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Research And Testing Without Animals: Where Are We Now And Where Are We Heading?, Thomas Hartung 2019 Johns Hopkins University

Research And Testing Without Animals: Where Are We Now And Where Are We Heading?, Thomas Hartung

Humane Science Movement Collection

Experiments involving non-human animals (hereinafter referred to as animals) were the predominant technology in the life sciences from the 1920s to the 1970s. Increasingly, animal-based procedures have been complemented and superseded by other approaches; yet, they still have an enormous reputation as an apparent definitive answer to many scientific and, especially, regulatory questions. They have been questioned first for ethical reasons: Can we justify making animals suffer for scientific inquiry? Simply said, people have different views on this question, but the general public views animal experimentation more and more critically. The animal research community has sought a compromise between those ...


How Can The Final Goal Of Completely Replacing Animal Procedures Successfully Be Achieved?, Christiane Baumgartl-Simons, Christiane Hohense 2019 People for Animal Rights Germany—Federal Association against Vivisection (Germany)

How Can The Final Goal Of Completely Replacing Animal Procedures Successfully Be Achieved?, Christiane Baumgartl-Simons, Christiane Hohense

Validation of Alternative Methods Collection

Article 23 of European Union (EU) Directive 86/609/EEC required that Member States promote the development and validation of alternative technologies and stated that the European Commission (EC) “shall report before the end of 1987 on the possibility of modifying tests and guidelines” (European Parliament, 1986, Article 23). This Directive was replaced by Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, which now requires that Member States develop and validate alternative approaches much more precisely and specifies that the ultimate objective is the “full replacement of procedures on live animals for scientific and educational ...


Contesting Animal Experiments Through Ethics And Epistemology: In Defense Of A Political Critique Of Animal Experimentation, Arianna Ferrari 2019 Futurium gGmbH

Contesting Animal Experiments Through Ethics And Epistemology: In Defense Of A Political Critique Of Animal Experimentation, Arianna Ferrari

Professional Science Research Ethics Collection

Generally, an animal experiment can be defined as an intervention on an animal, which causes suffering, harm, and distress, for scientific purposes. In this definition, animal experiments differ from more general scientific investigations concerning animals, such as observational studies in the wild in the fields of ethology or conservation, in which animals are involved but may not be harmed. Nowadays, the use of the term vivisection, in the case of animal experiments, is very controversial. This term originally referred to the cutting of living bodies for scientific purposes and has a long conceptual history (Maehle, 1992). In ancient times, it ...


How To Evaluate The Science Of Non-Human Animal Use In Biomedical Research And Testing: A Proposed Format For Debate, Ray Greek, Lisa A. Kramer 2019 Americans For Medical Advancement

How To Evaluate The Science Of Non-Human Animal Use In Biomedical Research And Testing: A Proposed Format For Debate, Ray Greek, Lisa A. Kramer

Validation of Alternative Methods Collection

Over time, the interpretation of science has occasionally been corrupted by vested interest groups, be they financially motivated or ego driven. Scientific consensus and widespread public beliefs usually catch up with the evidence, but this can take a very long time and often costs lives. The use of non-human animals in biomedical research and testing is a scientific endeavor and, as such, can and should be evaluated in light of the best science currently available. But facts that have been accepted in all areas of science are routinely ignored or called into question by well-funded, vested interest groups, compromising the ...


Effects Of A Race Timer On The Three Minute All-Out Test For Critical Power, Paul K. Mandell 2019 Humboldt State University

Effects Of A Race Timer On The Three Minute All-Out Test For Critical Power, Paul K. Mandell

Theses and projects

Maximal exercise testing is commonly employed by exercise scientists in order to assess an athlete's’ capabilities and inform future training goals and tactics. The Critical Power (CP) concept provides a novel perspective on the physiological capacity of an individual to perform work. The 3 Minute All-Out Test (3MT) for critical power was developed by Vanhatalo, Doust, & Burnley in 2006. Concerns about pacing during the test lead to the development of protocol which blinds participants to time during the test. Twelve healthy active males were recruited to participate in the current study on the effects of a race timer on ...


