in their nests. Preliminary chemical investigations of symbiotic bacteria from this large family of ants have uncovered novel antifungal molecules with therapeutic potential, such as dentigerumycin and selvamicin.

In this study, the bacterial symbionts of North American Trachymyrmex fungus-growing ants are investigated for antifungal molecules. Plate-based bioassays using ecologically-relevant fungal pathogens confirmed that these bacteria have antifungal activity. In order to purify and identify the antifungal ...


Biomechanics And Neural Control Of Movement: Cmi's Effects On Downstream Motor Processing And Gait In Forwards And Backwards Walking, Christopher Choi 2020 Claremont Colleges

Biomechanics And Neural Control Of Movement: Cmi's Effects On Downstream Motor Processing And Gait In Forwards And Backwards Walking, Christopher Choi

CMC Senior Theses

Analyzing the effects of cognitive motor interferences (CMI) on walking is usually done in patients with neurological comorbidity or during forward walking (FW). However, there are few studies that examine gait differences between FW and backward walking (BW) under the presence of CMI when speed is kept constant on a treadmill. In this study we examined how CMI would disrupt sensory feedback and affect the descending motor pathway. We hypothesized that subjects that walked backwards and were given a cognitive task would show the greatest differences in gait due to a lack of visual input and the presence of CMI ...


Determination Of Iron-Reducing Bacterial Activities In Lake Sediments., Alexandra Kahn 2020 The University of Akron

Determination Of Iron-Reducing Bacterial Activities In Lake Sediments., Alexandra Kahn

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Algal blooms are growing rampantly in lacustrine systems due to an increase of phosphorus, a nutrient for algae. Phosphorus is being released into the environment causing overpopulation and eutrophication which damages the ecosystem. The availability of phosphorus is affected by the solubility of iron which is regulated through iron reducing and iron oxidizing bacteria. Phosphorus adheres to insoluble Fe(III), which prohibits algae from utilizing it, while phosphorus does not attach to soluble Fe(II) and therefore it remains available to algae. The purpose of this study was to determine how bacteria influence iron solubility and what are the ideal ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


The Cardiovascular Response To Acute Hypoxic Conditions In Danio Rerio, Bryce Fetterman 2020 The University of Akron

The Cardiovascular Response To Acute Hypoxic Conditions In Danio Rerio, Bryce Fetterman

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

There are many fish that can withstand hypoxia levels. One in particular is the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The zebrafish is a small-sized, Cyprinid teleost fish, and has been used in a laboratory setting for many reasons. A few reasons being that they are widely available, easy to care for, and the cost for these fish are very low. There are various reasons why these fish are used as a model. One main reason is because their cardiovascular system is one of the first developing organs. This allows for better resolution when studying the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study ...


Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson

Honors Theses and Capstones

Overall, approximately 95 percent of reported cases of vector-borne disease were associated with ticks, making these the most medically important group of arthropods in the United States.1 Despite the prevalence of tick-borne infections, the process for the diagnosis of this condition is not well studied. This study aims to analyze data from a pool of 100 patients who underwent testing for tick-borne disease in the same institution in Dover, New Hampshire during the most recent peak tick season of 2019. Information utilized in this study included: patient age, sex, location of testing (inpatient versus outpatient), diagnostic testing methods used ...


Influence Of Salinity On Copper-Ligand Formation Constants, Fatimah Barnawi 2020 Wilfrid Laurier University

Influence Of Salinity On Copper-Ligand Formation Constants, Fatimah Barnawi

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Natural Organic Matter (NOM) is known to reduce metal, such as copper, toxicity in aquatic environments. Copper is essential for organisms, but elevated concentrations of dissolved copper can potentially be toxic. The toxicity of copper is related to its bioavailability, which is influenced by toxicity modifying factors, such as NOM (quantified as Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in mg C/L), alkalinity, pH and major cation and anion concentrations. The principles are the same for fresh and saltwater, but the influence of high salt concentrations, such as in estuaries, and associated activity corrections, can modify NOM complexation of metals (i.e ...


Acclimation, Long-Term Repeatability, And Phenotypic Correlations Of Aerobic Metabolic Traits In The Gulf Killifish, Fundulus Grandis, Jessica E. Reemeyer 2019 University of New Orleans

Acclimation, Long-Term Repeatability, And Phenotypic Correlations Of Aerobic Metabolic Traits In The Gulf Killifish, Fundulus Grandis, Jessica E. Reemeyer

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This research examined the effects of acclimation to lowered salinity, elevated temperature, and hypoxia on aerobic metabolism of the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, a common estuarine resident of the Gulf of Mexico. Standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), absolute aerobic scope (AAS), and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit) were each influenced by one or more acclimation treatments. Assessing the consistency of these traits measured in the same individuals over time, all were found to be significantly repeatable with no indication that the repeatability of any traits was affected by acclimation conditions. Significant correlations were found between SMR and ...


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga 2019 University of Maine

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and uninfected foliage ...


