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Laboratory and Basic Science Research Commons

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Identification Of Anaerobes In Clinical Specimens Comparison Between The Rapid Ana Ii System And The Bruker Maldi-Tof Ms System Utilized In The Clinical Laboratory, Raymond Chow 2019 Dominican University of California

Identification Of Anaerobes In Clinical Specimens Comparison Between The Rapid Ana Ii System And The Bruker Maldi-Tof Ms System Utilized In The Clinical Laboratory, Raymond Chow

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Clinical Laboratory Sciences Culminating Projects

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been revealed as an invaluable platform for identifying anaerobic bacteria in the clinical laboratory over traditional methods such as the RapID ANA II System.

A qualitative comparison is made, through the analysis of methodologies and specifications, to determine whether the RapID ANA II system or Bruker MALDI-TOF MS is more suitable for identifying anaerobic organism in the clinical laboratory. Based on the data reviewed, the MALDI-TOF MS is a more intuitive platform within the clinical laboratory due to its increased specificity, cost-effectiveness, and shorten turnaround time for the identification ...


Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Study Correlating Cytogenetic Abnormality With Prognosis, Alyssa Lamond, Theresa Tellier-Castellone 2019 University of Rhode Island

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Study Correlating Cytogenetic Abnormality With Prognosis, Alyssa Lamond, Theresa Tellier-Castellone

Senior Honors Projects

Advancements in medical technology today have positively impacted the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cancers. Particularly acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has completely improved from having the poorest prognosis to one of the best. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue classified by WHO as leukemia with >20% blasts from the myeloid lineage, specifically promyelocytes. Determined in 1976, FAB classified AML subtypes M1-M7, with APL being M3. Specific characteristics classify the subtype of AML, with each resulting from a different genetic abnormality. The focus of APL diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis occurs around the known PML-RARα fusion gene. Flow ...


The Relationship Between Acute Exposure To Hypoxia And Heart Rate Variability In Unacclimatized Individuals, Grace Becker 2019 William & Mary

The Relationship Between Acute Exposure To Hypoxia And Heart Rate Variability In Unacclimatized Individuals, Grace Becker

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Acute exposure to hypoxia results in a stress response categorized by sympathetic dominance, including hyperventilation to prevent arterial desaturation. As an estimation of overall stress, heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic regulation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting sea level (SL) HRV is correlated with arterial desaturation and respiratory responses to acute normobaric hypoxia exposure (equivalent 3500 m). METHODS: Resting HRV, %SpO2, and respiratory rate (RR) were measured in 19 subjects (male n=9, female n=10) at SL for 15 minutes. HRV was measured (Firstbeat Bodyguard2) including ...


Animal Experimentation: Working Towards A Paradigm Change, Kathrin Herrmann (ed.), Kimberley Jayne (ed.) 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Animal Experimentation: Working Towards A Paradigm Change, Kathrin Herrmann (Ed.), Kimberley Jayne (Ed.)

eBooks

Animal experimentation has been one of the most controversial areas of animal use, mainly due to the intentional harms inflicted upon animals for the sake of hoped-for benefits in humans. Despite this rationale for continued animal experimentation, shortcomings of this practice have become increasingly more apparent and well-documented. However, these limitations are not yet widely known or appreciated, and there is a danger that they may simply be ignored. The 51 experts who have contributed to Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change critically review current animal use in science, present new and innovative non-animal approaches to address urgent scientific ...


Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows 2019 Carroll College

Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Chytridiomycosis is a potentially deadly skin disease found in amphibian populations all over the world. Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) that grows on the skin of amphibians. The fungus can cause a disruption in the homeostatic functions of the amphibian skin and can lead to death. The relationship between an amphibian’s antimicrobial skin secretions, cutaneous microbial communities and environmental water quality can affect their resistance and susceptibility to Bd infection. Columbia spotted frogs (Lithobates luteiventris) are native to western Montana and have been affected by chytridiomycosis. Three lakes known to be positive for Bd were ...


Potential Antimicrobial Activity Of Plants In The Genus Plantago, McKenna Hunt 2019 University of North Alabama

Potential Antimicrobial Activity Of Plants In The Genus Plantago, Mckenna Hunt

Scholars Week 2019

The aim of this study was to investigate potential antimicrobial activity of phytochemical extracts of commercially available species of Plantago. Plantago is a medically relevant genus, with several species traditionally used worldwide to treat inflammation and various infections. Dried leaf material of both species was extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus. Nonpolar (hexane) extracts were obtained from both P. subnuda and P. eriopoda, as well as a polar (methanol) extract from P. eriopoda. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were performed using 96-well microtiter plates against seven different bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Bacillus megaterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens ...