Effects Of Acute Hypoxia On Danio Rerio, Karly Crail 2019 The University of Akron

Effects Of Acute Hypoxia On Danio Rerio, Karly Crail

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this research experiment was to determine the effects of acute hypoxia on the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiovascular system and assess the critical oxygen level at which embryonic function is compromised. This goal was achieved by exposing embryos to decreasing oxygen concentrations, (6.0 mg/L-0 mg/L) and observing the heart under an inverted microscope. Data analysis was conducted to determine end systolic volume, end diastolic volume, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac output. It was hypothesized that hypoxia would stimulate cardiac activity, because in early developmental stages, tissues are supplied with oxygen through bulk diffusion ...


Suction Dredge Mining Impacts On Pacific Lamprey Populations And Habitat In Washington State: A Case Study Of The Entiat River, Jaime Liljegren 2019 Central Washington University

Suction Dredge Mining Impacts On Pacific Lamprey Populations And Habitat In Washington State: A Case Study Of The Entiat River, Jaime Liljegren

All Master's Theses

Suction dredge mining is a largely unregulated recreational activity in Washington State with potentially significant impacts to aquatic habitat. Although dredging has the potential to cause widespread ecological effects, only impacts to select species have been thoroughly assessed. Due to their reliance on freshwater habitat throughout multiple life stages, Pacific lamprey are significantly vulnerable to impacts from dredging practices. This thesis focuses on assessing the effects of dredging to lamprey habitat within state-owned aquatic lands of Washington. Pacific lamprey are anadromous, utilizing freshwater habitat throughout key life stages including spawning in substrate ranging from coarse gravel to fine sand, and ...


Relación Entre La Grasa Subcutánea Y Desempeño Maternal En Vacas Angus Primerizas, Esteban Mendoza de la Pava, Adel David Kalil Rey 2019 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Relación Entre La Grasa Subcutánea Y Desempeño Maternal En Vacas Angus Primerizas, Esteban Mendoza De La Pava, Adel David Kalil Rey

Zootecnia

El objetivo del presente estudio, tuvo como finalidad lograr identificar el porcentaje de grasa dorsal que se moviliza en vacas Angus primerizas posterior al parto y cómo este podría verse relacionado con el desempeño maternal y el peso al destete del ternero. Para poder lograr este objetivo, se evaluaron doce vacas primerizas de la raza Angus del CIC (centro de investigación y capacitación) San Miguel en Facatativa, Cundinamarca, con diversos parámetros productivos como: peso corporal, puntaje de condición corporal del preparto y al destete, espesor de grasa dorsal (preparto y destete), espesor de grasa en el anca (preparto y destete ...


Presence Of Dirofilaria Immitis In Mosquitoes In Southeastern Georgia, Angelica C. Tumminello 2019 Georgia Southern University

Presence Of Dirofilaria Immitis In Mosquitoes In Southeastern Georgia, Angelica C. Tumminello

University Honors Program Theses

Canine heartworm disease is caused by the filarial nematode Dirofilaria immitis, which is transmitted by at least 25 known species of mosquito vectors. This study sought to understand which species of mosquitoes are present in Bulloch County, Georgia, and which species are transmitting canine heartworm disease. This study also investigated whether particular canine demographics correlated with a greater risk of heartworm disease. Surveillance of mosquitoes was conducted in known heartworm-positive canine locations using traditional gravid trapping and vacuum sampling. Mosquito samples were frozen until deemed inactive, then identified by species and sex. The mosquitoes were then either dissected under a ...