Green Roof System Integrated Soil Methods, Jude R. Vallon, Ivan L. Guzman 2019 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Green Roof System Integrated Soil Methods, Jude R. Vallon, Ivan L. Guzman

Publications and Research

Large metropolitan areas like NYC are seeking to integrate sustainability into retrofitting buildings for the development of green infrastructure. Among the many environmental issues of urbanization, the UHI (urban heat island) effect and storm water runoff are of particular interest when it comes building structures. Individual buildings can contribute towards mitigating these effects with implementation of vegetative rooftops, i.e. Green Roofs. Commercial buildings are currently receiving government incentives and new constructions are required to include green roof installations. However, if existing buildings are considering the addition of a green roof on an existing roof, they have to factor in ...


Mechanisms And Consequences Of Myb Gene Activation In Salivary Gland Tumors, Candace Frerich 2019 University of New Mexico

Mechanisms And Consequences Of Myb Gene Activation In Salivary Gland Tumors, Candace Frerich

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to infiltrate surrounding nerves and metastasize to distant sites. The standard treatment often fails to control local tumor recurrence and distant metastases and no approved targeted therapeutic options exist for these tumors. The goal of our studies was to reveal the molecular mechanisms driving ACC tumor development and novel drug targets to improve patient morbidity and mortality.

We first analyzed clinical and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data for 68 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ACC tumor samples and described previously unappreciated molecular heterogeneity that predicts patient outcome. The poor outcome subgroup ...


Categorization Of Vocal Fry In Running Speech, Katherine Proctor 2019 Bowling Green State University

Categorization Of Vocal Fry In Running Speech, Katherine Proctor

Honors Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine and categorize patterns of vocal fry in running speech. Since no other research studies have attempted to fully categorize vocal fry before, and due to the universality of the phenomenon of vocal fry, and the potential psychosocial and voice disorder consequences that come with using it, this topic is of great significance. For this study, voice samples were read into Praat and analyzed, and minor differences in the physiologies that produce different “types” of fry were examined.Temporal categories of vocal fry discovered were as follows: “onset,” “earlier,” “later,” and “final,” depending ...


Introduction To The Special Issue On Reproducibility In Neuroimaging, Russell A. Poldrack, Kirstie Whitaker, David N. Kennedy 2019 Stanford University

Introduction To The Special Issue On Reproducibility In Neuroimaging, Russell A. Poldrack, Kirstie Whitaker, David N. Kennedy

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The last decade has seen increasing attention to the problem of scientific reproducibility, across a broad range of scientific fields (Camerer et al., 2016;Morrison, 2014;Open Science Collaboration, 2015). Within the field of neuroimaging, there has been a particular focus on issues of analytic variability (Bowring et al., 2019;Carp, 2012) statistical power (Button et al., 2013;Poldrack et al., 2017), and test-retest reliability (Bennett and Miller, 2013), all of which have raised alarms regarding the potential for irreproducible results. In addition, failed replications (Boekel et al., 2015;Dinga et al., 2019) and meta-analytic null results (Müller et al ...


#37 - Quantifying Precursors To Algal Blooms In Lake Sidney Lanier, Dakota Boncore 2019 University of North Georgia

#37 - Quantifying Precursors To Algal Blooms In Lake Sidney Lanier, Dakota Boncore

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Quantifying Precursors to Algal Blooms in Lake Sidney Lanier

Authors: D.Boncore, M. Flood

Department of Biology, University of North Geogia, Gainesville GA

Lake Sidney Lanier is a 38,000 acre reservoir on the Chestatee River that provides flood control, recreation and fresh water for Atlanta and Gainesville, among other municipalities. The lake is situated in an area that is rapidly growing and many of the smaller coves are affected by the development on their shores and from the creeks feed into the coves. The Flat Creek branch of Lake Sidney Lanier drains runoff from a section of Gainesville that ...


Prevalence Of Malaria Reported During Summer And Winter At A Tertiary Care Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan, Fazal M. Arain, Aisha Memon, Roohi Jamal, Ahmed Raheem Buksh, Mohammad Asim Beg 2019 Aga Khan University

Prevalence Of Malaria Reported During Summer And Winter At A Tertiary Care Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan, Fazal M. Arain, Aisha Memon, Roohi Jamal, Ahmed Raheem Buksh, Mohammad Asim Beg

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

This study was designed to determine the prevalence and type of malaria cases that presented throughout the year 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 1099 cases, (377 females, 722 males) were reported. Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) was discovered in 93.7% cases compared to 6.3% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Based on the highest and lowest weather temperatures, in summer (June, July and August) and in winter (December, January and February) were differentiated. The number of cases were greater during summer months compared to winter. Interestingly, the ratio of P. falciparum to P. vivax ...


Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Drivers And Consequences Of Carbon Use Efficiency - And Its Measurement In Soil, Grace Pold

Doctoral Dissertations

Soils serve as massive carbon sinks, but their ability to continue this ecological service is contingent on how the resident soil microbial community will respond to the ongoing climate crisis. One key dimension of the microbial response to warming is its carbon use efficiency (CUE), or the fraction of carbon taken up by an organism which is allocated to growth rather than respiration. However, the scientific community is still in the early stages of understanding the drivers, consequences - and even accurate measurements of - CUE. In this dissertation, I first quantified the variability of CUE and its responsiveness to temperature and ...


A Belmont Report For Animals?, Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver, John Gluck 2019 University of Pennsylvania

A Belmont Report For Animals?, Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver, John Gluck

John P. Gluck, PhD

Human and animal research both operate within established standards. In the United States, criticism of the human research environment and recorded abuses of human research subjects served as the impetus for the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the resulting Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established key ethical principles to which human research should adhere: respect for autonomy, obligations to beneficence and justice, and special protections for vulnerable individuals and populations. While current guidelines appropriately aim to protect the individual interests of human participants in research, no similar, comprehensive ...


Incorporating New Technologies Into Toxicity Testing And Risk Assessment: Moving From 21st Century Vision To A Data-Driven Framework, Russell S. Thomas, Martin A. Philbert, Scott Auerbach, Barbara A. Wetmore, Michael J. Devito, Ila Cote, J. Craig Rowlands, Maurice Whelan, Sean M. Hays, Melvin E. Andersen, M.E. (Bette) Meek, Lawrence W. Reiter, Jason C. Lambert, Harvey J. Clewell III, Martin L. Stephens, Q. Jay Zhao, Scott C. Wesselkamper, Lynn Flowers, Edward W. Carney, Tim P. Pastoor, Dan D. Petersen, Carole L. Yauk, Andy Nong 2019 The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences

Incorporating New Technologies Into Toxicity Testing And Risk Assessment: Moving From 21st Century Vision To A Data-Driven Framework, Russell S. Thomas, Martin A. Philbert, Scott Auerbach, Barbara A. Wetmore, Michael J. Devito, Ila Cote, J. Craig Rowlands, Maurice Whelan, Sean M. Hays, Melvin E. Andersen, M.E. (Bette) Meek, Lawrence W. Reiter, Jason C. Lambert, Harvey J. Clewell Iii, Martin L. Stephens, Q. Jay Zhao, Scott C. Wesselkamper, Lynn Flowers, Edward W. Carney, Tim P. Pastoor, Dan D. Petersen, Carole L. Yauk, Andy Nong

Martin Stephens, PhD

Based on existing data and previous work, a series of studies is proposed as a basis toward a pragmatic early step in transforming toxicity testing. These studies were assembled into a data-driven framework that invokes successive tiers of testing with margin of exposure (MOE) as the primary metric. The first tier of the framework integrates data from high-throughput in vitro assays, in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) pharmacokinetic modeling, and exposure modeling. The in vitro assays are used to separate chemicals based on their relative selectivity in interacting with biological targets and identify the concentration at which these interactions ...


Beyond The 3rs: Expanding The Use Of Human-Relevant Replacement Methods In Biomedical Research, Kathrin Herrmann, Francesca Pistollato, Martin L. Stephens 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Beyond The 3rs: Expanding The Use Of Human-Relevant Replacement Methods In Biomedical Research, Kathrin Herrmann, Francesca Pistollato, Martin L. Stephens

Martin Stephens, PhD

This year marks the 60th anniversary of Russell and Burch’s pioneering book, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Their 3Rs framework has helped to inspire humane and scientific progress in experimental technique. However, it is time to update its strategic application. The 21st century has already seen the development of promising, high-tech non-animal models, such as organs-on-a-chip and computational approaches that, in our view, will replace animals as the default option in biomedical experimentation. How fast this transition will take place will depend on the pace at which these new models are optimized to reflect the biology of humans ...


Accelerating The Development Of 21st-Century Toxicology: Outcome Of A Human Toxicology Project Consortium Workshop, Martin L. Stephens, Craig Barrow, Melvin E. Andersen, Kim Boekelheide, Paul L. Carmichael, Michael P. Holsapple, Mark Lafranconi 2019 The Humane Society of the United States

Accelerating The Development Of 21st-Century Toxicology: Outcome Of A Human Toxicology Project Consortium Workshop, Martin L. Stephens, Craig Barrow, Melvin E. Andersen, Kim Boekelheide, Paul L. Carmichael, Michael P. Holsapple, Mark Lafranconi

Martin Stephens, PhD

The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) report on “Toxicity Testing in the 21st century” calls for a fundamental shift in the way that chemicals are tested for human health effects and evaluated in risk assessments. The new approach would move toward in vitro methods, typically using human cells in a high-throughput context. The in vitro methods would be designed to detect significant perturbations to “toxicity pathways,” i.e., key biological pathways that, when sufficiently perturbed, lead to adverse health outcomes. To explore progress on the report’s implementation, the Human Toxicology Project Consortium hosted a workshop on 9–10 ...


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