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Simulating Bacterial Growth, Competition, And Resistance With Agent-Based Models And Laboratory Experiments, Anne E. Yust, Davida S. Smyth 2019 The New School

Simulating Bacterial Growth, Competition, And Resistance With Agent-Based Models And Laboratory Experiments, Anne E. Yust, Davida S. Smyth

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Integrating Mathematics And Biology In The Classroom: A Compendium Of Case Studies And Labs, Becky Sanft, Anne Walter 2019 University of North Carolina at Asheville

Integrating Mathematics And Biology In The Classroom: A Compendium Of Case Studies And Labs, Becky Sanft, Anne Walter

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Belmont Report For Animals?, Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver, John Gluck 2019 University of Pennsylvania

A Belmont Report For Animals?, Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver, John Gluck

Professional Science Research Ethics Collection

Human and animal research both operate within established standards. In the United States, criticism of the human research environment and recorded abuses of human research subjects served as the impetus for the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the resulting Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established key ethical principles to which human research should adhere: respect for autonomy, obligations to beneficence and justice, and special protections for vulnerable individuals and populations. While current guidelines appropriately aim to protect the individual interests of human participants in research, no similar, comprehensive ...


Considering Aspects Of The 3rs Principles Within Experimental Animal Biology, Lynne U. Sneddon, Lewis G. Halsey, Nic R. Bury 2019 University of Liverpool

Considering Aspects Of The 3rs Principles Within Experimental Animal Biology, Lynne U. Sneddon, Lewis G. Halsey, Nic R. Bury

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The 3Rs – Replacement, Reduction and Refinement – are embedded into the legislation and guidelines governing the ethics of animal use in experiments. Here, we consider the advantages of adopting key aspects of the 3Rs into experimental biology, represented mainly by the fields of animal behaviour, neurobiology, physiology, toxicology and biomechanics. Replacing protected animals with less sentient forms or species, cells, tissues or computer modelling approaches has been broadly successful. However, many studies investigate specific models that exhibit a particular adaptation, or a species that is a target for conservation, such that their replacement is inappropriate. Regardless of the species used, refining ...


Excess No Stabilizes The Luminal Domain Of Stim2 In A Cys-Specific Manner Thereby Regulating Basal Calcium Homeostasis And Store-Operated Calcium Entry, Matthew Novello 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Excess No Stabilizes The Luminal Domain Of Stim2 In A Cys-Specific Manner Thereby Regulating Basal Calcium Homeostasis And Store-Operated Calcium Entry, Matthew Novello

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stromal-interaction molecule 2 (STIM2) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-inserted Ca2+-sensing protein which, together with the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel Orai1, regulates basal Ca2+ homeostasis and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Recent evidence suggests that S-nitrosylation, which is the covalent attachment of a nitric oxide (NO) moiety to a cysteine thiol, can attenuate the function of the paralog STIM1 protein. Compared to STIM1, STIM2 also functions as a basal Ca2+ homeostatic feedback regulator. Therefore, the objective of my study was to evaluate the susceptibility of STIM2 to S-nitrosylation and the effects that this ...


The Animal Research Controversy: Protest, Process & Public Policy, Andrew N. Rowan, Franklin M. Loew, Joan C. Weer 2019 Tufts University

The Animal Research Controversy: Protest, Process & Public Policy, Andrew N. Rowan, Franklin M. Loew, Joan C. Weer

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

The controversy today regarding the use of animals in research appears on the surface to be a strongly polarized struggle between the scientific community and the animal protection movement. However, there is a wide range of opinions and philosophies on both sides. Mistrust between the factions has blossomed while communication has withered. Through the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, the animal movement grew in numbers and financial resources, and developed much greater public recognition and political clout. The research community paid relatively little attention to the animal movement for much of this period but, alarmed by several public relations coups ...


The Photo Quiz: A Look Back And A Look Forward, Erik Munson, Alexander J. McAdam 2019 Marquette University

The Photo Quiz: A Look Back And A Look Forward, Erik Munson, Alexander J. Mcadam

Clinical Lab Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of Lung Function Values Among A Scuba Diver Population And In Comparison To A Non-Diver Population, Gabriel C. Hutson, Jeremy D. Rentsch, Erin M. Eaton 2019 Francis Marion University

A Comparison Of Lung Function Values Among A Scuba Diver Population And In Comparison To A Non-Diver Population, Gabriel C. Hutson, Jeremy D. Rentsch, Erin M. Eaton

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

The purpose of this study was to investigate possible correlations between lung function values (PEF, IRV, ERV, and FVC) among a diver population, as well as in comparison to a non-diver population. Independent variables for both populations were biological sex, age, and weekly physical activity. Independent variables for the diver population were dive tenure, number of logged dives, certification level, and gas mixture used. A spirometry test was conducted to collect lung function values of both populations. Data from this study suggest a statistically significant relationship between diver and non-diver sex and FVC, diver age and ERV, diver sex and ...