2018 Guide Summer Research - Breast Cancer, Qur'Annah Jones, DeLawnia Comer-Hagans 2019 Governors State University

2018 Guide Summer Research - Breast Cancer, Qur'annah Jones, Delawnia Comer-Hagans

GSU Research Day

This research poster details the relationship between cancer treatments and alternative approaches, such as mindfulness. The purpose of this study was to determine the methodology used by doctors to treat breast cancer and their willingness to try a holistic approach. This study was conducted on site at the UIC Cancer Center as well as remotely within hospitals around the Chicagoland area. We determined that mindfulness is in fact a worthwhile asset to breast cancer patients and that the field of oncology could support further research.


Publication Reform To Safeguard Wildlife From Researcher Harm, Kate A. Field, Paul C. Paquet, Kyle A. Artelle, Gilbert Proulx, Ryan K. Brook, Chris T. Darimont 2019 University of Victoria

Publication Reform To Safeguard Wildlife From Researcher Harm, Kate A. Field, Paul C. Paquet, Kyle A. Artelle, Gilbert Proulx, Ryan K. Brook, Chris T. Darimont

Professional Science Research Ethics Collection

Despite abundant focus on responsible care of laboratory animals, we argue that inattention to the maltreatment of wildlife constitutes an ethical blind spot in contemporary animal research. We begin by reviewing significant shortcomings in legal and institutional oversight, arguing for the relatively rapid and transformational potential of editorial oversight at journals in preventing harm to vertebrates studied in the field and outside the direct supervision of institutions. Straightforward changes to animal care policies in journals, which our analysis of 206 journals suggests are either absent (34%), weak, incoherent, or neglected by researchers, could provide a practical, effective, and rapidly imposed ...


Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers 2019 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers

Senior Theses

Iron dysregulation has been linked to a variety of human diseases, such as anemia, Friedreich’s ataxia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia, sideroblastic-like microcytic anemia, and myopathy. Thus, it is vitally important to understand the mechanisms for regulating intracellular iron. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy techniques in live cells to study interactions of the yeast proteins Grx3/4, Aft1/2, and Bol2, which have been shown to be involved in turning off iron import when the cell has adequate iron. Modified versions of genes encoding these proteins have been incorporated into several yeast backgrounds to use fluorescence to monitor interactions under varying ...


An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald

David Grünwald

Single-molecule binding assays enable the study of how molecular machines assemble and function. Current algorithms can identify and locate individual molecules, but require tedious manual validation of each spot. Moreover, no solution for high-throughput analysis of single-molecule binding data exists. Here, we describe an automated pipeline to analyze single-molecule data over a wide range of experimental conditions. In addition, our method enables state estimation on multivariate Gaussian signals. We validate our approach using simulated data, and benchmark the pipeline by measuring the binding properties of the well-studied, DNA-guided DNA endonuclease, TtAgo, an Argonaute protein from the Eubacterium Thermus thermophilus. We ...


Day To Day And Leg To Leg Variation In Gene Expression, Zohal Alizai 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Day To Day And Leg To Leg Variation In Gene Expression, Zohal Alizai

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle biopsies are extensively used in research to determine the effects of exercise. Usually, sequential biopsies are taken before and after exercise in order to determine the influence of exercise on gene expression. Often it is not clear if the results are due to exercise or as a result of damage cause by the biopsy to the muscle. Previous studies have proven that multiple biopsies in the same leg cause stress to the muscle and such stress leads to inflammation and other response pathways that alter the gene expression. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine ...


Andrews University Receives Naacls Accreditation, Hannah Gallant 2019 Andrews University

Andrews University Receives Naacls Accreditation, Hannah Gallant

Andrews Agenda: Campus News

No abstract provided.


An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald

Open Access Articles

Single-molecule binding assays enable the study of how molecular machines assemble and function. Current algorithms can identify and locate individual molecules, but require tedious manual validation of each spot. Moreover, no solution for high-throughput analysis of single-molecule binding data exists. Here, we describe an automated pipeline to analyze single-molecule data over a wide range of experimental conditions. In addition, our method enables state estimation on multivariate Gaussian signals. We validate our approach using simulated data, and benchmark the pipeline by measuring the binding properties of the well-studied, DNA-guided DNA endonuclease, TtAgo, an Argonaute protein from the Eubacterium Thermus thermophilus. We ...