Modified Open-Field Test With Odor Search Stimulus: Anticipated Canine Motivation And Behavioral Outcomes Between Anxious And Non-Anxious Dogs, Savanna Bergeron 2019 Iowa State University

Modified Open-Field Test With Odor Search Stimulus: Anticipated Canine Motivation And Behavioral Outcomes Between Anxious And Non-Anxious Dogs, Savanna Bergeron

Creative Components

Fear is an emotion that is necessary to survive, but when it’s prolonged and frequent, it can cause suffering in both animals and humans. Fear and anxiety are interrelated; therefore, fear can cause anxiety and anxiety can cause fear. Treatments for anxiety behaviors are currently an ongoing process, in order to improve the mental health of the animal. This review is focused on trying to understand anxiety behaviors through the use of a modified open-field test. More specifically, an odor search stimulus is used in conjunction with dogs on L-DOPA treatments. Previous animal models, particularly the mouse and rat ...


The Potential Of Organ On Chip Technology For Replacing Animal Testing, Malcolm Wilkinson 2019 Kirkstall Ltd.

The Potential Of Organ On Chip Technology For Replacing Animal Testing, Malcolm Wilkinson

Human Clinical Trials Collection

The term organ on a chip is used to describe the latest stage of development of in vitro cell culture technology. Figure 26.1 shows its steady development since the 1960s. Each step forward has improved our ability to model human-clinical response to new drugs or therapies and has enabled safety risk assessment of existing cosmetics, personal care products, or other chemicals in the environment. Scientific evidence that the predictive power of in vitro tests is superior to the use of animals will trigger a major shift in the way that medical research, in many areas, is carried out. In ...


Rethinking The 3rs: From Whitewashing To Rights, Charlotte E. Blattner 2019 Harvard Law School

Rethinking The 3rs: From Whitewashing To Rights, Charlotte E. Blattner

Humane Science Movement Collection

Few other issues have prompted as many legislators to adopt legal instruction on the “proper” use of non-human animals (hereinafter referred to as animals) in medical and scientific research. Today, the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement of animals in scientific procedures) are globally accepted by a vast majority of states (Blattner, 2014); and prominent international organizations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 2018, Article 7(8)(3)) and the Council of Europe (Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes, 1986, Articles 6(2), 7 and 8). Widespread ...


Smart Sheep Need More Protection, Michael L. Woodruff 2019 East Tennessee State University

Smart Sheep Need More Protection, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

The target article unequivocally establishes that sheep are far more intelligent and cognitively sophisticated than is generally acknowledged. For this reason, the authors advocate for significantly more stringent regulation of agricultural and research practices when sheep are used. I briefly review the existing US regulations governing the use of sheep in research and discuss the extent to which they are applied to sheep. I then discuss weaknesses in the current regulations, concluding that they should be changed to mandate housing all research animals in environments that accommodate the psychosocial needs of each species.


Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks 2019 Missouri State University

Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks

MSU Graduate Theses

Bacterial co-infections with influenza A virus (IAV) are extremely serious and life-threatening. However, there exists limited understanding about the importance of fungal infections with IAV. Clinical case reports indicate that fungal co-infections do occur and suggest the IAV pandemic of 2009 had a propensity to predispose patients to secondary fungal infections more than previous IAV strains. IAV-fungal co-infections are marked by high mortality rates of 47 to 61% in previously healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 60. Yet, the variables involved in this co-infection remain undetermined. I achieved effective recapitulation of this co-infection using a C57Bl/6 murine ...


Neuronal And Glial Expression Of Glun2c And Glun2d Nmda Receptor Subunit Mrna In Different Regions Of The Mouse Forebrain, Hassan Alsaad 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Neuronal And Glial Expression Of Glun2c And Glun2d Nmda Receptor Subunit Mrna In Different Regions Of The Mouse Forebrain, Hassan Alsaad

Theses & Dissertations

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a subtype of glutamate receptors that are widely expressed in the brain, where they mediate critical functions. While the actions of the predominate GluN2 NMDAR subunits, GluN2A and GluN2B are relatively well understood, the function of GluN2C and GluN2D in the telencephalon is largely unknown. To better understand the possible role of GluN2C and GluN2D subunits, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization together with multiple cell markers to define the distribution and type of cells expressing GluN2C and GluN2D mRNA. Also, a GluN2C-KO mouse was used as a negative control.