Acute Toxicity Testing Without Animals: More Scientific And Less Of A Gamble, Gillian R. Langley 2019 British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection

Acute Toxicity Testing Without Animals: More Scientific And Less Of A Gamble, Gillian R. Langley

Gill Langley, PhD

In this report, we argue specifically that acute toxicity data should not be sought from animal tests. The underlying principle of such tests on rats and mice is that the results can be effectively extrapolated to humans. In fact, after nearly 80 years of use of these tests, the predictivity of rodent data for human acute toxic effects has been disputed but never proven.


Publication Reform To Safeguard Wildlife From Researcher Harm, Kate A. Field, Paul C. Paquet, Kyle A. Artelle, Gilbert Proulx, Ryan K. Brook, Chris T. Darimont 2019 University of Victoria

Publication Reform To Safeguard Wildlife From Researcher Harm, Kate A. Field, Paul C. Paquet, Kyle A. Artelle, Gilbert Proulx, Ryan K. Brook, Chris T. Darimont

Chris Darimont, PhD

Despite abundant focus on responsible care of laboratory animals, we argue that inattention to the maltreatment of wildlife constitutes an ethical blind spot in contemporary animal research. We begin by reviewing significant shortcomings in legal and institutional oversight, arguing for the relatively rapid and transformational potential of editorial oversight at journals in preventing harm to vertebrates studied in the field and outside the direct supervision of institutions. Straightforward changes to animal care policies in journals, which our analysis of 206 journals suggests are either absent (34%), weak, incoherent, or neglected by researchers, could provide a practical, effective, and rapidly imposed ...


Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recently, a novel class of muscular dystrophy has been discovered in a family due to autosomal recessive missense mutation in POGLUT1. Mutation of this enzyme leads to decreased O-glucosyltransferase activity and impaired Notch signaling, the pathways important for skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) quiescence and activation. We hypothesize that reduced POGLUT1 activity and impaired Notch signaling is causative of this limb girdle muscular dystrophy through dysfunction of muscle stem cells and myogenic progenitors.

To test this, we have used iPSCs for disease modeling and rescue experiments. Using a CRISPR based gene targeting method, we aimed to correct the point ...


Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks 2019 Missouri State University

Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks

MSU Graduate Theses

Bacterial co-infections with influenza A virus (IAV) are extremely serious and life-threatening. However, there exists limited understanding about the importance of fungal infections with IAV. Clinical case reports indicate that fungal co-infections do occur and suggest the IAV pandemic of 2009 had a propensity to predispose patients to secondary fungal infections more than previous IAV strains. IAV-fungal co-infections are marked by high mortality rates of 47 to 61% in previously healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 60. Yet, the variables involved in this co-infection remain undetermined. I achieved effective recapitulation of this co-infection using a C57Bl/6 murine ...


Spatial And Temporal Variation In The Diet Composition Of Zooplankton In Mission Bay, Bryanna Paulson 2019 University of San Diego

Spatial And Temporal Variation In The Diet Composition Of Zooplankton In Mission Bay, Bryanna Paulson

Theses

Analyses of quantitative data on zooplankton diets are vital for understanding the drivers of zooplankton abundance within an ecosystem. Such analyses also provide insight into trophic pathways within the lower planktonic food web, which support populations of higher trophic level species. This study used carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of size-fractionated plankton in Mission Bay, San Diego, CA to examine the spatial and temporal variation in zooplankton trophic ecology and determine potential environmental drivers of zooplankton community structure. Carbon stable isotopes reflect primary production sources in an organism’s diet, and nitrogen stable isotope ratios can be used to ...


Importance Of Welfare And Ethics Competence Regarding Animals Kept For Scientific Purposes To Veterinary Students In Australia And New Zealand, Teresa Collins, Amelia Cornish, Jennifer Hood, Chris Degeling, Andrew D. Fisher, Rafael Freire, Susan J. Hazel, Jane Johnson, Jennifer K.F. Lloyd, Clive J.C. Phillips, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul D. McGreevy 2019 Murdoch University

Importance Of Welfare And Ethics Competence Regarding Animals Kept For Scientific Purposes To Veterinary Students In Australia And New Zealand, Teresa Collins, Amelia Cornish, Jennifer Hood, Chris Degeling, Andrew D. Fisher, Rafael Freire, Susan J. Hazel, Jane Johnson, Jennifer K.F. Lloyd, Clive J.C. Phillips, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul D. Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Veterinarians are in a strong position of social influence on animal-related issues. Hence, veterinary schools have an opportunity to raise animal health and welfare standards by improving veterinary students’ animal welfare and ethics (AWE) education, including that related to animals used for scientific purposes. A survey of 818 students in the early, mid, and senior stages of their courses at all eight veterinary schools across Australia and New Zealand was undertaken on their first day of practice (or Day One Competences) to explore how veterinary students viewed the importance of their competence in the management of welfare and ethical decision-making ...