Undergraduate Research And Teaching At Oak Lake Field Station, Lan Xu 2019 South Dakota State University

Undergraduate Research And Teaching At Oak Lake Field Station, Lan Xu

Oak Lake Field Station 30th Anniversary Retreat Presentations

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Manipulating Vertical Motion On Running Economy, Claire Copriviza 2019 Humboldt State University

The Effect Of Manipulating Vertical Motion On Running Economy, Claire Copriviza

Theses and projects

While several biomechanical factors have been identified as key determinants of running economy (i.e. metabolic cost), the influence of individual mechanical factors such as center of mass vertical motion (ΔCoMz) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine how manipulating ΔCoMz effects running economy. Twelve runners used a visual biofeedback system to control their ΔCoMz during running as we measured the metabolic, kinematic, and muscle activation responses to the different levels of ΔCoMz. Running economy was strongly correlated to ΔCoMz and was optimized at an intermediate center of mass vertical motion of ...


Refinement On The Way Towards Replacement: Are We Doing What We Can?, Kathrin Herrmann 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Refinement On The Way Towards Replacement: Are We Doing What We Can?, Kathrin Herrmann

Humane Science Movement Collection

No abstract provided.


Replacing Animal Tests To Improve Safety For Humans, Kathy Archibald, Robert Coleman, Tamara Drake 2019 Safer Medicines Trust

Replacing Animal Tests To Improve Safety For Humans, Kathy Archibald, Robert Coleman, Tamara Drake

Application of Alternative Methods Collection

In this chapter, we propose a new, pragmatic approach that could accelerate the replacement of most, if not all, regulatory animal tests with superior tests based on human biology. We also propose that changes to the requirements for safety testing, issued by the us Food and Drug Administration (fda), must be made in order to enable the use of superior new tests, which are currently disadvantaged by the outdated language of the regulations. But first, it is imperative to establish some level of understanding of the efficacy of existing animal-based methods in order to know whether any possible replacement is ...


When Is An Alternative Not An Alternative? Supporting Progress For Absolute Replacement Of Animals In Science, Craig Redmond 2019 Lush Prize Management Team

When Is An Alternative Not An Alternative? Supporting Progress For Absolute Replacement Of Animals In Science, Craig Redmond

Humane Science Movement Collection

This chapter addresses some of the areas in which animals are still used within “alternatives”-based research and calls on animal welfare and in vitro organizations to lead the debate and encourage absolute replacement of animal use in research. Without this, progress to end animal research will always remain limited, despite the paradigm shift seen in recent decades.


Recent Developments In Alternatives To Animal Testing, Katy Taylor 2019 Cruelty Free International

Recent Developments In Alternatives To Animal Testing, Katy Taylor

Application of Alternative Methods Collection

Methods that replace techniques that use live animals, or methods of testing substances without live animal use, are known as alternatives, replacements or non-animal methods. Some prefer the term advanced technologies given the fact that they often rely on more sophisticated technology and are more human- relevant than the animal test they replace (see Langley et al., 2015). There have been efforts to replace animal tests since the 1960s. Significant progress initially came in replacing animals used to diagnose human disease; to produce biological drugs (such as vaccines); and to safety test batches of these drugs as they were produced ...


The Changing Paradigm In Preclinical Toxicology: In Vitro And In Silico Methods In Liver Toxicity Evaluations, Fozia Noor 2019 Université du Luxembourg

The Changing Paradigm In Preclinical Toxicology: In Vitro And In Silico Methods In Liver Toxicity Evaluations, Fozia Noor

Application of Alternative Methods Collection

In vitro methods, based on human primary cells, cell lines, and genetically modified reporter cell lines, have greatly expanded the scope of in vitro toxicology. Other significant progress in the area of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) (Asgari et al., 2010; Schwartz et al., 2014; Shinde et al., 2016; Shtrichman, Germanguz and Itskovitz-Eldor, 2013) is allowing the application of patient and disease-specific hiPSCs (Ghodsizadeh et al., 2010; McCracken et al., 2014; Siller et al., 2013). Moreover, the tools of precise genome editing with engineered nucleases, such as the zinc finger nucleases (zfns), the transcription activator-like effecter nucleases (talens) and, more ...


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