GluN2C mRNA expression was only found ...


Alternatives To Laboratory Animals: Definition And Discussion, Andrew N. Rowan 2018 The Institute for the Study of Animal Problems

Alternatives To Laboratory Animals: Definition And Discussion, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

The origins of the concept of "alternatives" to the use of animals in research may be traced back to the 1800's and the furore about using live animals in surgical and other experiments. Some of the animal protection societies in England were prepared to accept animal experimentation provided it was performed under anesthesia. Even Dr. Marshall Hall, who championed the spread of experimental medicine in 19th century England, considered it necessary to control and prevent unwarranted, inept and cruel experimentation (French, 1975). The concept of alternatives has developed in the 20th century to encompass not only the reduction (prevention ...


The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Dear1 In The Acquisition Of Mammary Stem/Progenitor Cell Properties, Uyen Le 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Dear1 In The Acquisition Of Mammary Stem/Progenitor Cell Properties, Uyen Le

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in America. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), one of the earliest pre-invasive forms of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), has a 30-50% risk of progressing to IDC. Understanding the mechanisms regulating progression from DCIS to IDC would help identify biomarkers to stratify patients at higher risk of progression or metastasis. Cumulative literature suggests the earliest phase of dissemination from the primary tumor is driven by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program. DEAR1 is a tumor suppressor gene which is mutated, undergoes loss of heterozygosity in breast cancer, and is downregulated in DCIS ...


Behavioral Insights Into Nociceptor Function: A Systematic Approach To Understanding Postsurgical And Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms In Rats, Max Odem 2018 The Univesity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Behavioral Insights Into Nociceptor Function: A Systematic Approach To Understanding Postsurgical And Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms In Rats, Max Odem

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Postsurgical and neuropathic pain are each clinically common, and often associated with ongoing pain. Ongoing pain has been linked to ongoing activity (OA) in human C-fiber nociceptors. Preclinical studies using rodent neuropathic models have concentrated on allodynia driven by OA generated in non-nociceptive Aβ fibers, but little attention has been paid to postsurgical pain in sham controls or to C-fiber nociceptor OA promoting ongoing pain.

Operant assays that reveal negative motivational and cognitive aspects of voluntary pain-related behavior may be particularly sensitive to pain-related alterations. In the mechanical conflict (MC) test, rodents can freely choose to escape from a brightly ...


Polyglutamine Repeat Proteins Disrupt Actin Structure In Drosophila Photoreceptors., Annie Vu, Tyler Humphries, Sean Vogel, Adam Haberman 2018 University of San Diego

Polyglutamine Repeat Proteins Disrupt Actin Structure In Drosophila Photoreceptors., Annie Vu, Tyler Humphries, Sean Vogel, Adam Haberman

Biology: Faculty Scholarship

Expansions of polygutamine-encoding stretches in several genes cause neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's Disease and Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 3. Expression of the human disease alleles in Drosophila melanogaster neurons recapitulates cellular features of these disorders, and has therefore been used to model the cell biology of these diseases. Here, we show that polyglutamine disease alleles expressed in Drosophila photoreceptors disrupt actin structure at rhabdomeres, as other groups have shown they do in Drosophila and mammalian dendrites. We show this actin regulatory pathway works through the small G protein Rac and the actin nucleating protein Form3. We also find that Form3 ...


Comparisons Between Movement Onset Identification Methods Used In Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull Test, Junshi Liu 2018 East Tennessee State University

Comparisons Between Movement Onset Identification Methods Used In Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull Test, Junshi Liu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation aimed to explore the usefulness of using force derivatives for onset detection in the isometric mid-thigh pull test. First, we examined applications of three differential calculus principles, first and second derivative, and curvature using visual detection as a reference under different baseline conditions. Second, we compared the best derivative method to a threshold-based method using visual detection as a reference. Results of our first investigation showed trivial differences between many differential calculus methods and visual detection. However, statistical differences exceeding a trivial effect was observed when instantaneous force and rate of force develop were examined. Through the first ...


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