Beyond The 3rs: Expanding The Use Of Human-Relevant Replacement Methods In Biomedical Research, Kathrin Herrmann, Francesca Pistollato, Martin L. Stephens 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Beyond The 3rs: Expanding The Use Of Human-Relevant Replacement Methods In Biomedical Research, Kathrin Herrmann, Francesca Pistollato, Martin L. Stephens

Biomedical Research and Alternative Methods Collection

This year marks the 60th anniversary of Russell and Burch’s pioneering book, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Their 3Rs framework has helped to inspire humane and scientific progress in experimental technique. However, it is time to update its strategic application. The 21st century has already seen the development of promising, high-tech non-animal models, such as organs-on-a-chip and computational approaches that, in our view, will replace animals as the default option in biomedical experimentation. How fast this transition will take place will depend on the pace at which these new models are optimized to reflect the biology of humans ...


Conscientious Objection To Harmful Animal Use Within Veterinary And Other Biomedical Education, Andrew Knight 2019 Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine

Conscientious Objection To Harmful Animal Use Within Veterinary And Other Biomedical Education, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, PhD

Laboratory classes in which animals are seriously harmed or killed, or which use cadavers or body parts from ethically debatable sources, are controversial within veterinary and other biomedical curricula. Along with the development of more humane teaching methods, this has increasingly led to objections to participation in harmful animal use. Such cases raise a host of issues of importance to universities, including those pertaining to curricular design and course accreditation, and compliance with applicable animal welfare and antidiscrimination legislation. Accordingly, after detailed investigation, some universities have implemented formal policies to guide faculty responses to such cases, and to ensure that ...


Mechanisms And Mitigation Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue In Single Fibers From Older Adults, Aurora Foster 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mechanisms And Mitigation Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue In Single Fibers From Older Adults, Aurora Foster

Masters Theses

Skeletal muscle fatigue is the contraction-induced decline in whole muscle force or power, and can be greater in older versus young adults. Fatigue primarily results from increased metabolism elevating phosphate (Pi) and hydrogen (H+), which alters myosin-actin interactions; however, which steps of the myosin-actin cross-bridge cycle are changed and their reversibility are unclear. PURPOSE: This study sought to: 1) Examine the effects of elevated Pi and H+ on molecular and cellular function, and 2) Test the ability of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP), an alternative energy to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to reverse the contractile changes induced with high Pi ...


Testing The Infection Prevalence Of Schistosoma Mansoni After Mass Drug Administration By Comparing Sensitivity And Specificity Of Species- Specific Repeat Fragment Amplification By Pcr And Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification, Miriam Price, Austin Cyrs, Chummy Sikasunge, James C. L. Mwansa, Nilanjan Lodh 2019 Marquette University

Testing The Infection Prevalence Of Schistosoma Mansoni After Mass Drug Administration By Comparing Sensitivity And Specificity Of Species- Specific Repeat Fragment Amplification By Pcr And Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification, Miriam Price, Austin Cyrs, Chummy Sikasunge, James C. L. Mwansa, Nilanjan Lodh

Clinical Lab Sciences Faculty Research and Publications

Schistosomiasis is a blood parasitic disease caused by trematode parasites of the

genus Schistosoma. Schistosoma mansoni is one of the main contributors of the disease and 90% of the global burden of schistosomiasis is in Africa. Mass drug administration (MDA) has been implemented to reduce the disease burden in endemic areas. Because of MDA, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for classical diagnostic tests are reduced. In any disease situation, diagnosis is vital in determining asymptomatic, concurrent, current, new, and reinfection cases to evaluate the efficacy of any control program. We have evaluated the positive infection for S. mansoni from filtered ...


The Wet Bridge Transfer System: An Novel In Vitro Tool For Assessing Exogenous Surfactant As A Pulmonary Drug Delivery Vehicle, Brandon J. Baer 2019 University of Western Ontario

The Wet Bridge Transfer System: An Novel In Vitro Tool For Assessing Exogenous Surfactant As A Pulmonary Drug Delivery Vehicle, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background:

Due to its complex branching structure, direct drug delivery to the remote areas of the lung is a major challenge. Consequently, most therapies, such as those treating pulmonary infection and inflammation, must utilize large systemic dosing, with the potential for adverse side effects. A novel alternative strategy is to use exogenous surfactant, a material capable of distributing throughout the lung, as a pulmonary drug delivery vehicle.

Objective:

Utilize an in vitro transferring system to assess exogenous surfactant (BLES) as a pulmonary delivery vehicle for different therapeutics.

Methods:

An in vitro technique was developed to simultaneously study surfactant delivery and ...


Effects Of Reduced Ph On Health Biomarkers Of The Seagrass Cymodocea Nodosa, Regan A. McEnaney 2019 DePaul University

Effects Of Reduced Ph On Health Biomarkers Of The Seagrass Cymodocea Nodosa, Regan A. Mcenaney

DePaul Discoveries

Ocean acidification is a growing problem that may affect many marine organisms in the future. Within 100 years the pH of the ocean is predicted to decrease to 7.8, from the current ocean pH of around 8.1. Using phenolic acid levels as a stress indicator as well as respiration and chlorophyll content as a measure of health, the effect of lowering pH was tested on the seagrass, Cymodocea nodosa, in a controlled environment. Plant samples, water, and soil were taken from the Bay of Cádiz, Spain, and placed in aquaria in a temperature-controlled room. One control group was ...


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